# CHAPTER 2

ANALYSIS METHODS

Reciprocal theorems describe fundamental properties of elastic deformable systems. Displacement computation techniques are presented in this chapter, and the different calculation procedures for obtaining eigenvalues are discussed: among these are Lagrange's equations, Rayleigh, Rayleigh-Ritz and Bubnov~3alerkin's methods, Grammel, Dunkerley and Hohenemser-Prager's formulas, Bemstein and Smirnov's estimations.

NO TA TION
a,b,c,d,e,f aik cik E E1 g

lz
k L,l,h,a,b M mij, kij

M,J
n Q q,(l, Cl
r

Specific ordinates of the bending moment diagrams Inertial coefficients Elastic coefficients Young's modulus of the beam material Bending stiffness Gravitational acceleration Moment of inertia of a cross-section Stiffness coefficient Geometrical parameters Bending moment Mass and stiffness coefficients Concentrated mass and moment of inertia of the mass Number of degrees of freedom Generalized force Generalized coordinate, generalized velocity and generalized acceleration Radius of gyration Unit reaction Potential and kinetic energy Cartesian coordinates Mode shape Ordinate of the bending moment diagram in the unit state under centroid of bending moment diagram in the actual state Unit displacement Area of the bending moment diagram under actual conditions
15

rlk U,T x, y, z X(x) Y~ 5~k f~

16

FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS

(') = ~d (-) = ~d

Differentiation with respect to space coordinate Differentiation with respect to time

2. I

RECIPROCAL THEOREMS

Reciprocal theorems represent the fundamental and useful properties of arbitrary linear elastic systems. The fundamental investigations were developed by Betti (1872), Helmholtz (1860), Maxwell (1864) and Rayleigh (1873, 1876).

2.1.1

Theorem of reciprocal works (Betti, 1872)

The work performed by the actions of state 1 along the deflections caused by the actions corresponding to state 2 is equal to the work performed by the actions of state 2 along the deflections due to the actions of state 1, e.g. A12 = A21.

2.1.2

Theorem of reciprocal displacements

If a harmonic force of given amplitude and period acts upon a system at point A, the resulting displacement at a second point B will be the same, both in amplitude and phase, as it would be at point A were the force to act at point B. The statical reciprocal theorem is the particular case in which the forces have an infinitely large period (Lord Rayleigh, 1873-1878). Unit displacement 6ik indicates the displacement along the ith direction (linear or angular) due to the unit load (force or moment) acting in the kth direction. In any elastic system, the displacement along a load unity of state 1 caused by a load unity of state 2 is equal to the displacement along the load unity of state 2 caused by a load unity of the state 1, e.g. t~12 = ~21"

Example. A simply supported beam carries a unit load P in the first condition and a unit moment M in the second condition (Fig. 2.1). In the first state, the displacement due to load unity P = 1 along the load of state 2 is the angle of rotation
1 xL 2 0=621 = 24EI

P=I First state Second state

M=I

~ll

O21

&2

622

FIGURE 2.1.

Theorem of reciprocal displacements.

ANALYSISMETHODS

17

In the second state, the displacement due to load unity M = 1 along the load of state 1 is a linear deflection

Y= r12-- 24EI
2.1.3 Theorem of the reciprocal of the reactions (Maxwell, 1864)

1 ×L 2

Unit reaction rik indicates the reaction (force or moment) induced in the ith support due to unit displacement (linear or angular) of the kth constraint. The reactive force rnm due to a unit displacement of constraint m along the direction n equals the reactive force r,,, induced by the unit displacement of constraint n along the direction m, e.g. rnm =

rm,.

Example. Calculate the unit reactions for the frame given in Fig. 2.2a. Solution. The solution method is the slope-deflection method. The given system has one
rigid joint and allows one horizontal displacement. The primary system of the slope-deflection method is presented in Fig. 2.2(b). Restrictions 1 and 2 are additional ones that prevent angular and linear displacements. For a more detailed discussion of the slope-deflection method see Chapter 4. State 1 presents the primary system under unit rotational angle Z l = 1 and the corresponding bending moment diagram; state 2 presents the primary system under unit horizontal displacement Z 2 = 1 and the corresponding bending moment diagram.

ki
[

EIi~l
a)

1
b)

1,h

- T Z I =1

rl2

~!~3EI2/l-- c) ~EI1/h

Ei~lth~~ 6

4[~d)Zz=l

F I G ~ 2.2. Theoremof the reciprocal of the reactions: (a) given system; Co)primary system of the slope and deflection method; (c) bending moment diagram due to unit angular displacement of restriction 1; (d) bending moment diagram due to unit linear displacement of restriction 2.

18

FORMULASFOR STRUCTURALDYNAMICS

Free-body diagrams for joint 1 in state 2 using Fig. 2.2(d), and for the cross-bar in state l using Fig. 2.2(c) are presented as follows.

:.-']1~

r21

"....

F

..........•

~1

6EIl Ih2

6Ell/h 2

The equilibrium equation of the constraint 1 (EM = 0) leads to

6EI1
r12 -h2 The equilibrium equation of the cross-bar 1-2 (~,Fx = 0) leads to

1 /4El I

2EI1"~

6EI1

2.1.4 Theorem of the reciprocal of the displacements and reactions (Maxwell, 1864)
The displacement in the jth direction due to a unit displacement of the kth constraint and the reaction of the constraint k due to a unit force acting in the jth direction are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, e.g. 6jk = - r ~ .

Example.
(Fig. 2.3).

Find a vertical displacement at the point A due to a unit rotation of support B

.~

~=1

rBA

A I~ t a _1__,_ b

B -,-I

F=lt I.~ a >[-t b -,~1

FIGURE 2.3. Theoremof the reciprocal of the displacements and reactions.

Solution.

Let us apply the unit force F = 1 in the direction 6AB. The moment at the fixed support due to force F = 1 equals rBA = --F(a + b). Since F = 1, the vertical displacement 6AB = a + b.

these internal forces are due to the applied loads.ANALYSIS METHODS 19 2.1 MaxwelI-Morh integral Any displacement of the linear deformable system may be calculated by the formula I MiMk . Compute the angle of rotation of end point C of a uniformly loaded cantilever The trait state---or the imaginary one--is a cantilever beam with a unit moment that is applied at the point C. q A c t u a l condition (I + + \$ + ~' ~k + ~.~ l M/=I xx .1) where M. beam.2 DISPLACEMENT COMPUTATION TECHNIQUES 2.(x) and Qk(x) represent the bending moment. Mi(x). Example. q is the non-dimensional shear factor that depends on the shape and size of the cross-section. The angle of rotation Aik = ~ 1"MiMic dx = if 1 x x x qx 2 dx -.2.QiQk (2. For bending systems..b + C X Unit state ii X ~M=I The bending moments in the actual condition Mk and the unit state M i are qx2 Mk(x) = ~ . \$ . Detailed information about the shear factor is presented in Chapter 1.(x).ql3 () E1 o 2FJ -. axial and shear forces due to a unit load that corresponds to the displacement Aik. vleNiNk~ ~ t.6 . Ni. Solution.. this moment corresponds to an unknown angle of rotation at the same point C. the second and third terms may be neglected. Ni(x) and Qi(x) represent the bending moment. axial and shear forces acting over a cross-section situated a distance x from the coordinate origin.

707~~ \\\ i ] Solution. the second state is the arch with a unit horizontal load..Yc 1 f~ (2.707R(1 -.707 0. which is applied at the same point.cos ct2)R]2R d~ 2 = 0"01925R3 0 ~a n/4 1 822 = fO o t~s E1 ~-7(0"707Rsinctl) "R dCtl + ~/4 1 [ ~z.707R(1 . Darkov.cos o~2)]2Rdoe2 = IM- 0.[Rsln~ 2 -. '" 0.z ~-~---5i VB = 0. 1948) n/4 1 r~14 1 811 = ~[ ~ (0..70~ Second state The unit displacements according to the first term of equation (2..' .0.2) .cos CtE)R dotz = 0.293R 3 sin 2 CtldCt 1 R3 + f E I [R sin ~2 -. The first state is the arch with a unit vertical load that is applied at point C. The bending moment diagram that corresponds to the unit condition is always bounded by a straight line.707(1 -. _~-~'_~ _ _ z 5-~ / VA= 0.1) are (Prokofiev et al. I[MiM j k dx= El '.. due to unit loads PI = 1 and P2 = 1.293R sin ~1)2R dcq + J" ~T[0...707R(1 .I * 0 707 o E1 " ~/4 1 x 0. Flugge. 1925.0530~7 o Graph multiplication method O/ereshchagin method). \\I 0.. FORMULASFOR STRUCTURALDYNAMICS Compute the vertical and horizontal displacements at the point C of a uniformly circular pinned-roller supported arch. 1962. 7 A~ / 5-.293R P2=l ~--~ ~ ". the bending moment diagram is the actual condition bounded by any curve.1604R 3 E1 hi4 1 812 = (~21 ~--. This latter property allows us to present the Maxwell-Morh integral for bending systems (Vereshchagin.cos ct2)] x 0.20 Example. In the most common case..707R ~ VB=0"293 .. 1989).0.293RI ~el=l 0.707T First state VA = 0...

