Regulating Employment Relationships for

Decent Work
Changing employment relationships, labour law &
ILO Recommendation No 198

ACTRAV-Turin

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

*k%o
f u
d mQ &Sad om tvkyt
f udik t
f wGuf tvkycf ef@xm;jcif;qdik &f m qufqrH r_ sm;.
pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;
tvkycf ef@jcif;qdik &f m qufqrH r_ sm;ajymif;vJjcif;/ tvkyo
f rm;Oya'ESifh
tdik t
f ,f(vf)tdak xmufccH suf trSwf 198

ACTRAV-Turin

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Why focus on Employment Relationships?

Traditionally, unionism, labour law & workers rights have been based on
Ò Existence of employer-employee relationship

Ò Wage earner status of workers
Ò A fixed work place- factory/firm/establishment

But the changing world of work & flexible labour markets are exposing the inadequacies
of such assumptions

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

rnfonft
h a=umif;a=umifh tvkycf ef@jcif;qdik &f m qufqrH r_ sm;udt
k m&Hpk u
dk &f o vJ?
tpOftvmtm;jzifh tvkyo
f rm;or*~pepf/tvkyo
f rm;Oya'ESit
hf vkyo
f rm;rsm;.
&ydik cf iG rfh sm;onf
Ò tvky&f iS f - tvkyo
f rm; tjyeftvSeq
f ufqrH _ wnf&jSd cif;
Ò tvkyo
f rm;rsm;. vkycf pm; tqift
h wef;
Ò worwfwnf;jzpfaom vkyif ef;cGiaf e&m- tvky&f Hk-puf&/Hk ukr%
` /D tzGJ@ tpnf;
wkd@tay:wGit
f ajccHonf?
odk@&mwGif ajymif;vJaeaom tvkyt
f udik f avmuESifh tvG,w
f ulajymif;vJEidk af om tvkyo
f rm;avmua=umifh
,lqcsurf sm;udk jynfph jHk cif;rjzpfapcJh

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Issues for consideration
♣ Purpose of labour law? Labour law protects who?
♣ Who is an employee becomes a crucial issue for labour law & for
workers protection
♣ What does denial of employment relationship do?
♦Unprotected worker, precarious employment, denial of right to
collective bargaining & Increase in legal disputes
♦ Shifts business risks & liabilities from employer/enterprise to
worker & society (in case of accident, for social security)
♦ Fall in social security contributions & tax collections
♦?????

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

pOf;pm;p&m ta=umif;tcsurf sm;
Ð tvkyo
f rm;Oya'. &nf&,
G cf su?f rnfol@udk tvkyo
f rm;Oya'rS tumtuG,af y;oenf;?

Ð tvkyo
f rm;rsm;tm;tumtuG,af y; &eftwGuEf iS t
fh vkyo
f rm;Oya'twGufta&;ygaomta=umif;
t&mwpfco
k nf rnfodk@aom tvkyo
f rm;wpfa,muftwGuf jzpfvmEkid o
f enf;?
Ð tvkycf ef@jcif;qufE,
G rf q
_ ikd &f mudk jiif;y,frr_ mS bmjzpfEidk o
f enf;?
Ñ tumtuG,rf aJh omtvkyo
f rm;/ rwnf+idraf omtvkycf ef@jcif;/ Oya'qdik &f m tjiifymG ;r_rsm;
wd;k vmjcif;ESifh pkaygi;f n‡Ed i_d ;f ta&;qdrk u
_ dk jiif;y,fjcif;?
Ñ pGef@pm;aom pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef; ajymif;vJjcif;ESifh vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;ESifh tvkyo
f rm;tay:
tvky&f iS /f vkyif ef;rSwm0ef&jSd cif;rsm; (rawmfwq xdcu
dk rf &_ cSd v
Jh #if vlrz_ v
l aHk &;twGuf tmrcHr)_ ?
Ñ vlrz_ v
l aHk &;ulnaD xmufyjHh cif;ESifh tcGeaf umufcjH cif; wkd@yg0ifvmjcif;?
Ñ????

