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3, JUNE 2006

ISSN 0972-0480
RNI Regn. No. 69992/98


MANAGING EDITOR Prof A K Chakrabarti DEPUTY MANAGING EDITORS Prof Indranil Manna PRINCIPAL EDITORS Dr A L Kundu Dr Debashish Bhattacharjee Dr Partho Chatterjee Dr K Srinivasan Dr P Shankar Sri L Pugazhenthy Sri P N Shali Dr S Subramaniam Dr Vivekananda Kain


Sri Lalan Kumar - Visakhapatnam, Dr Bikramjit Basu - Kanpur, Prof Gopalakrishnan - Coimbatore, Sri Komal Kapoor - Hyderabad, Dr M Sujata - Bangalore, Dr N K Mukhopadhyay - Varanasi, Dr R K Nandi - Durgapur, Dr Satyam Sahay - Poona, Dr S K Sen - Ranchi, Dr Subramanya Sarma - Chennai, Dr Susarla Narayana Murty - Trivandrum

FROM THE PRESIDENTS DESK REVIEW ARTICLES Production of Ni-Cr-Mo-V Low Alloy Steel Forgings in India: A Critical Review of Some Important Technology Aspects Page - 6 by M Nageswar Rao Influence of Cleanliness on Surface Quality of Steel Product by Santanu Kr. Ray Page 11 Page5 Failure Analysis of a Wire Rope by Prof U K Chatterjee METAL SCIENCE NEW DEVELOPMENTS NMD - ATM 2006 NEWS UPDATE IIM ACTIVITIES SEMINARS & CONFERENCES MEMBERS NEWS PagePage27 29 32 BOOK REVIEW IIM TRANSACTIONS CONTENTS IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT PagePagePagePage34 36 36 37

Page - 3 8 Page - 4 6 Page - 4 8 Page - 5 1 Page52

Indigenous Effort in Development of 85% Al 2 O 3 Refractory Plastic by S N Laha Page- 2 3 Aluminium TechnologyA Review by R N Jena FIRST DR DARA P. ANTIA MEMORIAL LECTURE


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Managing Editor : Prof A K Chakrabarti COVER PAGE STORY Scanning electron micrograph of laser surface alloyed Mg alloy (MEZ) with Al+Mn (with a continuous wave CO 2 laser). Rod shaped primary Al6 Mn phase in eutectic mixture (unresolved) [Dr J D Mazumdar]

VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006



PRESIDENT Dr Baldev Raj VICE PRESIDENT & CHAIRMAN Ferrous Division Sri B Muthuraman HON SECRETARY Sri J C Marwah JT HON SECRETARY (Office of the President) Dr U Kamachi Mudali VICE PRESIDENT & CHAIRMAN Metal Science Division Dr Srikumar Banerjee JT HON SECRETARY & HON TREASURER Dr D De Sarkar JT HON TREASURER Sri U C Parekh CHIEF EDITOR, TRANSACTIONS Dr K Bhanu Sankara Rao VICE PRESIDENT & CHAIRMAN Non-Ferrous Division Sri L Pugazhenthy CONTROLLER OF EXAMINATIONS Prof S K Roy MANAGING EDITOR IIM Metal News Prof A K Chakrabarti

Sri M V Anand Dr P C Angelo Sri P K Arora Prof K Baba Pai Dr D Banerjee Sri A K Bhandari Dr S K Bhattacharyya Sri S Chakraborty Dr S Chatterjee Dr A K Das Sri S S Das Gupta Sri Supriya Das Gupta Sri V Gujral Dr J J Irani Sri S K Jain Sri V S Jain Sri R N Jena Sri Rajesh Jha Sri Sajjan Jindal Sri S D Kapoor Sri Satish K Kapoor Sri G N Khadanga Sri M S Khan Sri K C Khandelwal Prof S C Koria Dr C G Krishnadas Nair Sri J P N Lal Prof T R Mankhand Dr Indranil Manna Dr S L Mannan Prof S P Mehrotra Sri D K Mehta Sri P K Mishra Dr Sanak Mishra Sri B P Modi Dr T Mukherjee Dr T K Mukherjee Dr Jyoti Mukhopadhyay Sri V R S Natarajan Dr B C Pai Sri Subhrakant Panda Sri R N Parbat Sri P Parvathisem Prof S D Pathak Sri N K Patnaik Sri C R Pradhan Dr Pradip Dr P Rama Rao Prof P Ramachandra Rao Dr B Ramesh Kumar Prof S Ranganathan Dr P Rodriguez Dr Bhaskar Roy Sri N Roy Sri S K Sarna Dr V T Satyanathan Sri P N Shali Sri R K P Singh Sri R P Singh Sri U P Singh Sri Y Siva Sagar Rao Sri V K Srivastava Dr S Subramanian Dr G Sundararajan Dr S K Tamotia Sri J K Tandon Sri Raj Tewari Dr L R Vaidyanath Sri R P Varshney Sri A C Wadhawan


Late J J Ghandy Late P Ginwalla Late P H Kutar Late K S Krishnan Late G C Mitter Late M S Thacker Late S K Nanavati Late G K Ogale Late Dara P Antia Dr B R Nijhawan Late M N Dastur Late Brahm Prakash Late P Anant Sri F A A Jasdanwalla Late S Visvanathan Late V A Altekar Prof T R Anantharaman Dr P L Agrawal Dr E G Ramachandran Sri C V Sundaram Sri S Samarapungavan Late J Marwaha Late A K Seal Dr J J Irani Late Y M Mehta Dr V S Arunachalam Dr S R Jain Dr L R Vaidyanath Dr P Rama Rao Dr T Mukherjee Sri A C Wadhawan Dr R Krishnan Dr S K Gupta Sri R N Parbat Dr P Rodriguez Sri Supriya Das Gupta Dr C G Krishnadas Nair Prof S Ranganathan Sri V Gujral Sri P Parvathisem Prof P Ramachandra Rao Dr S K Bhattacharyya Dr T K Mukherjee


Late Dara P Antia Sri R D Lalkaka Dr M N Parthasarathi Dr L R Vaidyanath Sri S S Das Gupta


VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

From the Presidents Desk

At the instance of the President and the Council, the Administrative Advisory Committee have deliberated on the present structure and functioning of the Institute (IIM). Today, the world is a closely knit global community increasingly being empowered by knowledge. To meet the challenges of an increasingly dynamic world environment in terms of science, technology and communications; and to remain internationally reputed, IIM has to necessarily harness efficiently the expertise of all its members while providing an apt ambience for nurturing young talents on a continuous basis. Meeting these expectations would only be possible by adopting to a renewed and effective administrative structure with a modern management philosophy and culture. Therefore, keeping in view and taking into its consideration, this significant perspective and based on the recommendations of the Administrative Advisory Committee, the matter has been subsequently deliberated upon at various Council meetings. I have pleasure in announcing that at the meeting held on May 5, 2006, the Council accepted the recommendations of the Administrative Advisory Committee and approved the appointment of Shri J.C. Marwah as the whole-time Secretary-General of the Institute with effect from June 1, 2006. Shri J.C. Marwah, designated as Secretary-General will function as the Chief Executive of The Indian Institute of Metals (IIM), and will report to the President. He will carry out his duties under directions of the Council and under supervision and control of the Council and the President. He will be responsible to carry out all related functions as well as perform all duties of the Secretary as defined in the Memorandum and Articles of Association of the Institute and would endeavour to enhance the image and the functioning of the Institute. He will co-ordinate, promote and enhance the objectives with robust communications, skills and imagination.

(Baldev Raj)

VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006


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Review Articles

Production of Ni-Cr-Mo-V Low Alloy Steel Forgings in India: A Critical Review of Some Important Technology Aspects
M Nageswar Rao *

Nickel-chromium-molybdenum-vanadium based low alloy steels are employed extensively all over the world for manufacture of large cross-sectioned forgings, e.g., long shafts sometimes with a number of steps over the length. The forgings find applications in power generation sector and other critical areas where high strength, high hardness and good toughness constitute important requirements. Different variants of the NiCrMoV based low alloy steels have been produced in the country and there have been some important developments over the last two to three decades in their processing. Major improvements have been made with reference to quality and reliability of end product. In this paper some of these important developments have been critically analysed.
1 2 3 4

Table 1 : Chemical Analysis of Different NiCrMoV Steels

Sl.No. C 0.250.40 0.250.45 0.330.40 0.330.38 Mn 0.250.40 0.200.70 0.250.50 0.300.50 Si 0.250.40 0.100.35 0.170.37 0.100.25 Cr 0.51.0 0.712 1.21.7 1.21.5 Ni 2.73.3 2.73.3 3.03.5 2.831 Mo 0.400.70 0.400.70 0.350.45 0.400.50 V 0.25 max 0.25 max 0.100.20 Al 0.0130.025 S 0.015 max 0.015 max 0.012 max 0.008 max P 0.015 max 0.015 max 0.012 max 0.01 max

Development in Melting Area

Up to 1970s it was common to produce NiCrMoV based low alloy steels using electric arc furnace alone. This was adequate so long as the targeted strength level after heat treatment was ~800MPa. However the increasing trend to higher operating stresses and the need to have reasonable safety margins has exposed the limitations of steels processed through only electric arc furnace1. Higher sulfur levels and poor cleanliness rating of steels produced in this manner were found to be adversely affecting the low temperature toughness and fatigue life at high strength levels1. In order to improve the situation, Electro-Slag Remelting(ESR) was brought into the scene1. ESR offers the capability of producing the steel with improved cleanliness, soundness, better chemical homogeneity over the ingot volume, improved forgeability and higher manufacturing yields2-5. The reduction in volume fraction of inclusions gave greatly improved mechanical properties, particularly the toughness in the transverse direction. ESR process also brings down the sulfur level drastically. It has well been recognized that the impact toughness of these steels is very much impaired if sulfur levels are high6. The ESR process therefore contributes to phenomenal improvement in the toughness at a given strength level1,4,5. Some important grades of the NiCrMoV steel produced in the country are given in Table 1. It can be seen that phosphorous and sulfur are present at very low level and in reality steels processed through ESR have much lower sulfur levels than the maximum indicated in the table.
*The author presently engaged in Metallurgical & Materials Engineering
Department of the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. He is a life Member of IIM.

Table 2 gives mechanical properties of steels listed in Table1 (in the same sequence) in the fully heat treated condition. Steel grade at serial number 1 is an earlier variant and grades at serial numbers at 2 to 4 manifest improvements made
Table 2 : Mechanical Properties of the NiCrMoV Steels
Sl. Limit of 0.2% No. Proportionality Yield (min) MPa Strength MPa Ultimate Percentage Percentage Impact Tensile Elongation Reduction Toughness Strength (min) in Area (min) (min) MPa (min) (J/ Fracture Toughness MPam (min)

1 2 3


850 (min) 950(min)


10 10

26 35 20

950-980 980-1050

35 30

23.5 34.3 at 233K 24.5 at room temperature 19.6 at 223K 41.2 at 233K 34.3 at 233K 130

over the years in terms of attaining better strength-toughness combination. It can be seen that steel grade at serial number 3 is heat treated to very high strength levels and has correspondingly lower level of guaranteed impact toughness. Adequate experience has been generated in the country with this composition and much of the following discussion is with reference to this grade. Some of the specifications call for guaranteed fracture toughness (steel grade at serial number 4). The NiCrMoV steels are highly susceptible to hydrogen flaking. Flaking tendency increases with increasing hydrogen content in molten steel. The flaking tendency in low alloy steels has been found to be a function of the chemical composition7 and it so turns out that the compositions listed in Table 1 are among the most susceptible ones. Elaborate solid state diffusion annealing cycles were adopted to drive out hydrogen and realize a level of <2 ppm in the final product. While the ESR process brought in major improvements in terms of sulfur levels and inclusion content, macro level segregation was often noticed in the steel ingots processed this way. The segregation manifests itself as freckle like


VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

defects. The published literature on freckles is largely in the context of high temperature superalloys processed through vacuum arc remelting(VAR) or ESR8-10. The defects noticed in ESR processed NiCrMoV steels resemble the freckles seen in superalloys. Freckles in VAR processed superalloy products appear as dark etching spots, circular or nearly circular, on transverse sections and are generally rich in carbide forming elements / carbides8,9. The freckles are essentially continuous channels of high solute content and the channel like nature comes to light when the longitudinal sections are also viewed 8. The freckles can be detected by macro etching the transverse sections of ingots or forged billets. These solidification defects are too concentrated in solute to be annihilated by subsequent homogenization treatments 8 / thermomechanical working; hence they have to be prevented at the melt stage itself by controlling the remelting parameters. The freckled structures are particularly damaging in superalloys which are designed based on fatigue life consideration8. Formation of freckles is usually a result of high pool depth or disturbances in the liquid pool9,10. The liquid pool can be set in motion (rotation) by stray magnetic fields during remelting. Freckle formation in superalloys can be prevented by maintaining a low pool depth and by avoiding disturbing magnetic fields through the use of coaxial current supply9,10. Solidification defects noticed in ESR processed NiCrMoV steel forgings were similar in many respects to the freckles occurring in superalloys. They appear as dark etching spots when viewed on transverse sections. Macro examination of opposite faces of transverse slices as well as slices cut from different locations from the bottom of the forging revealed that the defects are channel-like with the channels inclined at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the ingot. Fig 1 illustrates

where the spots were present. Even though the size/diameter of the spark was somewhat larger than the size of the dark etching spot, it was unmistakably noticed that molybdenum and carbon were present at higher level inside the spots than in the surrounding matrix. Micro hardness measurements were carried out in the spotted regions and the surrounding matrix. The spots had a distinctly higher hardness level. This goes in line with the higher presence of strong carbide formers and carbon and the consequent higher percentage of strong carbides inside the spots. As in the case of freckles in superalloys, the freckles in the NiCrMoV steel did not get eliminated during subsequent homogenization / thermo mechanical working. All that happened was that some diffuseness developed around the spots and the intensity of darkness somewhat came down after etching. There was a clear persistence of these solute rich regions in the forgings. Further in some cases micro cracks were seen associated with these spots. There was some drop in the intensity of occurrence of these solidification defects as one moved from the bottom end of the ingot towards interior of the ingot. However the presence of the defects was not always confined to what is normally considered as start up phase of ESR. There were instances when they were extending into the steady state portion of the ESR ingot. In other words, even after the bottom cropping, generally considered for an ESR ingot as standard, the solidification defects persisted in some cases. The melt rates adopted during ESR were considered quite normal, definitely not in the unacceptably high regime. The pool depths consequently could not have been too high to cause the observed defects. Further since the ESR facility was working with a coaxial current supply, the occurrence of disturbing magnetic fields and promoting formation of defects during solidification is not considered possible. The high gas levels in some of the electric arc furnace melted steel electrodes, which formed the starting blocks for ESR are considered to be responsible for the freckle type defects seen in the ESR processed NiCrMoV steel. The composition of the steel is such that it can pick up considerable hydrogen during air melting. Where starting gas levels in the electrode are high, the process of solidification during ESR will be accompanied by evolution of high levels of gas. Particularly in case of hydrogen the solubility comes down to essentially nil when solidification occurs. This gas evolution is expected to cause considerable disturbance in the mushy zone. Any disturbance to the mushy zone is considered a potential causative factor for the uncontrolled movement of interdendritic liquid, its formation into channels and occurrence of freckles. The detailed mechanisms of freckle formation are still a matter of intense research11. Vacuum degassing of the liquid steel before casting of the electrode for ESR brought a major improvement. The ESR quality forgings produced from vacuum degassed electrodes showed freedom from the solidification defects discussed above, after the normal end cropping considered characteristic of ESR. This result clearly brings out that a high gas content of input electrode can give rise to serious macro solidification defects in the ESR ingots, undoing the improvement in quality accruing from ESR by way of removal of inclusions and bringing down the sulfur level. Vacuum treatment of liquid steel also helped in doing away with the solid state diffusion annealing (antiflaking) cycle, resulting in a significant reduction in the manufacturing cycle time.

Fig 1 : Schematic of Freckle-Like Defects in ESR Quality Forgings

the situation schematically. A and B are two transverse slices cut for macro examination, A towards bottom end of the forging and B further away from the bottom end. Both faces of slice A (A1A2 and A3A4) are macro-etched and locations of spots on the two faces were often such that they are points of intersection of a channel (running through the thickness of the slice at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the forging) with the two faces. Similarly faces B1B2 and B3B4 of slice B are macro-etched and a similar relationship was noticed between locations of dark etching spots on the two faces. The matter inside the spots was different in chemical composition. In particular, there was distinct enrichment of molybdenum and carbon inside the spots. Optical emission spectroscopic measurements were carried out on regions

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Developments in the Hot Working Area

Designing the schedule for hot working of the ingot is a very important task in the context of realizing the forged product with an optimum microstructure, capable of attaining the specified mechanical properties after heat treatment. In many instances heavy shafts are made of this steel and one shaft is all the output of one ingot. Even a single crack occurring anywhere along the length of the shaft would result in rejection of the entire shaft. The forgemaster therefore plays it safe and shapes the material under conditions of high plasticity, viz. relatively high forging temperatures and limited amount of reduction in each heat. Often the production of shafts involves a reduction by hot forging of ~50%. During the early years of production, starting with a 600mm f ingot, forging was being completed in three to four heats, the average reduction in a heat working out to ~15%. The reheating temperatures were also high, even though progressively decreasing reheating temperatures were used for successive heats. Since % deformation in any heat was small, there was no scope for dynamic or metadynamic recrystallisation12. Static recrystallization was taking place; in view of the relatively high temperatures used for reheating and smallness of strain, recrystallized grain size would be relatively large and possibly there was also room for grain growth. This situation gets largely repeated heat after heat and since the starting grain size before deformation is large, the grain size after recrystallization would also be relatively large in the different steps of static recrystallization, as has been demonstrated for 304 type austenitic stainless steels by Towle and Gladman. The net result is that the final grain size at the end of forging would be quite coarse. When the forgings so produced were heat treated, there was often a problem of realizing the specified strength level. The Limit of Proportionality (LOP) is often specified as a measure of strength. An LOP of 1177 MPa(120kg/ is the minimum specified; however the governing specification also allows a relaxation of 30 MPa(3kg/, with the result that LOP values higher than 1147 MPa(117kg/ are still considered acceptable. However values lower than even 1147 MPa were often encountered. Results as low as 1080 MPa were obtained in a few cases. . Many specifications governing the NiCrMoV steels allow repeat heat treatment as part of the effort to realize forgings with the specified mechanical properties. However should there be a failure even after third heat treatment, the forging has to be rejected. In view of the low LOP values obtained, repeat heat treatments were carried out in several instances to attain an improved LOP value. When the second heat treatment also did not yield the desired LOP level, a third heat treatment was carried out. There was generally some improvement in the LOP value after repeat heat treatment, but there were instances where the specified value of LOP could not be attained even after third heat treatment, resulting in rejection of the forging. Major changes were brought into the hot forging practices to produce the shafts. The entire reduction of ~50% was given in one heat, in typically three passes, but without resorting to any reheating in the furnace. Fig 2 schematically compares the hot working schedule followed earlier with the revised schedule incorporating these changes. Even with the changed schedule, no dynamic or metadynamic recrystallization is expected, because of the small amount of reduction in any given pass. But with the relatively low

Fig 2 : Schematic of Hot Forging Schedule (a) Followed in the Beginning (b) Followed after incorporating Major Changes

temperatures prevailing we have a situation where a somewhat higher strain is being given at a relatively low temperature resulting in a somewhat smaller grain size after static recrystallization. During successive legs of static recrystallization, a smaller starting grain size would lead to a finer recrystallized grain size Fig 3. The overall result is a relatively fine grain size in the finish-forged product.