2. C .5. If a bending structure in the actual condition is under concentrated forces and/or moments. as presented in Fig.~ l (ab + cd + 4ef) (2.Gravity center of Mk diagram f2 . If both graphs are bounded by straight lines.4). The ordinate y¢ must be measured on the graph bounded by a straight line (Fig. then both of bending moment diagrams in actual and unit conditions are bounded by straight lines (Fig.(b) bending moment diagram that corresponds to the unit condition. In this case.2) may be presented in terms of specific ordinates. . 2. Graphmultiplicationmethod: (a) bending moment diagram that corresponds to the actual condition. then expression (2. Bending moment diagrams bounded by straight lines. Mk //2 > / / 2 ~FIGURE 2. at least one of which is bounded by a straight line.4).4.3) Approximate formula (Simpson-Kornoukhov's rule) 6 i* = . equals the area f~ bounded by the graph of an arbitrary outline multiplied by the ordinate Yc to the first graph measured along the vertical passing through the centroid of the second one.5.ANALYSISMETHODS 21 The product of the multiplication of two graphs. the ordinate Ye could be measured on either of the two lines.Area of Mk diagram +-b) ~ ~ FIGURE 2. displacement as a result of the multiplication of two graphs may be calculated by the following expressions. In this case.4) M. Exact formula l 6ik = ~-~ ( 2ab + 2cd + ad + bc) (2. 2.

Actual condition ~.7. . i iI j [ qt2/2 i/2 ~ ~ 1 J P=I Unit condition 1...l/2 F I G U R E 2.6. If the bending moment diagram in the actual condition is bounded by the quadratic parabola. Equation (2.~+~ x 1 × l+ 4 × ~ 2 qe .. .3) or (2. I --. unit condition and corresponding bending moment diagram Mp=1 are presented in Fig. A cantilever beam is carrying a uniformly distributed load q. Unit displacement is displacement due to a unit force or unit moment and may be calculated by expressions (2. Calculate the horizontal displacement of the point B. 2. .g-E~ A=6ET\ °~ ' ~ ' ~ei I Example.-.4). then the result of the multiplication of two bending moment diagrams is exact. Consider the portal frame shown in Fig. unit condition Yc and correspondingbending momentdiagram. [ EI.4) may be used for the calculation of displacements if the bending moment diagram in the actual condition is bounded by a curved line. Actual state. Calculate the vertical displacement at the free end. 2. Solution.6. Example. The vertical displacement at the free end. . respectively. The bending moment diagram in the actual condition is bounded by the quadratic parabola. l~ _ qr / -. by using the exact and approximate formulae. This case occurs if the bending structure is carrying a uniformly distributed load. l- --~7 q14 l f 0~.22 FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS Equation (2. is A=-~× 5l× T × ~ l × t) y¢ 1 1 ql 2 3.3) is used if two bending moment graphs are bounded by straight lines only._.q12/8 v. The bending moment diagram due to the applied uniformly distributed force (Mq).

The displacement of the point B will be obtained by multiplying the two bending moment diagrams. FIGURE 2. Using Vereshchagin's method and taking into account the different rigidities of the columns and of the cross beam.ANALYSIS METHODS 23 P II... The second graph may be traced for any simple structure derived from the given structure by the elimination of redundant constraints.. Calculate the angle of displacement of the point B of the frame shown in Fig..9. is presented in Fig.7...-EI2 h x L ~ Ye ~ f~ FIGURE 2. P. The bending moment diagram... we find 1 1 2 1 1 As=-~lX-~hxPhx xh y~ = Ph 3 3El I PLh 2 2EI2 2. Portal frame: actual condition and corresponding bending moment diagram. Solution. The signs of the bending moment appearing in these graphs may be omitted if desired. corresponding to the actual loading. A~l l[l [[[[j~ ~lh ..2.8. . The unit loading consists of one horizontal load of unity acting at point B. and L = h. E1 p Ph P E13 Z ~r ~. Example. 2. 2. B~'~------×-P 2 ~h .. Unit condition and corresponding bending moment diagram.. The corresponding bending moment diagram M~ is given in Fig.8.7. as these graphs are always drawn on the side of the tensile fibres. 2..2 Displacement in indeterminate structures The deflections of a redundant structure may be determined by using only one bending moment diagram pertaining to the given structure---either that induced by the applied loads or else that due to a load unity acting along the desired deflection.. Mp. The stiffnesses of all members are equal.

2. 44 FIGURE 2. The angular displacement may be calculated by using Equation 2. 2.3 OB=~--~ h (_ 2 x 1 x~-+2 PL x 1 x~-+ PL 1 x~-- PL 1 x~- PL) -- 88EI PL2 2. Design diagram of the statically indeterminate structure.3 Influence coefficients Influence coefficients (unit displacements) 5ik are the displacement in the ith direction caused by unit force acting in the kth direction (see Tables 2. 7 --PL 13 13eL M-_. L/2J L FIGURE 2. Example.10.9.10. In Table 2. r -~ eL 1 Bending moment diagrams in the actual and unit conditions. The bending moment diagram in the actual condition and the corresponding bending moment diagram in the unit condition are presented in Fig.11 Calculate the matrix of the unit displacements for the symmetric beam shown . fl = angle of rotation due to unit vertical force or vertical displacement due to unit moment.2 the influence coefficients at point 1 due to a unit force or moment being applied at the same point 1 are: 5 = vertical displacement due to unit vertical force. y = angle of rotation due to unit moment.1 and 2. in Fig.2). 2.24 FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS B I. Solution.

E1 = const.' ) 2~la2b2(l a - b + 3~2ab'__ 2Ela2--~.ANALYSIS METHODS 25 TABLE 2.k2 h [[1 I. Beam type Influence coefficients M. E1 = const.2 Influence coefficients for beams with non-classical boundary conditions.. t : k2 + k I a b = ~ + 3 ~ 1 "t. J kl ~ [~ oil I~-1< l ~ )2~ k2 ~. .I/4.b2kl p a3b3 + 3t-rff.3E12 A A A W W W 1/4.3) (l . Clamped-clamped beam with lumped masses.b 61EI 3EI "-~ ~7] b2(l-b)2313E I ~ "~1 ~ 2 2 ~ a3(/--I a)3313E 3EIa3-~1~'-~ \ 4 .1. l /4 J..b ) 2{b~ 2 ~ 1 l 2 ~ 13 (l--a~2(a)2 ~ E l k ~ ] \l] ab(12-a 2 .b . l/4 rl~ ~1 ~ . = b2kl + (a + b)2k2 ab2 b3 a2 +3~1 "F 3EI2 fl _ bkI + (a + b)k2 ab a2 + 3~ll bE + 3~ kl ~.1 ~1 ~ r I FIGURE 2. a )~. + a2b3 a h fl = bkl . Beam type 611 612 = ~21 t~22 2) 13 ( l . ff(3l-a.ak2 -1..[ 0 : a2k2 "t.11.] (l -EI b b2(l-b'3(3+~)1212EI TABLE 2.I.a3b ab3 kl +12 k2 3FElla 3312E12b 3 ~=~+3~1_~ 31"ZEI2 E/1 M.a .1 Influence coefficients for beams with classical boundary conditions (static Green functions).

s) + (2 -. The influence coefficient (Green's function. the symmetric matrix of the unit displacements is 9 1 4096 l3 I [6ik] = E-I [ 384 1 192 13 12288 1 384 9 4096 2. s) = (1 .6) k l3 G(x.x x (1 --X)2-"(S --X) "1"-(2 So 3~ . s~l.3 .x -. see also Section 3.n (1 . n = 2 and n = 3.moo.Lxo.4 Influence coefficients for clamped-free beam of non-uniform cross-sectional area The distributed mass and the second moment of inertia m(x)=m°[1-( 1 . F O R M U L A S FOR S T R U C T U R A L DYNAMICS By using Table 2.x)3-" + _--- 2] forx < s (2. Expressions (2. 1946) 13 G(x.s)Z-n(x -.10) satisfies the Maxwell theorem..1.s .n)xs -. For n>2.26 Solution.n ) ( 2 -- n)E1 o n)sx . 1 I so . m I is mass per unit length at free end (x = / ) . ~1 - (1 - n)(2 - n)elo 2 3 n X [(1 . or the symmetry property a(x. s) = G(s. The unit force applied at x = x o and the position of any section x = s o. n is any integer or decimal number. are as shown. s = ~. x) and may be presented in the form (Anan'ev.x~l.are non-dimensional parameters.6) and (2. Xo . case 2.7) have no singular points except n = 1. I 0 are mass per unit length and moment of inertia at clamped support (x = 0).s -- (l_s)3_nq - 2] forx >_ s (2.7) where x = ~-.5) where mo.] ml'~x]lj' EI(x)=EI°(1-1)n (2.2.