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Examples: Changing employment relations
∆ owner-driver schemes: drivers “converted” to owners of the trucks or cars- drive it
exclusively or almost exclusively for one company; instead of wage, paid per load
(tonnage) delivered or on number of Kms driven
∆ Cabin crew given commercial contracts to provide in-flight services rather than
employment contracts
∆ Mini-bus conductors employed by drivers who themselves are paid by passenger
load
∆ Porters, cleaners on trains, stations, catering services, security guards – Airport
services – loading, unloading & other ground staff

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Oyrmrsm; - tvkycf ef@jcif;qkid &f m qufqrH r_ sm; ajymif;vJjcif;
Û ydik &f iS -f um;armif;eSio
f l pDrcH surf sm; - ,mOfarmif;olrsm;onf avmf&u
D m;rsm;.ydik &f iS ftjzpfodk@r[kwf

ukr%
` w
D pfc.
k oD;oef@,mOfarmif;olrsm;tjzpf “ajymif;vJcv
Jh #i”f vkyt
f m;ctpm;/ ydk@aqmifaom0ef
tav;csed f (wefcsed )f jzifh tca=u;aiGay;&rnf odk@r[kwf armif;ESiaf omuDvrkd w
D mtuGmta0;ay:wGif
tca=u;aiGay;&rnf?
Ûav,mOfay:&Sd tr_xrf;rsm;tm;tvkycf ef@xm;onfh pmcsKyfrsm;t&r[kwb
f J av,mOfyso
H ef;pOf
0efaqmifrr_ sm;qdik &f m pD;yGm;a&;pmcsKyfrsm;jzifah y;aqmifonf?
Û ,mOfarmif;olrsm;rScef@xm;onfh tao;pm;bwfpum; vufrw
S af &mif;olrsm;udk wifaqmifonfh
c&D;onf 0efcsed t
f & ay;onf?
Û ukex
f rf;orm;rsm;/ &xm;rsm;/ blwm&Hrk sm;rS oef@&iS ;f a&;orm;rsm;/ tau|;tarG;wm0ef,o
l nfh
0efaqmifrr_ sm;/ vH+k cHKa&;tpmift
h =uyfrsm; - avqdy0f efaqmifrr_ sm; - ukepf nf wifcsjcif;eSifh wjcm;
ajrjyif0efxrf;rsm;?
Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

What is common to all these?

Domestic work. Construction, agriculture labour, repair maintenance jobs in building
& services industry, etc

Manual workers, Agency workers, home based, piece rate work, contract labour,
loading – unloading work, EPZs r SEZs,

Largely precarious work, outsourced – done predominantly by women and migrants
with little or on rights!

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Tt&mtm;vH;k wGif bmawG wlnrD &_ ySd govJ
tdrw
f iG ;f tvky/f aqmufvyk af &;/ pdu
k yf sK;d a&;tvkyo
f rm;/ taqmuftOD;jyKjyif xde;f odr;f a&;tvkyrf sm;ESifh
0efaqmifrv
_ yk if ef;u¾rsm; - ponfjzifh
um,tvkyo
f rm;rsm;/ at*sipf t
dD vkyo
f rm;rsm;/ tdrt
f ajcjyK/ ta&twGupf m;/ txnfpm;tvky/f
uefx&du
k t
f vkyo
f rm;/ 0efpnfwifcsjcif;tvky/f ydk@uek v
f yk if ef;pOf Zkerf sm;ESifh txl;pD;yGm;a&;Zkerf sm;?
}uD;rm;onfh rwnf+idraf omtvky/f tjyifraS y;oGi;f vmaomtvkyf – tvkyo
f rm;&ydik cf iG hf r&Sad om
odk@r[kwf &ydik cf iG t
fh enf;tusO;f om&S+d yD; trsK;d orD;rsm;ESifh a&$@ajymif;tvkyf orm;rsm; omvkyaf vh&aSd om

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

What is PRECARIOUS WORK?
♣ Employment relation that gives employers flexibility but leaves workers with
unstable and insecure work, with limited rights & benefits
♣ more control, lower costs and less responsibility
♣ Not only cheap labour but also flexible labour
♣ It pits workers against each other to undermine full time permanent employment
♣ Mostly women and migrants – overrepresented
♣ First to be hit in times of crisis – labour laws deficient

