ACTRAV

Programme for Workers’ Activities
International Training Centre of the ILO- Turin, Italy

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef}uD;rsm;tqifw
h iG f aqG;aEG;nSEd id_ ;f jcif;/ pkaygi;f nSEd id_ ;f ta&;qdjk cif;rsm;
tvkyo
f rm;or*~rsm;vkyaf qmif&rnfh udp&P yfrsm;

ACTRAV
Programme for Workers’ Activities
International Training Centre of the ILO- Turin, Italy

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

FoA and Collective Bargaining – Enabling Conditions for
Decent work 
Pre- requisite for promoting democratic & harmonious labour relations- address power
imbalance between K & L 

Voice, representation & participation- to reach mutually agreeable solutions while
respecting each others needs. 

Role in economic development –promotes sharing in growth, improves workers
purchasing power & thereby widens domestic markets and demand – putting money in
workers pockets will help growth

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

*k%o
f u
d mQ &Sad om tvky[
f q
k &dkf mwGif vkyif ef;cGif twGi;f Y vGwv
f yf pGmtoif;tyif;
zGJ@pnf;cGiEfh iS fh pkaygi;f nSEd i_d ;f ta&;qdyk ikd cf iG fh &S&d rnf? 
'Dru
dk a&pDenf;us+yD;vdu
k zf ufnaD om
a&;twGuf vdt
k yfcsurf sm;

tvky&f Si-f

tvkyo
f rm;qufqaH &;rsm;

wk;d wwf

- tvky&f iS -f tvkyo
f rm;tm%mnDr#rr_ &Sjd cif;udk aqG;aEG;ay;jcif;? 
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f efr&_ adS omtajz rsm;
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d mEkid af pa&;twGuf tvkyf&iS -f tvkyo
f rm;wdk@taejzifh rdrd wd@k &J@ (toH/ qEN) udak zmfxw
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jcif;/

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f rm;rsm;udk aiGx;dk ay;jcif;tm;jzifh pD;yGm;a&;wd;k wwf r_ukd
taxmuftulay;Ekid yf gonf?
Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

So, what is Collective Bargaining Agreement? 
Image v/s concept 
CBAs is like a “constitution” for a company
-It is not (or should not be) a mere document for just getting some wage rise BUT a
document of rights & obligations of parties to the agreement- a mean to ensure
that union has right to company information 
So- need for union vision- for the Company, workers-then a strategy and actions
to achieve that vision

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

pkaygi;f ta&;qdjk cif;oabmwlncD suq
f o
kd nfrmS tb,fenf;? 
image v/s concept (ud,
k pf m;jyKr_EiS fh oabmw&m;) 
CBAs is like a “constitution” for a company
pkaygi;f ta&;qkjd cif;
uJo
h dk@jzpfonf?

oabmwlncD suo
f nf

ukr%
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vkyif ef;cGit
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vkyif ef;v_y&f mS ;r_
rsm;udak &;qGx
J m;jcif;vnf;jzpfonf?
Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

Pre-requisites for CB 
A SUITABLE FRAMEWORK FOR EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF IR 
RIGHT TO ORGANIZE AND RIGHT TO COLLECTIVE BARGAINING 
STRONG & STABLE TRADE UNIONS 
RECOGNITION OF TRADE UNION 
ATITUDE OF EMPLOYERS & UNIONS- Enlightened Self Interest 
GOOD FAITH= fair practices

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

pkaygi;f ta&;qd&k eftwGuf }udKwifvyk af qmifxm;&rnft
h csurf sm; 
puf&/kH tvky&f t
kH wGi;f uef@owfcsurf &So
d nfh tvky&f iS f –tvkyo
f rm; qufqaH &;ESihf ywfowfI
xda&mufpmG vkyaf qmifEikd &f ef oifah wmfaomyHpk H wckowfrw
S x
f m;jcif; 
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uspv
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f rm;or*~rsm; zG@J pnf;jcif; 
tvk
tvkyo
f rm;or*~rsm;udk todtrSwjf yKay;jcif; 
tvky&f iS -f tvkyo
f rm;rsm;. vdck siq
f EN tusK;d pD;yGm;udk aocsmpGmod&x
dS m;jcif; 
&k;d om;pGm,H=k unfcsuEf iS fh w&m;r#waom vkyaf qmifcsuf