cik ---. .2. row 3.1 1) Cnnqn Lagrange's equations can be used in the dynamic analysis of structures with complex geometrical shapes and complex boundary conditions.9) Inertial coefficients satisfy the reciprocal property.cn2q2 .1. The generalized force Qi. which corresponds to generalized coordinate qi. . . Clnqn C2nqn (2. aik = al.. . qi and qi are generalized coordinates and generalized velocities.3.. The differential equations of mechanical system are a l l q " l + a12q2 + . the parameter n = 0.10) The elastic coefficients satisfy the reciprocal property. which corresponds to the generalized coordinate qi is equal to the coefficient at increment of generalized coordinate in the expression for virtual work. and the unknown reactions of the constraints need not be considered. .c22q2 . .~qi + ~iqi = Qi.11) has the following solution qi = A i exp iogt (2. 2 . . . . . . . t is time. n is number of degrees of freedom of the system. . The system of differential equations (2. which yields the result presented in Table 2. . Qi is generalized force.. . For a uniform cross-sectional area. + annq"n = . The number of equations equals the number of degrees of freedom of the system. . . n) (2. .c~. .2 .C n l q l -. .3 .~k_laikqiqk (i.. . k = 1. n) (2. . . .c12q2 . In the case of ideal constraints. . .1 Lagrange's equation Lagrange's equation offers a uniform and fairly simple method for the formulation of the vibration equations of a mechanical system d ~('X 0T 8U dt ~ i q i ) .. .3 ANALYSIS METHODS 2.8) where Tand U are the kinetic energy and potential energy of the system. The potential energy of the system is a quadratic function of the generalized coordinates 1 n U = ~i..12) where A i is amplitude and m is the frequency of vibration. + a2nq'n = --c21ql -. An important advantage is that their form and number depend neither on the number of bodies comprising the system nor on the manner in which they are moving.C l l q l -. k = 1. The kinetic energy of the system is a quadratic function of the generalized velocities 1 n T = ~i. the right-hand parts of Lagrange's equation include only generalized active forces. + alnq" n ~--. i = 1. n (2. 2. a21ql + a22q2 + " " anlq'l + an2(t"2 + ..ANALYSISMETHODS 27 Special case.~k=lCikqiqk (i. .

The condition of non-trivial solution leads to the frequency equation a l l (D2 . .r22 . . .. .2 . . . . 1 " U=~ekq~__.. .Cll a 2 1 ° ) 2 -.16) ( i .~_laikqlqk. C2nqn Cnnqn anil'n = -Cnlql -. and reducing by exp iogt. k = 1. leads to the frequency equation m l (-O2 . the differential equations of the mechanical system are solved with respect to generalized accelerations alq"1 = --cllql -.?'11 --r21 --r12 m2092 . . Inverted form. and using the nontriviality condition. . .Cn2 :: ••• a n n a ) 2 .rnn where rik are unit reactions (force or moment) in the ith restriction.. rln r2n =0 (2.11). n) (2. c21 . Presenting the generalized coordinates in the form of Equation (2. a2q2 = --c21ql -. .cl2q2 .Cnl a n 2 (D2 .k = 1. .c12 .c22q2 . . . .. n) In this case. . alnOO 2 -. Direct form. The unit reactions satisfy the property of reciprocal reactions. .CnEq2 . Kinetic energy is presented as sum of squares of generalized velocities 1 n . which prevents linear or angular displacement due to unit displacement (linear or angular) of the kth restriction. . Potential energy is presented as sum of squares of generalized coordinates 1 n T:~i.2 . ..15) I -rnl -rn2 "'" mn 092 .. T = ~ k~__ 2 lakq 1 U n (2. . . c22 . ( i . The special forms of kinetic or potential energy lead to specific forms for the frequency equation. . .Cnn I L =0 (2. a12 (D2 . .13) All roots of the frequency equation co2 are real and positive.14) = ~. . a22 (D2 . we obtain a homogeneous algebraic equation with respect to unknown amplitudes. .Cln I anlO) . . . k = 1.12). n) . .28 F O R M U L A S F O R S T R U C T U R A L DYNAMICS By substituting Equations (2. rik = rk/ (the theorem of reciprocal reactions). .12) into system (2. . cl.2 .~k=lCikqiqk (i.q. .

. . 1 -. .17) . .. alnq"n a2nqn Cnq n = . .a n 2 (o2 """ Cn .2q~ . . aln(..m2c~22c02 .12. . . . mnC~lnCO 2 mn~2nCO 2 =0 (2. The system has two degrees of freedom. .a22q'2 . a. .mlC~llCO2 --mlc~21co 2 --m2c~12c02 1 -.18) --mlC~nl O)2 --m2C~n2(O2 "-. derive the differential equation of motion of the system shown in Fig. .--a21 q'l -. . .a n l c02 In terms of lumped masses m and unit displacements 6ik the frequency equation becomes 1 -.ann (D2 I = 0 (2. .ANALYSIS METHODS 29 The differential equations of a mechanical system solved with respect to generalized coordinates are c l q I = .O 2 a2nO) 2 . Using Lagrange's equation. . . Generalized coordinates are ql = Xl and q2 = x2..Oq 1 = Qt dt . . .i~n Solution of these system in the form of Equation (2. leads to the frequency equation in terms of coefficients a and c C1 -.a22092 .a l l f O 2 --a21(-o 2 --a120) 2 c 2 -. . . Lagrange's equation must be re-written as dt . . .12). . 2. .. Example. Solution. . and using the non-triviality condition. .O 2 where 6ik is displacement in the ith direction due to the unit inertial load which is acting in the kth direction. . .a n l q l -- a. . . . . X 1 S ~ X2 • X Mechanical system with two degrees of freedom. . The unit displacements satisfy the property of reciprocal displacements 6ik = 6k/(the theorem o f reciprocal displacements). .mn~nn(..a1242 . .Oq2 = Q2 F0 sino) t SEP-Static equilibrium position ~ FIGURE 2. . c2q2 ---.a l l q l . . .12.

x2) +/70 sin cot] + 6x2k2(x I .13.13). generalized forces are QI = -klXl - k2(Xl -. 2.ot Q2 = k:(xl . which could have been done on the increments of the generalized coordinates 6x I and 6x2. depends only on the generalized velocities. of the system is equal to the sum of kinetic energies of the masses m 1 and m2 T = ~ m I 1 +~m2~2 so kinetic energy.~ k2 (Xl-/2)----~[ m2[ r-" i Fo sint~ t FIGURE 2. So.~1 _?: ~1. respectively. and the coefficient at 6x 2 is the generalized force Q2. Real displacementsx l.(k I -~-k2)x I .x2) "q-Fo sin (. SEP = Static equilibrium position. the following two differential equations ml~l -~. The total elementary work 6 W. By using the definition of the kinetic energy. ~ -91. The kinetic energy. of the system.k l X 1 -- k2(x1 .x2) The coefficient at 6x 1 is the generalized force Q1. T. DP = Displaced position. ml~l m2Jf 2 ~ d (O0__~l) = mlX 1 OX 1 OT 0 0 d(O~2) ~ = m2j~2 aT aXE For calculation of Ql and Q2 we need to show all forces that act on the masses m 1 and m2 at positions x I and x 2 (Fig. one obtains OJ¢ 1 ~2 aT OT 1 ~ 1 .k 2 x 2 = 0 2 F0 sinto t kl SEP ~DP k2 SEP DP Elastic restoring force klXl r . respectively.x 9 Substituting into Lagrange's equation for ql and q2 yields.30 FORMULASFOR STRUCTURALDYNAMICS where Q1 and Q2 are the generalized forces associated with generalized coordinates x 1 and x2.k2x 2 = F 0 sin(Dt m2J~ -. i . and not on generalized coordinates. is 6 W = Q l 6 q l + Q26q2 = ~ X l [ . . x2 and virtual displacements6xl. 6x2.k2x I q. T.