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

rwnf+idraf omtvkyq
f w
dk m bmvJ?
Ð tvkycf ef@tyfjcif;qkid &f mqufqaH &;rS tvky&f iS rf sm;taejzifh ajymif;vJv,
G rf u
_ dk jzpfaponf?

odk@aomf tvkyo
f rm;rsm;. &ydik cf iG rfh sm;ESifh tusK;d tjrwfrsm;udk uef@owfxm;jcif;a=umifh
tvkyo
f rm;rsm;twGuf wnf+idrrf r_ &Sad om/ vH+k cHKr_r&Sad om tvkyjf zpfonf?
Ð xde;f csKyfry_ I
dk wif;=uyfjcif;/ p&dwrf sm;enf;yg;jcif;eSifh wm0efcrH e_ nf;yg;
Ð aps;aygvyk t
f m;omru tvG,w
f ulajymif;vGI
J &aom vkyt
f m;vnf;jzpfonf?
Ð 4if;onf tcsed jf ynfh t+rJwrf;tvkycf ef@tyfjcif;udk xdcu
dk yf sujf ym;ap+yD; tvkyo
f rm;rsm;
wpfa,mufeiS fh wpfa,mufqef@usi=f u&ef tuGuq
f ifjcif; jzpfonf?
Ð trsm;pkrmS trsK;d orD;rsm;ESifh a&$@ajymif;tvkyo
f rm;rsm; - ydrk rdk sm;jym;onf?
Ð tusyt
f wnf;umvrsm;wGif OD;pGmxdcu
dk o
f rl sm;jzpfonf – tvkyo
f rm;Oya' rjynfpjkH cif;?
Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Gaps in labour law
♦Labour laws based on the assumption of employer – employee relationship but
most of the law employment is ‘contractual’
- where the employment is offered not as appointment but as assignment (as if in
a client – supplier relationship) – often takes the workers out of the ambit of labour
law
♦Many benefits under labour law depend on long term employment/ regular status
♦ Labour law does not adequately cover employment relationship in informal
economy
♦ Labour law does not address unequal bargaining position of workers engaged in
work for remuneration outside the strict employment relationship

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

tvkyo
f rm;Oya'wGif uGm[csurf sm;
Ò tvkyo
f rm;Oya'rsm;onf

tvky&f iS f – tvkyo
f rm;qufqaH &;ay:wGif tajccHonf?

odk@aomf topfjzpfaomtvkycf ef@xm;jcif;wkid ;f wGif ‘pmcsKyfcsKyfqjdk cif;’ jzpfonf?
tvkycf ef@tyfjcif;udk
tvkyftyfEiS ;f jcif;jzifrh urf;vSr;f yJ
wm0efay;tyfjcif;jzifu
h rfvrS ;f jcif;(azmufonf – ay;oGi;f ol
qufqaH &;taejzifh jzpfv#i)f –
tvkyo
f rm;rsm;udk r=umc% tvkyo
f rm;Oya'vrf; a=umif;jyifyodk@ a&mufomG ;aponf?
Ò tvkyo
f rm;Oya'atmufrS tusK;d tjrwfrsm;pGmonf umv&Sn=f umtvkycf ef@jcif;/yHrk eS ftqift
h wef;
tay:rlwnfonf?
Ò yHrk eS rf [kwaf om pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;wGit
f vkyform;Oya'onftvkycf ef@jcif;qufqaH &;udktumtuG,f
vHak vmufpmG ray;Ekid yf g?
Ò rnDr#aom n‡Ed i_d ;f awmif;qdk tajctaewGif&Sdonfh wif;=uyfaom tvkyftudik cf ef@xm;jcif; qkid &f m
qufqaH &;. jyifywGi&f &Sad om vkyt
f m;cudt
k vkyfuv
dk yk u
f idk af om tvkyo
f rm;rsm;twGuf tvkyo
f rm;
Oya'oufa&mufjcif;r&S?d
Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Main focus of labour law reforms today?