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

Issues dealt by CB 
Traditional issue – wage rates/ pay, working hours& other working conditions,
employment policies, productivity agreement 
New areas: demanding equity in matters relating to work norms, employment levels,
staffing standard, environmental hazards, company management issue such as
outsourcing, sub-contracting clauses, investment policies, management decisions over
diversification, choice of technologies, etc. since all these affect workers employment

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

pkaygi;f ta&;qdrk _ (CB) rSuidkf w
f ,
G af qmif&u
G af om udp&P yfrsm; 
tpOftqufu jzpfysucf aJh om vkyt
f m;cE_e;f xm;jy\em/ tvkycf sed /f vkyfief;cGif tajctae/
vkyif ef;rl0g'rsm;/ ukex
f w
k v
f yk rf E_ e_ ;f qkid &f m oabmwlncD sujf y\emrsm;? 
xdk@tjyiftopfxyfraH y:vmonfh
tvkyfpnf;urf;csurf sm;/
vkyif ef;u|rf;usirf _
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0efxrf;cef@tyfjcif;qkid &f m
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ywfowfaom
ta=umif;t&mrsm;wGif
w&m;r#wr_&&Sd ef awmif;qdo
k nhaf e&mwGiv
f nf;pkaygi;f ta&;qdjk cif;jzifh ajz&Si;f aqmif&u
G f ay;Ekid yf gonf? 
ukr%
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vkyif ef;cGjJ cm;vkyu
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h dk@
puf&v
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G af y;Ekid yf gonf?

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

On what basis do unions negotiate wages? 
wages are set taking into account (generally speaking)- Productivity, company budgets,
inflation rate, economic growth & prospects, rates of unemployment & employment,
labour supply & demand

& collective bargaining 
It is value added and not profits of a company that should form the basic for negotiating
for pay rise. 

What is value added?

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

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tvkyv
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f m;/ vkyt
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f dk
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h nf/ puf&w
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k ?dk 
xyfqifw
h efz;dk qdw
k mbmvJ?

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

Index linking system for pay (inflation compensation)
Belgium: pay and social security benefits linked to CPI

Cyprus: earning are adjusted every 6 months on the basis of CPI changes

Luxembourg: pay, pensions and social security benefits adjusted if CPI rises by
2.5%

Malta: Cost of living allowance added to the pay, based on inflation over the last 2
months

India’s Dearness Allowance system

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

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CPI

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avmif;jznfph w
G af y;onf?
Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

Negotiation Productivity linked wage Agreements
• Productivity v/s Worker Intensity

• Productivity does not only mean increasing only working time; it can also mean
finding ways to produce more output within the same time or same output within
lesser time thru –
• Technological improvement
• Methods & Systems improvement
• Line balancing

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

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fh ifa&;twGuf tvkycf sed u
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k J
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f v
D yk af qmifcsuf rsm;udk toH;k jyKI
enf;vrf;aumif;rsm; &SmazG&rnfjzpfygonf?
• Line balancingqdo
k nfrmS

pm;oH;k ovkt
d yfonhf ukex
f w
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f yk rf _twGuf tvkyform; wdik ;f onf
wlnaD om tvkyyf rm%ud-k apmifq
h ikd ;f +yD; vkypf &m vnf;rvd/k 0efxw
k 0f efydk;vnf; rvdb
k J –
tqifajyacsmarG@pmG jzifh [efcsun
f D twlwl vkyaf qmifonhf pepfjzpfonf?

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

Typical problem within the company
• Out date and rigid work norms
• Restrictive and narrow job description
• Too many non value adding actives
• Idle manpower on one hand & high incidents of overtime on other hand
• Maladjusted production schedule
• Shortages of critical items on one hand & growing inventory on the other hand
• Unbalanced work load and bottlenecks
• Break- downs
• Rejection and reworks
• absenteeism and labour turn over
• Lack of accountability
• Discontent, low morale
• Mismatch between authority and responsibilities
Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

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tvkyv
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Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

Considerations before signing productivity agreement
• Work intensity differs from worker to worker, from dept to dept, some workers put in 5-6
hours of effective working time, some work for 7or 8 houses- When management asks for
20 % higher production- Workers working for less hours have no problem but those who already put in 8 hours at
work, their workload increases intolerably
- management demand for 20% increase is based on the highest working time- which
means that workers as a whole end up giving much more while being paid for only 20%

• need for work study & line balancing to bring down overloaded workers while bringing
up under load workers.