The solution o f this differential equation system and its technical applications are discussed in detail by Den Hartog (1968). Direct form. The elastic restoring force acting on mass m I is F I = k2 from the right side. The dotted reactions are shown in the positive direction.ANALYSIS METHODS 31 These equations describe forced vibration.15(b)). the restoring force acting on mass m 2 is F 2 = k 2. Fig. (a) Calculation of coefficients rlt and r21. a) |kl ~ .K_ I 1 • Elastic restoring force Fl = kl r j . Mechanical system with two degrees of freedom.Fh = 0. The equilibrium equation for mass m I and mass m 2 is Y. Reactions that act on masses m I and m 2 are rit and r21. which leads to rll = k I + k 2 and r21 = . (b) Calculation of coefficients r~2 and r22. So/ut~n Using the direct form. The elastic restoring forces acting on mass m t are F I = k I from the left side and F 2 = k 2 from the right side. (1990).15.m3] r12 /'22 FIGURE 2. the restoring force acting on mass m 2 is F 2 = k 2. .31 ?'11 r21 r -j-. 2.-----~[ _m. Weaver et al. mass m I is fixed (Fig.15(a)). The reactions that act on masses m I lb X FIGURE 2. j ~ k2 _. 2.14.14. Example. "~-"I m_q-~-.k 2 2. respectively. 2. ~ m r--. derive the frequency equation o f the system shown in 1. F2 = k2 r j . Let mass m 2 have unit displacement in the positive direction. Let mass m I have unit displacement in the positive direction while mass m 2 is fixed (Fig. Direct form. [m31""'-~ F l = k 2 F2=k2"~'---.. Restoring forc 'e r _7_..

In this case. 2. ~_2'..16(b)). Let unit force F = 1 be applied to mass m I in the positive direction while mass m 2 has no additional restriction (Fig. Fig.14.16.. 2. respectively. 2.15) may be formed immediately D=lml(0Z-kl-k2k2 Example.32 FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURALDYNAMICS and m 2 are r12 and ?'22. displacement of the mass m 1 is fill = 1/kl. the internal forces in both springs are equal.t~ I -~12=1..ml (. Inverted form.m2(02 (~-1 + ~-.) The frequency equations in the direct and inverted forms are equivalent. ~2=l/k. .. i .. So/ut~n m2(02 k= 0 _2k 2[ Using the inverted form. Let unit force F = 1 be applied to mass m 2 in the positive direction.02 kl D= -ml(0 2 kl m2 (02 kl =0 1 .. (b) Calculation of coefficients 612 and 612. since mass m 2 has no restriction.+l/~ 'x FIGURE 2. (a) Calculation of coefficients 511 and 521. while mass m I has no active force applied to it (Fig. v ~ A 5 2 ~ .k 2 and r22 = k2 The frequency equation corresponding to the direct form (2. Thus mass m 2 is under action of active force. the displacement mass m 2 equals fill. F=I r--i k2 ~ r--i a) ~11= 1/k~ ' 1 . The frequency equation may be formed immediately 1 -. derive the frequency equation of the system shown in 1. which leads to r12 = . v ~ . .m.J k2 ~ [ r-' . The equilibrium equation for mass m 1 and mass m 2 is Z F h = 0.16(a)): In this case. 2. ~l=l/k ~ )'x F=I I b) Ik 1 ~ r'-. F = 1.

+ a2)~] where 6ff. 2 d . Cantileverbeam with a rigid body at the free end. 2.ANALYSISMETHODS 33 Example. ~ + a2)o] q~ = --6~pf(allJk + al2~b) .~s~ [May + M(.2q.i< 1 Kinetic energy may be presented in the canonical form (2.~p~o(allJ k + a22~b) = .q2 + a22q 2) where aik are inertial coefficients.I. . Differential equations of motion in the inverted form are presented by Loitzjansky and Lur'e (1934) f = -~Sff(all)~+ a..<a2] = ½ [i2 + (. Bending moment due to generalized forces M(x) = Pox + M 0 Potential energy U =~a-~ I~M 2(x) dx =~L 1[/~. The system shown in Fig. 6f~.a ~ [ M a ) ~+ M(. Generalized coordinates are the vertical displacement ql = f at the point .17 consists of a clamped-free beam and a rigid body of mass M and radius of gyration r with respect to centroid C.2 ¢ + a22~b) = -~e(~cy + MdO) . The kinetic energy of the system is . Solution.I FIGURE 2. which are applied at point A.16) 1 .a ~ s ( M ) + Ma~) .2~b) .2 T = ~ (aHq I + 2a. The corresponding generalized forces are concentrated force P0 and moment M0.17. 3~f. Derive the frequency equation..l 3 °3+2P°M°2+M2°l] l2 x • q2 ~ °~ "~l d l ..6f~p(a.4 and angular displacement q2 = tp at the same point. 6 ~ are the influence coefficients." = 1 M[(s + . Calculation o f influence coefficients.2 + v)<a2 + 2 .

In this case r = d = 0.~2 1 -.l~oqjO)2 = 0 --lq~ftD 2 lff = 6ffall + ~f. then the equations with respect to f and q~ lead to the frequency equation I where 1 -/~2 _/i. the influence coefficients are 13 fig . = 6ffal2 + 3f~oa22 l~o~ = t~fqjal2 ÷ 3~a22 lff=3El\ 13M ( 1 +~ . 13M [ d d 2 + r2"~ The roots of equation D = 0 l÷ where the dimensionless parameter p ~2 _ 3El 1 g l 3 092 -12 I Special cases 1. The frequency parameter fl = l and w2 _ 3EI Ml 3 .1 immediately. If the generalized coordinates change by the harmonic law. The frequency parameter 3d 3d 2 ~ 2 = 1 + ~ --1 l2 2. In this case r = 0. FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS By using the Castigliano theorem OU 13 12 f = OP---oo 3EiP° + f ~ M° = OU l2 1 M. the rotational effect is neglected.f = ~. A cantilever beam with rigid body at the free end. ¢P = aMo = ~E~Po + ~ o So.I = 2EI' l '~~ ' = -El The influence coefficients may be obtained from Table 2. the rotational effect is neglected. A cantilever beam with lumped mass M at the free end. =~--~ d + 2 - .al2 l~f ~.34.3 E I ' l2 ~.3fwall ÷ t ~ a l 2 The parameters l in the explicit form are lf.

. Choose an assumed mode shape function 2.. i o s f m(x)X2n(x) + Z MsX2(xs) dx 2 ('Dn: l 0 fM2(x)dx o f m(x)X2(x)dx + ~_~Mj(2(xs) s 1. 1968). 2.(xs) s f m(x)X2(x)dx+ ~ MsXZ.(Xs) 1.. The Rayleigh quotient and various types of Rayleigh method procedure are presented in Table 2. the bending stiffness of the beam is El(x). Calculate a bending moment M(x) = EIX"(x) / q(x)X(x)dx 0 ~o~ = t 0 4 2__ (Dn . TABLE 2..(xj) 0 1 j f m(x)X2(x)dx+ Y~.(x)dx+ Y~Mr'Y~(xs) s 1.3 Rayleigh's quotients Formula Rayleigh quotient Procedure Version 1 ft el(x)[Xff(x)]2 dx c°. Calculate X(x) by integrating.2 = 0 I 1. Use an expression that corresponds to the actual distributed load q = gin(x) 2. Notes 1. The vibrating object is a non-uniform beam with distributed masses m(x).l f m(x)X2.MsX2(xs) 0 I s 1. Choose an expression for the distributed load q(x) 2. Choose an expression for the distributed load q(x) 2. f q(x)X(x)dx+ Z PjX. Choose an assumed mode shape function X(x). ~ :gO 0 f m(x)X(x)dx + ~ MJ(. Calculate X(x) by integrating. Calculate X(x) by integrating. expresses the equality of the maximum kinetic and strain energies for undamped free vibrations (Rayleigh.ANALYSIS METHODS 35 2. The natural frequency vibration obtained by the Rayleigh quotient (method) is always larger than the true value of frequency: co > OOreal.2 Rayleigh method The Rayleigh method. 1877). and a concentrated force P that acts at x = xj (version 4).3 (Birger et al. the bending moment is M(x) (version 2).3. The method can be used to determine the upper bound of the fundamental frequency vibration of continuous systems. Calculate slope X'(x) X(x). based on the Rayleigh quotient. carrying a concentrated mass M that is placed at x = Xs.

The assumed function expressions for beams with different boundary conditions are presented in Appendix C. 5.V m" Version 2. Choose an expression for the bending moment in the form . Co) the chosen expressions for q(x) are proportional to the true inertial forces (versions 3 and 4).f ) 0 1 4 ml Substituting these expressions into the Rayleigh quotient leads to the fundamental frequency vibration: co2 = ( 4 E l ~ / (ml~ l \ ) - 20El ' co = 4.36 FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS 2. In order to take into account the effect of rotary inertia of the beam it is necessary to add to the denominator a term of the form mlz(x)[X'(x)] 2 dx (0 4. 3. Calculate the fundamental frequency of vibration of a cantilever beam [X(I) = X'(1) = 0] using the Rayleigh method.5156 E ~ ~. Example. The Rayleigh quotient gives exact results if: (a) the chosen expressions for X coincide with the true eigenfunctions of vibration (versions 1 and 2). In order to take into account the effect of rotary inertia of the concentrated mass it is necessary to add to the denominator a term of the form Y[X' (xs)]2 where J is a mass moment of inertia and x s is the ordinate of the attached mass. Version 1 (Rayleigh quotient). The low bound of the fundamental frequency of vibration may be calculated by using Dunkerley's equation.47 Vm The exact eigenvalue is equal to co -- 3.~x d x = . Differentiating with respect to x X"(x) = 2 The Rayleigh quotient terms become l 4El f EI(X") 2 dx = t--To ~mX2 dx = m0f (1 . Choose an expression for the eigenfunction in a form that satisfies the boundary condition at x = 1 (. Solution.

