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One may classify fluids in two different ways:

Classification of fluid behaviour

either according to their response to the externally

applied pressure or

according to the effects produced under the action of a

shear stress.

Newtonian

Fluids

Non-Newtonian

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Newtonian fluids

Consider a thin layer of a fluid contained between two

parallel planes a distance dy apart

Newtonian fluids

At any shear plane there are two equal

and opposite shear stress

• a positive one on the slower moving fluid

and

• a negative on the faster moving fluid layer

Th N ti i th i ht h d id The Negative sign on the right hand side

of equation indicates that shear stress

is a measure of the resistance to

motion.

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Newtonian fluids

For an incompressible fluid of density ρ

( ) yx x

d

( V )

d

µ

t = ÷ µ

( ) yx x

dy µ

The quantity ρV

x

is the linear momentum in the

x direction per unit volume (momentum

concentration).

τ

yx

represent the momentum flux in y direction

The negative sign indicates that the momentum

transfer occurs in the direction of decreasing

velocity

Newtonian fluids

The constant of proportionality, μ, is called

Newtonian viscosity

Independent of shear rate or shear stress

Depends only on the material and its T and P

The plot of shear stress against shear rate for a

Newtonian fluid, flow curve or rheogram is a Newtonian fluid, flow curve or rheogram is a

straight line of slope, μ, and passing through

the origin

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Newtonian fluids

Gases, simple organic liquids, solution of low

molecular weight inorganic salts, molten metal g g ,

and salts are Newtonian fluids.

Newtonian fluids

Typical shear stress–

shear rate data for a shear rate data for a

cooking oil and a corn

syrup

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Newtonian fluids

For the more complex case of three-dimensional flow, it is necessary to

set up the appropriate partial differential equations.

For instance, the more general case of an incompressible Newtonian

fl id b d f th l ( i t d l t th fluid may be expressed – for the x -plane (area oriented normal to the x

-direction) – as follows ( Bird et al ., 1987, 2002 ):

Stress components in three-dimensional

flow

By considering the equilibrium of a fluid element, it can be shown that:

t = t t = t t = t

yx xy

t t

xz zx

t = t

yz zy

t t

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Stress components in three-dimensional

flow

The normal stresses can be visualized as being made up of two

components:

• isotropic pressure

• a contribution due to flow

xx xx

P p = ÷ + t

yy yy

P p = ÷ + t

P p = ÷ + t

zz zz

P p + t

xx yy zz

1

p (P P P )

3

= ÷ + +

For an incompressible Newtonian fluid, the isotropic

pressure is given by:

xx yy zz

1

p (P P P ) = ÷ + +

xx yy zz

p ( )

3

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Non-Newtonian fluids

Time independent fluids (purely viscous,

inelastic, or generalized Newtonian

fluids (GNF))

Time dependent fluids

Vi l ti fl id Visco-elastic fluids

Time-independent fluid behaviour

In simple shear, the flow behaviour of this class

of materials may be described by a constitutive

relation of the form,,

This equation implies that the value of the

shear rate at any point within the sheared fluid

is determined only by the current value of shear

stress at that point or vice versa.

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Time-independent fluid behaviour

these fluids may be further subdivided into

three types:

(a)Shear-thinning or pseudoplastic

(b)Viscoplastic

(c) Shear-thickening or dilatant.

Types of time-independent flow behaviour

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Shear-thinning or pseudoplastic fluids

Shear-thinning or pseudoplastic fluids

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10

Shear-thinning or pseudoplastic fluids

Mathematical models for shear-thinning

fluid behaviour

More widely used viscosity models:

i. The power-law or Ostwald de Waele

model

ii. The Carreau viscosity equation

iii. The Cross viscosity equation y q

iv. The Ellis fluid model

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The power-law or Ostwald de Waele model

An expression of the following form is applicable:

n

yx yx

m( ) t = ¸

Thus the apparent viscosity is given by:

n 1

app yx yx yx

m( )

÷

µ = t ¸ = ¸

m: fluid consistency coefficient

For n<1, the fluid exhibits shear-thinning properties

n=1, the fluid show Newtonian behavior

n>1, the fluid shows shear thickening behavior

y

n: flow behavior index

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The Carreau viscosity equation

When there are significant deviations from the

power-law model at very high and very low

h t it i t d l shear rates , it is necessary to use a model

which takes account of the limiting values of

viscosities μ

0

and μ

∞

{ }

( n 1) / 2

app

2

yx

0

1 ( )

÷

·

·

µ ÷ µ

= + ì¸

µ ÷ µ

The Carreau viscosity equation

Another four parameter model (Cross 1965),

which in simple shear, is written as:

app

n

0 yx

1

1 k( )

·

·

µ ÷ µ

=

µ ÷ µ + ¸

n (<1) and k are two fitting parameters whereas μ

0

and μ

∞

are the limiting values of the apparent

viscosity at low and high shear rates, respectively.