Fig 3 : Effect of initial grain size do compensated for flattening effect by the factor exp (- ), where is true strain, on recrystallized grain size. (Ref. 13)

While no systematic grain size measurements were carried out, data available from a few cases have shown that a grain size finer by 3 to 4 counts on ASTM scale resulted by switching over from the earlier practice to the changed practice for the hot forging of ESR ingots. With the changed practice there was no more the problem of realizing the specified LOP value. Acceptable LOP value could be obtained in all cases after the very first heat treatment. The finer grain size obtained in the changed practice is believed to be largely responsible for the improved LOP values, as brought out in the following paragraphs. It is reported that in low alloy steels austenitic grain size affects the strength of martensite14. When the austenitic grain size is reduced, significant increases in strength occur. The relationship between austenitic grain size and martensitic structure is a result of the unique structure of martensite in low and medium carbon steels. The martensite laths are arranged in packets whose size is directly related to austenitic grain size. Thus either martensitic packet size or austenitic


VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

grain size may be used to correlate with mechanical properties14. A Hall-Petch type relationship has been reported for the NiCrMo steel AISI4340 between 0.2% yield strength and prior austenitic grain size in the hardened and tempered at 677K condition Fig 415. As per this graph, a refinement of grain size of 4 on ASTM scale would mean an improvement of ~60 MPa (~6 kg/ in yield strength. However the slope of the

after hardening treatment were falling short of specified minimum, one is inclined to adopt an approach involving lowering the tempering temperature to push up the LOP value. Much of heat treatment was done with tempering carried out in the range 623-673K(350-400C) aiming to get LOP values 1147 MPa. However this approach is beset with serious problems on the toughness front. In NiCrMo type low alloy steels, Tempered Martensite Embrittlement (TME) sets in when tempering is carried out in the temperature range 523-673K(250-400C)17 Fig 6. The TME is

0 .2% o ffse t yield stre ss M pa

Fig 4: The effect of prior austenite grain size on the yield strength of the commercial martensitic steel AISI 4340 (Ref. 15)

Fig 6 : Room - temperature Charpy impact energy versus tempering temperature for 4340 steel with two different levels of phosphorus as shown Specimens were austenitized at 1143 K, oil quenched, and tempered 1 h at temperatures shown. (Ref. 17)

straight line would depend on tempering temperature, as demonstrated by Swarr and Krauss for Fe-0.2%C steel16. After tempering at a temperature of 673K, the slope of the Hall-Petch line comes down compared to that for the asquenched condition Fig 5. In the 673K tempered condition,

a result of decomposition of thin films of retained austenite present between laths of martensite and formation of cementite18. Eliaz et al19 carried out analysis of failures arising out of TME in AISI4340. Zhumensk et al20 studied the transgranular mode of TME in a low carbon alloy 3Cr-Mo-V steel. For AISI4340 the toughness remains at a relatively low level up to a tempering temperature of 673K(400C). Only after tempering at 723K(450C) does one realize good toughness value17. Situation is expected to be broadly the same for the NiCrMoV steel under discussion. As such tempering in the temperature range 623-673K is expected to result in a metallurgical condition with relatively low toughness levels. In several forgings tempered in this range, the material was found to be in a brittle state with low resistance to crack propagation. Another important aspect of the tempering of these steels has to be borne in mind. One need not be overly obsessed with strength going down drastically with increase in tempering temperature by looking at tempering curves of plain carbon steels or of steels which do not have significant percentages of elements such as Mo, V (such as the one given for 4340 steel in Fig. 7 21 ). As has been well documented, these elements contribute to secondary hardening- i.e. their hardening effect is more at relatively higher tempering temperatures. Figure 7 shows the relative tempering behaviour of martensite in Fe-0.36% C and Fe0.36%C-3.3Ni-1.4Cr-0.4Mo-0.15V steel. Both the curves have been synthesized from the data published by Grange et al22, bringing out the tempering behaviour of plain carbon martensites and how individual alloying elements influence the tempering behaviour. The synthesis was done without assuming any inter element effects among these alloying elements. The martensite present in alloy steel gets softened at a much lower rate with increasing tempering temperature. In fact governing specifications for the steel Fe-0.36%C-

Fig 5a : Hall Petch plots, 0.2% offset yield strength vs D-1/2 for Fe-0.2C and Fe-Mn as quenched martensites. D is the packet diameter. (Ref. 16)

Fig 5b : Hall Petch plot, 0.2% offset yield strength vs D-1/12 for Fe0.2C quench and tempered lath martensite. D is the packet diameter. (Tempered in a lead bath for 1 min at 673 k) (Ref. 16)

the increase in the 0.2% yield strength with a refinement of grain size of 4 on ASTM scale is ~35 MPa(~3.5kg/ Further the NiCrMoV steel under discussion has higher levels of Ni, Cr and Mo. While the relationship for the steel in hand is not available, it appears reasonable to account for the observed improvement in LOP based on the observed refinement of microstructure resulting out of changed hot working practice.

Developments in Heat Treatment

The tensile strength and yield point of low alloy steels coming down with increasing tempering temperature is a welldocumented phenomenon. When the LOP values realized

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Sourcing the steel scrap from integrated steel plants for primary melting of the steel in electric arc furnace. The elements Sb, Sn and As are not oxidizable during steel making and it is hence ensured that their levels are controlled through choice of scrap known for its purity and consistency. Two or even three stages of dephosphorisation in electric arc furnace to bring phosphorous down to a very low level.


(iii) Maximum limits are specified for Sb, Sn, and As and analysis accordingly carried out at regular intervals for close monitoring of levels at which these elements are present.

1 Fig 7 : Change in mechanical properties of oil-quenched 4340 steel with tempering temperature. (Ref. 21) Nageswara Rao M, in Metallurgy in India A Retrospective , (ed) Ramachandra Rao P and Goswami NG, India International Publisher, New Delhi (2001), p272 Hazira JP and Ratnam U, Trans Ind Inst Met, 31 (1978) 20 Hebsur MG, Abraham KP and Prasad YVRK, J. Mech. Working Technology, 4 (1981) 341 Hebsur MG, Abraham KP and Prasad YVRK, in Proc Intl Conf on Fracture Mechanics in Engineering Application, (eds) Sih GC, and Valluri SR, Sijth off and Novrdhoff, Maryland, USA (1979) Hebsur MG, Abraham KP and Prasad YVRK, Engg. Fracture Mechanics, 13 (1980) 851 Bodner RL and Capellini RF in MiCon 86: Optimization of Processing, Properties and Service Performance Through Microstructural Control, (eds) Bramfitt BL, Benn RC, Brinkman CR and Vander Voort GF, ASTM STP 979, American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia (1988) 47 Gao N, Wei-xun Y and Yin-Zhi C, Materials Characterization, 28 (1992) 15 Donachie MJ and Donachie SJ, Superalloys A Technical Guide, Second Edition, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio (2002), p41 Stefanescu DM, ASM Handbook Vol 15: Casting , ASM International (1988), p407 Donachie MJ and Donachie SJ, Superalloys A Technical Guide, Second Edition, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio (2002), p63 Van Den Avyle JA, Brooks JA and Powell AC, JOM , March(1998) 22 Ahlblom B and Sandstrm R, International Metals Reviews No1(1982) 1 Towle DJ and Gladman T, Met Sci 13 (1979) 246 Krauss G, Steels : Heat Treatment and Processing Principles, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio (1990) p148 Grange RA, Trans ASM,59 (1966) 26 Swarr TE and Krauss G, Met Trans A, 7A (1976) 41 Materkowski JP and Krauss G, Met Trans A, 10A (1979) 1643 Thomas G, Met Trans A, 9A (1978) 439 Eliaz N, Shachar A, Tal and Eliezer D, Eng. Failure Anal., 9 (2002) 167 Zhumensk P, Janovec J and Blach J, ISIJ International, 34 (1994) 536 Sinha AK, Physical Metallurgy Handbook , McGraw-Hill Companies Inc (2003) p14.23 Grange RA, Hribel CR and Porter LF, Met Trans A, 8A (1977) 1775 Khadkikar PS and Wieser PF, Trans Ind Inst Met, 39 (1986) 510 Krauss G, Steels : Heat Treatment and Processing Principles, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio (1990) p236

3.3Ni-1.4Cr-0.4Mo-0.15V stipulate tempering temperatures in the range 793-853K(520 to 580C) and the relatively high LOP (1147MPa) after tempering at these relatively high temperatures is associated with the secondary hardening role played by Mo and V. Another concern with the NiCrMoV type low alloy steels when manufactured in the form of relatively large cross sectioned products is the Temper Embrittlement (TE). Khadkikar and Wieser23 have comprehensively reviewed this phenomenon. The subject has been well summarized in Reference 24. It occurs after tempering or cooling through the temperature range 648-848K(375-575C). Phosphorous, antimony, tin and arsenic have been identified as elements that promote significant TE. Relatively small amounts of these elements can cause TE. Phosphorous can also accelerate TME as seen in Fig.6. Low alloy steels containing chromium and nickel as alloying elements are most susceptible. However molybdenum reduces susceptibility to TE and is added in amounts 0.5% to minimize TE.

2 3 4

5 6

7 8

9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Fig 8 : Relative tempering behaviour of a plain carbon steel and a NiCrMoV low alloy steel (same carbon level) 21 22 23 24

However manufacturing practices have since been perfected to such an extent that levels of these elements are consistently controlled to the bare minimum. Some of the measures taken to restrict the levels of these elements in the final product are:



VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

Influence of Cleanliness on Surface Quality of Steel Product

Santanu Kr. Ray *

Cleanliness is an essential requirement in to-days customised steel manufacturing process. This is particularly true for the products required by the more discerning customers, and for the more stringent applications. Additional attributes covering the surface quality of steel products, which were earlier not part of the conventional specification, are gaining importance. Qualty of a steel product is broadly understood as the totality of its attributes which would impart the desirable application requirements. Quality, and its most important component cleanliness is therefore, essentially related to the end use of the steel product. For example, cleanliness of a rolled bar to be used for concrete reinforcement would not necessarily be as exacting as a bar meant for cold extrusion, or for bright drawing. Likewise, steel products for drawn and ironed (DI) can, bearing and tyre cord applications have very stringent quality requirements. Demand for sheet steel in automotive, food processing and packaging sectors, is increasing rapidly. These grades are highly formable, and some of these are often coated to impart improved corrosion resistance in exposed applications. Presence of surface defects reduce the aesthetic appeal of these rolled products. The necessity of retaining the market share is therefore increasing the pressure on the steel manufacturers to control these undersirable defects. Production of these high-value grades with stringent cleanliness requirements at a competitive processing cost has become the focus of steel business. The quality level achieved in the rolled product is the outcome of several processing stages starting from the preparation of liquid steel, its refining and casting, and subsequent hot and cole deformation. Because of the involveent of multiple processing stages, there is an understandable tendency to evade responsibility for any non-conformance to quality requirement in the final product. It is threfore, all the more necessary to develop a clear understanding on the complex interaction of the various factors contributing to the quality attributes in the final product. The different facets of quality have to be viewed in its true perspective to correlate them with the process parameters. Earlier studies1-3 on steel cleanliness and quality obviously dealt with products processed through the conventional ingot route. The advent of different secondary refining processes and continuous casting has dramatically changed the manufacturing technology of steel. Steel quality therefore, needs to be looked from this new perspective for developing a more authentic understanding. The present endeavour attempts to develop a more clear understanding on the
*The author is with R&D Centre for Iron & Steel, SAIL, Ranchi-834002. He is a Life Member of IIM.

different aspects of steel cleanliness. It has been felt that a consolidated approach would be beneficial to elucidate its concept, specific influence on product quality, and recent improvement measures in steelmaking practice.

Cleanliness Vis--Vis Quality

Metallurgical investigation along with the knowledge on the relevant processes have been helpful in identifying the possible sources4-9, and the stages of occurrence of the quality problems in steel products. The different surface defects observed in final product can be traced to two broad sources. These are either inherited from the parent cast material, or imparted during the subsequent operations of reheating, hot deformation, pickling or cold processing. The quality problems which owe their genesis to the original cast material, can be broadly termed as material defects. Others imparted during the subsequent processing stages are popularly known as mill defects to distinguish them from the former category of material origin. Material defects have been found to be associated10 with two different origins: Large non-metallic inclusions (NMI) entrapped from steelmaking or casting process are well known for generating defects. The steel chemistry does not have a major influence on the type or the size of these macroinclusions, which are essentially a product of secondary refining or casting process. Surface or subsurface defects existing in the cast material constitute another source of quality problem for the final product. These are to a large extent grade-specific, and are incluenced by solidification characteristics. The large inclusions7-8 or exogenous entrapments8-10 or the subsurface cracks10-11 existing in the cast material come to the surface of the deformed product at different stages of processing depending on their depth of location. The quality attributes of the final product are therefore dependent on the nature and the types of defects inherited from the parent cast material. Steel cleanliness particularly with respect to large exogenous entrapments8-10 has been diagnosed as the most important factor which affects quality. The focus of the present study has been directed towards development of an improved understanding on the different aspects of steel cleanliness, which influence product quality. Facets of Cleanliness The term cleanliness has been used in different contexts10-12 over the years with respect to steel products. This is a broad concept, and has to be understood with respect to specific application requirements of the products. It is important to appreciate the different aspects of

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cleanliness, and their distinct influence on product quality. The following attributes are generally expected in a clean steel:

on the critical content and size. Nevertheless it is worthwhile to consolidate the cleanliness requirements of the different special grades based on literature information15-18.
Table 1 : Cleanliness Requirements for Various Steel Products
Product Line Pipe Deep drawn sheet Heavy Plate Drawn & ironed can Wire Tyre Cord Bearing Maximum impurity content Total O : 30 ppm Total O : 20 ppm Total O : 20 ppm Total O : 30 ppm Toral 0.15 ppm Total O : 10 ppm N: 30 ppm N : 30 ppm N : 30 ppm N : 30 ppm N : 60 ppm N:40 ppm Maximum inclusion size 100 mm 100 mm Cluster 200 m, Single : 20 mm 20 mm 20 mm 15 mm 15 mm

Controlled amount and size of NMIs of mainly oxides, sulphides, nitrides. Low content of residual impurity elements, such as S, P, O, N, H etc. Absence or restricted amount of trace elements, like, As, Sn, Sb, Cu, Pb, Bi ect.

The undesirable impurities are present in steel products either in the form of elements in solid solution, or as simple or complex compounds depending upon their content and thermodynamic stability13-14. The effect of these elements or constituents on the different physical and mechanical properties of steel grades has been investigated over the years. This aspect is not within the scope of the present investigation. Focus of the present review in limited to the specific roles played by the undesirable elements or NMIs in causing the visible defects in steel products. It is true that no steel can be absolutely free from the residuals or trace elements. Neither it is possible to eliminate NMIs all together. It is therefore important to make a realistic judgement on the limits of the impurity contents, and the critical size of NMIs, with respect to specific quality requirements of steel products. Application-specific Requirements It has been demonstrated by several investigators5-10 that inclusions, particularly the large exogenous entrapments, are responsible for causing different types of visible defects in steel products. A few examples of the deleterious effect of different NMIs on incidence of cracks and longitudinal surface defects are being cited here. It is well established that the role of inclusions on defects becomes more prominent in products of thinner gauges, for both flat and long varieties. Low-carbon aluminium-killed (LCAK) steel coils of very thin (<0.5 mm) gauge used for automotive and food processing applications have been plagued with thin surface lines. Fine NMIs of aluminimum oxide or complex oxides and silicates with size range of about 20 to 25 mm and above have been found to be associated with the cracks and/or entrapments constituting these unseemly surface defects. Likewise, long products such as thin wires, tire cords or bearings cannot tolerate oxide inclusions of even as low as 15 to 20 mm size. It is worth mentioning here that the inclusion sizes that have been found to cause visible surface defects for most of the common applications are usually larger. Macroinclusions larger than 100 mm entrapped from exogenous sources have been normally found to be responsible for the common surface defects. The cleanliness requirements for the various steel grades are therefore application-specific. The amount, size distribution, and the morphology of the NMIs which cannot be tolerated for the different applications, have been debated over the years. Considerable differences of opinion persist

Critical Size of Inclusion It has generally been observed10-16 that only large inclusions greater than 100 mm size are associated with visible defects in normal steel products. Increase in extent of deformation for processing of the final product from the parent cast material makes the inclusions longer, or impart a chain-like distribution. This increases the possibility of inclusions getting revealed in the larger surface area of heavilydeformed products like thin wire or thin sheet. Other important aspects are the surface finish and the hardness of the final product. It has been observed that even 30 mm inclusions produce very fine visible defects along the brighter surface finish of stainless steels meant for food processing application. Likewise, smaller inclusions of about 20 mm size have been found to be responsible for the generation of very thin line defects in softer products like DI (drawn and ironed) cans. Inclusion size distribution has therefore assumed significance with respect to steel cleanliness in general, and particularly for application-specific product quality. It has been postulated and observed that one kg of a typical clean steel contains about 107 to 109 inclusions19. Out of these, only very few are really large inclusions. Four hundred are of 80 to 130 mm size, ten are having 130 to 200 mm dimension, and the possible number of inclusion in 200 to 270 mm size range is less than one20. It is thus obvious that detection of these rare macroinclusions is extremely difficult and timeconsuming by means of normal microscopic observation. Special techniques have been used to detect macro inclusions in steel products. Step-down machining, blue fracture observation, and ultrasonic testing are some of these common tests preferred by steel producers and customers. The large inclusions are far outnumbered by the small ones,21 and the volume fraction of the former is much less as compared to the latter. It is thus important to note that the volume fraction of inclusion cannot be taken as the only criterion for steel cleanliness. Rather, the critical size beyond a certain value is considered more important, as far as defect generation is considered. It has been reported that only a few inclusions of large size can generate catastrophic defect in a steel with moderate inclusion content. It is therefore evident that a clean steel should not only have a relatively low content of impurities and inclusions; more importantly, inclusions larger than a critical size have to be avoided. The critical size is of course dependent on the specific application



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requirements of the products, as has been highlighted earlier. Behaviour of Inclusions A majority of the oxide and silicate inclusions are either of AO.B2O3 type spinels, or belong to the pseudoternary system AO.SiO2-B2O3. Here A represents Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe (II) etc. and B can be A1, Cr, Fe (III) etc. The sulphide inclusions are usually MnS or solid solutions of (Mn, Me) (S, O) type. These constitute the bulk of the common NMIs normally observed in steels, irrespective of the manufacturing practice or treatment, or grades. Other minor elements such as Ti, Nb, V, Zr or rate earth elements usually appear as solid solutions in the existing inclusion phases. The composition and properties of the inclusions together with their size have profound influence on the quality of steels undergoing deformation. The difference in expansion coefficient, modulus of elasticity, plasticity etc. between the inclusions and the steel matrix play a key role on the behaviour of the steel. Compatibility between the NMI and the steel matrix during the process of deformation has been shown to restrict formation of crack at the interface. The problem of insitu deformation behaviour of inclusions vis--vis steel matrix is rather complex. Influence of temperature on the physical properties of the different complex NMIs, together with the quantum of stress developed at inclusion-matrix interface are yet to be fully understood. A simplistic approach on the relative plasticity of steel and different NMIs has been used to qualitatively understand their deformation behaviour. Malkiewiz and Rudnik22 have defined an index of relative deformability (n) for the different types of inclusions. Experimental observations on the relative deformability of different NMIs have been consolidated by Kiessling23. Al2O3, calcium aluminate and AO.B2O3 spinel type inclusions do not deform, and have n o at all temperatures. Therefore they appear as stringers of undeformed particles in the deformed product. Manganese silicates have n ~ 1 around 900-12000 C. Fe and Ca in silicates decrease n, and pure SiO2 is almost nondeformable till 1200 C. MnS has n ~ 1 at all deformation temperature. The relative compatibility of the different common NMIs with steel matrix thus can be explained at least qualitatively form their relative deformability values. Identification of Exogenous Constituents Presence of additional constituents associated with a defect is an important symptom which gives definite clues towards the genesis of the problem. EDX or WDX attachment of SEM has been used10,11 to identify the constituents from their elemental information. It is often difficult in the absence of appropriate standards, to get quantitative analysis of a constituent through WDX or EDX technique. Qualitative or semi-qualitative analysis, however, has been found to be useful to associate exogenous constituents to their possible sources. Typical EDX plots indicating presence of different elements are shown in Figs. 1 to 3. Elemental information has been used to identify the possible constituents present at the defect region.
Fig 1 : Presence of Fe, Cr, Mn, Ni and Si in normal matrix of AISI-304 stainless steel

Fig 2 : Higher content of Cr and Mn over Fe and Ni indicates exogenous entrapment owing to reoxidation in AISI-304

Fig 3 : Presence of Si and Mg indicates exogenous entrapment of magnesium silicate in AISI-304

Longitudinal Shell Shell or surface lamination along the longitudinal direction of deformation has been found to have different origins. The following three symptoms and possible sources 10 been identified: 1) Absence of scale or entrapment, and normal or deformed grain structure indicate that defect has

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originated at the final stage of hot deformation or during subsequent processing. Material factors associated with steelmaking or casting are not responsible. 2) Presence of scale, internal oxidation and grain coarsening associated with a defect indicates that it must have originated from cracks existing at surface or sub-surface locations in the cast product. These sources result in formation of surface lamination during the early stage of hot deformation, and the defects are therefore usually manifested in the relatively thicker gauges. The specific chemistry of the product and to a lesser extent the casting parameters have been found to have profound influence on the incidence of this problem. Shells located near the edges of rolled products have been more predominantly associated with the so-called peritectic grades. 3) Presence of complex oxides/silicates, by and large free from scale, are symptomatic of entrapment of large exogenous NMIs during steelmaking or casting stage. Typical example of large exogenous entrapment from reoxidation responsible for shell type lamination defect is shown in Fig 4.

Longitudinal Sliver Long line of sliver defect is essentially constituted of large NMIs in the form of complex silicates. The compatibility of these constituents with the matrix has been found to be relatively good. In most of the cases therefore crack is not generated during deformation of the product containing such macroinclusions. Evidence of crack has been rarely detected along this defect. Sliver, or slag line as it is commonly known, is normally found to occur in thin heavily-deformed products. The exogenous NMIs having good deformability present at the interior of the parent cast material get easily elongated and come to the surface after heavy deformation. Different combinations of SiO 2 , CaO and Al 2 O 3 , with occasional presence of Na2O, K2O, CaF2 and S have invariably been found to be present as exogenous entrapments from steelmaking or casting stages. These are essentially emulsified slag entrained in liquid steel either at tundish or in mould. Typical EDX pattern from such exogenous entrapment of slag origin detected along sliver line is shown in Fig 5.