Choose an expression for eigenfunction X(x) in a form that coincides with an elastic curve due to a uniformly distributed load q = mg along the beam X(x) = -ff~?.~ The Rayleigh quotient is 3x ) ~-T+2 o12 = l p p13 3EI ['p13"~2{x 3 3x )z dx 140EI 1lml 4 0~mt6~-~) k ~ y .~ .1 .x+c2 Boundary conditions: X(I) = X'(/) = 0..65 V~ gVersion 4. Choose an expression for eigenfunction X(x) in a form that coincides with an elastic curve due to a concentrated force P applied at the free end p13 ( x3 X(x) = g .+ 2 The fundamental frequency vibration equals 3. so the arbitrary constants are C 1 = C 2 = 0... The eigenfunction is X(x) = The Rayleigh quotient is (1_34 dx o92 = t Ez0ImL1~7 (1--~4] A frequency vibration equals i( 7)' V lz 1- 2dX = 108EI 5ml 4 ~o= -4.~ 7 + ~ ) mgl 4 ( 4x x4 \ .53 E/-~ ~o=--g-Vm Version 5./ ) 2 Integrating twice E/X' = l2 1x 4 + C1 37 +c.ANALYSISMETHODS The differential equation is E/X"(x) : (1 .

1877.21) ko = I ezx. .' ~ 0 .k22 . which are expressed in terms of shape mode X(x) l m/j = f pAX/Xj dx 0 l (2..'x.13ml 4 162EI The fundamental frequency of vibration equals 3. Procedure 1.38 F O R M U L A S FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS Calculate: l m2gl 5 .V m 2.. The method can be used not only to obtain a more accurate value of the fundamental natural frequency. Y'~ciXi(x) i=1 (2.~ 092 = g 7 0 I mX2(x)dx 0 -. ..o = . Ritz.3. ..fmX(x)~ = 20el 0 o j" mX~(x)~ - l 13m3g2/9 3240(EI) 2 The Rayleigh quotient is 1 ~fmX(x). The frequency equation may be presented in two different canonical forms Form 1 kit mllfo 2 kl2 m12 ~ 2 .. Assume that the shape of deformation of the beam is in the form n y(x) = c1X 1(x) + czX(x) . . .52 E / ~ . . 2.. k21 m21co . 1909) can be considered as an extension of the Rayleigh method. but also to determine the higher frequencies and the associated mode shapes.20) are the mass and stiffness coefficients. 0 (2. m22co2 .3 Rayleigh-Ritz Method The Rayleigh-Ritz method (Rayleigh. 2 .19) which satisfies the geometric boundary conditions.20) The parameters of the frequency equation (2.~ .. . .

V21(D 2 . The frequency equations in the different forms for first and second approximations are presented in Table 2.. dx = --7 . Using the expressions for the assumed shape functions.. .VllO) 2 ml 2 -. the parameter of the frequency equation (2. 1.22) where m/j is the mass stiffness coefficient (2. TABLE 2.Mk dx o El (2. . V22(D2 ... If the assumed shape functions happen to be the exact eigenfimctions. m = pA. . (2. .22) is Vi) : ~ M. the mass coefficients are mll = ofmX2(x)dx 1 1 (_~l 4 ml = fom dx = --5 m12 = m21 = 0 f l mXl(X)X2(x)dx = 0 l t[ re(x_~ 5dx = ml \l] 6 ml 1 (X) 6 m22 = ofmX2(x)dx = ~om where m = pA is the mass per unit length. the Rayleigh-Ritz method yields the exact eigenvalues..21).-.VI2O)2 V220)2 -~ 0 Second Example. Assume that the shape of deformation of the beam is in the form y(x) = ~ cix~ = c~ 0 2+ c2 0 3 where functions X~ satisfy the geometry boundary conditions at the fixed end.mll¢O 2 k21 _ m210)2 kl2 -. 0 m21 -. 2. m22.23) where bending moments M i and M k are caused by the loads mX~iand mXk. So/ut~n Calculate the first and second frequencies of a cantilever beam that has a uniform cross-sectional area A. ... In the case o f transverse vibration. .Vll(-O2 : 0 -.VllCD2 roll /7'/21 V21t.ml2o) 2 k22 _ m22012 = 0 Approximation First Form 2 m l l -.4.ANALYSIS METHODS 39 Form 2 mll .4 Rayleigh-Ritz frequency equations Form 1 kn -mll(D 2 = 0 kll -. .o 2 m12 m22 -.Vl2CO 2 . the beam is fixed at x = 0.

The frequency equation yields the quadratic equation with 22 .5327 ~ r ~ (01 ./2 ' 34.~ l The exact fundamental frequency of vibration is equal to 3. The frequency equation.13 t 1 2 6Xdx _ 6El f E~.40 FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS 3.2(x)dx = ~oEI 6x 0 dx = 12EIl 3 4. 22 = 1211.5156 E ~ °'~ Vm Comparing the results obtained in both approximations shows that the eigenvalues differed widely.4721 ~ / ~ (O 1 - rot4 2 = t ° 2 E1 l~ - - S e c o n d approxirnation.. Using the expressions for assumed shape functions the stiffness coefficients are kll : f ELV~t2(x)dx = fo EI ff o k12 : k21 : l t (2) 2 4El dx -. A significant improvement in the fundamental. is 4- ml4.~ l3 0 l k22 : fEiX~.519 The fundamental and second frequencies of vibration are 3. m14 2 I I=0 7 O-6E-Im 12 _ ~ / ~ o 2 D= 6 First approximation.8068 / ~ m2 -. . second and higher frequencies of vibration can be achieved by increasing the number of terms in the expression for the mode shape of vibration.2 5EI _ mla to 2 6EI .~t(x)dx : JoEI f f .t(x). The frequency equation yields the linear equation with respect to eigenvalue 2 2 4-5=0' The fundamental frequency of vibration is 4.4802. The second approximation yields a large dividend in accuracy for the fundamental frequency of vibration.12242 + 15121 = 0 respect to eigenvalues 2: The eigenvalues of the problem are 21 = 12. using the first form.

c2X2(x ) . 3.4 Bubnov-Galerkin Method The Bubnov~3alerkin method can be used to determine the fundamental frequency and several lower natural frequencies.25) First approximation for the frequency of vibration kl] .5. that satisfies the kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions and presents the deformable shape in the form n y(x) ~-.. Calculate the fundamental frequency of vibration of the beam shown in Fig. while the stiffness coefficients are different. .24) where c i are u n k n o w n coefficients.m22co 2 I .m11c°2 k12 . of the continuous systems (Galerkin. I 0 (2. .5. . .-= . 2. .21) and Table 2.5 Mass and stiffness coefficients for different types of vibration Mass coefficient I Vibration Transversal Longitudinal Torsional Stiffness coefficient 1 m/j = . Frequency equation (Common formula) kll--mll¢. . Procedure 1.I ( G I ~ [ ) ' ~ o dx Example.ANALYSIS METHODS 41 2..18 (beam thickness is equal to unity). ~-~.Xjdx o ko.o 2 k22 m22092 (2.26) (2. = J'(E/XI')"xj o 1 l mij = f pAXiXj dx k O.f (EAXi')' Xj dx o I mij = f pAX.m 2 = w 2 k22 .ClXI(X ) "~.3.ciXi(x ) i=1 (2.m21f.~j dx o o 1 k0 = . . Choose a trial shape function. the mass coefficients for the Rayleigh-Ritz and Bubnov-Gakerkin methods coincide. X(x).. both linear and nonlinear.O 21 ______ __1 k12-m120)2 • I . 1915).27) As may be seen from the Equation (2. I k21 .m12c°2 = 0 k21 .fpaX.mllco2 = 0 Second approximation for the frequency of vibration kll . TABLE 2. Formulas for mass and stiffness coefficients are presented in Table 2. 2.

