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he Human Vocal Tract (click here for diagram) Modern English Consonants

consonants involve stoppage of flow of air in vocal tract voiced: involving vibration of the vocal cords voiceless: no vibration of the vocal cords place of articulation: o labial : involving the lips o dental: involving the teeth o alveolar: involving the area behind the teeth o palatal: involving the hard palate o velar: involving the velum or soft palate manner of articulation o stops (plosives): involve the stoppage and sudden release of air o fricatives (spirants): involve the constricted flow of air producing a kind of hissing sound o affricates: a combination of stop + fricative o nasals: flow of air channeled through the nose, always voiced o lateral: flow of air channeled through the sides of the tongue, also voiced o retroflex: similar to the lateral but involving a backward curving of the tip of the tongue, also voiced semivowels (glides): similar to vowels in that the stoppage of the flow of air is very minimal

Chart of consonant phonemes in English

Examples: [p]: pat, [b]: bat, [t]: time, [d]: dime, [k]: came, [g]: game, [ ]: chump, [ ]: jump, [f]: fat, [v]: vat, [ ]: thigh []: thy, [s]: sap, [z]: zap, [ ]: glacier/mesher, [ ]: glazier/measure, [h]: ham, [m]: man, [n]: nun, [ ]: sing, [l]: lamp, [r]: ramp, [w]: world, [y]: yore/you; the glottal stop and the flap are not phonemic but are frequently used allophones of [t] in words such as "satin," "rotten," mountain," "cater," "waiter," "later" Modern English Vowels

vowels are sounds involving the unrestricted flow of air through the mouth vowels sounds are always voiced vowels differ depending on the degree of openness of the mouth and height of the tongue (the lower the tongue the more open the mouth) (high, mid, low) also important is the position in the mouth of the of the highest part of the tongue (front, central, back) diphthongs (ai, au, oi) (e.g. buy, bough, boy) unstressed vowels tend to be pronounced as the mid-central vowel

Prosody (stress patterns)

stress is the relative loudness with which different parts of a word are pronounced in English the tendency is to stress the initial syllable of a word the stress of a syllable can be classified as primary, secondary, or reduced/unstressed in English final syllables tend to be unstressed examples: o in the word "brother" the first syllable has primary stress and the second syllable is unstressed: "brth-er" o in the word "bookcase" the first syllable receives primary stress and the second secondary stress: "bok-cse" o in the word "constellation" the first syllable receives secondary stress, the second syllable has reduced stress, the third syllable has primary stress, and the fourth syllable has also reduced stress: "cn-stel-l-tion"


Acoustics of speech and hearing Frequency, Pitch, and Intervals Vowel and Consonant Articulation (pdf format, large file download c.12 MB) Voice Production Formants Sound Structure of Language Forming the Vowel Sounds

Spanish: Bricolage los grupos alimenticios

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling"ka,ke,ki,ko,ku"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling "lla,lle,lli,llo,llu"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling "fa,fe,fi,fo,fu"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling "la,le,li,lo,lu"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling "ma,me,mi,mo,mu"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling - y

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling - z

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling - "ce,ci"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling - p

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling - que & qui

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling - r

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling - rr

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling - s

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling - t

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling - v

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling"cha,che,chi,cho,chu"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling"ba,be,bi,bo,bu"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling"da,de,di,do,du"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling"fa,fe,fi,fo,fu"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling- "ge,gi,je,ji"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling"ha,he,hi,ho,hu"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling- "ca,co,cu"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling- "ga,go,gu"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling- "gue,gui"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling"ja,je,ji,jo.ju"

Spanish: Pronunciation & Spelling"na,ne,ni,no,nu"

Spanish: Las preposiciones de lugar

Spelling and Pronunciation

November 9, 2010 Words ending in -ize and -ise In British English some words can be spelt with either -ize or -ise. In American English, the forms with -ize is more common. Examples are given below: British English

Realize / realise Computerize / computerise Mechanize / mechanise

Baptize / baptise

American English

Realize Mechanize Computerize Baptize

Most words of two or more syllables have -ise in both British and American English. Examples are:

Surprise, revise, exercise, advise, comprise, despise, compromise, improvise, supervise, televise, advertise

Notes: In American English, advertize is also possible. If in doubt, remember that -ise is almost always correct in British English. Spelling and pronunciation In English, spelling words is not easy. In fact, even native English speakers often find it difficult to spell words correctly. This is mainly because the pronunciation of many English words has changed over the last few hundred years. The spelling system, on the other hand, has stayed more or less the same. Here is a list of some common words that often cause difficulty. In the following words the letters in brackets are not pronounced.

Ev(e)ning Asp(i)rin Bus(i)ness Choc(o)late Diff(e)rent Ev(e)ry Marri(a)ge Om(e)lette Rest(au)rant Sev(e)ral Med(i)cine

The following four syllable words are usually pronounced like three syllable words. The letters in brackets are usually not pronounced.

Comf(or)table Int(e)resting Temp(e)rature Us(u)ally Veg(e)table

Silent letters In the following words b is silent.

Climb, comb, dumb

In the following words d is silent.

Handkerchief, sandwich, Wednesday

The gh is silent in the following words.

Bought, caught, ought, thought, daughter, height, high, light, might, neighbour, right, sight, tight, straight, through, weigh

In the following words h is silent

What, when, whip, why, honest, hour, honour

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Number Pronunciation and Spelling

Click on the audio symbol below. Read and listen to the correct pronunciation of the numbers below. Once you have listened try to repeat the numbers by yourself.

1 - one 2 - two 3 - three 4 - four 5 - five 6 - six 7 - seven 8 - eight 9 - nine 10 - ten 11 - eleven 12 - twelve 13 - thirteen 14 - fourteen 15 - fifteen 16 - sixteen 17 - seventeen 18 - eighteen 19 - nineteen 20 - twenty 21 - twenty-one 22 - twenty-two 23 - twenty-three 24 - twenty-four 25 - twenty-five 26 - twenty-six 27 - twenty-seven 28 - twenty-eight

29 - twenty-nine 30 - thirty 40 - forty 50 - fifty 60 - sixty 70 - seventy 80 - eighty 90 - ninety 100 - one hundred

Learn English OnlineFree 48 hour trial - then just $99 for 6 months lessons/ Binary Options TradingMake Up To 310% Profit ! Easy to Use System. 24% Start Horoscope for all 2012Claim your Free Reading from this accurate & talented Astrologer Notice how the accent on 14, 15, 16, etc. is on "-teen" and 40, 50, 60, etc. is on the beginning "four-" Click on the audio symbol below. Read and listen to the correct pronunciation of the numbers below. Once you have listened try to repeat the numbers by yourself.

17 70 33 98 189 376 7 450 23 49

NOTE In British English use "and" when saying numbers in the hundreds. Example: seven hundred AND twenty seven.In American English do NOT use "and" when saying numbers in the hundreds. Example: seven hundred twenty seven.

Practice reading other numbers! Continue Learning for Beginners Unit 1 Learning the Basics: Numbers, ABC's and the Verb 'to Be' More beginner's Topics

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om Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Not to be confused with NATO phonetic alphabet. "IPA" redirects here. For other uses, see IPA (disambiguation). This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. For usage of IPA in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:IPA or Wikipedia:IPA/Introduction

International Phonetic Alphabet


Alphabet , partially featural Used for phonetic and phonemic Languages transcription of any language Time period since 1888 Romic alphabet Parent systems

Phonotypic alphabet International Phonetic

Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)[note 1] is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language.[1] The IPA is used by foreign language students and teachers, linguists, Speech-Language Pathologists, singers, actors, lexicographers, constructed language creators (conlangers), and translators.

The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are distinctive in spoken language: phonemes, intonation, and the separation of words and syllables.[1] To represent additional qualities of speech such as tooth gnashing, lisping, and sounds made with a cleft palate, an extended set of symbols called the Extensions to the IPA may be used.[2] IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types, letters and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter t may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, [t], or with a letter plus diacritics, [t], depending on how precise one wishes to be.[4] Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription; thus, /t/ is less specific than, and could refer to, either [t] or [t] depending on the context and language. Occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of 2008, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics, and four prosodic marks in the IPA.