Fig 5 : Exogenous NMI of slag origin responsible for sliver defect in CR coil

It is thus evident that of the two common surface defects observed in steel product, sliver has been traced 10,11 exclusively to exogenous entrapment. This is also responsible as an important source for the generation of shell or lamination. Three different types of exogenous and large NMI have been diagnosed to be associated with these quality problems :

Reoxidation products, such as alumina, oxides of manganese and silicon in plain-carbon grades, or chromium oxide particularly in stainless steels. Carryover of slag from ladle, or entrainment of tundish or mould slag. Refractory products or coatings or sands.

Cleanliness Evaluation
Fig 4 : Presence of complex oxide of chromium and silicon originating from reoxidation responsible for shell type lamination defect

The amount, size distribution, shape and composition of NMIs entrapped at different stages of steelmaking have been shown to have immense importance. Evaluation and control



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of steel cleanliness would therefore require fast and reliable methods of measurements. The direct methods 24 for cleanliness evaluation, such as, observation under microscope, or through electrolysis, or ultrasonic technique are accurate, but time-consuming, and sometimes expensive. The indirect methods of evaluation are therefore gaining popularity in steel industry. Measurement of total oxygen, and nitrogen pickup between different stages of steelmaking are two of the prominent indirect methods25-27. Total Oxygen in steel is present in two forms. Free oxygen is essentially present in dissolved form, and combined oxygen as non-metallic inclusions. Free or active oxygen is controlled by equilibrium thermodynamics. Steel, after being suitably killed by Al, has a dissolved oxygen content of about 3-5 ppm. This is governed by the equilibrium constant of the reaction between Al and O. The free oxygen content in steel normally remains in a very close range. The total oxygen can therefore be taken as a reasonable indirect measure of the total amount of oxide inclusions in steel. The steel sample size for measurement of total oxygen is usually small, about 20 g. Possibility of having large inclusions in such a small sample size being less, it is prudent to assume that total oxygen effectively represents the level of small oxide inclusions. In spite of this limitation, total oxygen content has come to represent steel cleanliness for the modern steel producers. It has been demonstrated25 that incidence of macroinclusions larger than 50 mm is likely to increase with total oxygen content beyond a level of 40-50 ppm. Probability of having such large exogenous NMIs has been found to go up proportionally with increase in total oxygen. Some investigators have found a correlation between surface lamination in CR product and its total oxygen content. The following observations have been consolidated from the extensive evaluation of total oxygen at different stages of steelmaking, and correlation with surface quality of product.

Steel products for demanding applications, having total oxygen level of 30 ppm max. in tundish, are normally sent to customers without special inspection. Critical inspection is required for 30-55 ppm range, and heats above 55 ppm level are normally downgraded30.

Nitrogen pickup is essentially the difference in nitrogen content measured between different stages of steelmaking. It is taken as an indicator of air entrainment during transfer of molten steel from ladle to tundish, and from tundish to mould. The low dissolved oxygen content after deoxidation enables rapid absorption of air in liquid steel. Nitrogen pickup therefore serves as a crude indirect measure 31-33 of reoxidation, and the consequent deterioration in steel cleanliness. It is interesting to note that sulphur being a surface-active element, very low S content in steel facilitates higher pickup of nitrogen and reoxidation.

Nitrogen pickup has decreased over the years with the advent of improved shrouding operation. It is now possible to restrict pickup32 between ladle and mould at the most to 3 ppm.

Operating Practice for Improved Cleanliness

Secondary refining process and casting operation have profound influence on improving steel cleanliness, both in terms of quantity, and size of inclusions. The different processing stages have to ensure most and more removal of inclusions already existing in liquid steel, and at the same time prevent entrapment of new ones from exogenous sources. Systematic study has revealed34 that selection of suitable refining processes and adequate preventive measures have effected the following relative improvement in cleanliness in terms of total oxygen content.

Maximum benefit to the tune of ~ 70% removal of NMIs is normally achieved through ladle treatment. About ~ 25% improvement is achievable through suitable measures in tundish, if possibility of reoxidation can be prevented. Only ~ 5% improvement is possible in mould, and possibility of quality deterioration through entrainment of mould slag has to be taken care of.

Total oxygen content from tundish sample is generally taken as indicative of steel cleanliness, and is used to decide disposition of cast slab for further processing, or downgradation. Total oxygen in commonly used Al-killed low-carbon steel has steadily decreased over the years from about 50 ppm in the seventies to about 25 ppm in the mineties, with the advent of secondary metallurgy technologies28-30. Total oxygen generally drops after every processing stage of steelmaking:
q q q

Ladle Refining The first activity after tapping of liquid steel in ladle is to deoxidise it with the help of suitable elements. The most effective deoxidant is aluminium. The different primary steelmaking processes or practices can generate varying content of tap oxygen in the range of 250-1200 ppm. It is therefore expected that the amount of alumina generated through deoxidation will also vary. However, it has been shown by several investigators35,36 that the majority of the alumina clusters readily float up and get absorbed by the ladle slag, provided adequate time of say 15 minutes is allowed. The minor quantity of clusters which cannot float up, remain in liquid steel. These have been found to be smaller than 30 mm in size. These microinclusions are relatively less harmful so far as the surface quality of the steel products for

Ladle Tundish Mould

: 40-45 ppm : 25-30 ppm : 20-25 ppm

RH degassing achieves lower total oxygen content of about 20-30 ppm as compared to ladle gas stirring (33-45 ppm)

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normal applications is concerned. The content of tap oxygen thus has not been found to influence the product cleanliness. The key issue therefore is to provide adequate time for degassing to enable formation of the large clusters through coalescence, and allow them to float up, and get absorbed in ladle slag. The evolution process for generation and removal of deoxidants has been extensively studied37, 38. The different stages of this process are enumerated below. i) Shortly after adding deoxidiser, particles nucleate, precipitate and then quickly grow. Ostwald ripening causes larger particles to grow at the expense of smaller ones. Difference in surface tension and oxygen concentration gradients for particles of different sizes act as the driving force. ii) Turbulent and Stokes collision control further growth of the large enough particles. iii) Large inclusions float up due to density difference between liquid steel and inclusions, bubble attachment, and fluid transport in the metallurgical vessel like ladle or tundish The velocity (vp) of the floating particles is governed by the relationship Vp = rp rs g dp 18 ms rp and rs are densities of particle and liquid steel dp is size of particle

attained through RH treatment. Vacuum treatment for degassing used in this process has been found to be very effective. Calcium-based powder injection42 has also been proved to be useful. It combines the benefit of deoxidation, liquefying inclusions, and stirring effect. Discharge from Ladle to Tundish Liquid steel is transferred from ladle to tundish by opening the slide gate at the bottom. The ladle discharge system is filled with slide gate sand consisting of mainly SiO2, FeO, Cr2O3 and C. At the start of casting sequence the level of liquid steel in tundish is low, and it is not possible to completely float out the sand material. It is therefore necessary to blow away the sand with a special device when the slide gate is opened. This prevents the unsintered crystalline sand from falling in the tundish. It has been observed43 that otherwise this exogenous constituent impairs the cleanliness of the product cast just after ladle opening. Another factor contributing to exogenous macroinclusion immediately before and after a change of ladle is the carriedover ladle slag. Attempt to completely discharge the liquid steel from the ladle leads to this problem. Carry-over of the slag can be prevented either by retaining a minimum amount of steel in the ladle44, or by using suitable slag detection system45. The latter ensures restriction of ladle slag carryover to as low as 0.3 kg per ton of steel in the tundish. Refractory shroud made of alumina and graphite is used to protect the steel flow between ladle and tundish. This is connected with the ladle slide gate system, and submerges into liquid bath in tundish. Prevention of reoxidation is possible only when the gap between the tip of slide gate and the shroud is adquately covered or shielded. An argon-shield restricts surrounding air from flowing in, and restricts reoxidation. The extent of reoxidation can be measured by way of nitrogen pick-up, or oxidising loss of dissolved aluminium in liquid steel. An experimentation with the flow rate of argon has demonstrated that 80 lpm is necessary to restrict the quantum of nitrogen pick up to 2 ppm. The relative incluence of refractory shroud and argon shielding on the incidence of shell-type of surface defect46 in CR products of stainless steel is evident in Fig 6. Nitrogen content increase gives an indirect measure of the extent of reoxidation in absence of shroud or argon shielding.

ms is viscosity of liquid steel

It is thus evident that the large inclusions float up faster than microinclusions. iv) Large floating inclusions are consumed by the top slag, or get deposited at refractory walls, through diffusion deoxidation and interfacial reactions. Microinclusions stay suspended in the liquid steel, and are passed on to the next process. An important source of reoxidation in ladle is the carryover slag from the primary furnace. Higher content of FeO and MnO in this slag are known to be responsible for reacting with dissolved Al in liquid steel and generating alumina. In fact higher contents of FeO and MnO in ladle slag have been correlated with poor cleanliness in terms of higher total oxygen. It has been demonstrated39 that the possible benefit of inclusion removal may get negated due to reoxidation effect from 20% FeO + MnO in ladle slag. The following counter remedial measures40 are therefore essential to restrict FeO and MnO content.

Use of effective slag stopper to restrict carryover of primary slag to ladle during tapping to as low as possible, preferably below 3 kg/ton of steel. Maintaining basic ladle slag and basic lining, and addition of slag conditioner reductant 41 in ladle (combination of aluminium, burnt lime or limestone).

It has been observed that simple argon stirring operation in ladle has limitation in promoting inclusion growth and their subsequent floatation. It is considered to be adequate for grades which do not have stringent quality requirements. However, the ful potential13,42 of quality improvement can be

Fig 6 : Effect of reoxidation owing to absence of shroud or argon on incidence of shell type defect and nitrogen pickup



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It has been revealed that incidence of shell or surface lamination increases with reoxidation. Absence of argon shrouding has led to about 3% deterioration in product quality. An additional increase in defect incidence to the tune of about 12% has been registered when refractory shroud was not used between ladle and tundish. The extent of quality deterioration has been indirectly assessed from quantum of nitrogen pick-up measured during reoxidation. Opening of the ladle sometimes poses problem. In case the ladle does not open on its own, it has to be lanced. The shroud has to be removed during the use of lance to open the ladle. The liquid steel coming out from the ladle to the tundish during this period is thus left unshrouded. The initial portion of the cast for the heats, which are opened through lancing, are therefore found to be inferior in quality. It has been observed that the total oxygen content of the initial one or two meters of the cast product from such heats is about 10 ppm higher than that from self-opened heats47. Sand used for ladle opening should be carefully packed to avoid this eventuality. Tundish Metallurgy

calculations and numerous measurements made on water models51 have provided the basis for selecting the dimension and shape of tundish, and suitable location of these devices. Inclusion removal rate (r) during steady-state casting can be approximated by the following analytical relationship r = 1 - exp [vp W L (R / r1)] vp is upward velocity of inclusion W and L are width and length of tundish R is transfer rate of liquid steel from tundish to mould r1 is density of liquid steel The difference in density between the inclusions and liquid steel helps inclusions larger than about 80 mm to float up even without the help of any of these devices. The escape towards the free surface however is more complicated for smaller inclusions. It has been demonstrated 50 that by prolonging the residence time with the help of dams and weirs, the critical size of the inclusions above which they would float up, is brought down to about 50 mm. The NMIs floating up have to be absorbed by the slag layer in contact with the liquid steel. Moreover this slag layer should avoid chemical changes such as ressulphurisation and reoxidation of liquid steel. It must also provide thermal insulation against the atmosphere. These objectives are achieved by maintaining a two-layer slag. The top powdery layer provides the insulation. The bottom thin liquid layer with a high basicity ensures inclusion absorption, and prevents resulphurisation and reoxidation. The top lining material of tundish is usually rich in MgO and SiO2. Gunning material in which SiO2 is linked to MgO as forsterite may generate MgO. Al2O3 type spinel inclusions. 2 MgO. SiO2 + Al

Tundish is required48 to fulfil the following major objectives: Distribution of liquid steel to the various casting strands Facilitate inclusions to float up and get absorbed in the slag layer Maintain temperature of liquid steel at a uniform level, or at least in a very close range, during the course of casting process.

The important phenomena49 which influence the generation and absorption of macroinclusions in tundish are schematically shown in Fig 7.

MgO Al2O3 + MgO + Si

This acts as an additional source of contaminant for the liquid steel. Likewise, excessive SiO2 present in silica-based lining reacts with dissolved Al in liquid steel, and generates solid Al2O3 which can impair cleanliness. Submerged Entry Nozzle The liquid steel is transferred from tundish to mould through the submerged entry nozzle (SEN). This represents a zone of increased turbulence which promotes coalescence of smaller inclusions. This process is desirable in ladle and tundish because larger inclusions easily float up and get absorbed. However, since almost no time is available for separation, coagulation is disadvantageous in submerged nozzle. Clogging of the port openings of SEN poses operational problem such as change in flow pattern, and has adverse impact on steel cleanliness. The composition of typical clogs has been found to be rich in Al2O3. The high frequency of SEN clogging can be taken as an indirect measure of poor steel cleanliness. The following three important issues are associated with nozzle clogging.

Fig 7 : Generation and absorption of macroinclusions in tundish

Controlling the flow of liquid steel by prolonging residence time and decreasing the dead volume has been an important requirement. Use of flow control devices50 like dam, weir and baffle at optimum locations within the tundish has been universally utilised to achieved this objective. Theoretical

Dislodged clogs may either get trapped in steel, or change the composition of in-mould slag. Both of these have been shown to cause defects.

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Clogs change the flow pattern and jet characteristics of liquid steel coming out of the nozzle ports. This disrupts flow in the mould, resulting in slag entrainment and consequent quality problem. Clogging interferes with mould level control, as the flow control device tries to compensate for the clog.

Product defects have often been associated57 with transients in the process, such as change in casting speed, excessive fluctuation at mould level, clogging of nozzle, and change of tundish. It has been observed that entrapment of NMI is not uniform with respect to the casting duration or dimensions of the cast material. This can be traced to variations in the transient flow behaviour at the lower circulation zone.

Different mechanisms53-55 have been proposed to understand clogging behaviour. Deposition of NMIs rich in Al2O3 from liquid steel, premature steel solidification, and refractorysteel chemical interaction are some of the phenomena which have been observed by investigators. The location and extent of build-up have been found to depend on the design and composition of the refractory material, the steel grade and the process route. With gradual improvement in the quality of steel in terms of total oxygen content over the last 20 yerars, a limit has been reached as far as process improvement is concerned. The best solution to effect further control of nozzle clogging appears to be improvement in design and composition of refractory. Development of anti-clogging refractories is a frontier research area today. Variable performance in industrial practice, and high cost are the two challenges which have to be overcome in this development effort. Mould Operation Caster mould is the last refining stage, which offers a possibility of inclusion removal, though to a limited extent. Inclusions which are carried into the mould through SEN may comprise the following varieties
q q q q

Fig 8 : Phenomena associated with continuous casting

Curved vis--vis Straight Vertical Mould Straight vertical moulds have been known to entrap relatively less inclusions58 than curved moulds. Inclusions spiral up towards the inside radius, where these have been found to concentrate at specific location of about one-quarter of thickness59 corresponding to 2 to 3m below the meniscus60. The relative distributions of cleanliness as measured from total oxygen content across the slab thickness61 for a typical curved and a vertical mould are shown in Fig 9. The chemistry and process of refining, and hence the average cleanliness are similar for both the casters. Average total oxygen content measurement at thickness interval of every 25 mm has revealed substantial accumulation of inclusions at and up to 50 mm from the inner radius in case of a curved mould. The distribution is by and large flat for a straight mould. The physical significance of relatively poor cleanliness at or adjacent to slab surface corresponding to the inner radius of a curved mould essentially means this surface of the rolled product would indicate higher incidence of defects. Mould Flux Powder or granules used in the mould form various layers. The solid layer at the top protects the molten steel against thermal loss and reoxidation. The molten slag layer in contact with the liquid steel is capable of absorbing the floating inclusions, which are generated either in the mould, or transferred from tundish. Another important role played by the molten slag is to infiltrate into the gap between the inner surface of mould wall and the strand. This provides lubrication, and controls the heat transfer between the solidifying shell and the mould wall.

Deoxidation products Nozzle clogs Entrained tundish slag Reoxidation products from air absorption through nozzle leaks Additional sources of inclusions which can be formed inside the mould are Mould slag entrained due to excessive velocity of liquid steel at the top near the slag interface Precipitation of TiO2 in Ti-containing grades with drop in superheat

The different phenomena associated with casting process are schematically shown in Fig 8. Inclusions can either float up and get absorbed into the top slag layer, or they get entrapped into the solidifying shell to form permanent source of defects in the product. Floatation of inclusion is aided through buoyancy effect, fluid flow transportation induced by SEN configuration, and attachment to bubble surfaces. The nature of discharge of liquid steel from SEN and flow conditions inside the mould are influenced by the configuration and dimension of its ports. Mathematical and physical modeling have been extensively used to identify the optimum design and depth of SEN which would facilitate inclusion flotation.



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plate is shown in Fig. 10. The massive entrapment detected in the defect region has been found to contain oxides of Si, Ca and Na, along with elemental carbon. Presence of scale (iron oxide) adjacent to the defect indicates that either the entrapment was present on the surface or at the sub-surface region of the cast material. It got exposed either in the reheating furnace, or during the early stage of hot deformation. Molten slag layer of mould flux contains oxides of Si, Ca and Na as the main constituents, along with moderate quantity of Al-oxide and elemental S. Presence of elemental carbon therefore clearly confirms that unmelted or sintered solid constituents present above the molten slag layer got entrapped due to excessive turbulence.

Fig 9 : Distribution of total oxygen content along slab thickness of 0.05% carbon steel cast in curved and straight moulds

Mould flux consists of various constituents which can be essentially thought to be of three broad categories CaO and SiO2 are responsible for controlling basicity. CaF2 and Na2O influence the melting range and the viscosity. Amount and type of carbon, on the other hand, control the melting rate. Prefused granules are preferred by most of the steelmakers because of its obvious advantages of better flowability, homogeneity, and less chance of direct entrapment, as compared to normal powder. Irregularities in the mould in the form of strong surface turbulence at the meniscus can cause entrainment of mould slag, or even entrapment of the solid from the top layer. Such eventualities may crop up due to the following incidences.
q q q

Uncontrolled flow from SEN Strong rinsing with argon in the tundish stopper Sudden change in casting speed etc.
50 m Fig 10 : Entrapment of unmelted casting powder along with scale

Automatic mould level control (AMLC) has been found to be an indispensable tool to regulate meniscus turbulence within tolerable limits. Incidence of entrapment of unmelted solid constituents of mould flux in the solidifying strand has been found to cause shell-type surface lamination in the final product. Once such typical defect on the surface of hot rolled and pickled thick

Asymmetric flow pattern of liquid steel in the mould may result in vortex formation even during an otherwise normal casting operation. This may lead to entrainment of emulsified liquid slag in the vicinity of SEN. This has been observed and documented 62 with water modeling as well as mathematical analysis. The turbulence at the interface between the liquid steel and molten slag resembles

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Marangonbi effect63. The drag and the entrainment of slag into liquid steel can be minimised by increasing the slag viscosity and the interfacial tension, and through optimum configuration of SEN. The interfacial tension has been reported63 to be drastically reduced in presence of surface active elements like S and O. Large content of oxide inclusions and high S grade are thus expected to increase the potential of O and S at the interface through chemical exchange. This is turn aids higher incidence of slag entrainment. Sliver defect in the form of thin slag line has been traced to entrainment of emulsified slag either from tundish or mould. It has been observed that this defect is normally found at the centre or off centre location of product width, and get exposed in the thinner gauges after heavy deformation of the cast slab. It can therefore be concluded that slag entrainment occurs well inside the slab thickness and adjacent to the central region of its width. The origin of slag with respect to tundish or mould is distinguished from the constituents detected with the help of EDX or WDX attachment of SEM. Tundish slag predominantly consists of CaO, SiO2 and MgO. Mould slag, on the other hand, normally contains CaF2, Na2O and sometimes K2O, in addition to CaO and SiO2. Defects Along Casting Sequence Cleanliness distribution has been found to be non-uniform along casting duration or length. The start of casting, transition between two heats, and the end of sequence are particularly prone to relatively higher incidence of NMIs. The distribution of shell-type surface lamination and sliver of slag line defects in thick ( 3 mm hot rolled and pickled) and thinner gauges (< 1 mm cold rolled) of stainless steel products have been carefully monitored64 during three heat casting sequence. The origins of defects have been traced essentially to reoxidation product and entrained slag. Metallography investigation and careful correlation with process parameters have been helpful for identification of the origin of defect. The variation in the incidence has been observed in both thicker and thinner gauges of rolled products processed from the following categories of cast material :
q q

Only Shell-type of surface lamination is observed in thicker ( 3 mm) gauges of rolled products. Reoxidation appears to be the major cause of this defect. Entrapment of mould flux has also contributed to a lesser extent. Sliver or slag line defect is predominant only in thinner (< 1 mm) gauges of rolled products. Emulsified slag entrained either in tundish or in mould has been found to be only source of this defect. Cleanliness is least and consequently defect incidence is maximum at the start of sequence. Defect incidence is minimum during steady-state casting. Transition between two heats and end of sequence have also registered relatively higher level of entrapment of NMIs.