3pl4 30Eb2 and 0) = 5.4. In this case we have to take into account only function X 1 EIX~' = Elo g g ./ .Ao. )/(l) = O..2 FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURALDYNAMICS l X X I'0.02 - dx=m0~ 30EI° mo14 0) 2 or -.+ 1 The frequency equation is kll . The boundary conditions of the beam are /x-x3 2 3/x'x3 X X mx=moT=2bp 7 x X y(l) = O. (7 x 1 . The fundamental frequency of vibration is (.mll0) 2 = 0. x32 (EIX~')" = EIo 12xl5 The stiffness and mass coefficients are kll = [(E/X~')"X1 dx=dEZo~K-~. f72x 2 ( 2) = E : 0 / \~ tv 24x'~ l5 I . 12x[x2 2X ~ +1 )2 ) dx=-~l EIo 1 0 / X(X2 mll = fpAX21 dX= fomO~ ~ . A x = A o ~ = 2 b T ..m0] FIGURE 2.x 7 First approximation. so the function EIy'(O) = 0 y(x) for the transversal displacement may be chosen as y(x) = CLXI(X) A. 4 [6x4 4x3"~ EIX~'= EIo ~.i f 0 ' t.48 Second approximation. In this case we have to take into account both functions X 1 and X2 " X~ . Xz(x)= 1 . The second moment of inertia. cross-sectional area and distributed mass at any position x are Ix=lO~l) = ~ b ~ ) . EI)/'(O) = O. Y Solution.18. 1.13 6x 12 ... EIX .. 7( p ].C2Xz(x) where the assumed functions are Xt(x)= 2 X(t=g. Cantilevered non-uniform beam.

. and I n is the moment of inertia of order n of the cross-section area x..319 ~ `0 = . 1948) 5.t)~gI2-~+ ~x2~x3) q. obtained by using Bessel's function is This is the result obtained by Kirchhoff (1879).O where L(y. where fl is a nonlinearity parameter (see Chapter 14).+ 7 ) dx = m0 280 0 t (72x 2 24x\{x 3 2x 2 x\ l/ 2EI o 5l 3 k ~ = f (0le / x .+ 1 x) . Frequency equation: Elo mol`02~(2EIo mol 2~ (2E10 mol 2~2 l' ~6 /k-~ 5~6`0)-\5l. The Bubnov-Galerkin method may be applied for deformable systems that are described by partial nonlinear differential equations.IJ 4 ~ x 2 ) .~ V m0 or `0 = 5.= fy"dA (A) .ANALYSISMETHODS 43 The stiffness and mass coefficients that correspond to the second assumed function are t 0 1 x {x 3 2x2 x~ 2 l m22 = f' p A X 2 dx = j m07 ~ .f f . This means that the 'Stress-strain' relationship is tr = Ee + fie3.319 b/~-E l wap The exact fundamental frequency. fl > O. the characteristics of hardening are hard characteristics. Show the Bubnov~3alerkin procedure for solving the differential equation of a nonlinear transverse vibration of a simply supported beam. The differential equation of the free transverse vibration is O4Y 6ill 4 02Y [03y'~2 3-1 fO2Y'~204Y 02Y -Z(Y. Example. t) is the nonlinear operator. A comparison of the Bubnov~3alerkin method and the related ones is given in Bolotin (1978).~ .~ q . ' ) % m 12 = dx lEL12X(r3 -ff =0J 0 --fi- j) +a x = 2EI° 5l 3 --fi-+~ dx = m o 105 f0 PAXlX2 dx = Jom° 7 ~ff .m . Solution.. 1-03'°) = 0 Fundamental frequency (Pratusevich.-i.. The type of nonlinearity is a physical one.

3. m is the distributed mass.X [04y 02yfO3Y'~ 2 (02yX~204y 02Yl s i n / d x = 0 EI2 ~ + 6fli4 ~x2 ~~x3) + 3fl14~. I 4 = rrd6/512.28) 7r.dx = 0 0 l This algorithm yields two nonlinear ordinary differential equations with respect to unknown functions fl (t) and j~ (t). A transverse displacement may be presented in the form y(x.f +f2(t) sin i Using the Bubnov-Galerkin method . A transverse displacement of a simply supported beam may be presented in the form y(x. b x h: 12 = bh3/12.6. In Table 2.29) 2rex .14 = bhS/80.. r~x . Second approximation. t) = f l ( t ) s m . and it gives a more exact result than the Rayleigh method for the same function X(x). M i is the concentrated masses and 3(/is the ordinate of the mode shape at the point of mass M~. M(x) denotes the bending moment along the beam.~-21 ~-~ + m ~-~ 0 This algorithm yields one nonlinear ordinary differential equation with respect to an unknown function fl(t).5 Grammel's Formula Grammel's formula can be used to determine the fundamental natural frequency of continuous systems. 2. .i dx = 0 (2.X (2. Grammel's quotients for different types of vibration are presented in Table 2. t) s i n . t) sin 7 dx = 0 0 1 7r.44 FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS For a rectangular section. t) = fl (t) sm ~ Using the Bubnov-Galerkin procedure l 0 • 7~X L(x. Grammel's quotients always lead to an approximate fundamental frequency that is higher than the exact one.6. for a circle section of diameter d: 12 = 7td4/64. t) sin ~ . The bending moment of the beam equals M = -y"[El 2 + flI4( )/')21 First approximation.~L(x.2nx f L(x.

a ' ( x ) = m 1 .ff[ + ~--~) 4.2568ml 0 t M2(x)dx m21s r0j ~ _ 0. Define the bending moment M(x) by integrating the differential equation M"(x) = q(x) twice M(x) = m(-~ -. Take the distributed load in the form [1 4x x 4 "X -~7 + T~) q(x) = .02 o i M2(x)dx EJ Example.02077--~ 5.6 Grammel's quotients Type of vibration Square frequency ~mX2(~)~ + ~ M. 1. Solution Calculate the frequency of free vibration of a cantilever beam. Choose the expression for X(x) in the form X(x) 2..51 _E~ c°= /2 V m .6 TABLE 2.ANALYSIS METHODS 4. Substituting these expressions into the Grammel quotient. one obtains 3.X? I Longitudinal (02 = 0 i N2(x)dx I / x ~(x)~ + E i ~ ~ Torsional 0)2 = 0 i M](x)dx 1 Transversal (.~ (4x:) + 3-g 3. It follows that l x2 z~ J'mX2 dx = 0.

7 Hohenemser-Prager'squotients Type of vibration Longitudinal Torsional Transversal Square of frequency vibration ~~ / 6 ~~ / 0 (N') 2 dx/tfN2(x)dx ~ ~pp / (M. 1894). The Hohenemser-Prager quotients for different types of vibration are presented in Table 2. x) is linear (angular) deflection of the point with abscissa x due to the unit force (moment) being applied at the same point.3. one obtains ~2 - 20El ~T 4.7 Dunkerley Formula The Dunkedey formula gives the lower bound of the fundamental frequency of vibration (Dunkerley. 1932). TABLE 2. It follows that f (M") 2 dx = . clamped-free and clamped-pinned beams. Assume that elastic curve under vibration coincides with the elastic curve caused by uniformly distributed inertial load q.') 2 dx/~ M2(x)dx ~ 0 m /~ Example.3. Form 1 is presented in Table 2.6 Hohenemser-Prager Formula The Hohenemser-Prager formula can be used for a rough evaluation of the fundamental frequency of vibration of a deformable system (Hohenemser and Prager.8. x) is presented in Table 2.46 FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS 2. = T V ~ - 2. . In this case the bending moment M(x) = qx2/2. Solution Calculate the first frequency of vibration of a cantilever beam that has a uniform cross-sectional area. The influence coefficient 6(x. clamped-clamped. For pinned-pinned.7. the linear influence coefficient 6(x. The Dtmkerley formula may be written in two forms.q21 0 m l ~ M 2 dx o E1 q215 20EI 3.47 E/-~ --' o .1. Substituting these expressions into the Hohenemser-Prager quotient. 1.

Calculate the fundamental frequency vibration of the cantilever uniform crosssection beam carrying concentrated mass M at the free end (Fig.7).8752 E / ~ -fi V m. then co = ~ ~/--~.2482 ~ / ~ 12 (from Table 7. one obtains ¢° 2 _ ml 4 1 MI 3 _ 12El m14(1 + 4 M ) 12E-] + 3 ~ Special cases 1. m. Substituting these expressions into the Dunkerley quotient.19). EI M >X I. The influence fimction is x3 ~(x. X )-' l ).2442 E/~ 2. 2. xi /[i"x) . Solution 1.19.~(x. See also Table 7. If M = m l . the exact value is ~o -1. x)dx - 3.6. Cantilever beam with a lumped mass at the free end. x ) = . thenco= 1. I f M = 0 . .(see Table 5.ANALYSISMETHODS TABLE 2.862 E/-~ 12 Vm" 1. For comparison. FIGURE 2.3El It follows that t o /4 12El f ~(x.8 47 Dunkerley first form Square frequency vibration Type of vibration Transversal and longitudinal Torsional = l/[im'x''x x' x+ o~2 = 1 x )] l i 6 ( x . x)dx + ~ )] Example. Exact value e) -- 1.3).