1 History 2 Description o 2.1 Letterforms o 2.2 Symbols and sounds o 2.3 Brackets and phonemes o 2.4 Handwritten forms 3 Usage o 3.1 Linguists o 3.2 Language study o 3.3 Dictionaries 3.3.1 English 3.3.2 Other languages o 3.4 Standard orthographies and capital variants o 3.5 Classical singing 4 Letters o 4.1 Consonants 4.1.1 Pulmonic consonants 4.1.2 Co-articulated consonants 4.1.3 Affricates and double articulated consonants 4.1.4 Non-pulmonic consonants o 4.2 Vowels 5 Diacritics o 5.1 Suprasegmentals 6 Obsolete and nonstandard symbols 7 IPA extensions 8 Segments without letters o 8.1 Consonants o 8.2 Vowels 9 Symbol names 10 ASCII and keyboard transliterations 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links o 15.1 Education o 15.2 IPA font downloads o 15.3 Keyboard input o 15.4 Sound files o 15.5 Unicode charts 16 Technical note

[edit] History
Main article: History of the IPA In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association (in French, lAssociation phontique internationale).[5] Their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language.[6] For example, the sound [] (the sh in shoe) was originally represented with the letter c in English, but with the letter x in French.[5] However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.[5][7] Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993, with the addition of four letters for midcentral vowels[2] and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives.[8] The alphabet was last revised in May 2005, with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap.[9] Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.[2] Extensions of the alphabet are relatively recent; "Extensions to the IPA" was created in 1990 and officially adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994.[10]

[edit] Description

A chart of the full International Phonetic Alphabet. For a guide to pronouncing IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English dialects. The general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound (speech segment).[11] This means that it does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with sh and ng, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way x represents /ks/ or /z/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as c does in English and other European languages, and finally, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness".[2]
[note 2]

Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, and 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone, stress, and intonation.[note 3]

[edit] Letterforms
The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet.[note 4] For this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters that

are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, , has the form of a dotless question mark, and derives originally from an apostrophe. A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, , were inspired by other writing systems (in this case, the Arabic letter ` ,ain).[8] Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has occasionally admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were , , , and , all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for , none of these letters was widely used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, and as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols , , , , and at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989.[12] Although the IPA diacritics are fully featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is consistently indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in , and implosion by a top hook, , but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular are based on the form n: m n . However, the similarity between m and n is a historical accident, and are derived from ligatures of gn and ng, and is an ad hoc imitation of . In none of these is the form consistent with other letters that share these places of articulation.[citation needed] Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters turned upside-down, such as (turned a c e f h m r t v w y). This was easily done with mechanical typesetting machines, and had the advantage of not requiring the casting of special type for IPA symbols.

[edit] Symbols and sounds

The International Phonetic Alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet, using as few non-Latin forms as possible.[5] The Association created the IPA so that the sound values of most consonant letters taken from the Latin alphabet would correspond to "international usage". [5] Hence, the letters b, d, f, (hard) , (non-silent) h, (unaspirated) k, l, m, n, (unaspirated) p, (voiceless) s, (unaspirated) t, v, w, and z have the values used in English; and the vowel letters from the Latin alphabet (a, e, i, o, u) correspond to the (long) sound values of Latin: [i] is like the vowel in machine, [u] is as in rule, etc. Other letters may differ from English, but are used with these values in other European languages, such as j, r, and y. This inventory was extended by using capital or cursive forms, diacritics, and rotation. There are also several symbols derived or taken from the Greek alphabet, though the sound values may differ. For example, is a vowel in Greek, but an only indirectly related consonant in the IPA. Three of these (, and ) are used unmodified in form; for others (including , , , and ) subtly different glyph shapes have been devised, which may be encoded in Unicode separately from their "parent" letters.