It is thus essential to process only the cast material corresponding to the steady-state of casting for product applications having stringent quality requirements. The material from transient stages such as start or end of sequence, or corresponding to change of heat, should be used only for the normal applications conforming to less exacting quality standard.

Fig 11 : Distribution of shell type of surface lamination in thick coils related to casting sequence

Start of casting sequence (casting length of five metre) Steady-stage casting during first heat (casting length of twenty five metres) Subsequent to change of ladle at the start of second heat (casting length of five metre) Steady-state casting during second and third heats (casting length of fifty metres) End of sequence (casting length of five metre).

The distribution of defect and their possible origins along casting length are shown in Figs. 11 to 14. The following observations have emerged with respect to the type of defect and their origin across the casting length, and the influence of product thickness.

Fig 12 : Relative proportion of shell and sliver type of defects in thin coils related to casting sequence



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coalescence, and floatation of the deoxidants, and their eventual absorption by slag in ladle. Small inclusions having size less than 30 mm usually remain in liquid steel, and generally do not contribute to surface defects in the final product.

Use of effective slag stopper can restrict carryover of primary slag to ladle during tapping to a level of below 3 kg/ton of steel. This ensures low content of FeO+MnO in ladle slag, and consequently controls total O in liquid steel. Reoxidation of liquid steel during discharge from ladle to tundish is prevented with the aid of shroud and argon shielding. This restricts the incidence of lamination type surface defect in rolled product. Suitable flow control devices located at optimum locations in tundish facilitate higher residence time and lower dead volume of liquid steel. This together with basic slag ensure that majority of the large (>30 mm) inclusions float up and get absorbed. Flow conditions of liquid steel inside the caster mould are influenced by the configuration and dimension of SEN ports, and the type (curved or straight) of mould. Entrapment of mould slag and other exogenous constituents can be restricted employing suitable design and operating parameters. Entrapment of exogenous NMIs associated with surface defects has been found to be non-uniform with respect to casting duration or length of cast material. Incidence of product defects has been found to be relatively higher during the transients of casting process. Sudden change in speed, excessive fluctuation of mould level, clogging of SEN, and change of ladle or tundish, result in inferior cleanliness, and therefore poor quality.

Fig 13: Origin of surface defects in thick coils related to casting sequence

Fig 14 : Origin of surface defects in thin CR coils related to casting sequence


The author is thankful to his colleagues of RDCIS and different plants of SAIL for their help and support. Permission of RDCIS management to publish the paper is gratefully acknowledged.

Cleanliness is an important factor which influences surface quality of steel product. Relatively higher content of residuals such as S, P, O, N, H, and larger size of NMIs have been found to be responsible for generating surface defects in rolled products. The type and intensity of defect depends on the size, shape and nature of inclusions. Modern secondary refining techniques can restrict S, P and H to reasonable limits. Total O, or pick up of N during the final stages of steelmaking and casting, are today regarded as an indirect measure of steel cleanliness. The level of cleanliness, or in other words, maximum content of O, or the maximum size of NMI which can be tolerated in steel, is application specific. 20 to 30 ppm of total O, and maximum inclusion size of 100 mm are adequate for normal steel grades. Applications for DI can, tyre cord and bearing have more stringent requirements with respect to both content and size of inclusions. Secondary refining and casting parameters have profound influence on the quantity and size of NMIs. Suitable technique and duration of refining facilitate

1. Surface Defects in Automobile Sheets, M. A. Benyakovsky and Y. P. Sergeyer, Moscow, 1971. 2. Surface Defects in Hot Rolled Flat Steel Products, 2nd Edition, Stahl und Eisen, Dusseldorf, 1996. 3. Surface Defects in Cold Rolled Steel Products, 2nd Edition, Stahl und Eisen, Dusseldorf, 1996. 4. C. Genzano, J, J. Madias, D. Dalmass and J. Petroni, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 2002, 85, 325. 5. M. Rinaldi and L. Capotosti; Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 2002, 85, 487. 6. L. D. Way, Materials Science and Technology, 2001, 17, 1175. 7. D. H. Kindt and M. Byme, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1991, 74, 33. 8. C. Genzano and J. Madias, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 2002, 85, 325. 9. L. Reda, C. Genzano and J. Madias, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 2002, 85, 343.

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10. S. K. Ray, Surface Quality of Steel Product : Role of Chemistry, Secondary Refining and Continuous Casting, Allied Publisher, 2005. 11. S. K. Ray, Steel India, 2004, 27, 20. 12. S. K. Ray and S. K. Bhattacharyya, Proceedings of National Seminar on Developments in Materials Processing, Calcutta, 1994. 13. K. W. Lange, International Materials Reviews, 1988, 33, 53. 14. W. B. Morrison, Ironmaking and Steelmaking, 1989, 16, 123. 15. N. Hirashima, R. Nishihara, Y. Takasaki and S. Kitamura, La Revue de Metallurgie - CIT, 97, 309. 16. K. Ogawa, Proceedings of 143th and 144th Nishiyama Technical Symposium, Tokyo, Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, 1992. 17. H. Gao, Steelmaking (in Chinese), 2000, 16(2), 38. 18. M. Goransson, F. Reinholdsson and K. Willman, Iron and Steelmaker, 1999, 26(5), 53. 19. R. Kiessling, Metal Science, 1980, 15(5), 161. 20. K. Tanizawa, Proceedings of 1st European Conference on Continuous Casting, Florence, Italy, 1991, 1491. 21. L. Zhang, B. G. Thomas and X. Wang, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 2002, 85, 431. 22. T. Malkiewicz and S. Rudik, Journal of Iron & Steel Institute, 1963, 210, 210, 33. 23. R. Kiessling, Non-metallic inclusions in steel, 2nd Edition, 1997, The Institute of Materials, London. 24. M. Burty, C. Louis, P. Dunand and P. Osmonth, La Revue de Matallurgie-CIT, 2000, 97(6), 775. 25. L. Zhang ad K. Cai, Report, Bao Steel, 1997. 26. C. Bonilla : Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1993, 76, 41. 27. T. Hansen, P. Jonsson, K. torresvoll and G. Runnsjo, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 83, 2000, 207. 28. K. Okohira, N. Sato and H. Mori, Transactions of Iron & Steel Institute of Japan, 1974, 14, 103. 29. G. Stolte, Stahl und Eisen, 1989, 109(22), 1089. 30. M. T. Burns, J. Schade and C. Newkirk, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1991, 74, 513. 31. S. Armstrong, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1993, 76, 475. 32. S. D. Melville and L. Brinkmeyer, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1995, 78, 563. 33. N. Bannenberg, ad K. Harste, La Revue de Metallurgie - CIT, 1993, 90(1), 71. 34. M. Burty, P. Dunand and J. P. Bitt, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1997, 80, 647. 35. S. D. Melville and L. Brinkmeyer, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1995, 78, 563. 36. S. Chakraborty and D. A. Dukelow, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1996, 79, 487. 37. L. Zhang, W. Pluschkell and B. G. Thomas, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 2002, 85, 463. 38. M. Suzuki, R. Yamaguchi, K. Murakami and M. Nakada, ISIJ International, 2001, 41, 247.

39. L. Zhang and K. Cai, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 2001, 84, 275. 40. T. Emi, 8th China Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, Beijing, 1994, 8. 41. S. B. Ahn, J. S. Kim, C. H. Yim and Y. H. Kim, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 2001, 84, 3. 42. H. P. Haastert, Stahl und Eisen, 1991, III(3), 102. 43. H. Narzt, K. Jahdl, T. Fastner and K. Antilinger, Proceedings of Second European Conference on Continuous Casting, 1, Dusseldrof, 1994, 63. 44. S. R. Cameron, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1992, 75, 327. 45. P. Rasmussem, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1994, 77, 219. 46. S. K. Ray, B. Sarkar and S. K. Bhattacharyya, Technical Report, 1993, RDCIS, SAIL, Ranchi, India. 47. K. P. Hughes, C. T. Schade and M. A. Shepherd, Iron and Steelmaker, 1995, 22, 35. 48. H. Jacobi, H. Nilsson, H. J. Ehremberg and K. Wannenberg, Proceedings of Second European Conference on Continuous Casting, 1, Dusseldorf, 1994, 46. 49. L. Kuchar and L. Holappa, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1993, 76, 495. 50. C. Marique, Proceedings, Scaninjet VII, Part III, Mefos, Luleaa, 1995, 107. 51. M. M. Wolf, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1996, 79, 367. 52. P. Bellomo, M. De Santis and M. Arno, Proceedings of Second European Conference on Continuous Casting, 1, Dusseldorf, 1994, 55. 53. Y. Vermeulen, B. Coletti, P. Wollants, B. Blanpai and F. Haers, Steel Research, 2000, 71, 391. 54. F. L. Kemey, McLean Symposium Proceedings, ISS, Warrendale, 1998, 103. 55. B. G. Thomas and H. Bai, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 2001, 84, 895. 56. B. G. Thomas, 19th Electric Furnace Conference Proceedings, 2001, 3. 57. M. B. Assar, P. H. Dauby and G. D. Lawson, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 2000, 83, 397. 58. H. Tanaka, R. Tsujino, A. Imamura, R. Nishihara and J. Konishi, ISIJ International, 1994, 34, 498. 59. M. Hashio, N. Tokudo, M. Kawasaki and T. Watanabe, Secondary Process Technology Conference, Warrendale, PA, USA, ISS, 1981, 2, 65. 60. B. G. Thomas, A. Denissov and H. Bai, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 1997, 80, 375. 61. S. K. Ray, Unpublished research work, 1999. 62. R. Sobolewski and D. J. Hurtux, Continuous Casting, 1992, 6, 73. 63. R. Bommaraju, T. Jackson and J. Lucas, Iron and Steelmaker, 1992, 21. 64. S. K. Ray, Presented at NMD celebration of IIM, 1993, Hyderabad.



VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

Indigenous Effort in Development of 85% Al2O3 Refractory Plastic

S N Laha*

A project was undertaken to develop an import substitution refractory monolithic product, (85% Al2O3 Refractory Plastic), with the following targets (i) This 85% Al2O3 plastic refractory should be suitable for lining the ladle (pony type) as well as for the working liming & spout of an induction furnace (50 Kg capacity) melting Cobalt - Chromium - Tungsten - Carbon and Nickel - Chromium - Iron - Silicon Hard Facing Alloys. (ii) The life should be around 45 heats. (iii) The inclusions originating from refractory must be within specified limits. (iv) The material should possess good workability for ease of application. (v) The material must be techno-economically viable. + What is a Refractory Plastic?

Table 1 : Investigation of imported sample of coral plastic of H/W, USA

Item Properties CHEMICAL, % Al2O3 SiO2 TiO2 Fe2O3 MgO CaO P2O5 PHYSICAL B. D. gm/cc CCS after drying 1100C Kg/cm2 after heating 8150 C 14000C 16000C M.O.R. after drying 1000C, Kg/cm2 after heating 8150C 14000C 16500C Permanent Linear Change % after heating, 3hrs, 14000C 16500C Corrosion Index Texture Properties Evaluated

84.5 8.9 2.0 1.0 0.2 Tr 3.3 2.77 291 550 578 670 92 106 127 176 +0.6 -0.8 Satisfactory Fine to medium

It is a type of monolithic refractory material, which when installed in situ form a joint free structure. It is a mixture of refractory aggregate and binder and is usually tempered with water. Supplied in stiff-plastic consistency for different applications without further preparation. It is installed by ramming with a pneumatic rammer or simply by wooden mallet.

The material has high resistance to corrosion against slags during processing of hard facing alloys (i.e. Co-Cr-W-C & Ni-Cr-Fe-C) Its high Strength is maintained after firing at different temperatures.

+ Special Features of Plastic Refractory;

q q

Excellent workability (20-30 workability index) Easily formed into required shape and contour with net shape. Quick in installation and repair. Offers energy savings and compared with brick production.

+ Selection of raw materials and binders for high alumina plastic refractory :

q q

High alumina aggregate (Fused Alumina) for high temperature stability and corrosion resistance against metal/slag. Fine alumina with selective reactivity for improving bonding characteristic by better reaction in phosphate bonded system. A good plastic clay useful for plasticity and sintering in phosphate bonded material. Some quantity of high aluminous material for shrinkage adjustment at high temperature and mullite enhancer. There are two ways of selecting binders in phosphate bonded material: - Direct addition of a previously prepared binder e.g. Monoaluminium Phosphate. (MAP)

+ Investigation and evaluation of Imported Sample : Details of chemical analysis and physical properties of sample, Coral Plastic (H/W, USA) has been provided in Table 1. + Properties of a standard plastic refractory

It is a high alumina refractory material with 85% Al2O3 and low impurities contens (Fe2O3 <1%) It is a Phosphate Bonded material (around 3.5% P2O5) Its volume remains stable up to 1650C (Shrinkage <1%).

q q

*Natasha Caramic & Consultancy Services, Dum Dum, Kolkata 700 074, At the time, the work was carried out, the author was with the Tata Refractories Ltd. Belpahar, Orissa, He is a member of IIM.

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- Forming a binder in the system by a reaction between an active component of the body and orthphosphoric acid. + Characteristics of Alumina: Fused Alumina
q q q q q q q

Phosphate Binder Type and Special Features of MAP Most frequently used Binder :
q q

Phosphoric Acid Liquid Aluminium Phosphate (e.g. Monoaluminium Phosphate - MAP) Combination of above

High chemical purity & melting point (~ 20000C) High volume stability at elevated temperature. Excellent hot strength. Extremely inert and wear resistant. Excellent resistance to corrosive action of metal and slag. Cost is one third of tabular alumina. Indigenously available.

Note : Phosphoric acid is difficult to handle & corrosive in nature. + Characteristics of MAP and typical changes on heating

MAP is the first reaction product when phosphoric acid reacts with Al2O3, at 1000-2000 C, MAP does not harden readily at room temp. MAP is soluble in water, gives good bonding strength and stability etc. When heated to 1000C, MAP loses part of its water and harden, but it reabsorbs moisture, when exposed to air and as a result bonding strength drops Temperature over 3500C is required to produce non-hygroscopic behavior. At high temp, a glass with high refractoriness is formed.

q q

Tabular Alumina
q q

Very high chemical purity & melting point (20400C). Exceptional strength & volume stability at elevated temperature.

q q

High resistance to thermal spalling. Excellent resistance to corrosion/erosion by metal/slag.

Aluminium metaphosphate, (Al(PO3)3 formed at 400-5000C changes at 700-1000 0 C to aluminium orthophosphate (AlPO 4) in the presence of Al 2O 3 The latter compound resembles silica in structure. + Aggregate and Binder Selected for 85% Al2O3 refractory plastic The details of the aggregate has already been provided in Table 2. The characteristics of MAP are given below :Specific Gravity : Al(H2PO4)3 Solid Content Al2O3 Content 1.45-1.48 46-47% 48.5-48.7% 110 gms per liter

Required Characteristics of Alumina

q q q q q

Controlled particle size and soda content. Grinds readily to ultimate crystals. High thermal reactivity. High purity. Certain grades are indigenously available.

The Table 2 provides chemical properties of raw materials with the possibility for formulation of the 85% Al2O3 refractory plastic.
Table 2 : Typical Properties of Raw Materials
% Fused Alumina TYPE-1 TYPE-2 Calcined Alumina Ball Clay Bentonite Mono-aluminium Phosphate 95.86 98.82 99.20 28.15 16.84 7.1 0.90 0.60 0.10 0.25 0.07 0.03 2.32 Tr. 0.01 2.63 1.14 Tr 0.15 0.41 0.30 0.13 2.36 Tr 0.02 Tr 0.01 0.68 0.15 Tr 0.33 Tr 0.05 0.26 1.52 Tr 0.10 0.80 0.25 7.20 5.01 3.66 P2O5 34.2% Al2O3 SIO2 Fe2O3 TiO2 Na2O K2O CaO L.O.I. Mgo

+ Manufacturing Process & Properties for 85% Al 2O3 refractory plastic After judicious choice of respective raw materials with appropriate grain size (max. 6 mm) except binder (MAP), all materials were mixed with proper sequence in a 50 Kg capacity high intensive mixer for 15 minutes. The mix. was then packed in HDP bag, while binder was added at site with uniform mixing. Table 3 shows properties of newly developed 85% Al2O3 Refractory Plastic with two grades (I & II). Performances of these products are provided in Table 4 and compared with those of similar imported refractories.

60.77 0.% 55.45 14.51 Tr Tr



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Table 3 : Properties of 85% Al2O3 Refractory Plastic

Type of Product Al2O3% Fe2O3% P2O5% 1.81 B.D.gms/cc CCS, kg/cm2 110 C 8150C 14000C 16000C MOR, kg/cm2 1000 C 8150 C 14000 C 16000 C OLC% 14000 C 16500 C LIFE IN HEATS I 85.04 0.67 1.84 2.75 161 293 312 355 52 67 73 83 +0.29 +0.33 25-30 II 83.76 0.53 2.78 146 367 624 683 36 69 150 149 -0.12 -0.42 65-67

Table 4 : Performance of 85% H. A. Plastic Refractory

Sl 1. Source Imported Indigenous Area of Ladle Ladle 2. Imported Indigenous Spout of induction furnace Spout of induction furnace Periodofuse Over past 10 years 1st Trial 30.10.88 & in regular use since 1989 Over past 10 years Life in no. of heats 45-50 melts 65-67 melts 40-45 melts

Fig 1 b : Photograph of spout after 65 heats

1st trial 30.10.88 & in regular since in 1989

65 melts

Above Tables 3 & 4 shows that product designated under II has performed very well in actual service condition i.e. for spout and ladle respectively Fig. 1a shows an application area of the newly developed 85% Al2O3 Refractory Plastic and Fig 1b shows the photograph of the spout area after completion of effective life of 65 heats. This result was very encouraging Fig 1c shows the refractory lining arangement

Fig 1 c : Induction Furnace Melting Hard Facing Alloys at Union Carbide Ltd.

for Induction Furnace, where newly developed 85% Al2O3 Refractory Plastic was used in working lining of spout. + Microstructure Fig 2a shows a microstructure of the newly developed 85% Al 2 O 3 Refractory Plastic. Fig2b provides a schematic microstructure conceived by the author and it can be seen that cohesion of fine powders take place around coarse sized grains and formation of considerable amount of mullite in the matrix, which helps in development of compact and improved texture with following features.
q q

Denser Structure. Improved strength (Compared with Coral Plastic) Better sinterability

Fig 1 a: Spout of induction furnace lined with newly developed 85% Aluminium Refractory Plastic (type II)

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Fig 2 a : Microstructure of 85% alumina plastic refractory (x250) Fig 4 : SEM photo of 85% alumina plastic refractory (type II) after firing at 1600 C/3hrs

diffraction and SEM study were conducted as per standard practices. Fig 3 and Fig 4 show X-ray diffraction pattern and SEM photograph respectively. It has been observed that the major phase was corundum although mullite was also present. The SEM Photograph of the fired 85% Alumina Refractory Plastic (16000C/3hrs) also reveals mullite bonding with a compact and dense structure, which accounts for the high performance of the material. + Checking of Inclusions The inclusion levels in each heat in the hard facing alloys were checked as per standard metallurgical test method.
Fig 2 b : Schematice micro structure of newly developed 85% alumina refractoryplastic (type II)

It was always well within the specified norm. + Conclusions Modern techniques of evaluation of an imported 85% Al2O3 plastic refractory has been described in details and an improved variety of high alumina refractory plastic has been developed. This newly developed refractory plastic has given excellent performance in service during

Fig 3 : X-ray diffraction data of 85% Alumina Refractory Plastic (Type I)

processing of hard facing alloys. + Acknowledgement The author sincerely thanks Mr. S. K. Bhaduri, who was associated with him in this R & D work at Tata Refractories Ltd. Lab, Belpahar, Orissa.