. . 6. .2 co. The fundamental frequency given by Equation (2. 1 (2. . Each term on the right-hand side of Equation (2.. w i.31) COn = then the square of the frequency of vibration of the given system is co2r ~ 1 tSnml + ~22m2 + . all masses except one must be equal to zero. In the first case. The partial systems are those that are obtained from a given system if all coordinates except one are deleted. If a distributed mass is also taken into account. .+ .~ 611ml 6Zlml 611ml + ~22m2 + ' " + 6kkmk ~12m2 + . The Dunkerley formula gives the lower bound of the fundamental and second frequencies of vibration of a composite system in terms of the frequencies of vibration of the system's partial systems.30) presents the contribution of each mass in the absence of all other masses. the connections between generalized coordinates must be deleted.. 1 f E1 M~ A v M2 ~b.2 1 1 + ~q5. .30) Since a partial frequency 1 ~nnm n (2. X 1 E/ g -w l ~ ~X ~X FIGURE 2. + 6kkmk (2.33) Example. coI . The relationship between the second frequency of the actual system and parameters of system is 092r .-~ + " 0. The partial systems may be obtained from a given system by using a mathematical model or design diagram.. the partial systems have one degree of freedom.FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS Dunkerley secondformula. Deformable system with two degrees of freedom and two partial systems. . . then one of the partial systems is continuous. Calculate the fundamental frequency of vibration of the cantilever uniformly massless beam carrying two lumped masses M 1 and ME. coj are partial frequencies of vibration.30) will always be smaller than the exact value.20. are unit displacements of the structure at the point of attachment of mass m. .32) where colt and co2r are fundamental and second frequencies of vibration of the given system. The relationship between the fundamental frequency of the actual system and partial frequencies is 1 < .. k-lmk-I ~k-l. In the second case. 2. + ~k-l.k-lmk-I 6kkmk (2. as shown in Fig. . In the case of a deformable system with lumped masses and neglecting a distributed mass.20.kmk 622mz 6k.

unit displacement 612 is taken from Table 2. 2. E l A M ~ m. This table may also be used for calculation of the frequencies of vibration of a beam with different boundary conditions. 2. Continuous deformablesystem with lumped mass and two partial systems.21. 4. El l ~- E1 M FIGURE 2. Example. 311 = _ 3EI 1 .9 The first and second partial frequencies according to Equation (2.31) are a3 cot2_ o92 = 1 M 1611 . The partial systems are a continuous beam with distributed masses m and a one-degree-of-freedom system. The frequency of vibration for a cantilever beam by itself is cox 1. Calculate the fundamental frequency of vibration of the cantilever uniform beam carrying lumped mass M at the free end (Fig.ANALYSIS METHODS Solution.21).5152 E/ l4 m Solution.1. which is a lumped mass on a massless beam. M2322 322 = (l -.8754 E l l4 m 3. attached to a weightless cantilever beam. 1. The frequency of vibration for the concentrated mass by itself. is co2 1 6stM 3E I MI 3 m.mlm2322 621ml a2 622m2 a J Here. .02r ~ 1 311mi + 322m2 The second frequency of vibration of the real system is ¢O2r ~ 311ml + 322m2 _ 311ml + 322m2 311ml 312m2 [ 311m1322m2 -.b) 3 3EI The fundamental frequency of vibration of the real system is (.

lower estimates of the fundamental frequency 1 < ~2 < Bemstein's first formula gives upper and 2 (2. Unit displacements for fixed-free beam are (Table 2. case 3) x3 6~.35) where B 1 and B 2 are parameters l B 1 = f m(x)6(x. Solution Find the lowest eigenvalue for a cantilever beam (Fig.1 + (. according to Equation (2.('02 . is 0) 2 ~ O)10)2 2 2 ¢02 3. Bernstein's estimations (Bernstein.22) 1.36) i k B 2 = f f m(x)m(s)6(x. for beams with a classical boundary condition are presented in Table 2.1 and for a beam with elastic supports in Table 2. xi) 0 ll i (2. x)dx + ~ gia(xi.8 Approximate estimations (spectral function method) The spectral function method is proficient at calculating the fundamental and second frequencies of vibration. M is the lumped mass. this method is effective for a system with a large number of lumped masses. The expressions for influence coefficient. The square of the frequency of vibration for the given system. 6. In particular. Example. l is the length of a beam.3.34) B1 + ~ Bemstein's second formula gives a lower estimate of the second frequency of vibration ~o~ > 2 2 (2.0 2 .50 FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS 3. 2. xk) O0 where 6 is the influence coefficient.3 E I ' 6x~ 1 _x3) = ~ 7 (3x2s .2.5152 EI l4 m 1 1 +4.1184 M ml 2 2 (DI -1. s)dx (Is + ~ Y~ MiMkc~(xi.1.. .co--~2 2.30). 1941). m is the distributed mass.

. x)dx = fo m ~ . Bending moment diagrams due to unit inertial forces that are applied to all masses are shown in Fig. 6. Cantilever uniform beam. Solution 1. It follows that Bernstein's parameters are 1 t x3 B 1 : f m(x)6(x. 3 6 4 ~ or 3. due to unit forces applied to concentrated masses m i and m k (Smirnov.5153 E / ~ 3.23 . 1947).360 < co2 < 1 2 .22.516 E/EI 12 V m < c°1 < 12 V m The fundamental frequency of vibration is situated within narrow limits. respectively. the distributed mass of the beam is neglected B 1 = y~ 6iim i (2.(3x2s . E1 'X s l 2.23. m. Find the fundamental frequency vibration for a beam shown in Fig.2 ~ 6~kmim k 2ii where 6ii. 2.ANALYSISMETHODS 51 I FIGURE 2. 2.37) In the case of lumped masses only.k are principal and side displacements..S m i r n o v ' s estimation. s)dx ds = ~f m2 [7-~7~. Example. Bernstein's estimations give the upper and lower bounds to the fundamental frequency E1 12. in the system.~ dx = m14 o 12EI tt it r 1 q2 B 2 = f ~ m(x)m(s)6(x. The Bernstein-Smirnov's estimation gives upper and lower estimates of the fundamental frequency of vibration 4 ~ 2 < O)1 < (2.x3)| dx ds = oo oo o~1 j 11 m2l8 1680(EI) 2 3. B e r n s t e i n .S' c~2mi "~.38) B2 :z_.

= 6~ 7l 3 612=621 = 4 8 6 E I 623 = 632 -10l3 486EI. 24l s 633 = 486EI 4813m 486EI 2 2 2 2 2 2 B2 = 611ml + 622m2 + 633m3 + 2(622mira2+ 6~3m2m3+623mlm3) ml3 2 / 4. Pinned-pinned beam with an overhang carrying concentrated masses. The fundamental frequency lies in the following range: (a) using the Bemstein-Smirnov estimation c°l > ~ 1 = 3"48V mP and coI < = 3. Bernstein-Smirnov's parameters B1 = 611ml + 622m2 + 633m3 .. 2.4 8 6 E I .. M 1.23. M 3 are bending moment diagrams due to unit concentrated forces which are applied to masses m I . respectively.m~ m2 l/3 .- 6. M E. m2. = E . m3 l/3 . Displacements calculated using the unit bending moment diagrams by Vereshchagin's rule are 6. f -M'(x'-~i-'(x) ' ~' 8l 3 611=622=486EI. 8l3 613 = 631 = .52 FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS m1 ~. 3. and m3.70 .~T Im2=m3=m'ml=O'5m] ~F1 =1 2//9! F3 =1 F I G U R E 2.

24(c).1 2 D = where 3ik are unit displacements. The half-frame has two degrees of freedom.52~ 63 The fundamental frequency of vibration is situated within narrow limits. 2.25. Solution.~2)m1M2 2.24(a). . 3. M 2 = M 4 = M. M l = M 3 = 2M.24. Unit displacements obtained by multiplication of bending moment diagrams are 513 511 = 192EI' 413 ~22 -. Estimate the fundamental frequency of vibration for a symmetric three-hinged frame with lumped masses. Fundamental frequency of vibration 0 ) 2 -D- I 20.1/4j ' M2 A 'S . AS = axis of symmetry.t/4. Symmetrical vibration 1. Example. 2. (b) and (c) correspondinghalf-framefor symmetrical and antisymmetricalvibration.ANALYSISMETHODS (b) using Bemstein's first formula ~ol < = 3.24(b) and Fig. 1 = h. 2. 2.1 2 el~210") 2 M2•12/O2 [ = 0 M2~22to -. The frequency equation in inverted form is M1311¢. EI = constant. the corresponding half-frames are presented in Figs.322 .~ b) i/2 I bM2 AS a) g c) FIGURE 2. The vibration of the symmetrical frame may be separated as symmetrical and antisymmetrical vibrations.O -. (a) Symmetricalthree-hingedframe.192EI' 3l 3 512 = ~21 = 192EI 1/4-11/4~ ' M2 AS M4 q . The given system has five degrees of freedom. The bending moment diagram due to unit inertial forces is presented in Fig. shown in Fig.