∗ Promote employment flexibility, increase management powers of bringing about
changes at work place & create conditions for precarious employment
∗& --- what about the workers?
In return for flexibility, higher compensation, training & redeployment for workers BUT
this should be done mainly by the State!

♣ While the costs of downsizing, insecurity of workers & investment in human capital
(education & training ) are sought to be passed on to the State, its role in regulation &
legislating workers rights is being reduced

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

,ae@umvwGif tvkyo
f rm;Oya' jyefvnfjyifqifa&;udk t"dutm&Hpk u
dk rf nfvm;
Ú
ajymif;vG,jf yifv,
G af om
tvkycf ef@jcif;udk
jr‡iw
fh ifjcif;/
vkyif ef;cGiYf
ajymif;vJrr_ sm;udk
,laqmifay;Ekid af ompDrt
H yk cf sKyfr_ t
_ m%mudk jr‡iw
fh ifjcif;eSifh rwnf+idraf om tvkyt
f udik f twGut
f ajctaezefw;D ay;jcif;?
Ú +yD;awmh tvkyo
f rm;awGtwGuaf um – ajymif;vG,jf yifv,
G fjcif; rltm;wkef@jyefaom tm;jzifjh rifrh m;aomavsmaf =u;
ay;jcif;/ avhusio
fh if=um;ay;jcif;ESifh jyefvnfae&mcsxm; ay;jcif;wkd@udk Edik if aH wmfrS t"duvkyaf qmifoifo
h nf?
Ø ukeu
f sp&dwf jzwfawmufonft
h cgwGif tvkyo
f rm;rsm;. rvH+k cHKr_EiS fh vlom;&if;ES;D jr‡KyfErSH _ t&if;tES;D (ynma&;ESifh
avhusio
fh if=um;jcif;)udk Ekid fiaH wmftm; v$aJ y;&ef &SmazGppD pf&rnf? pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;ESifh tvkyo
f rm;rsm;&ydik cf Gifhrsm;
Oya'jyXmef;jcif;rS ,if;.tcef;u¾udk av#mch sjcif; jzpfonf?

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

So, what should be the national policy on protection for
workers in an employment relationship so as to ensure Decent
Work for All?

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Todk@qdv
k #if tm;vH;k twGuf *k%o
f u
d mQ &Sad om tvkyt
f udik u
f dk tmrcHEikd af p&eftwGuf
tvkyt
f udik cf ef@xm;jcif;qkid &f mwGif tvkyo
f rm;rsm;twGuf tumtuG,af y;Edik &f ef
Edik if aH wmfYrnfo
h dk@aom rl0g'&So
d ifo
h enf;?

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Determination of Employment Relationship ILO Recommendation

♦ Whether an employment relationship exists or not should be determined by ‘facts’ not
‘form’
♦Provide for legal presumption of existence of employment relationship where one or
more relevant indicators are present
♦ Reduce or reverse the burden of proof – from workers to employers
♦ In consultation with W & E organization, provide that workers with certain
characteristics in general or in a particular sector deemed to be either employed or self –
employed – List criteria for determination of employment relationship

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

tvkyt
f udik cf ef@jcif;qufqaH &; tm;aumif;apa&; tdik t
f ,f(vf)tdak xmufccH suf
Ð tvkyftudik fcef@jcif;qufqaH &;

&So
d nfjzpfap r&So
d nfjzpfap/ yHpk EH iS fh rqH;k jzwfyf J rSeu
f efaom
tcsut
f vufrsm; ay:wGiq
f ;Hk jzwfoifo
h nf?
Ð tvkyftudik cf ef@tyfjcif;qufqaH &; wnf&rSd u
_ dk Oya'a=umif;t& rSeu
f efonf[,
k q
l csuf twGuf wck
okd@r[kwf wckxufyrdk adk om qufE,
G o
f nfh azmf!$e;f csurf sm;udt
k yfEiS ;f yg?
Ð taxmuftxm;. 0efxyk 0f efy;dk udk av#mjh cif; odk@r[kwf qef@usib
f ufuv
kd yk yf g- tvkyo
f rm;rsm;rS
tvky&f iS rf sm;odk@
Ð tvkyftudik fEiS fh tvkycf ef@jcif; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh twkid ftyifvyk &f mwGif tvkyo
f rm;rsm; ESifhtwl
xl;jcm;aom taxGaxGvuQ%mrsm;udk pDpOfygodk@r[kwf wpfO;D csi;f tvku
d f tcef;u¾tm; tvkyftudkif
cef@c&H jcif; odk@r[kwf ud,
k yf ikd ftvky&f jSd cif; wckcu
k ,
dk q
l yg – tvkycf ef@jcif;qufqaH &;. qH;k jzwfcsuf
twGuf E_id ;f ,SOq
f ;Hk jzwf&efru
l dk pm&if;jyKyg?