X-ray Diffraction and SEM Study

In order to know phases formed after heating the 85% Al2O3 refractory plastic at elevated temperatures (type II), X-ray



VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

Aluminium TechnologyA Review

R N Jena *

Extensive research, the world over, has led to better understanding of the complex chemical and mechanical phenomena involved in the process of aluminium electrolysis an achievement for technologists around the world. In about 120 yrs. aluminium, the ornamental metal for the royal elite in the last century has become the metal for the common man; an eco friendly metal for the coming centuries. Developments in aluminium electrolysis has ensured its availability at an affordable cost; whereas technological advancements in metal working has ensured myriad forms of the metal for industrial and human consumption. There is a renewed interest in alumnium around the world. The high power cost has forced many smelters, especially in the developed countries, to close down or curtail the operation. On the other hand green field and brown field smelters in other parts are adding capacity to world production. Despite the challenges from some other materials, aluminium demand is growing at a higher rate than other metal or material. The price has shown a sharp increase touching the highest figure in the last 15 years. India is on the threshold of an explosion in the production capacity for aluminium through many green filed and brown field projects in hand. Undoubtedly this is the opportune time for the review of aluminium technology and more specifically the global advancements in aluminium production, over the last 100 years. Aluminum production was based on the Hall-Heroult process invented simultaneously by the two scientists in 1886. From the level of 7500 ton per annum in 1901, the world production of Al today is more than 30 million tonnes. This growth is phenomenal and was driven by the technological developments in the basic Hall-Heroult process and other related areas. India became an aluminum producer in 1943. But the growth of aluminum industry in India occured at snails pace both in terms of production and technology. India is fortunate to have reserves of all the resources necessary for primary aluminium production, India is the fifth largest owner of bauxite. India is also amongst the first five countries in terms of deposit of coal which can be converted to electrical power at a most competitive price. The third important element is the human power. Indians are considered to be most innovative as per a study in IT industry. This innovative or cretive mindset was lacking in the aluminum industry. This has led India to be a borrower of
*Reprinted from the Procedings of the conference Aluminium Technology A Review, 11-12 Feb. 2006 organised by the IIM Angul Chapter. The author is presently with NALCO, Angul. He is a Life Member of IIM.

technology; be it carbon, aluminum electrolysis or metal forming. Is it a failure of our universities or the administrators or can we attribute this to the socio-economic slavery and the spiritualistic customs. One thing is for certain, this failure of Indian technologists was to a large extent caused by the lack of vision on the part of primary producers as well as the government. The two scientists Paul Luis Toussaint-Heroult & Charles Martin Hall are to be mentioned for their invention of electrolyte process. Even after 100 years this remains the only commercially viable process for production of aluminium. The operating practices and developmental requirements, i.e. high cell productivity, power availability, cost of power consumption, environmental guidelines in the early stages and need for lower capital investments etc, deferred widely and the developments have resulted from their priorities and strategic decisions; However the purpose was commonle to improve the overall electrolysis performance to remain competitive. The attempts to increase the pot size and amperage, for a higher production resulted in thermal imbalance of the pots. External cooling, in contrast to external heating in the initial days, were adopted to overcome the problem mostly by trial and error method. This also led to unmanageable turbulence in pots due to metal movement. The importance of magnetic effects was recognized though not understood fully. Similarly bath chemistry and the complex reactions in the pot were not appreciated. The pots in 20s were operated mostly based on experience and empirical knowledge. Increase in the size of the pot led to the development of Soderberg pots in late 20s. The research in the bath chemistry and development of analytical tools changed the scenario and by 1960 there was a reversal of trend and large size prebaked pots were developed. Both Soderberg and prebaked pots with higher pot size and amperage came into operation; though they were characterized with poorly balanced magnetic filed, higher bath inventory, higher pot voltage, poor thermal balance, lower pot life (1000-2000 days) and higher energy consumption. They were highly pollouting, especially the soderberg pots. By late 70s computer models were developed to study the interacting phenomena in pots involving complex physicochemical processes, operating simultaneously. Extensive data on heat losses, voltage losses, magnetic effects and related metal and bath flows in prototype pots, operated and studied under a wide range of operating practices, were analysed and applied for validation of computer models. Thereafter, these models were used in cell design, analysis

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of operating parameters and even for prediction of pot performance. Further these models helped in assessing the techno-economic viability. Almost all major producers, except in India, spent million of dollars for the fundamental studies and development of cell model. Aluminium Pechiney of France, now a part of Alcan, launched AP-18 technology in 1975 developed entirely based on modelling and operations perfected in prototype pots. In another 15-20 years AP introduced technologies with higher amperage i.e. AP-22, AP-30, AP-50 etc. based on modelling. The development of such high amperage pots was possible due to better understanding of the uncertainties in pot design and operation: the chemical processes, materials of construction and computer aided studies in the areas of thermal and magnetic balance. The pot lining, similarly has undergone many changes. Preformed and prebaked, anthracite blocks replaced the monolithic pot lining. With increase in current, semigraphite, graphitic and graphitised blocks came into use, in the same order. This along with improved range of sub cathode refractory and insulating materials led to lower electrical rsistance and heat flow in the cathode. However the mechanical performance of graphite based bottom lining was not satisfactory. Attempts to improve pot performance by wettable cathodes, with the use of boride coating, has not become a well accepted practice in Smelters. Use of silicon nitride bonded silicon carbide side blocks, reduced the side wall thickness but it led to side erosion problems. A stable protective side freeze (side ledge) became necessary to ensure pot life. Hence a sandwitch, i.e. a combination of SiC and graphite for side lining is the latest innovation. Extensive research into the behaviour of anodes in pots have led to improved properties and reduced net carbon consumption, as low as 390-400 kg/T against more than 500 kg in the initial days. Anode changing practices cause the greatest disturbances to a pot and its heat balance. Heat loss and frozen bath underneath the anode are the major problems. Preheating the anodes is an option to reduce these effects which also improves the performance of anodes from the early periods after changing; thus preventing nonuniform current distribution and formation of spikes. Similarly anode covering is an important activity with contrasting impact. Early covering leads to sludge formation whereas delayed covering results in anode burning & heat loss. Maintaining high superheat may solve this problem but will lead to ledge melting & lower cell life. Process control to increase the superheat just prior to anode changing together with preheated anode may be an option. The importance of anode properties especially the effect of sodium on the anode reactivity is well understood. Operation of high amperage pots has led to development of sophisticated pot superstructures with provision for

automatic pot functions. The bins in the superstructure allow continuous feeding of preheated Al 20 3 and A1F3 as per program ensuring minimum fluctuations in the bath composition. Robust multifunctional pot superstructure and other technological equipment such as overhead pot tending asemblies, anode transport vehicles, sundry equipment, devices for anode assembly maintenance etc. have made the operation easy & time saving. The progress in computer technology and development of customized hardwares and softwares for pot operation have revolutionized the process control in reduction cells. By 1965 the significance of interdependence of cell voltage with alumina concentration, especially at lower concentration levels was better understood, which subsequently formed the basis of resistance control process. Different producers have developed variations to this approach for prcess control. This tool in any of its variations help smelters in the quick diagnosis of process changes, corrections of abnormal situations etc. in an individual or a group of pots to achieve optimal operation. This includes cell resistance regulation (ACD Control). Al2O3 and AlF3 feeding, cell heat balance, work management etc. Softwares developed for automation in operation and regulation in the recent times have given specific requirements during anode changing, metal tapping etc. Improved pot regulation has helped to achieve higher current efficiency, lower energy consumption, lower anode effects, stable bath chemistry and improved pot room atmosphere. With low anode effects achieved through ALPSYS regulation, such as in NALCO, have reduced the release of per-fluoro carbons, mainly tetra fluoromethane & hexafluoroethane which is the major environmental hazard leading to depletion of ozone layer. The hottest subject in recent times is that of inert anode and drained cells. Attempts to develop an inert anode is not known to be successfull till date. After failures with metallic inert anodes some laboratory successes were achieved in Cermite anodes i.e. inert anode made of oxides. Mechanical stability in the pot is a major challenge for such anodes. The drained cell concept will become practical only when wettable cathode and inert anode (with less or nil material consumption during electrolysis) become a reality helping the technologists to maintain a small but stable ACD. The technological developments in the environmental field has made the pot operation less hazardous and more eco friendly. In general the prebaked pots as compared to Soderberg pots are less polluting. The modern dry scrubbing system with efficiencies higher than 99% ensures release of very little fluorine to atmosphere. The sophisticated equipment available today are able to measure the harmful elements in gaseous or liquid wastes in ppm / ppb levels. Accurate measurement ensures better control of hazardous wastes. 40-50% reduction of PFC emission during pot operation is a notable achievement.
(Continued to Page No. 33)



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(Continued from Page No. 28)

With the development of 500 KA Aluminium Pechiney pot, many believe that the end has come for Hall-Heroult cell with carbon anodes and aluminium cathodes. Cryolitic electrolyte with varying acidity will have to be given up due to its requirement of high temperature to remain in liquid state. Limiting factor in going bigger may not be the magnetic field or the thermal balance. The structural stability of such a large pot shell and the anodic system carrying the superstructure which can move up and down with the load of large anodes and other systems may prove to be the limiting factor. While these developments were taking place in the world, the Indian Aluminium scenario remained almost stagnant with operation of 50-90 KA pots. Marginal capacities were added during the last 60 yrs; still the production is less than 1 million tonnes. A change occurred when NALCO opted for The state of the art technology almost from the drawing board from Aluminium Pechiney i.e. AP-18 technology, On

the developmental side except for the small modifications in the systems and operating practices, the Indian technologists have not been sucessful. Globalisation has opened up new vistas for aluminium industry in India. Substantial increase in capacity is expected in the next 10 years. This growth need to be augmented with intellectual support; through education, institution and industry based research, and collaborative visionary approach to technological advancements. In a little over hundred years, Global Aliminium industry has grown faster than any other metal; even Iron and Steel. The journey from 5 KA to 500 KA, from 28 KWh to 13 Kwh energy conservation per Kg and achievements in reducing environmental impact are the best examples. Harmful trace emissions of PFC were identified and restrained, strengthening the industrys commitment towards environment preservation for the next generation.


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VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006



Failure Analysis of a Wire Rope

Prof U K Chatterjee *

In one of the lots of 42.5 mm dia wire ropes (6/17S construction) supplied to one of the collieries in central India, one wire from a particular strand out of 6 strands in the rope had shown multiple wire breakage. Wires from other five strands in the same rope were intact. The diameter of the wire is 3.7 mm. The expected life of the rope is 10 lac MT of coal transportation on an average, before replacement with new rope. The rope in question had carried only 2 lac MT of coal when this multiple wire breakage from a particular strand was observed. The following wire samples were made available for the purpose of failure analysis: a) b) c) Wire samples from the breakage portion of the particular strand Wire samples from the strands in which breakage has not taken place Wire samples from the old rope that gave satisfactory service life.

Since this is satisfied in the present case, the possibility of failure due to bending fatigue alone can be eliminated.


The rope was new (only a month old) and it had sufficient lubrication in the core and on the surface and no evidence of corrosion on the failed rope was observed during inspection at site. So, the possibility of failure due to thinning down of the wire due to corrosion is also eliminated. The physical appearance of the fragments of the failed wire is shown in Fig. 1. The chiseled ends and twisting in one fragment are indicative of extensive necking prior to fracture. A secondary crack is also distinctly visible in the twisted portion.


1. All the wires were reported to have been drawn from steel having the following chemistry: C 0.65-0.69% Mn 0.60-0.90% Si 0.15-0.35% S 0.025% max P 0.025% max The wet chemical analysis of the wires confirmed this composition in all the cases. 2. The microstructure in all the three cases conformed to the usual pearlitic-ferritic structure of steels in the carbon range of 0.65-0.7%, i.e. mostly fine pearlite with very little ferrite. The microhardness level was raised from 360 VPN in the centre to 400 VPN at the periphery, which can be attributed to localized surface deformation due to continual rubbing of the wire with the sheave. However, the rise in hardness is very marginal, and should not be considered a reason for failure. No abnormality due to martensite formation from any retained austenite is suspected from the hardness values obtained. Bending-fatigue failure of a steel wire rope because of insufficient strength has been reported in ASM Metals Handbook, 8th Edition, vol. 10. p. 459. On enquiry with the manufacturer, it is learnt that the sheave diameter over which the rope moves is approximately 450 mm. A sheave size of 90 to 100 times the rope diameter is usually recommended to avoid failures due to bending. 7.
Fig 1 : The fractured ends of the wire


The fracture surfaces of the failed wire samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after ultrasonic cleaning and gold coating. The fracture surfaces have shown the presence of inclusions Fig. 2a, some of which are quite large in size Fig. 2b. The EDAX spectrum of the inclusions is given in Fig. 3. The chemical analysis of the inclusions is shown to be: 12.44 wt% Al, 43.95 wt% Si, 1.31 wt% Ca, 1.01 wt% Mg, and the remaining Fe. These indicate that the inclusions are very likely to be the products of slag/flux entrapped during continuous casting of the billet.


*The author is presently working in IIT, Kharagpur, He is a LM of IIM



VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

fractured Fig. 6. Fatigue striation-like marks in the matrix have been detected at higher magnification Fig. 7. Though push-pull type of stresses are introduced during the periodic loading and unloading of the buckets meeting the requirements of fatigue crack propagation, these marks do not conform to the classical fatigue striation marks. The final fracture is an overload failure of the reduced cross section exhibiting considerable necking. The large inclusions are also responsible foe the reduction of the effective cross section of the wire.
Fig 2. Fractographs showing (a) a colony of inclusions, and (b) a large inclusion

Fig 6. Cracks visible inside an inclusion

Fig 3. EDAX spectrum of the inclusion shown in Fig 2a

Decohesion of the interfaces of the inclusions and the matrix occurred under tensile loading Fig. 4, and cracks had initiated from the voids created by decohesion and had propagated further in the matrix Fig. 5. Some of the inclusions had also

Fig. 7. Fatigue striation-like marks observed in the metal matrix

Fig 4. Decohesion at matrix-inclusion interface

The failure of the wire appears to be due to fatigue cracks initiated at the inclusion-matrix interfaces.


The inclusions are likely to be the products of slag/flux in the continuous casting of the billets.


Since only one wire element has failed prematurely, it can be concluded that the entrapment of the products of slag/flux was accidental in a portion of a particular billet. This may not have any adverse effect on the normal performance of other wire elements.

Corrective Measure
Fig. 5. Propagation of cracks originated at the matrixinclusion interface

A stricter vigilance of the billet casting to avoid any such accidental entrapment of the slag/flux products is suggested.

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Metal Science

Greener Surface Treatment also improves Performance

Surface treatment technology that reportedly enables car manufacturers to select lighter metals and thus cut fuel consumption and emissions has been developed by Keronite Ltd., Cambridge, England. The Keronite process makes it possible to replace steel with magnesium and aluminum to improve performance and reduce the effects of automobiles on the environment. In the Keronite technology, plasma electrolytic oxidation converts the surface of light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and titanium into extremely hard, dense ceramics with outstanding corrosion and wear resistance. An immersion process enables treating the inner and outer surfaces of even the most complex shapes. Researchers report that the treatment has improved automobile engine efficiency by reducing the temperature of the aluminum pistons by 30 0C (54 0F). The chemical solutions are environmentally acceptable as well. No chromium or other heavy metals, ammonia or acids are present, and no hazardous waste is generated. Early tests also show no problems with the recycling of magnesium components. For more information: Anne Wilde, e-mail: . Keronite Ltd.

Titania Nanomaterial Superior Strength



Coatings composed of titanium dioxide manoparticles provide superior strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, according to Altair Nanotechnologies Inc., Reno, Nev. Nanosized titanium dioxide materials act as crack arresters, enhancing toughness in coatings applied to materials for harsh environments. Coating strength is also significantly higher, because the porosity of the Altair material is 2.5 times less than that of conventionally applied traditional materials. The coatings can be applied via high velocity oxyfuel, which is less expensive than the traditional method of air plasma spray. F W Gartner, Houston, Texas, has been applying Altairs titanium dioxide nano material to coat industrial titanium ball valves for the chemical, mining, and petroleum industries. According to Gartners Jimmy Walker, We are delighted with the results we have been achieving with the Altair materials and the development of proprietary coating processes (U.S. utility patent no. 6835449). Our customers are using a coating with twenty five times the dry sand abrasion resistance and three times the erosion resistance of conventional coatings. Other applications include coatings for rotor blades in gas turbine engines and aircraft jet engines. For further information : Roy Graham, Altair Nanotechnologies Inc., e-mail:
(Ref : Advanced Materials & Processes)

(Ref : Advanced Materials & Processes)

New Developments
modified versions of HSLA 100 steel with respect to chemical composition. These steels were developed by TMCP route with a focus on application in the defence sector. These steels possess unique combination of 1100-1200 MPa YS, 1300-1500 MPa UTS along with a 80-120 Joule toughness at room temperature in as rolled condition. Metal and Steel Factory, Ishapore and C Q A (Met), Ministry of Defence, Government of India confirmed their willingness to manufacture these steels in their plant after successful plant trials.
(Ref : Dr S Chatterjee, BESU, Shibpur, Howrah)

Microalloyed High Strength Steel - Developed by Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur and successfully tested at Metal and Steel Factory, Ishapore
Recently a new class of HSLA steels has been developed by Dr S Chatterjee and Dr A Ghosh of the Development of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, in a research project sponsored by Ministry of Steel, Government of India. These steels are basically

Important Announcement
To : All IIM Members : This is for information of all concerned that the candidates who have been declared passed at the AMIIM Part-I and/or Part-II Examinations by December 2005 on the basis of absolute marking system are not eligible to get duplicate grade cards showing equivalent grades. The grading system will be in vogue w.e.f June 2006 AMIIM Examinations.



VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

NMD - ATM 2006

Jamshedpur, 13-16 November 2006
The 44th National Metallurgists Day (NMD) will be celebrated in the usual grand manner, this time in the Steel City of Jamshedpur between 13th and 16th November 2006. Besides the events that accompany the NMD celebrations and the Annual Technical Meeting (ATM) every year, the 2006 Meeting will include an International Symposium on Steels for Automotives (STATS 2006). The subject for the international symposium has been chosen in view of the emerging Indian automobile industry and the fact that Jamshedpur is the place where the story of Indian steel began, almost one hundred years ago. The 2006 function is being jointly organized by The Indian Institute of Metals (IIM), Jamshedpur Chapter and Tata Steel Limited. International Symposium At international symposium on Steels for Automotives (STATS 2006) will be held on 13th November at Tata Auditorium, XLRI Campus, Jamshedpur. Experts from Japan, Europe and USA as well as from India will deliver invited lectures in the symposium. NMD-ATM On the occasion of the 44th National Metallurgists Day - 14th November, 2006, distinguished Metallurgists of India will be honoured by the Ministry of Steel and IIM for their outstanding contributions in the field of metallurgical education, research and industry. All the events of 14th November will take place at the same venue. The ATM will be held on 15-16th November in different venues close to XLRI and Tata Steels Centre for Excellence. The ATM, as usual, will comprise both oral and poster sessions. About 150-175 papers will be presented over 2 days in three parallel sessions and the remaining papers will be in the form of posters. The ATM Technical and Publication Committee shall have the discretion to finally allocate the paper to Oral/Poster Session. For both Oral and Poster session papers, any interested participant should submit an abstract of 50 (fifty) words for publication in the Transactions of IIM and extended abstract in 500 words for scrutiny by the ATM Publication Committee latest by 31st July 2006. The texts of these abstracts must be in MS Word using font size 12 normal on one side of a full size paper in Times New Roman with double spacing. The title of the paper must be in Capital letters, centre aligned, in font 14 bold with double spacing along with the names of the author in bold and their affiliation in font 10. Two hard copies of the Abstract along with a CD containing the soft copies clearly labelled with the title of the paper and the name of the first author should be sent to the following address : Dr Amit Chatterjee Chairman, Technical and Publication Committee NMD-ATM 2006, Tata Steel, Mail Box No. G-51, Jamshedpur e-mail : Metallography Contest A Metallography contest will be held as a part of ATM. Monotone/ Colour Micrographs in A-4 size obtained using optical microscope (Colour/Black & White), SEM, TEM or any other advanced imajing technique will be displayed during the ATM. Advance registration is compulsory for participation in the Metallography Contest. At least one of the authors must register as a deligate. Entries for Students will be judged in a separate category. Entries should be sent to Dr D Bhattacharjee, Chairman, Hall Committee, NMD-ATM 2006, Tata Steel, Mail Box No. W-212, Jamshedpur-831 001 Technical Exhibition There will be a technical exhibition during the NMD celebrations. The exhibition will showcase the latest advancements in the area of equipment, products/processes, controls, etc. It will highlight the current trends in the metallurgical industry. To participate in this exhibition, the exhibitors should contact Mr S K Roy, Chairman Exhibition Committee, NMD/ATM-2006, Tata Steel, Mail Box No. G-50, Jamshedpur 831 001 and the matter should be sent latest by 15th October 2006. The tariffs and other details are as follows :
Amount Indian Rs. 30,000 Overseas : US$1000 Benefits 1. free delegate. Each stall will be 9 sq.m. in area and will be provided with 1 table, 2 chairs, 3 spot-lights, 5A plug point and Name fascia.

Souvenir This will carry technical articles by eminent experts on contemporary topics of metallurgical research, information related to the NMD. ATM, the International Symposium and articles about sponsors, etc. This will be widely circulated among the participants, professionals working in the metallurgical field and industries in India and abroad. Advertisements are solicited for insertions in the souvenir. The matter for advertisement should be sent to the Chairman, Technical and Publication Committee before 15th October 2006. Advertisement rates are :
Special Colour Page Full Page (Black and White ) Half Page (Black and White) Indian Overseas Rs. 25,000 US $ 1,500 Rs. 20,000 US $ 750 Rs. 10,000 US $ 375

Registration Fees Participants who wish to attend may register : i) only for International Symposium (Nov. 13th), ii) only for NMD-ATM (Nov. 14th to 16th), or iii) for both the events. Members may download the registration form from the official IIM-NMD website at http// The registration fees for these options are given below :
Category Members of IIM STATS 2006 NMD-ATM 2006 Both Events Members of IIM from Academic Institution STATS 2006 NMD-ATM 2006 Both Events Student Members STATS 2006 NMD-ATM 2006 Both Events Amount Rs. 1,000/Rs. 2,000/Rs. 2,500/Rs. 800/Rs. 1,500/Rs. 2,000/Rs. 500/Rs. 700/Rs. 1,000/Category Non-Members STATS 2006 NMD-ATM 2006 Both Events Overseas Delegates STATS 2006 NMD-ATM 2006 Both Events Spouse of Indian Delegates (for one or both the events) Spouse of Overseas Delegates (for one or both the events) Amount Rs. 1,500/Rs. 2,500/Rs. 3,000/US $ 200 US $ 300 US $ 400 Rs 1,000/US $ 100/-

Payments should be made by Cheque/DD drawn in favour of The Indian Institute of Metals NMD-ATM, 2006, payable at State Bank of India, Jamshedpur and should be sent along with the registration form to the Office of Vice President (Kalinganagar Project).