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

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• tvkyo
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wOD;tvkyv
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hf pfcv
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ukex
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f yk f r_20&mcdik Ef e_ ;f wd;k jrifv
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dk yfonfhtcg tcsKd@tvkyo
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8em&Dtxdvyk Ef idk yf gonf?
- tvkycf sed ef nf;enf;omvky&f aom tvkyo
f rm;rsm;wGif jy\emr&Sad omfvnf; tvkycf sed frsm; aom
tvkyo
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f iftm;ESifh rr#onhf tvky0f efyjd cif;rsm; wqxufwq rsm;jym;vm onf?
-ukex
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onf?
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f rm;rsm;udk tvkyo
f ufomap&eftvkyef nf;aomtvkyo
f rm;ukd wm0ef
ydak y;&eftwGuf vkyif ef;udk avhvmI [efcsun
f aSd y;&efvt
dk yf
Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

What should Union do?
Before productivity linked linked wage agreement can singed, Union should
demand:
• Work Study – systematic examination of the methods & time taken for carrying
out activities at work place so as to improve use of resources (human, machine,
material ) & set up performance standardsJoint participation of union & management required in this process

Note: It is not only labour but also machine & methods productivity that needs to be
looked into.

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

tvkyo
f rm;
Jh dk@vyk af qmifoifo
h enf;
rm;or*~taejzihf rnfuo
ukex
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d ifo
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? t&if;tjrpf(vl/ pufypPn;f / uke=f urf;ypPn;f rsm;) udk toH;k jyKr_
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f w
k v
f yk rf _enf;pepfuv
dk nf;ppfaq;&efvnf; vdt
k yf
onf?

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

What study should aim at –
• Simplifying or modifying the methods of operation
• Reduce unnecessary or excess work, reduce ineffective time spent by workers in
doing things due to poor design, layout of the workplace or in material handling, etc
• Stop wasteful use of resources
• Contribute to industrial; safety by identifying hazardous work and developing
safer methods
• Cut down the time for performing certain activities after introducing system &
methods improvement & line balancing.
work study includes not only labour but also period required to recover from
fatigue.

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

vkyif ef;cGif avhvmjcif;
- vkyif ef;taumiftxnfaqmif&u
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G af y;jcif;/

vHkjcHKr_&Sdatmif

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vkyaf p&eftwGut
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um;a&;
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jyefvnfaumif;rGev
f monftxd vdt
k yfaom tcsd
f mvvnf;0ifygonf
tcsed u
work study includes not only labour but also period required to recover from fatigue
Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

Working time in a day
General Norm:
• Out of 480 minutes (8 hour), at best 420 minutes of working time should be there- 60
minutes are set aside for rest, lunch break (half hour) and 2 breaks of 15 minutes each
for tea-coffee, etc

• Out of 420 minutes available for work, following deductions from working time need to
be considered:
- Personal needs allowance
- fatigue allowance- different job stations
- hazard allowance- for certain hazardous job
• down time (disturbance in production cycle due to material not available, machine
break down, etc- record should be kept of this by the workers)

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

wae@ tvkycf sed f
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Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

What should Union negotiate for?
• Issues of interest (thu CB) v/s issues of rights (as per law)
-What is provided for by law- ideally should not be part of CB – employers are expected
to abide by law (MW, rates of OT pay) –CB is for getting more than the law

•Negotiate compensation system & compensation package, not just wages ( some
companies pay more wages, less benefits, or vice versa)- total costs of the
compensation package matter & should be calculated.

•Employment stability v/s wages question.

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

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Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

Elements of compensation
• Pay for work – 8 hrs of work

• pay for performance-productivity linked component
• pay for time not worked ( paid leave, Sunday, etc)
• Lay off compensation ( for temporary situation- India: 50% of the pay,
lorea:70 )
• Deferred equivalent payment (allowances)
• Health, accident and liability protection
• Company performance bonus

Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

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Federation of Trade Unions-Burma

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