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Determination of Employment Relationship
National Law/regulations could include indicators of the existence of
employment relationship – such as –
∴the level of control the employer has over worker’s activities
∴ whether the worker provides his/her own equipment
∴ whether the workers hires his/her own helpers
∴ the degree of financial risk taken by the workers
∴ the degree of responsibility for investment & management by the worker
∴ workers opportunity for profit in the performance of his/her own tasks

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

tvkyt
f udik cf ef@xm;jcif;qufqaH &; owfrw
S cf suf
Edik if aH wmf. Oya'pnf;rsO;f rsm;wGiv
f uf&Sd wnf&aSd eaom tvkycf ef@jcif; qufqaH &;.
&;.oauF
;.oauFw
rsm;yg0
f nf/ ,if;wkd@rmS yg0ifEikd o
· tvkyo
f rm;rsm;. aqmif&u
G cf surf sm;tay:wGif tvky&f iS .
f xde;f csKyfEidk af om tajctae?

· tvkyo
f rm;rsm; (ol/ olr) twGuf ykid q
f idk af om ypPn;f ud&,
d mrsm;ay;tyfxm;jcif; &S/d r&S?d
· tvkyo
f rm;rsm;onf ol/ olr wkd@yidk q
f idk af om ulno
D rl sm;tm; iSm;&ef;jcif; &S/d r&S?d
· tvkyo
f rm;rsm;taejzifh aiGa&;a=u;a&; pGef@pm;r_twkid ;f twm?
· tvkyo
f rm;rsm;. &if;ES;D jr‡KESrH E_ iS fh pDrt
H yk cf sKyfrt
_ ay:wkd@wiG f wm0efc&H onfh twkid ;f twm?
· ol/ olrwkd@. vkyif ef;wm0efrsm;aqmif&u
G jf cif;rS tvkyo
f rm;rsm;taejzifh tusK;d tjrwf&&SdapEdik f
onfh tcGit
fh a&;?

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Employee v/s Self employed
♣ Under the control of other









Supplies labour only
Receives a fixed wage
Cannot sub – contract the work
Does not supply materials for the job
(equipment?)
Not exposed to personal financial risk in
carrying out work
No responsibility for investment &
management
No opportunity to profit
Fixed hours of work, OT, etc
What else?

♦ Owns own business
♦ Exposed to financial risk
♦ Responsibility for investment & management
♦ Opportunity to profit from sound management
of work
♦ Control over what is done, when where & who
does it
♦ Free to hire other people
♦ Can provide services to more than one person/
business
♦ Provides materials, equipment, etc for the job
♦ Costs & agrees price for job
♦ Control over hours of work
♦ What else?

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

tvkyo
f rm;ESifh rdru
d ,
dk yf idk t
f vkyv
f yk o
f l
Ð tjcm;aomol. xde;f csKyfra_ tmufwiG f
Ð vkyt
f m;uk,
d o
f m axmufyHh
Ð wpforwfwnf;jzpfaom vkyt
f m;c&&Sjd cif;
Ð tjcm;oltm; ykwjf ywftvky(f uefx&du
k )f ay;r&
Ð tvkyt
f wGuf ypPn;f ud&,
d mrsm; raxmufy&Hh
Ð tvkyt
f aumiftxnfazmf&eftwGuf ud,
k yf ikd f aiGa=u;
pGef@pm;r_ rjrifomyg
ÐpDrt
H yk cf sKyfrE_ iS fh &if;ES;D jr‡KyfErSH t
_ wGuf wm0efr,l&
Ð tjrwftpGe;f &&ef tcGit
fh vrf;r&Sd
Ð wdusaomtvkycf sed ef m&DEiS fh tcsed yf pkd onfjzifh
Ð wjcm;bmrsm;&Sad o;ovJ