Address for Correspondence : Office of Vice President (Kalinganagar Project), Mail Box No. E-38 Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur 831 001. Telephone : (0657) 2424602, Fax : (0657) 2433856 e-mail : Important Dates to Remember Submission of abstracts of ATM Papers July 31, 2006 Intimation of acceptance (Yes/No/Poster) August 31, 2006 Last date for registration October 15,2006 Last date for entry for metallography contest October 15, 2006 Advertisement in the souvenir October 15, 2006 Technical exhibition October 15, 2006 Final poster submission November 1, 2006 Special papers by students 1st October/ (submission/final decision) 1st November 2006

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News Update

Living Steel Partners with Bengal Shrachi for Sustainable Housing Kolkata, 25 March 2006-Living Steel, a global programme managed by the International Iron and Steel Institute, today signs the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Bengal Shrachi, a real estate developer in Kolkata. The MoU is signed by IISI, Bengal Shrachi, and Tata Steel. The MoU outlines the partnership between Living Steel and Bengal Sharchi to demonstrate sustainable steel housing in Kolkata, India, The housing would be constructed based on the winning entry selected from the international architectural competition sponsored by Living Steel in association with International Union of Architects. Presently ten architectural firms around the world are preparing their designs for the Kolkata housing which will be judged in May this year by an international jury comprising of Glenn Murchit, Charles Correa, Andrew Ogorzalek, Jaime Lerner, James Berry and Nicholas de Monchaux.
(Ref : IISI Website)

process route of coal-based direct reduction plant-blast furnace-electric arc furnace-ladle furnace billet casterlong product mills in phases.
(Ref : Economic Times)

roped in to canalize exports. The iron ore export policy is being jointly examined by the Dept of Commerce, Dept of Mines and Ministry of Steel.
Ref : Economic Times

Tata Iron & Steel to build New Sinter Plant This is Tiscos fourth sinter plant at their Jamshedpur steel works based on Outokumpurs travelling grate technology. The new sinter plant, with the annual capacity of 2.3 million t, is expected to be on stream by June 2007. (
(Ref : M P T International)

Bhushan places Steelmaking and Rolling Equipment Orders Bhushan Steel and Strips Ltd., New Delhi, has awarded SMS Demag AG the contract for the supply of an electric steelmaking plant including a twin hot metal desulphurization plant, a Conarc furnace unit, two ladle furnaces and an RH vacuum degasser. Ther annual steel production capacity is planned to be approx. 1.95 million t. Commissioning of the steelmaking plant is scheduled for mid-2007. Bhushan has also ordered from SMS Demag the supply of a single-strand slab caster plus down-stream hot rolling mill. The continuous caster will be designed for a maximum casting speed of 2.2 m/min. Commissioning is scheduled for the spring of 2007. (
(Ref : M P T International)

Essar Steel starts Iron Ore Slurry Pipeline Essar Steel has commissioned the worlds second longest iron ore slurry pipeline. The 267 km long pipeline connects the iron beneficiation plant Bailadilla, Chattisgarh to the pellet plant at Visakhapatnam and passes through the rugged terrains of Chattiagarh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. The steel major will also commission an iron-ore beneficiation plant with an eight million tones capacity. Both the project entails an investment of Rs 1,100 crore. According to a company spokesperson, the two projects were executed in a record time of two years and their commissioning marks the completion of the total integration of Essar Steel, manufacturing facilities. (
(Ref : J P C Bulletin)

Current Iron Ore export Policy


Export of ore from Goa to China, Europe, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan irrespective of iron ore content is permited. Export of ore from Redi to all markets permitted irrespective of iron content. Export of all ore with iron content up to 64% is also permitted. Ore with iron content above 64% is canalized through MMTC. Kudremukh Iron Ore Co. Ltd is a canalizing agent for its own products concentrates and pellets as it is 100% EOU. Rejects of iron ore chips generated after manufacture using pellet imports can be exported provided it does not exceed 10% of import. Size of such fines should be less than 6 mm.
(Ref : Economic Times)

Kohinoor Steel kicks off Phase I of production Kohinoor Steel Pvt. Ltd has commenced its first phase of commercial production of direct reduced iron (DRI) in Jharkhand. The company has set up four rotary kiln units of 100 mt per day each to produce 1.32 lakh mt of DRI. Following the DRI unit would be a captive power plant of capacity 17 mw and steel melting shop of similar capacity as of DRI. By the end of the year, the companys plant would be equipped with suitable iron making, steel making and continuous casting facilities for production of billets. Kohinoor steel would be increasing capacity of the plant in subsequent phases. It would be following the

Iron content cap on ore exports may be cut to 62% The foreign trade policy review at the end of this month will take a call on whether the 64% cap on iron content of the countrys iron ore export should continue or if the restriction should be tightened to 62% Present restrictions permit export of ore with 64% and above iron content provided it is canalized through Minerals & Metals Trading Corporation. While the canalization policy is likely to continue, the monopoly of MMTC may be broken with other PSUs being



VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

Southern Iron and Steel orders Bloom Caster Steel Co Ltd. (SISCOL) has contracted Danish Cento Met for the supply of a new continuous bloom caster for the production of 600,000t/year of large special steel blooms. (
(Ref : M P T International)

Steel demand may not hit Iron Ore Exports Indias booming iron ore exports to markets like China are set to climb over the short term. India the worlds third largest iron ore producer, mined 143 mt of ore in 2005, more than domestic demand of 61 mt. Exports are expected to reach 85 mt in the current financial year. Iron ore production is expected to reach 203 mt by 2010, when domestic demand is expected to be 86 mt.
(Ref : Economic Times)

Hindustan Zinc raises Price to Rs. 1,600 per Mt Buoyed by the increased demand of zinc from neighbouring China, Hindustan Zinc Ltd (HZL) raised price of the metal by 1.3% to Rs. 1,600 per mt for the second consecutive time in a month. The company has lowered the prices of lead by Rs. 100 to Rs. 62,000 per tonne from 63,000 per tonne.
(Ref : Economic Times)

Electrosteel promoters on a high, raise stake by open market mop-up The promoters of Electrosteel Castings Ltd. (ECL) the largest manufacturer and exporter of ductile iron pipes, have been raising their stake in the company through a relatively silent mop-up process from the open market over past few weeks. In the latest such move, ECL has informed the National Stock Exchange (NSE) on Tuesday that Ghanshyam Kejriwal & Sons and Malay Commercial Enterprises Ltd. have acquired 12,578 shares aggregating to 0.06% of the total paid up capital of the company between March 6 and March 8, 2006. Ghanshyam Kejriwal & Sons along with all other private investment firms belonging to the promoters including Malay Commercial Enterprises Ltd. now hold 1,04,20,067 shares of ECL, amounting to 50.18% of the total paid up capital. The shares are being bought back through creeping acquisitions.
(Ref : Economic Times)

Essar Steel Limited Essar Steel Limited, has recently acquired Hy-Grade Pellets Ltd. and Steel Corporation of Gujarat Limited from Stemcor, UK. With these acquisitions, Essar Steel Ltd. has become a totally integrated steel producer with end-to-end control over raw materials, processes, technology and finished products. (
(Ref : IRMA Journal)

Indian Copper Industry The Government of India owned Hindustan Copper Limited, which was the only producer in India till 1995, owned the available deposits. However, the industry has transformed significantly with the entry of Birla Copper, and Starlite Industries Ltd. who together accounted for 89% of domestic production in the year 2004. The domestic consumption of refined copper is estimated to be 378000 metric tones by 2009. (
(Ref : IRMA Journal)

Induction Furnaces for Melting Copper and and Copper Alloys Both the channel types, as well as the coreless induction furnaces are the most prominent and widely accepted melting tools worldwide. Generally it can be said, that the coreless type offers more flexibility for alloying, it can easily be switched off during weekends and relining doesnt take much time. But its energy consumption on the other hand is relatively high and the lining life is comparably short due to unavoidable lining penetration. The channel type induction furnace on the other hand is better suited for charging lumpy scrap. It is very economical in energy consumption and has a relatively long refractory lifetime.
( (Ref : Copper Topics)

Surface finishes for Zinc Castings Zinc die castings will accept many different electroplated finishes for decorative and protective purposes or to obtain special electrical or other surface properties. Copper plating may be specified either for decorative effects or to provide a highly conductive surface for electrical and electronic applications and occasionally to allow soldering. Copper plating is also used as a basis for all other plating systems. What is commonly referred to as chromium plating, is actually a composite coating consisting of one or more layers of copper, one or more layers of nickel, and a final layer of chromium. Silver and gold plating (again, on top of copper or copper and nickel layers) may be used either for a luxury finishfor instance on cutlery, table ware and bathroom fittings or for electrical components, to give good contact resistance and surface conductivity. (
(Ref : Die Casting)

SAIL orders New Slab Caster Danieli Davy Distington has been awarded an order by SAIL, the Steel Authority of India Ltd, for the supply of a new slab casting machine to be installed at the Bhilai Steel Plant. The project will be handled by a consortium under the leadership of Danieli. The new plant will be designed for the production of 1 million t/year of qualified slabs. The production mix includes mild, low, medium, peritectic and high carbon steel grades, high tensile steels, boiler grades, API and EDD steels cast into 220 mm thick and 1,100 to 1,800 mm wide slabs. (
(Ref : M P T International)

Indian Aluminium Industry According to a report, domestic primary aluminium production has grown progressively. This will increase to a high of 943000 metric tonnes in calendar year 2005, compared to 860000 metric tonnes in 2004. They also predict that production world reach to 1113000 metric tonnes by 2006. (
(Ref : IRMA Journal)

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Furnace find near stupa site Excavations at Tilpi in South 24 Parganas have unearthed a wealth of proof that it was once thickly populated by industrious and selfsufficient people. Tilpi is the twin site at Dhosa in Joynagar, around 50 km from Kolkata. Artefacts and structural evidence fround during excavations at Dhosa suggest that a stupa existed there in the 2nd and 1st Century BC. Eight hearths for smelting metals have been found in Tilpi. Speaking from the site, state archaeology department supervisor Amal Roy said the four hearths discovered on March 18 were at a slightly lower level. Four were found on the surface. Trenches of almost 2 metres have been dug. The hearths measure between 50cm and 80cm and are around 30cm high. These hearths are typical of the early historic era, roughly 2nd century BC, and strewn around them are crucibles, charcoal fragments, copper ingots and punch-marked and cast-copper coins. The small crucibles, measuring 2.5cm, may have been used to melt metals like silver and copper while the larger ones (8cm) for iron. A large clay jar fixed to the ground near a hearth was probably used to store water used by the smiths, said Roy. Archaeo-metallurgist Pranab K. Chattopadhyay of the Centre for Archaeological Studies and Training, Eastern India, confirmed the importance of the Tilpi find as the single instance in the region where all evidence of the indigenous smelting and casting processes are seen together. The coins are being tested for bronze, which would prove that the residents of Tilpi knew how to combine metals in various proportions. High-tin-bronze or kansha was in use between the 2nd century BC and 2nd century AD as evident from Chandraketugarh, said Chattopadhyay. The source of raw material can be found only after further analysis but scholars feel the metals were brought from areas like Midnapore or Jharkhand.
(Ref : The Telegraph)

Austempered Ductile Iron makes gains in 2004 European production of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) castings expanded significantly in 2004. Major ADI producers have experienced growth in the region of 30%. The total UK production now stands at about 6000 tonnes pa. The estimate of volumes produced in mainland Europe and the Rest of the World are 14000 and 70,000 tonnes respectively. (
(Ref : Casting Plant and Technology International)

Chinese Steel Industry 80% steel producers in China are in the small-scale private enterprises that operate small and inefficient blast furnaces. It is reported that the Plan is to increase the share of output of the top 10 producers which currently stands only 20% of total production, to 50% by 2010 and finally to more than 70% by 2020. There are some forecasts that claim that production in China will exceed 300 Mt by 2010. (
(Ref : IRMA Journal)

Tata Steel plant to Commence operations at Bangladesh Tata Steel has resolved most of the issues regarding building of the 2.4 million tones steel plant with Bangladesh government. Tata Steel expects to start building the plant in Bangladesh in 2007 and the project is expected to cost Rs. 6000 crore. (
(Ref : J P C Bulletin)

Steel prices Up $130 Per Tonne Global steel prices have risen by over $130/T in the past two weeks. This was said by World Steel Dynamics in its latest report of March 2006. Significantly, the price rise in the world export market has been supplemented by those in a number of other domestic markets too. The dampner to any further price rise could be a sharp boost in production from steel mills outside China, and no apparent shortage of coking coal or iron ore. The WSD is also placing 50% odds on a spike in HR coil prices to @650-700 per tonne. The driving force in this case could be a massive rise in price of steel scrap. WSD has hedged its bets on two possible time frames in predicting the lengths of the current price boom. In scenario one, a combination of factors are predicted to restrict the boom in steel prices till the summer of 2006 only. This could include factors like buyer restraint of fears of a price decline, rise in inventory level at the users end, a jump in production from mills outside China or, any slippage in growth of global economy due to a major surge in oil prices, for instance. While ESD has put a 70% bet on this, it said there is 30% chance that the current steel shortage will endure till the summer of 2007.
(Ref : Economic Times)

State-of-the-art Aluminium Treatment System Metal

Foseco announced the launch of the MTS 1500 automated metal treatment station. The latest addition to Fosecos range of degassing and metal treatment equipment represents a significant advance in metallurgical control for aluminium alloys. Having the optimum metal quality is fundamental to the production of quality castings. The MTS 1500 gives the foundry both improved metallurgical control and environmental benefits. The MTS 1500 is an automated metal treatment station that provides a platform to perform all necessary metal treatments in a single operation; improves efficiency of the various treatments; reduces operator involvement; reduces emmission. The equipment components: comprises five



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- the Foundry Degassing Unit; - the hopper system which can inject up to two treatment agents; - the screw feed dispensing unit capable of delivering accurate and consistent amounts of flux (3%); - the adjustable baffle plate for complete vortex control; - the control panel which contains a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and regulates the principle functions of the MTS 1500. (
(Ref : Casting Plant and Technology International)

Voice over Internet Protocols (VolP) may be furture drivers of the telecom industry. Sales of batteries to the telecom industry will grow at an annual rate of 3 to 4% for the next five years.

(Ref : Batteries)

Metal Silicides: An Integral Part of Microelectronics Metal silicide thin films are integral parts of all microelectronics devices. They have been used as ohmic contacts, Schottky barrier contacts, gate electrodes, local interconnects, and diffusion barriers. With advances in semiconductor device fabrication technology, the shrinkage in line width continues at a fast pace. The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) predicted that in the gate length and thickness of silicide at the contact window are predicted to decrease to 25 nm and 17 nm, respectively in 2007 for 65 nm generation devices. In addtion more transistors will be incorporated in one chip. However, owing to the demand for increased integration level, the surface area will not be adequate to meet the interconnect demand. Multi-level interconnections provide flexibility in circuit design and a substantial reduction in die size and, thus, chip cost. (
(Ref : J O M)

The LIBS systems come with intuitive operating software that enables automatic identification of all elements present in the sample. Other features allow tracking emission intensities over multiple scans and correlation of analysis routines. Also available are hardware options for rastering and video imaging. (
(Ref : Insight)

Automotive trends in Aluminium, the European Perspective The European automotive industry has more than doubled the average amount of aluminum used in passenger cars during the last decade and will do even more so in the coming years. In the year 2000 an average of 102 kg aluminum was used in automotive parts in Western Europe, with 59 kg in engine parts, 11 kg in structural parts, 6 kg chassis applications and 5 kg for body-inwhite (21 kg others). Based on current developments in new model generations with innovative aluminum concepts it can be estimated that the use of this material in European passenger cars will more than double in the next decade. (
(Ref : Metal Asia)

Global Aluminium Scenario Primary Aluminium production has grown at a compounded annual growth rate of 4.7% per annum during 1999-2004. Asian Region is emerging as an attractive destination of aluminium smelting. Notwithstanding the rise in aluminium production and capacities in the Asian region, aluminium supplies in Asia have lagged behind demand, resulting in a supply deficit of 4.2 million metric tones during 2004. During this period, China witnessed a marginal surplus and the rest of Asia witnessed a deficit of 4.8 million metric tones. (
(Ref : IRMA Journal)

Nickel Catalyst developed Household Fuel Cells


North American Industrial Battery Market Lead prices have more than doubled since 2003 and sulphuric acid is selling for around $62 per ton. Chinese demand for lead has grown by 700,000 tons but global mine closures have slashed lead output by 600,000 tons. The industry is tightening its belt. Imports from China and Central America are impacting on North American battery sales figures. And as the Chinese economy continues to swell, there is an increasing demand in its domestic market for stationary batteries. Wireless networks, broadband and

Laser-base Spectrometer The laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) systems are real time, high resolution, portable instruments capable of analyzing practically every known element in gas, liquid or solid samples with a sensitivity of parts per billion. A single pluse from a high-intensity laser is focused on the sample area, exciting the sample and creating plasma, into which a trace amount of the sample has been ablated. As the plasma decays, excited elements in it emit light at wavelengths that are distinct to each element. This light is collected by a probe and sent to a high-resolution, multi-spectrometer system for analysis.

Fuel cell catalysts based on nickel, copper and other metals that are said to perform similarly to preciousmetal-based catalysts but offer significant cost savings have been developed by BASF, Germany. One of the problems is to limit the concentration of residual carbon monoxide in the hydrogen, which poisons the catalysts and decreases their efficiency and effectiveness. A nickel catalyst has been developed and adopted for the dedicated challenges of small fuel processors used in the steam re-forming of natural gas. The catalyst provides high activity (even after thousands of startups and shutdowns), a low deactivation rate, and resistance to changes in the atmosphere. This development shows that catalysts with nickel as the active component

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are suitable not only for hydrogen generation on an industrial scale, but also for small-scale fuel processors. (
(Ref : Advanced Materials & Processes)

properties, of A17136 T76511, a newly developed aluminum alloy with very high specific strength, good damage tolerance, and corrosion resistance, have been investigated. Aluminum alloy systems have the advantage of being a wellestablished technology. Therefore the integration of any new alloy system into a new aircraft design is considerably less expensive when compared to the composite alternative. The mechanical and corrosion properties of the new alloy as well as some of its current applications have also been examined. (
(Ref : Advanced Materials & Processes)

Nanotribology of Coatings in MEMS


Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are poised to have a major impact on nearly every sector of the manufacturing industry Microelectromechanical systems are already found in air bags (accelerometers), computer projectors (micro-mirror arrays), and inkjet printers (ink pumps), just to name a few applications that are encountered in everyday life. A major benefit of MEMS is that they can be fabricated out of silicon the same material used for microelectronics allowing for the integration of computational power and mechanical actuation on the same substrate. The poly-silicon surfaces used to manufacture microelectromechanical systems are often coated with organic self assembled mono-layers (SAMs) to reduce the adhesion and friction. While a large body of work exists on this topic, there is still not a fundamental understanding of the friction and adhesion between SAMcoated surfaces. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to understand the effects of surface coverage, chain length, and fluorination on friction and adhesion. Also studied were the effects of interstitial water between the silica substrate and the SAM. (
(Ref : J O M)

subdividing each display area into multiple sub-ares presenting A, B, C, D or S-cans on the screen as desired. The operator has the choice of displaying the above data from individual channels or as a composite view of all active channels. Data from different scan modes can also be viewed simultaneously, for instance to FD and Pulse Echo data from different channels can be viewed. (
(Ref : NDT News)

Nickel Aluminide Rolls for Heat Treating Furnaces Nickel aluminide rolls for heattreating furnaces are now available from Duraloy Technologies, Scottdale, Pa. The company has licensed the technology from the Department of Energys Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., and now casts the rolls for steel and heat-treating facilities. The inter-metallic alloy, invented at Oak Ridge in the mid-1980s, is made by melting nickel and aluminum together in a specific ratio. Small additions of boron provide ductility in an otherwise brittle material. The strength of nickel aluminide increases with temperature, and it resists high temperature oxidation in air. It also resists corrosion, and contains no expensive or rare materials. These characteristics make the alloy ideal for components of furnaces in the automobile industry to produce parts such as valves, ball joints, and gears. ( AMP)
(Ref : Advanced Materials & Processes)