Bending moment diagrams due to unit forces PI = 1 and 4. P2 = 1. 2.25.384EI' l3 128EI l3 2E1 192l 3 384EI 612 = 621 613 = 631 -623 = 632 3. The half-frame has three degrees of freedom (see Fig. 2. Frequency vibration co2m 1 2(5×4-32 x [ )x2x 1 ~/ (2x5+lx4)2-4x2xl(5×4-32) 2 ] 192EI M/3 2×5+1x4- co = 3.384EI 5l 3 16EI MI3 Bl = ~-"61imi= (2 x l + l x 80 + 2 x192)384EI B2 = E 6~m2i+ 2 E 6~*mimk B 2 = [(22 x 12 + 12 x 802 + 22 x 1922) +2(2x 1 x32+2×2x62+1 x2x 466M/3 384EI M216 1202)]x(384EI)2 211784M 2l6 (384EI) 2 .54 FORMULAS FOR STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS ~ M~/S l/4 IETt~P2=l 1 [As FIGURE 2. Symmetrical vibration analysis.- l3 24EI -.97~M~3 Antisymmetrical vibration 1. Unit displacements obtained by multiplication of bending moment diagrams are l3 61L .26).384EI' 5l 3 622 -8013 633 . Bernstein parameters 3l 3 384EI 6l 3 12013 384EI 64EI -.

Bd. Kirchhoff.P. A. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 279-360. B. G. s. W. 8. Galerkin. W. Flugge. (1915) Rods and plates. (1894) On the whirling and vibration of shafts. Series A. J i P3=1 AS AS FIGURE 2.III. (Ed) (1962) Handbook of Engineering Mechanics (New York: McGraw-Hill). 4. S. Bemstein. Moscow: Mir Publishers). Vols 7. Dunkerley.l-3. S. K. 1-70. Den Hartog. Berlin Monatsberichte.9134~M~3 < 0 ) < 0 . 5(19). and Panovko. Vols. and Prager. 9 1 3 6 ~ / 3 REFERENCES Anan'ev.2. 815-828. Ya.. (1860) Theorie der Luitschwingungen in Rohren mit offenen Enden. (1968) Mechanical Vibrations.A. H.V. Vol. Crelle J. (1989) Structural Mechanics (English Translation. Darkov. pp. Strength. Bending moment diagrams due to unit forces P1 = 1. P2 = 1 andP3= 1.ANALYSISMETHODS 55 P I = 1~ .26. (1946) Free Vibration of Elastic System Handbook (Gostekhizdat) (in Russian). Vestnik Ingenera. . (Eds) (1968) Handbook. P~bration. (New York: McGraw-Hill). Helmholtz. Hohenemser.G.~2 _ 1 _ < 0 ) 2 < 2 MI3v/~'i 1784 384EI 466114/3(/2211784 384EI 1 + ~ / ~ ) 1 So the fundamental frequency vibration satisfies the following condition 0. Arch. Antisymmetrical vibration analysis. I. (1879) Uber die Transversalschwingungen eines Stabes von veranderlichen Querschnitt. 57.A. Stability and Vibrations (in Russian). Birger.306. J. Akademie der gqssenschaflen. I. 3.R. Betti. E. 185. Ing. (Moscow: Mashinostroenie).G. (1932) Uber das Gegenstuck zum Rayleigh-schen Verfahren der Schwingungslehre. (1941) Foundation of Structural Dynamics (Moscow: Gosstroizdat). Stability. Bernstein first formula 1 2 v~S <0)2 <81 + 2v~-. (1872) The Italian Journal Nuovo Cimento (2).

(Moscow: Mashinostroenie) (in Russian). S. Bolotin. (1963) Eigenwertaufgaben mit technischen Anwendungen (Leipzig: Geest and Portig). I. L. Soc. L. (1977) Principles and Techniques o f Vibrations (Prentice Hall). (1898) Vorlesungen uber die mathematischen. Doctor of Science Thesis. (Rayleigh) (1876) On the application of the principle of reciprocity to acoustics. Lenk.. (Ed) (1978) Vibration o f Linear Systems. 737-786. Endo. J. 501-516. 1877. Proc. Vol. R.H. 54. (1934) Theoretical Mechanics Part 3. 213-222. 1.D Thesis. FURTHER READING Babakov. R. M. (1976) An extension of the Southwell-Dunkerley methods for synthesizing frequencies. Rayleigh. and Penzien. and Structural Matrices ( New York: Wiley). vol. Roy. Furduev. Ph. (Rayleigh) (1873) Some general theorems relating to vibrations. V. and Taniguchi. 2nd edn (New York: Dover) 1945. Leningrad: ONTI). 655. (Moscow. A.I. 1.504 pp. (New York: McGraw-Hill). 357-368. Ashley. Helmholtz. Borchardt-Crelle J 100. Soc.L. p. O..P.N. L. (1864) A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field. and Halfman. (1964) Integral Equations (Pergamon Press). (1948) Reciprocal Theorems (Moscow-Leningrad: OGIZ Gostekhizdat).M. Band 2: Systeme mit Verteilten Parametern (Berlin: VEB Verlag Technik). I. (1965) Theory of Vibration (Moscow: Nauka) (in Russian). Part II: Applications. (1886) Ueber die physikalische Bedeutung des Prinzips der kleinsten Wirkung. Mikhlin. H. and Smimov. 49. Strain. 25. Band 1: Systeme mit Conzentrierten Parametern (Berlin: VEB Verlag Technik). Meirovitch. Strutt.W.. W. I. I. and Prager. 326 pp.W. Clough. I~. (1970) Vibrations of plates and shells carrying a moving load. W. Strutt. 302 pp. Kamovsky. Leningrad: OGIZ) (in Russian). Collatz. 137-166. Kamovsky. Meirovitch. Annalen der Physik. (1877) The Theory of Sound (London: Macmillan) Vol. J. (1958) Nichtlineare Mechanik (Berlin). Prinzipien der Akustik No. A Variational Approach (New York: McGrawHill).V. and Shames. Ya. Proc. (1948) Variational Methods in Structural Mechanics (Moscow. J.G. Mikhlin. (1955) Aeroelasticity (Reading. A. (1994) Formulas for Stress.. K. Lond. H. J. (1989) Optimal vibration protection of deformable systems with distributed parameters. (1977) Elektromechanische Systeme.E (1948) Theory o f Structures (Moscow: Tranczheldorizdat). (1967) Analytical Methods in Vibrations (New York: MacMillan). (1974) Solid Mechanics.C.V. L.56 FORMULASFOR STRUCTURALDYNAMICS Maxwell.A. Hohenemser. Dym. 2: 1878. Stroitel'naja promyshlennost'. (in Russian). C. Math.D. Bisplinghoff.L. vol. Kauderer. Vol. Georgian Politechnical University (in Russian). and Lur'e. (1909) Theorie der Transversalschwingungen einer quadratischen Platte mit freien Randem.G.S. Prokofiev. Loitzjansky. (1964) Variational Methods in Mathematical Physics (Macmillan). (For more detail see Darkov (1989)). JIW. Pilkey. A. I.A..L. Mass: AddisonWesley). In (1978) Handbook: Vibration in Tecnnik. H.G. S. Pratusevich. Ritz.A. Helmholtz. . 1. (1933) Dynamic der Stabwerke (Berlin). 28. 14. Dnepropetrovsk. Journal of Sound and Vibration. R. 49.W. V. 517-533. W. (1925) New methods of calculations of the statically indeterminate systems. 118-122. A. 28. H. B. Part I: Principles.352 p. Vereshchagin. (1975) Dynamics of Structures.

Weaver. A. Strutt. (Rayleigh) (1874) A statical theorem. A. 11.(New York: Springer-Verlag).G. Vol. (1875). and Shaposhnikov.. Timoshenko. (1990) Vibration Problems in Engineering 5th edn. A. and Young.E (1947) Static and Dynamic Stability of Structures (Moscow): Transzeldorizdat). (1991) Theory of Vibration. Sekhniashvili. J.A. Phil.Ya. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education. N. pp.N. Dynamics and Stability of Structures (Moscow: Stroiizdat) (in Russian). (1984) Structural Mechanics. E. Lashchenikov. N.W.P. Mag. Stephen."Discrete and Continuous Systems . and Bickley.. 48. 45-51. Smimov.A. D. 183-185. W. . Temple. (1960) Free Vibration of Elastic Systems (Tbilisi: Sakartvelo) (in Russian). (New York: Wiley). B. 11.ANALYSISMETHODS 57 Shabana. (1983) Rayleigh's.G. G. Alexandrov. 452-456. W. (1956) Rayleigh 's Principle and its Applications to Engineering.H. S. (New York: Dover). A.E. Smimov. Dunkerleys and Southwell's methods.V.