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dimensions under the action of gravity alone without being propelled by any engine or fuel.Its motion is called projectile motion.The path of a projectile is called its trajectory. Examples: 1. A packet released from an airplane in flight. 2. A golf ball in flight. 3. A bullet fired from a rifle. 4. A jet of water from a hole near the bottom of a water tank. Projectile motion is a case of two-dimensional motion .Any case of two dimensional motion can be resolved into two cases of one dimensional motion -one along the x-axis and the other along the y-axis.The two cases can be studied separately as two cases of one dimensional motion.The results from two cases can be combined using vector algebra to see the net result

Horizontal projection-When the body is given an initial velocity in the horizontal direction only. 2. A body can be projected in two ways : 1.We will take x-axis along the horizontal direction and y-axis along the vertical direction. Angular projection-When the body is thrown with an initial velocity at an angle to the horizontal direction.Horizontal motion and vertical motion are totally independent of each other . Case 1 Horizontlal Projection .What is important to remember is that the motion along the horinzontal direction does not affect the motion along the vertical direcion and vice versa.We will neglect the effect of air resistance. We will study the two cases separately.

Component of initial velocity along y-axis. Component of initial velocity along x-axis. ux=u 2. Along x-axis 1.A body is thrown with an initial velocity u along the horizontal direction. uy=0 2.We will study the motion along x and y axis separately.We will take the starting point to be at the origin. Acceleration along x-axis Along y-axis 1.Acceleration along y-axis .

4. vy=uy + ayt =0 + gt » vy=gt This means that the horizontal component of velocity does not change throughout the projectile motion. 4. vx=ux + axt =u + 0 » vx=u ay=g=9. Component of velocity along the x-axis at any instant t. 3. The displacement along yaxis at any instant t axis at any instant t x=uxt + (1/2) axt2 y= uyt + (1/2) ayt2 .ax=0 (Because no force is acting along the horizontal direction) 3.8m/s2 It is directed downwards. The displacement along x. Component of velocity along the y-axis at any instant t.

» x=uxt + 0 » x=u t » y= 0 + (1/2) ayt2 » y=1/2gt2 Equation of a trajectory(path of a projectile) We know at any instant x = ut » t=x/u Also. y= (1/2)gt2 Subsituting for t we get y= (1/2)g(x/u)2 » y= (1/2)(g/u2)x2 » y= kx2 where k= g/(2u2 ) .

the path of projectile. Net velocity at any instant of time t We know .This is the equation of a parabola which is symmetric about the yaxis.at any instant t .projected horizontally from a height above the ground is a parabola.Thus.

vx = u vy= gt » v= (vx2 + vy2)1/2 = [u2 + (gt)2]1/2 Direction of v with the horizontal at any instant : (angle) Ø= tan-1 (vy/vx)= tan-1 (gt/u) Time of flight (T): It is the total time for which the projectile is in flight ( from O to B in the diagram above) To find T we will find the time for vertical fall From y= uyt + (1/2) gt2 When . t=T » h= 0 + (1/2) gt2 » T= (2h/g)1/2 . y= h .

We assume that there is no air resistance .Also since the body first goes up and then comes down after reaching the highest point . x=R » R=uT » R=u(2h/g)1/2 Case 2 Angular Projection We will now consider the case when the object is projected with an initial velocity u at an angle to the horizontal direction.The acceleration due to gravity 'g' will be negative as it acts downwards. From x= ut When t=T . .Range (R) : It is the horizontal distance covered during the time of flight T. we will use the Cartesian convention for signs of different physical quantities.We will study x-motion and y-motion separately. We will separate the motion into horizontal motion (motion along x-axis) and vertical motion (motion along yaxis) .

X axis 1. Component of initial velocity along x-axis.Acceleration along yaxis ay= -g= -9. uy=u sinØ 2.8m/s2 (g is negative as it is acting in the downward direction) . ux=u cosØ 2. Component of initial velocity along y-axis. Acceleration along xaxis ax=0 (Because no force is acting along the Y axis 1.

gt This means that the horizontal component of velocity does not change throughout the projectile motion. vx=ux + axt =ucosØ + 0= ucosØ » vx=ucosØ 3. vy=uy + ayt vy=usinØ . Component of velocity along the y-axis at any instant t.horizontal direction) 3. Component of velocity along the x-axis at any instant t. The displacement 4. 4. The displacement along x-axis at any along y-axis at any instant t instant t x=uxt + (1/2) axt2 y= uyt + (1/2) ayt2 .

t » y= usinØ.» x=ucosØ.t .t » t= x/(ucosØ) Also . y= usinØ.(1/2)gt2 Substituting for t y= usinØ.(1/2)gt2 Equation of Trajectory (Path of projectile) At any instant t x= ucosØ.x/(ucosØ) .(1/2)g[x/(ucosØ)]2 .t .

the path of a projectile is a parabola .tanØ . Net velocity of the body at any instant of time t vx=ucosØ vy=usinØ .[(1/2)g.Thus. .gt v= (vx2 + vy2)1/2 ß= tan-1(vy/vx) Where ß is the angle that the resultant velocity(v) makes with the horizontal at any instant .This is the equation of a parabola.sec2Ø.x2 ]/u2 This equation is of the form y= ax + bx2 where 'a' and 'b are constants.» y= x.

vy=usinØ .gt At t=T/2 .At the highest point.gT/2 » T= (2usinØ)/g . vy= 0 0= usinØ .Time of flight T Angular Projectile motion is symmetrical about the highest point.The object will reach the highest point in time T/2 .the vertical component of velocity vy becomes equal to zero .

(1/2)g(T/2)2 substituting T H= usinØ.2usinØ/g = u22sinØcosØ/g = u2sin2Ø/g using 2sinØcosØ= sin2Ø . x=uxt When t=T .usinØ/g . y=H » H= usinØ.Maximum height H Equation for vertical distance (y component) y= uyt . From equation for horizontal motion.(1/2)gt2 At t=T/2 .(1/2)g(usinØ/g)2 = (u2sin2Ø)/g .T/2 . x=R R= uxT = ucosØ.(u2sin2Ø)/2g » H= (u2sin2Ø)/2g Range R Range is the total horizontal distance covered during the time of flight.

» R= (u2sin2Ø)/g .

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