Computed Radiography Cuts the Cost of Knee Inspections A computed radiography system from GE Inspection Technologies is helping to achieve considerable cost savings in the inspection of precision manufactured components for prosthetic joints, such as knees, hips and shoulders. In addition, the digital system is also allowing significant savings in space over the original wet film system, while simplifying the archiving of results and improving traceability. The metal components of the joints are made of a cobalt alloy and their manufacture uses the investment casting process. An important quality control procedure is the X-ray examination of the cast components to ensure there is no porosity or shrinkage during casting. (
(Ref : Insight)

High-strength Aluminum Alloy designed for Aircraft Wings Aluminum aircraft structures are facing a serious threat of being replaced by fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites, which are being seriously considered for structural aircraft components, according to Iulian Gheorghe of Alu Menzikan Aerospace, Canton, Georgia. The

Technology Design releases New Advanced Ultrasonics Software Super-View is the new way to view data with Technology Designs advanced ultrasonic systems. TD Super-View has been developed with the operator in mind: that means full control of the data display on-line and off-line. The operator has the flexibility of choice to divide the main display window into up to four display areas and further

Inspection of castings by computer tomography Users of castings place constantly growing demands on defect detection and geometrical accuracy. Surface inspection methods soon reach their limits when interior areas of voluminous castings are concerned. Aslo conventional measuring techniques, such as tactile coordinate measurement or non-contact laser methods, can only handle outside contours. With such



VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

measurement techniques internal structures remain inaccessible: they would have to be inspected by destructive techniques. By industrial computer tomography (CT) it is possile to exactly localize and determine density differences and hence typical casting or material defects, such as pores, cracks, shrink holes or inclusions. CT is an ideal means to detect geometrical accuracy and freedom of defects in one measuring cycle. CT is today the only non-destructive technique used in 1 : 1 moulding of complex components for which complete design drawings are not available. (
(Ref : Casting Plant and Technology)

usera Flir System is always the right choice. The functionalities and capabilities of the new ThermaCAM E320 camera is in the upper-range. ThermaCAM E320 shares many performance features with the professional ThermaCAM P-series, e.g. a 320 x 240 pixel detector which provides excellent thermal imaging qualities. The E320 was developed for customers who have specific thermographic requirements. The E320 can detect temperature differences of only 0.08 K. This very high resolution is crucial in applications where it is necessary to make minute temperature differences visible. In addition to this, it is now also possible to scan objects of smaller sizes or at longer distances. This is an important advantage if used for maintenance work in foundries. Also the noise effect has been dramatically reduced. (
(Ref : Casting Plant and Technology)

Flaw Detector Software makes Defect Sizing Faster, Easier Versatile software that enables faster and easier defect sizing in oilfield tubulars has reportedly been developed for the USM 35 Ultrasonic Flaw Detector by GE Inspection Technologies, Huerth, Germany. When the USM 35 incorporates the software, the operator need only find the crack, adjust the gain to 80% amplitude, press the USM freeze key, and then start to move the probe to produce an envelope curve. The application software then measures and remembers each amplitude peak, and carries out the necessary time of flight calculations for each measurement. The functionality has been made possible by maximizing the already existing measurement capability of the standard USM 35 digital ultrasonic flaw detector. Two spinand-set rotary knobs allow rapid setting of gain and function values, while direct-access front panel keys select the required decibel step width. This enables the operator to freeze the display A-scan, to switch the A-scan to full screen size, and to transfer live screen images to an external screen or video projector via a standard VGA output. (
(Ref : Advanced Materials & Processes)

Plastic/Metal Automobiles



The front ends of the BMW 1 Series and BMW 3 Series automobiles are manufactured from a combination of sheet steel and the polyamide 6 (PA 6 ) Durethan BKV 30 H2.0, reports Lanxess Deutschland GmbH, Germany. Hybrid technology, also known as plastic/metal composite technology, has long since established itself in the automotive industry as a method for manufacturing lightweight structural components. To optimize the performance capabilities of hybrid technology, Lanxess has developed new material concepts and advanced simulation tools in which wall thickness and weight of hybrid components are reduced even further. ( AMP)
(Ref : Advanced Materials & Processes)

Transmission Electron Microscope The PC-controlled H-9500 transmission electron microscope (TEM) from Hitachi HighTechnologies is now available in Europe. The H-9500 is a highperformance TEM which uses a single-crystal LaB 6 electron source and offers 0.102 mm crystal lattice resolution and 0.18 mm point-topoint resolution. With fast run-up times, the instrument is ready for use in three minutes and subsequent specimen exchanges take just one minute, giving high sample throughput. The H-9500 is equipped with a high resolution ( 1 K x 1 K pixel) CCD camera with fast or slow scan functions to record the high quality images. An integral, searchable image database allows images to be stored complete with full details of operating conditions. The addition of an energy dispersive Xray system makes the H-9500 a powerful materials analysis tool. (
(Ref : Insight)

New Logo for ISSF The International Stainless Steel Forum (ISSF) has recently adopted a new corporate logo. The new logo reflects a more modern and dynamic ISSF as the Forum celebrates its tenth anniversary in 2006. The new logo recognizes the link between ISSF and IISI through the inclusion of the circle device. This circle has been part of IISIs corporate identity since the Institute was founded in 1967. Two versions of the ISSF logo will be used. The first, shown above, will be used on all stationery, printed documents, and the ISSF website, The second version will be used where a smaller version of the logo is required.
(Ref : ISSF)

Handy infrared camera for sharp images The name Flir Systems stands for future-oriented product developments and an extremely broad range of products. No matter whether the customer desires a lowcost or a highly professional solution which is capable of being upgraded at a later state according to the requirements of the application and the experience of the

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Korea: Nano Gas Turbine One especially useful component of a microscopic machine would be a motor. Researchers from the Chung-Ang University in Korea has worked out how a nanoscale gas turbine made from nanotubes would work. Nanotubes are rolled-up sheets of carbon atoms that can be narrower than a nanometer in diameter. A nanometer is one millionth of a millimeter, which is the span of 10 hydrogen atoms, or onethousandth the diameter of an E. Coli bacterium. The researchers studied the friction between the outer nanotube surface and gas flowing past it with the idea that this friction could be used to provide engine torque, or the force required to turm a shaft. They found that multiwall, or nested nanotubes, which experienced no friction between the tubes, can be used to make nanotube motors that can be efficiently operated and controlled by low liquid or gas flow rates. The motor could eventually be used to drive nanoscale machines. Previous research showed that an inner tube pulled partway out of a multiwall carbon nanotube will snap back due to molecular electrostatic forces, and will continue to slide back and forth millions of times a second. The researchers propose to use such a nanotube oscillator as a piston to pump the gas or liquid through a nanotube loop. The gas flow would spin a nanotube modified to have gear teeth. The gearmodified nanotube, embedded perpendicularly in the gas flow loop, would produce the motors output in the form of a rotating shaft. In the researchers simulations, the speed of the oscillator determined the gas flow rate, which controlled the speed of the motor. Nanotube motors could become practical within seven years, according to the researchers. (
(Ref : Standards India)

an ambitious two-year automotive design and engineering program, a significant broadening of the ULSAB (ultra-light steel auto body) series of initiatives. The consortium, which already consists of 26 steel producing companies, has been formed to support the automotive vehicle architecture. The scope of the program is intended to go beyond the body-in-white to include closures, suspensions, engine cradle and all structural and safety relevant components. A comprehensive bench making of existing vehicle concepts and an investigation of trends in vehicle development will be conducted at the beginnng of the program. Targets will be set with reference to the US PNGV (Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles) and EUCAR (The European CO 2 reduction program) projects. The consortium has commissioned Porsche Engineering Services Inc. (PES) of Troy, Mich., to undertake the program. PES will be integrating automotive industry feedback and the knowledge it acquired in the development of the ULSAB body structure into this new initiative. ULSAB has demonstrated that steel is capable of providing solutions to the most challenging automotive problems at affordable cost without sacrifice of safety or performance. In addition, steel does not exhibit the technology barriers characteristic of other materials. This new program will reaffirm the steel industrys commitment to the automotive industry and further enhance steels position as the material of choice in automotive applications. Website:
(Ref : Advanced Materials & Processes)

with the invention of printing in the late 15th century that any from of copyright was devised. Before that, there was little need! Copying of manuscripts was a painstakingly slow process. And with a largely illiterate population, demand was small. In English law the first copyright act was only enacted in 1710. (
(Ref : Standards India)

World Steel News 21 The first electronic version of the newsletter of the International Iron and Steel Institute has been published. The issue contains : Secretary Generals Column IISIs new office in Beijing q Translation Workshop q Joint IISI/OECD/India Conference on Steel q IISI Members Receive Awards for Safety and Occupational Health q New Logo for ISSF New Staff and Fellows q Steel: Innovative Solutions Bring Snow to the Desert.
q q

for details, please contact : Mr Dan Smith at International Iron and Steel Institute, ( Budget provides manufacturing cost. relief to

The budget has an appearance of being biased towards those with manufacturing bases in India, as opposed to those who are importing and selling in India. Duty changes in basic and intermediate products are also indicative of a bias towards domestic manufacturing. In sectors like ferrous and non-ferrous, while there has been a reduction in input costs, finished products prices too have been cut, which will force them to pass on the benefits to remain competitive. This is repeated for intermediate products also, where duty cuts have been done in a manner such that the producers may become cheaper but they would also have to pass on to their industrial consumers. The phenomenon is glaringly evident in the case of ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
(Ref : Economic Times)

A Brief History of Copyright Intellectual property is fully recognized in law and afforded extensive protection. It wasnt always so. Scholars in ancient Greece were the first to be concerned about being recognized as the authors of their works, but they had no economic rights. It was only

World Steel Industry forms New Consortium to develop Vehicle Representatives of the world steel industry recently gathered in Miami, Fla., to hold the inaugural meeting of a new consortium formed to oversee



VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

Andritz - for High-tech Production Systems Headquatered in Graz, Austria, the Andritz Group is a global supplier of customized plants, systems, and services. Due to the acquisition of many complementary technologies/ businesses and its comprehensive R & D efforts, Andritz is now able to offer complete process lines and systems in different Business Areas like Pulp and Paper, rolling Mills and Strip Processing Lines, environment and Process and Feed Technology. The Group is regarded to have full-line capabilities in each of its Business Areas. Contact :- Andritz AG Eibesbrunnergasse 20, A-1120 Vienna, Australia E-mail: Internet:
(Ref : Iron & Steel Review Supplement )

and Turkeys Erdemir. After a change in Ukraines government there should be repeated privatizations, and we are interested in Kryvorizhstal. Thats one of the priorities now. Ukraines courts declared last years $800 million sale of the steel mill to be illegal, and the price tag for the next attempt at its privatization is expected to exceed $2 billion. (
(Ref : SEAISI News Letter)

Digital Microscope with Purity Model Leica Microsystems, the international manufacturer of precision optical equipment, has developed a new inverted digital microscope with a steel purity module. The DMI5000 M has an inclusion counter that is suitable for quality control in the metalworking industry. The constant colour intensity control (CCIC) maintains the colour temperature at 3200K, which prevents images having a red tint at low lamp voltages. The DMI5000 M can be retrofitted with components, and combined with digital cameras and application software in Leicas product range Website: (
(Ref : Materials World)

Online Continuous Laser Analyser This is the first instrument to observe and analyse melting process of liquid metals successfully and continuously. The instrument has already demonstrated its capability working continuously online for two weeks at a melt shop in Germany. The instrument while working in actual operating condition at a melt shop, did determine the chemical composition, in every three minutes, of liquid metals like copper, zinc, iron, manganese, silicon, titanium and magnesium. The continuous analysis enables foundrymen for the first time, to notice and respond quickly to any trend and variation in the composition of metals. The instrument can show the variations in the chemical composition immediately on a onsite monitor. (
(Ref : Indian Foundry Journal)

Mittal aims to acquire Erdemir to position itself as a Leading Force in consolidation Mittal Steel wants to continue its acquisition spree across Europe regardless of the result of its latest bid for Czech state-owned steel maker Vitkovice Steel, the firms head of mergers and acquisitions said on Wednesday. Ondrej Otradovec said Mittal wanted to become one of the leading forces in the consolidation of the fragmented global steel industry and it views Ukraine and Turkey as prime targets. In the horizon of several years, strong consolidation of the sector globally is likely, partly through privatizations, but there will also be transactions among individual players. Otradovec told. We are worlds biggest player but hold just around 6 per cent of the global market. Thats a very low number when compared to the car industry, as our main customer or iron ore suppliers, he said. He said Mittals acquisition plans were unrelated to uncertainty over steel prices. The sector has seen a major slowdown this year after strong growth a year ago, but most steel producers expect a recovery by year-end. Otradovec confirmed Mittals strong interest in Ukraines Kryvorizhstal

Global Steel Output in 2005 could Reach 1122 Million Tonnes The world crude steel production to expand by 6.8 per cent this year-up by 76.5 million tones on the outturn in 2004, according to MEPS estimates. Asian steel production is likely to reach, almost 573 million tones this year. The represents almost 47 per cent of global output and will have grown by 77 million tones in 2005 (15.5 per cent). This is mainly the result of higher production in China. The full figure is presented in the following table.
MEPS-Global Crude Steel Production Estimate (tonnes) Region EU 25 Other Europe Former USSR NAFTA South America Africa Midle East China Japan Other Asia Oceania Total 2004 193480 31679 111745 132821 45872 16647 14259 270088 112717 112847 8284 1050439 2005 (e) 187800 31900 111650 129800 465500 17900 15500 343000 111900 117900 8100 1122000

German Machine Tool Industry Indian delegation of over 300 members from Machine Tool Industry visited EMO 2005 at Honnover, Germany. The members represented a cross section of the industry such as Machine Tools, Precision tools, Shaping Tools, Chucking Tools, Sheet Metal Processing, Sheet Metal Working, Electronic Components, CIM, CAD/ CAM, Flexible Production Assembly Engineering, Manipulation Engineering, Factory Automation, Industrial Robots, Sensor systems, Measuring Systems Testing Technology, Welding Technology, Cutting Tools and Metalworking, Tools. A special reception was provided by the organizers of EMO 2005 trade fairs. (
(Ref : Orbit News & Information)

(Ref: MEPS-World Steel Outlook)

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IIM Activities

DELHI The Delhi Chapter of The Indian Institute of Metals, organized a plant visit of its members to M/s Jindal Strips & M/s Jindal Stainless Steel Ltd Hissar on 11th March 2006. 21 members took part in the plant visit. Dr Singhal, Chief R & D of Jindal Stainless Steel and Mr S Maheshwari Hon. Secretary of the IIM Hissar Chapter welcomed the members. Mr Maheshwari gave information about of Jindal Stainless Steel Plant by projecting a video tape. He described all the plant equipment. He satisfactorily answered all the queries of members. Dr Singhal also clarified about the production of Nickel free stainless steels and some alloy steels. The members went round the plants and saw melting of steel in electric arc furnace and refining in AOD. Subsequently members saw the hot rolling and cold rolling mills. It was noted that the rejection rate is very low due to strict quality control measures. HYDERABAD Dr M C Chaturvedi a distinguished Professor & Canada Research Chair, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engg., University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada delivered a Technical lecture on Weld Cracking in Superalloys. This lecture was arranged by the IIM Hyderabad Chapter and the venue was Tamhankar Auditorium, DMRL, Hyderabad. PUNE Dr. Dara P. Antia Memorial Lecture Series The Dr. Antia Memorial Lecture Series has been instituted by the Indian Institute of Metals (IIM) in the year 2006 as a tribute to Dr. Dara P Antia (1914-1999), the doyen of the metallurgical fraternity and the founder of Indian Institute of Metals and to his outstanding contributions and dynamic leadership in advancing technical

education, engineering profession, and technology management. The National Council of Indian Institute of Metals (IIM) has entrusted the responsibility of organizing this prestigious annual event to IIM, Pune Chapter. Born on May 31, 1914, Dara P. Antia studied metallurgy at the Banaras Hindu University (1934-38) and was the first Indian to receive his Sc.D. in metallurgy from MIT, USA in 1943. On his return to India he had an illustrious career spanning almost five decades serving private industry (Indian Aluminium Company and Union Carbide), several important government departments, as well as on the board of several companies. Professional bodies both in India and abroad have honoured him. Amongst his several contributions in the field of metallurgy and materials science, Dr. Antia also started a journal of Alloy Phase Diagrams, which is currently being published as Journal of Phase Equilibria and Diffusion by ASM International, USA. Dr Antia nurtured the Indian Institute of Metals right from its inception in several capacities including the editor of Transactions. IIM, the honorary secretary, and the president of the Institute. Dr. Antia was honoured with the Fellowship of Indian National Science Academy and Indian National Academy of Engineering. In recognition of his contributions to engineering, as Metallurgist and Management Consultant, the Indian National Academy of Engineering conferred on Dr. Antia their Lifetime Contribution Award in 1998. Dr. Antia passed away in Pune on May 24, 1999. VISAKHAPATNAM April-May 2006 : A talk on Steel making Practices at Vizag Steel was arranged for class XI & XII students studying in and around Visakhapatnam Steel Plant. The book entitled Ferrum Hunter was circulated to the local institutes engaged in imparting science education up to Class X, XI & XII. A material science quiz was organiseed amongst intermediate students.

The following Technical Meetings were organised by various Chapters. Date


Deformation and Transformation process in Cu-based SMAs in-situ Experiments and Modeling Electromagnetic Levitation as a Tool for solidification Studies Processing and Characterization of Nanostructured Composites and Biomaterials Indian Scientific and Technological Heritage Non-equilibrium Phenomena in Structural and Functional Oxide Ceramics A new Look at contact Damage in Single and Multi-layered Nitride Coatings Residual Stresses in Ceramic Composites Leadership Computing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory


Dr P Sittner, Institute of Physics, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic Dr G Phani Kumar, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Met. and Materials Engineering, IIT Madras Dr Bikramjit Badu, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mat & Met. Engineering, IIT Kanpur. Dr A B S Sastry, Chairman, S R I V Technology Vijayawada Dr Ashutosh S Gandhi, Meterials Dept., University of California, USA Dr Vikram Jayaram, Prof. Dept. of Metallurgy IISc, Bangalore. Dr J P Singh, Senior Scientist, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, USA. Dr Thomas Zacharia, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA

11.08.05 23.08.05 06.10.05 14.09.05 11.10.05 05.12.05 12.12.05




VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006




Dr B Dogan, GKSS Research Centre Germany Dr Ajay Singhal, Advance Micro Devices, USA Dr Vimal Desai, Director, Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Centre, Oriando, Florida USA Prof R Balasubramaniam, IIT, Kanpur Dr R K Paramguru, RRI, Bhubaneswar Dr P K Sarma, Director, R & D, GITAM Engg. College Prof T R Ananatharaman, Chancellor Ashram Atmadeep, Gurgaon Mr Marc Bassain, Termo Electron Prof R Shekhar, IIT Kanpur Mr. G Swaminathan, CIT, BHEL, Hyderabad Prof R K Dube, IIT Kanpur Dr George F, Vander Voort, Director Research & Technology, Bucher Ltd., USA Dr Wook Jo, Seoul National University

Characterization of Diffusion Bond TiAlTi 6242 joints 23002.06 Chartering the Road to Success in Nanometer Semiconductor Technology Era 29.03.06 Electrochemical Investigations in Chemical Mechanical Planarization Process 30.04.06 04.10.05 08.11.05 08.01.06 05.04.06 30.04.05 23.10.05 11.09.05 19.11.05 08.12.05 Metalurgy of Indian Coins through Ages Utilization of Metallurgical Waste in Steel Industries R & D Facilities in GITAM and future collaboration with Vizag Steel Metallurgical Marvels of Ancient India Latest Development in Automatic Version of OES technique for metal Industries Advances in Electrochemistry Advances in Microwave Processing of Large Component Systems Some aspects of Metals Manufacturing Advances in Metallography Thermodynamics of Crystals A better understanding on the microstructure evolution of materials Metal Matrix Micro and Nanocomposites and Some Perspectives in Nanomanufacutring




Prof Pradeep K. Rohatgi, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA

The General Body Meetings of the following Chapters were held and New Committee(s) were elected as given below : Chairman Vice Chairman Honorary Secretary Jt Hony Secretary Honorary Treasurer Jt Hony Treasurer

Pune : Date of Annual General Body Meeting : 26.04.2006 Prof M D Kulkarni Dr Satyam Sahay Prof N B Dhokey Dr N K Nath Dr S Prasad Mr N M Nagarjuna Prof M J Rathod Dr Amian Datta Prof P P Deshpande Members Prof S P Butee


Mr Mohan Phadke, Mr H K Panigrahi, Dr A K Singh, Prof P Ghosh, Mr Pravin Dharmmali, Mr Mustafa Bohari, Mr Vijay Thavale, Prof Mrs. N R Anand, Ms Manish Kulthe, Mr Ashish Lekhwani, Mr Prashand Bagri and Mr J Kamlesh. Kanpur : Date of Annual General Body Meeting : 30.04.2006 Prof R Shekhar Dr Anish Upadhyaya Prof B Basu Executive Sri T V V K K Bagara Raju Members Prof Gauthama

Prof R Balasubramaniam and Sri Milan Raj Sahu.