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The Ellis fluid model

When the deviations from the power-law model

are significant only at low shear rates, it is

perhaps more appropriate to use the Ellis model.

0

app

1

yx 1/ 2

1 ( )

o÷

µ

µ =

+ t t

When the deviations from the power-law model p

are significant only at low shear rates, it is

perhaps more appropriate to use the Ellis model.

2 .3/4/2011 Newtonian fluids Consider a thin layer of a fluid contained between two parallel planes a distance dy apart Newtonian fluids At any shear plane there are two equal and opposite shear stress • a positive one on the slower moving fluid and • a negative on the faster moving fluid layer Th N The Negative sign on th right h d side ti i the i ht hand id of equation indicates that shear stress is a measure of the resistance to motion.

is called Newtonian viscosity Independent of shear rate or shear stress Depends only on the material and its T and P The plot of shear stress against shear rate for a Newtonian fluid. τyx represent the momentum flux in y direction The negative sign indicates that the momentum transfer occurs in the direction of decreasing velocity Newtonian fluids The constant of proportionality. flow curve or rheogram is a straight line of slope. μ. and passing through the origin 3 . μ.3/4/2011 Newtonian fluids For an incompressible fluid of density ρ yx d (Vx ) d dy The quantity ρVx is the linear momentum in the x direction per unit volume (momentum concentration).

simple organic liquids. molten metal g g .3/4/2011 Newtonian fluids Gases. Newtonian fluids Typical shear stress– shear rate data for a shear rate data for a cooking oil and a corn syrup 4 . solution of low molecular weight inorganic salts. and salts are Newtonian fluids.

the more general case of an incompressible Newtonian fluid fl id may be expressed – f th x -plane (area oriented normal to the x b d for the l ( i t d l t th -direction) – as follows ( Bird et al .. it can be shown that: yx xy xz zx yz zy 5 . For instance. it is necessary to set up the appropriate partial differential equations.3/4/2011 Newtonian fluids For the more complex case of three-dimensional flow. 2002 ): Stress components in three-dimensional flow By considering the equilibrium of a fluid element. 1987.

3/4/2011 Stress components in three-dimensional flow The normal stresses can be visualized as being made up of two components: • isotropic pressure • a contribution due to flow Pxx p xx Pyy p yy Pzz p zz p 1 (Pxx Pyy Pzz ) 3 For an incompressible Newtonian fluid. the isotropic pressure is given by: p 1 ( (Pxx Pyy Pzz ) 3 6 .

inelastic. the flow behaviour of this class of materials may be described by a constitutive relation of the form. or generalized Newtonian fluids (GNF)) Time dependent fluids Vi Visco-elastic fl id l ti fluids Time-independent fluid behaviour In simple shear. 7 .3/4/2011 Non-Newtonian fluids Time independent fluids (purely viscous. This equation implies that the value of the shear rate at any point within the sheared fluid is determined only by the current value of shear stress at that point or vice versa. .

3/4/2011 Time-independent fluid behaviour these fluids may be further subdivided into three types: (a)Shear-thinning or pseudoplastic (b)Viscoplastic (c) Shear-thickening or dilatant. Types of time-independent flow behaviour 8 .

3/4/2011 Shear-thinning or pseudoplastic fluids Shear-thinning or pseudoplastic fluids 9 .

The Carreau viscosity equation iii. The Ellis fluid model 10 . The Cross viscosity equation y q iv. The power-law or Ostwald de Waele model ii.3/4/2011 Shear-thinning or pseudoplastic fluids Mathematical models for shear-thinning fluid behaviour More widely used viscosity models: i.

the fluid exhibits shear-thinning properties n=1. the fluid show Newtonian behavior n>1. the fluid shows shear thickening behavior 11 .3/4/2011 The power-law or Ostwald de Waele model An expression of the following form is applicable: yx m ( yx ) n Thus the apparent viscosity is given by: app yx yx m ( yx ) n 1 m: fluid consistency coefficient y n: flow behavior index For n<1.

respectively. it is necessary t use a model h t i to d l which takes account of the limiting values of viscosities μ0 and μ∞ app 0 1 ( yx ) 2 ( n 1) / 2 The Carreau viscosity equation Another four parameter model (Cross 1965).3/4/2011 The Carreau viscosity equation When there are significant deviations from the power-law model at very high and very low shear rates . which in simple shear. 12 . is written as: app 0 1 1 k ( yx ) n n (<1) and k are two fitting parameters whereas μ0 and μ∞ are the limiting values of the apparent viscosity at low and high shear rates.

it is perhaps more appropriate to use the Ellis model.3/4/2011 The Ellis fluid model When the deviations from the power-law model are significant only at low shear rates. app 0 1 ( yx 1/ 2 ) 1 When the deviations from the power-law model p are significant only at low shear rates. 13 . it is perhaps more appropriate to use the Ellis model.

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