Ñ ud,
k yf idk f pD;yGm;a&;udk ydik q
f idk o
f nf
Ñ aiGa=u;pGef@pm;r_ jrifomonf
Ñ pDrt
H yk cf sKyfrE_ iS fh &if;ES;D jr‡KyfErSH t
_ wGuf wm0ef,&l
Ñ aumif;aom pDrt
H yk cf sKyfrr_ S tjrwftpGe;f &&ef tcGit
fh vrf;&Sd
Ñ rnfonft
h vky/f rnfonft
h csed /f rnfonfah e&m rnfow
l dk@u
vkyo
f nfwdk@udk xde;f csKyf
Ñ wjcm;olrsm;udk vGwv
f yfpmG tca=u;aiGay;I iSm;&ef;Ekid f
Ñ vkyif ef;0efaqmifrr_ sm;ukd vlwpfO;D (odk@) pD;yGm;a&;
vkyif ef;wpfcx
k uf ydI
k pDpOfEikd f
Ñ tvkyt
f wGuf ypPn;f ud&,
d mrsm; pDpOfay;&
Ñ ukeu
f sp&dwEf iS fh vkycf twGuf oabmwlnD
Ñ tvkyv
f yk cf sed t
f ay: xde;f csKyf
Ñ wjcm;bmrsm;&Sad o;ovJ

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Other measures to be taken
• Settlement of disputes – effective access
• Measures to ensure compliance : labour inspection services, collaboration with
social security administration & tax authorities
• Remove incentives to disguise an employment relationship
• Promote the role of collective bargaining & social dialogue as a means to finding
solutions to work place problems
• Monitoring & implementation mechanism - & involvement of workers &
employers organizations

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

tjcm;vkyaf qmif &rnft
h csurf sm;
Ð tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;tm; ausat;jcif; - xda&mufaom csO;f uyfr_

Ð vdu
k af vsmr_ aocsmap&efvyk af qmifrr_ sm; - vkyif ef;cGif ppfaq;jcif; 0efaqmifrr_ sm;/ vlrz_ l
vHak &;qdik &f m tkycf sKyfrE_ iS fh tcGeOf ;D pD;r_ wm0ef&o
Sd rl sm;ESifh yl;wGaJ qmif&u
G jf cif;
Ð tvkycf ef@jcif;qufqaH &;wGif zH;k uG,o
f nfrh ufv;Hk rsm;tm; z,f&mS ;jcif;
Ð pkaygi;f n‡Ed i_d ;f ta&;qdrk e_ iS fh vlra_ &;aqG;aEG;r_wkd@. u¾udk jr‡iw
fh ifjcif;jzifh vkyif ef;cGijf y\emrsm; udk
tajzrsm;ukad jz&Si;f onfh enf;vrf;w&yftjzifh oH;k &ef
Ð apmif=h unfph pfaq;jcif; taumiftxnfazmfjcif; enf;vrf;(,E &W m;)ESifh – tvkyo
f rm;rsm;ESifh
tvky&f iS rf sm;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; yg0ifr_

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Law & precarious work
∗ Canada: “dependent worker” recognized under labour law to extend protection to
workers not on the regular payroll
∗ India: Contract Workers Law – responsibility of principle employer – the law limits
the use of contract workers for core production work but . . . . .
∗ Argentina’s Labour Code holds principle employer responsible for contract or
agency workers
∗ France: Supreme Court ruled that supposedly self – employed workers operation
under conditions and prices set by their client company are covered by the labour laws.
∗ European unions are demanding for Europe – wide laws on equal treatment of
agency workers.
∗ Asian enterprise union system: law needs to be reformed to give right to union to
represent the agency worker in the enterprise – applicability of CBA