Kindly note some changes in the article, Non Reovery Coke Ovens - An Overview & An Innovative Indian Refractories Experience, published in February 2006 issues of IIM Metal News. Page No. 15 - E-mail Address : to read as Page No. 17 - Table-1: 3rd Col. to read 5 months in place of 1.5 months. Page No. 17 - Table-2: Last Col. to read 145-148t in place of 125-148t.

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Seminars & Conferences


Planned Activities for IIM Pune Chapter During 2006-07 The Activities planned by the IIM Pune Chapter for the year 2006-07 are:q q q q

6th International Trade Fair + Conference on Minerals, Metals, Metallurgy & Materials 2006 - A Global Platform for Global Players
IIMs Diamond Jubilee, Truly a Milestone
This year IIM completes sixty years of dedicated services and commitment to the Indian metallurgical fraternity. IIM has great pleasure in announcing the MEGA DIAMOND JUBILEE EVENT 6th International Trade Fair and Conference on UNLEASHING INDIAS POTENTIAL IN MINERALS, METALS, METALLURGY & MATERIALS at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi during September 11-14, 2006. While the IIM Head Quarters with Delhi Chapter as the lead organizer are sponsoring this event, other Chapters in North India namely Chandigarh, Hissar, Jaipur, Kanpur, Khetrinagar and Roorkee are joining hands in making the programme a grand and memorable success.

Dr Dara Antia Memorial Lecture Workshop on Industrial Process Modeling. IIM Event at MIT, Aurangabad. Celebration Event for IIM Diamond Jubilee: National Seminar on Materials for Automobile Industries.

45th Conference of Metallurgists, (1-4, October 2006, Montreal, Canada) The Metallurgical Society of CIM will host its 45th Annual Conference of Metallurgists in Montreal, Canads from 1 to 4 October 2006. The Conference will be held in conjunction with the 36th Annual Hydrometallurgy Meeting and the 17th International Symposium ICSOBA 2006 For further details, please see

International Conference on The State of Art in Blast Furnace Practice & The Status of Ironmaking Technologies The 43rd metallurgists Day celebrations of IIM, Rourkela Chapter and International Conference and Rourkela Steel Plant (SAIL) at Rourkela on 1st & 2nd December 2005.

International Conference
The conference is appropriately themed Unleashing Indias Potential in Metals & Minerals. The International Conference will begin, after the formal inauguration, with invited Diamond Jubilee Lectures by eminent personalities in Minerals and Exploration, R & D, Steel and Non-Ferrous metals and alloys. The conference will cover all aspects relating to metals, minerals, metallurgy, materials, markets and as-well-as R&D, Energy, environment, sustainable development etc.
International Symposium on Advances in Environment Friendly Technology to Mineral Processing and Metal Extraction (AETMME-2006) The International Symposium (AETMME-2006) will be organized at Bhubaneswar during 1-3, November 2006. For further details, please contact : Institute of Advance Technology & Environmental Studies (IATES) 80-81A, Lewis Road, Bhubaneswar-751 002 Tel: 0091-674-2430243, 2436956, 2430363 Fax: 0091-674-2430363 E-mail:

August gathering at the International Conference





Dr Sanak Mishra, the then Managing Director, SAIL, RSP and National Council Member, IIM welcomed the august gathering. Speaking on this occasion, Dr T Mukherjee, Deputy Managing Director, Tata Steel and Past President, IIM said that every national has some competitive advantage and the rich iron ore sources give India a competitive advantage over others. Dr S K Bhattacharya, the then Managing Director, SAIL, DSP, focused on the key aspects related to the industry like optimization of natural resources, energy conservation, pollution control and waste utilization. He also released the Proceedings of the conference. During this occasion, other dignitaries, namely Sri U P Singh, Managing Director, SAIL, BSL, Sri K K Khanna, Directot (Technical), SAIL and Sri Nilotpal Roy, Managing Director, IISCO also expressed their relevant points. The conference provided a forum for exchange of useful ideas and sharing of knowledge amongst the experts from all over the world. At the end of the programme, the August gathering gave a standing applaud to Dr A L Kundu, Deputy



VOL. 9 NO. 3 JUNE 2006

General Manager, R & C Laboratory and Honorary Secretary, IIM Rourkela Chapter for making the conference a gala success. Sri A K Bhandari, Executive Director, SAIL, RSP and Chairman, IIM Rourkela Chapter proposed a Vote of Thanks. An International Conference on Technology, Process and Systems Cold Rolling-

An International Conference on Cold Rolling-Technology, Process and Systems was held during January 20-21st, 2006. The Conference was jointly conducted by Bokaro Steel Plant and Bokaro Chapter of Indian Institute of metals. More than 200 delegates from sectors connected with the steel sector participated. Different steel plants like - BSL, RSP, Bhushan Steel, Oil suppliers like - IOC, BPCL, Balmer Lawrie, hardcastle and Quaker Chemicals, Equipment suppliers like - Ebner, Radcon, Maco, Design and R & D organizations like - RDCIS, Mecon, ILZDA, CET, Dasturco etc. participated in the event. 33

The programme was inaugurated by the Chief Guest Dr Omkar Nath Mohanty, Vice Chancellor, BPUT, Orissa. Sri C R Pradhan, Director (P & T) & CMD I/C, NALCO, graced the occasion. Other Guests of Honour included Dr Jyoti Mukhopadhyaya, Director JNARDDC, Nagpur, Dr B K Mishra, Director, RRL, Bhubaneswar, Sri U B Pattanaik, ED (S & P), NALCO and Sri R K Maheswari, ED (Materials), NALCO. Sri P R Choudhury, DGM (Elect) & conference convener welcomed the guests and delegates which was followed by addresses by Chapter Secretary Sri M K B Nair, DGM (R & D) and Chapter Chairman Sri R N Jena, GM (Smelter). The occasion was also graced by members of the Press and Electronic Media and dignitaries from other industries. A Souvenir containing the conference papers was released by the Chief guest and awards were given to winners of the chapter Metals & Materials QUIZ2005. In all 400 delegates including experts from India & Abroad, delegates from Academic Institutions, Industries etc and chapter members participated in the conference. A total of 19 technical papers were presented by experts in the field of Aluminium Electrolysis Technology and related topics. 10 papers were presented by foreign experts. The deliberations were highly technical & scientific in nature and invoked interest amongst and applause from all participants. Steel Outlook 2006, 25-26 April 2006, Singapore Marriott Hotel, Singapore Steel Outlook 2006 invited experts who provided the platform for analysis, market intelligence, and valuable insights that would converge to form a blue-print for the future of steel. For details visit : Indo-US workshop on Recent Advances in Microstructure, Texture, Property Relations in Close Packed Metals An Indo-US Workshop on Recent Advances on Microstructure, Texture and Property Relations in Close Packed Metals, has been conducted by the Department of Metallurgical engineering, College of engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam at Lords, Grand Bay. Delegates (10 from USA and 12 from India) from different Universities, Research Institutes, Organizations and Foundations participated in the conference. The Workshop was inaugurated by the Chief Guest, Prof L Venugopal Reddy, Vice Chancellor, Andhra University. Dr Baldev Raj, President, IIM, encouraged the participants by his gracious presence. IIM Pune Chapter Activities during 2005-06 IIM Pune Chapter organized various activities during 2005-06. Highlights of the activities are as follows:

Dignitaries on the Dais

papers covering different topics like Cold Rolling Technology, Rolling Oils & Emulsion Management, Quality & Process and Latest maintenance practices were presented. A lot of new ideas emerged from the conference, which would help BSL in modernizing its cold rolling Complex. Managing Director, BSI Bokaro, Sri U P Singh inaugurated the Conference. National Conference on Advancement in Aluminium Electrolysis The Indian Institute of Metals, Angul Chapter celebrated its 5th Annual Dey from 11-12th February 2006. On this occasion a Two day Conference on Advancements in Aliminium Electrolysis was organized at Training Centre, Smelter & Power Complex, NALCO. An exhibition related to Aluminium Industry was also put up at the venue.

Participation in the Central Schools Principals Conference organized by National Defence Academy in Pune. Invited IIM-Lectures at TRDDC Pune. Prof Brahm Prakash Memorial Materials Quiz 2005-Pune Round. Book Launch in Pune; Ferrum Hunters Dr Dara P Antia Memorial Prize.

q q

q q

IIM-Pune Student Chapter

Sri C R Pradhan, CMD I/c, NALCO lighting the lamp

IIM Pune Student Chapter was formally inaugurated by Prof P Ramachandra Rao, Director, Defence Institute of Advanced

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Technology (DIAT), Pune and the Past President of Indian Institute of Metals, on 22nd April 2005. The Student Chapter has been organizing two prestigious annual events in collaboration with the Department of Metallurgy, College of Engineering, Pune namely. National Technical Paper Presentation Competition, Metavista. Prof Braham Prakash Memorial Metals & Materials Quiz Pune Round.

Round 2005 on 3rd September 2005 at the Auditorium of GCOEP. 31 teams from 10 colleges from Pune District participated this year. The two top teams both from Fergusson College consisting of Kulkarni Sarang, Wagh Onkar, Dixit Onkar, Kulkarni Akhil were selected to represent Pune Chapter for the international round of the Quiz to be held at Kalpakkam. Professor P R Abhyankar shouldered the responsibility as convener of the event. During the valedictory session Ferrum Hunters a book written by Dr A K Das and Prof hem Shankar Ray was laynched in Pune. Seminar and Industrial visits organized by IIM Pune Student Chapter In additional to above-mentioned mega events, IIM, Pune student Chapter organized 11 technical lectures on a variety of topics in the department of metallurgy, COEP by eminent experts in the field. They also organized four industrial visits during the year for the students in the department to Bharat Forge, Kalyani Carpenter Steels, Sri Precoated Steels and Shembekar Foundry. 5th National Conference on Maintenance, Inspection, Corrosion, Materials, Engineering and Plant Reliability MICMEP 2006 The 5th National Conference Maintenance, Inspection, Corrosion, Materials Engineering and Plant Reliability (MICMEP 2006) was organized during February 10-12, 2006 at Hotel Surya Place, Vadodara by Baroda and Mumbai Chapters of Indian Institute of metals (IIM) and the ASM International India and Gujarat Chapters. Prof K Baba Pai was the convener and Dr M K Totlani and Dr Vevekanand Kain were the coconveners of the conference. The conference was inaugurated by Major General S K Sharma, Commandant, EME School, Vadodara.

5th National Level Technical Symposium on Metallurgy and Materials Science (Meta Vista 2006) The 5th National Level Technical Symposium on Metallurgy and Materials Science called Meta Vista was jointly organized by the Department of Metallurgy, Pune Institute of Engineering and Technologys (PIET) College of Engineering Pune (COEP) and the Indian Institute of metals, Pune Chapter on the 9th and 10th of March 2006 at the Department of Metallurgical Engineering, COEP. The entire event was organized by the IIM PUne Student Chapterconsisting of Mr Rutvik Mehta, Mr Rohan Borade and Mr Karan Banerjee and the Team Meta Vista.

Participants at Meta Vista 2006

Prof Brahma Prakash Quiz is organized normally in the month of August-September and Metavista in the month of February. Three prestigious awards are given during this national event. The first award sponsored by IIM, Pune Chapter, is in the memory of our IIM founder, Dr. Dara Antia, called Dr Dara Antia Memorial Award. The second award is Prof. G K Ogale memorial award in the memory of the first head of the department of metallurgy at COEP and also the founder of IIM, Pune Chapter. The third award is named after Mr M G Pawar. The name of the award winners are : q Dr Dara P Antia Memorial prize for the year 2006 (includes a cash prize of Rs. 5,000/- and a certificate) instituted by IIM Pune Chapter, was awarded to Mr Santosh Kumar Balli and Tadepalli Shrikrishna, JNTUCE, Hyderabad. Prof G K Ogale Memorial award (cash prize of Rs. 2,500/-) sponsored by the Department of Metallurgical Engineering, College of Engineering, Pune was awarded to Mr P Arun Kumar & Mr R Subramanian, NIT, Trichy. Mr P G Pawar award (cash prize of Rs. 2,500/- and a certificate) instituted by Ajay Syscom, Pune were awarded to Mr P Arun Kumar & R Subramanian, NIT, Trichy and Mr K G Prashanth, G C O E, Salem.

The inauguration function of MICMEP 2006

Prof Brahm Prakash Memorial Quiz 2005Pune Round and Release of the Book, Ferrum Hunters The IIM Pune Student Chapter and Depatment of Metallurgical Engineering, Government College of Engineering, Pune jointly organized the Brahm Prakash Memorials Materials QuizPune

The Chairman of the inauguration session, Dr Baldev Raj, Director of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam and President of Indian Institute of Metals talked about the MICMEP series of conferences held since 1991. The Guest of Honour at the inauguration function was Prof Dr Manoj Soni, Vice-Chancellor of M S University of Baroda, Vadodara. The conference covered topics required for industrial plants for ensuring plant reliability by proper material selection, understanding and monitoring of corrosion degradation, non-destructive inspection, residual life assessment and scheduling of optimum maintenance. The conference concluded with an Open House, in which participants from various organizations and industries gave their feedback.



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Members News

Members enrolled (01.03.2006 to 30.04.2006)
ANGUL Peter Baa Ram Babu Prasad Jaiswal Bikash Chandra Jena Sanjay Krishna Patel Suchit Kumar Kalyan K V Ramana Reddy Santosh Kumar Behera BURNPUR Ayan Bose Rama Prasad Mandal Subrata Mukherjee Krishna Raj Sharma Bipad Taran Banerjee Tarun Kumar Mukherjee Mohammed Aslam Sunil Kumar Pratihar BOKARO S P Singh Onkar Nath Sudarshan Chaurasia A K Ganguly M Goel O P Sharma S De Kavitesh Kumar Vijay Kumar Singh BHILAI Arvind Kumar Verma DURGAPUR B V Ramana Raja Lohitendu Badu Kapu Sanyasi Rao Sisir Kumar Adhikari Amalendu Bandyopadhyay HYDERABAD Dr Shaik Khasimul Siraj ICHAPUR Gautom Biswas KALPAKKAM Dr P Johan Singh MUMBAI K Nagaraj Nayak R T Durai Prabhakaran M/s F P E (India) Limited POONA Mohan Devidas Kulkarni M/s S M S C E (I) Pvt. Ltd. RANCHI Anubha Sharma Sujit Kumar Naskar Chandra Bhushan Sharma Shyama Prasad Chakraborty Bikas Pandey Venkat Rao Deshmukh M/s N I F F T TRICHY Raman Rdhakrishnan M G Ramesh R Kumar N G Mohan S Ganesan R Mohan R Krishnamoorthy Sabyasachi Jee D Shanmuga Sundaram N Elangoyan R Jayaraman Bhaskar Singha P Kandasamy S Mohan P Ramakrishnan VISAKHAPATNAM Pokkuluri Venugopal

Members promoted (01.03.2006 to 30.04.2006) ANGUL Rakhal Chandra Das Kashinath Moharana Binoy Kumar Mallick BE COLLEGE Dr Koushik Biswas Kuntal Mal BOKARO N K Jha BHILAI Sudha Puri Sanjay Gupta BARODA OM OM OM LM OM LM OM OM Joseph M Davis DURGAPUR Aniruddha Dutta HEAD OFFICE Koushik Majumdar HYDERABAD Chalasani Dharmendra HARIRA K Anil Kumar OM E G A V Chalapathi Rao OM OM OM OM OM ICHBAPUR Sukhamay Kundu Tusar Kanta Prusty Lakshmi Kanta Chuan KANPUR Milan Kumar Sahu Vikram Chauhan MUMBAI Akhilesh Kumar Srivastava POONA Latha Balasubramanium OM OM Total No. of Membership stands at 6053 of which New Members are 86. OM OM OM OM OM ROURKELA Allu Baji Reedy Nigamananda Jena VISAKHAPATNAM Ghulam Mehmood OM Suggu Rama Krishna Reddy OM OM OM

The Jawahar Award for 2005 has been conferred on Dr A L Kundu, Deputy General manager, R & C Laboratory, Rourkela Steel Plant and Honorary Secretary, Rourkela Chapter of IIM for outstanding performance for the year 2005. Our congratulations. Sri A K Sahu, has joined Dinabandhu Steel & Power LImited, Kalinga Nagar, Jajpur Road, Orissa as Vice President. Before that Sri Sahu has worked in SAIL, Durgapur Steel; Plant as Chief Metallurgist & GKM College of Engineering as Profgessor. He is a Life Member of IIM. He was Joint Honorary Secretary & Honorary Secretary of IIM-Durgapur Chapter duly 1985-1990. He was Instrumental in the Construction of Dhatu Bhavan Building of IIM-Durgapur Chapter. Mittal Steel Company has announced the appointment of Dr Sanak Mishra, Life Felllow of IIM, as Chief Executive Officer of Mittal Steels greenfield project in Jharkhand. The appointment is effective immediately. Dr Mishra joins Mittal Steel from SAIL where most recently he was a member of the Board of Directors and Managing Director of the Rourkela Steel Plant, a position he had from August 2002. Dr Mishra has over 30 years experience in the steel industry. Our congratulations.

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Book Review



Dr Gakulananda Mukherjee, a Life Member of IIM and a renowned metallurgist of India is already known to many of us for his persistant zeal is popularizing Metallurgy, particularly Iron & Steel, to the common people. For this, he chose the best path of writing books on Iron & Steel in regional languages understandable to many. Naturally, to start with, he opted for his own mother language, i.e. Bengali. Later on, his books have also appeared in Orya language and also in Hindi, the national language. His first two books in Bengali were Ispat Parichay Part-I and Part-II. After that, Dr Mukherjee took a very bold step to select/coin appropriate Bengali word/ words for corresponding metallurgical word/words in English. This effort of Dr Mukherjee was well received by the West Bengal Bangla Academy and as a result, we have today

in front of us a book called Dhatubidya Parivasha or in other words Bangla Terminology of Metallurgy. I had the privilege of going through this wonderful compilation of English to Bengali Metallurgical Dictionary and I strongly believe that his Parivasha will be of great help to many Bengalis who want to convey his metallurgical thought/ideas in Bangla (Bengali language) and also to bengali medium students while studying metallurgy. The beauty of this Dictionary is that it is not a world to word literal translation, but a conceptual translation with limited words. It is therefore useful for better understanding of a English metallurgical word as well as for specific translation from English to Bengali in metallurgy. I believe this Parivasha will enrich Bengali language in the engineering world. SRP

IIM Transaction Contents

Following is the contents page of February 2006 issue of IIM Transactions. Interested members may contact the Chief Editor, IIM Transactions for copy/copies of any article. OVERVIEW TITANIUM PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY SCENARIO AN OVERVIEW SMELTING REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AN OVERVIEW TECHNICAL PAPER TP 2031 TP 2032 TP 2033 TP 2034 TP 2035 TP 2036 EFFECT OF AGING ON TRANSFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF Cu-Al-Ni SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS CREEP BEHAVIOUR OF WELD JOINTS AND SIMULATED HAZs OF A HIGH Cr FERRITIC STEEL INFLUENCE OF CRUCIBLE ROTATION SPEED ON HARDNESS, CAST STRUCUTRE AND IMPACT PROPERTIES INFLUENCE OF SiC AND FeSi AS SILICON CARRIERS ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GRAY CAST IRON NOVEL TECHNIQUE OF PROCESSING FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIAL IN AGE-HARDENABLE AL-ALLOYS EFFECT OF MAGNETIC ARC OSCILLATION ON MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF INCONEL 718 GEA WELDS IMPROVING WEAR RESISTANCE OF CAST AZ91C MAGNESIUM ALLOY BY SURFACE MELTING TECHNIQUES PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN MONEL K500, 17-4 PH STAINLESS STEEL AND 350 GRADE MARAGING STEEL CORROSION BEHAVIOUR OF ZIRCONIUM BASED BULK METALLIC GLASSES ASSESSMENT OF MATERIAL DAMAGE DUE TO SODIUM FIRE N. Suresh and U. Ramamurty S. K. Albert, M. Matsui, T. Watanabe H. Hongo, K. Kubo and M. Tabuchi B. C. Ray, U. K. Mohanty and B. B. Verma Kaveh Edalati, Farshad Akhlaghi, and Arash Edalati Sarmistha Bakshi, K. Chattopadhyay and S. Kumar G. D. Janaki Ram, A. Venugopal Reddy, K. Prasad Rao, G. Madhusudhan Reddy, and A. Sambasiva Rao C. Padmavathi, J. K. Sarin Sundar, S. V. Joshi, and K. Prasad Rao U. K. Viswanathan, R. Tewari and G. K. Dey U. Kamachi Mudali, U. Khn, J. Eckert, L. Schultz and A. Gebert B. Sivai Bharasi, H. Shaikh, S. Venugopal, F. C. Parida, S. E. Kannan, and H. S. Khatak G. Prabhulingaiah, Joyee Ghosh, Prasenjit Sen and D. M. R. Sekhar 39-45 47-55 57-63 65-72 73-84 85-97 J. Mohanty, P. C. Rath, R. K. Paramguru and V. N. Misra S. K. Dutta and R. Sah 1-15 17-38

TP 2037 TP 2038 TP 2039 TP 2040

99-105 107-121 123-138 139-147





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