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Oya'ESifh rwnf+idraf omtvkyt
f udik f
uae'g – “tm;xm;rScD akd e&aomtvkyo
f rm;” onf tvkyo
f rm;rsm;yHrk eS v
f pmr&Sad om tvkyo
f rm;rsm;
tvkyo
f rm;Oya' atmufwiG f todtrSwjf yKI umuG,rf a_ y;onf &onf?
Ò

Ò tdE,
Nd - uefx&du
k t
f vkyo
f rm;rsm;Oya' – pnf;urf;vdu
k ef maom tvky&f iS .
f wm0ef - t"du ukefxkwf
vkyrf t
_ wGuf uefx&du
k t
f vkyo
f rm;rsm;udk Oya'rS tuef@towfEiS fh om oH;k ykid cf iG jfh yK?
Ò tm*siw
f ;D em;. tvkyo
f rm;Oya'onf uefx&du
k jf zifv
h yk af om tvkyo
f rm;rsm;ESifh
tvkyo
f rm;rsm;twGuf pnf;urf;vku
d ef maom tvky&f iS u
f o
dk m wm0ef,al ponf?

at*sipf jD zifv
h yk faom

Ò jyifopf – azmufonfurk %
` rD S csrSwaf om aps;E_e;f ESifh owfrw
S af y;onfh tajctaeatmufwiG f rdru
d ,
dk yf idk f tvkyfudk
vkyu
f idk af om tvkyo
f rm;rsm;onf tvkyo
f rm;Oya'rsm;ESifh tusK;H 0ifonf[k A[dw
k &m;&H;k rS owfrw
S o
f nf?
Ò Oa&myor*~rsm;onf tusK;d aqmiftvkyo
f rm;rsm;tay: wef;wl nDr#jyKrlqufqaH om Oya'Oa&mywwdu
k f vH;k wGif
+cHKiHak p&ef awmif;qdak e=uonf?
Ò tm&S&pSd ;D yGm;a&;vkyif ef;or*~pepf pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;}uD;rsm;wGif vkyfaom tvkyo
f rm;rsm; at*sipf D tvkyo
f rm;rsm;udk
or*~taejzifh
ud,
k pf m;jyKcGifhay;&eftwGuf Oya'jyefvnf jyifqif&ef -------- pkaygi;f n‡Ed _di;f ta&;qdjk cif;
tm;vH;k usio
fh ;Hk Edik &f ef
Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

Group Work
♣ What kind of employment/jobs and workers you would call ‘precarious’?
♣ What rights does the labour law provide for contract – casual/agency workers?
♣ What initiatives are the unions taking for workers in precarious jobs? Give examples.
Any success story in organization workers in precarious employment?
♣ What can be the union response to employment flexibility demand of the employers?

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

tkypf t
k vkyf
· rnfodk@aomtvkyt
f udik cf ef@xm;jcif;/ tvkyrf sm;ESit
fh vkyo
f rm;rsm;ud“k rwnf+idraf om”trsK;d tpm;
[k oifac:csiyf govJ?
· tvkyo
f rm;Oya'rS rnfonfh &ydik cf iG rfh sm;udk uefx&du
k f – usyef;tvkyo
f rm;/ tusK;d aqmiftvkyf
orm;rsm; twGuf tyfEiS ;f ygovJ?
· tvkyo
f rm;or*~rsm;onf rwnf+idraf omtvkyrf sm;wGif tvkyform;rsm;twGurf nfonfOh ;D aqmif
OD;&Gujf yKr_rsm;udk jyKvky=f urnfenf;? Oyrmrsm;ay;yg? rwnf+idraf omvkyif ef;rS tvkyform;rsm;tvm;
pnf;&H;k &mwGif atmifjrifcb
Jh ;l onfo
h m"ursm;&Syd govm;?
· tvky&f Siw
f kd@rt
S vkyftudik ftvG,f wulajymif;vJra_ y:rlwnfI awmif;qdrk _tm; tvkyo
f rm;or*~
taejzifh rnfodk@ wkef@jyefEidk rf nfenf;?

Federation of Trade Unions- Burma

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