The sound values of modified Latin letters can often be derived from those of the original letters.[13] For example, letters with a rightward-facing hook at the bottom represent retroflex consonants; and small capital letters usually represent uvular consonants. Apart from the fact that certain kinds of modification to the shape of a letter generally correspond to certain kinds of modification to the sound represented, there is no way to deduce the sound represented by a symbol from its shape (unlike, for example, in Visible Speech). Beyond the letters themselves, there are a variety of secondary symbols which aid in transcription. Diacritic marks can be combined with IPA letters to transcribe modified phonetic values or secondary articulations. There are also special symbols for suprasegmental features such as stress and tone that are often employed.

[edit] Brackets and phonemes

There are two principal types of brackets used to set off IPA transcriptions:

[square brackets] are used for phonetic details of the pronunciation, possibly including details that may not be used for distinguishing words in the language being transcribed, but which the author nonetheless wishes to document. /slashes/ are used to mark off phonemes, all of which are distinctive in the language, without any extraneous detail.

For example, while the /p/ sounds of pin and spin are pronounced slightly differently in English (and this difference would be meaningful in some languages), the difference is not meaningful in English. Thus phonemically the words are /pn/ and /spn/, with the same /p/ phoneme. However, to capture the difference between them (the allophones of /p/), they can be transcribed phonetically as [p and [spn]. n] Two other conventions are less commonly seen:

Double slashes //...//, pipes |...|, double pipes ||...||, or braces {...} may be used around a word to denote its underlying structure, more abstract even than that of phonemes. See morphophonology for examples. Angle brackets are used to clarify that the letters represent the original orthography of the language, or sometimes an exact transliteration of a non-Latin script, not the IPA; or, within the IPA, that the letters themselves are indicated, not the sound values that they carry. For example, pin and spin would be seen for those words, which do not contain the ee sound [i] of the IPA letter i. Italics are perhaps more commonly used for this purpose when full words are being written (as pin, spin above), but this convention may not be considered sufficiently clear for individual letters and digraphs. The true angle brackets ... (U+27E8, U+27E9) are not supported by many non-mathematical fonts as of 2010. Therefore chevrons ... (U+2039, U+203A) are sometimes used in substitution, as are the less-than and greater-than signs <...> (U+003C, U+003E).

[edit] Handwritten forms

An example of a printed text with IPA letters filled in by hand. The two words at the beginning of line 1 are sk and s. The has a cursive form that looks somewhat like a 2 k or a small-capital Q in some cursive hands. IPA letters have handwritten forms designed for use in manuscripts and when taking field notes; they are occasionally seen in publications when the printer did not have fonts that supported IPA, and the IPA was therefore filled in by hand.

[edit] Usage
Further information: Phonetic transcription

bauche is a French term meaning outline or blank. Although the IPA offers over a hundred and sixty symbols for transcribing speech, only a relatively small subset of these will be used to transcribe any one language. It is possible to transcribe speech with various levels of precision. A precise phonetic transcription, in which sounds are described in a great deal of detail, is known as a narrow transcription. A coarser transcription which ignores some of this detail is called a broad transcription. Both are relative terms, and both are generally enclosed in square brackets.[1] Broad phonetic transcriptions may restrict themselves to easily heard details, or only to details that are relevant to the discussion at hand, and may differ little if at all from phonemic transcriptions, but they make no theoretical claim that all the distinctions transcribed are necessarily meaningful in the language.

Phonetic transcriptions of the word international in two English dialects. The square brackets indicate that the differences between these dialects are not necessarily sufficient to distinguish different words in English. For example, the English word little may be transcribed broadly using the IPA as [ltl], and this broad (imprecise) transcription is an accurate (approximately correct) description of many pronunciations. A more narrow transcription may focus on individual or dialectical details: [] in General American, [lo] in Cockney, or [] in Southern US English. It is customary to use simpler letters, without many diacritics, in phonemic transcriptions. The choice of IPA letters may reflect the theoretical claims of the author, or merely be a convenience for typesetting. For instance, in English, either the vowel of pick or the vowel

of peak may be transcribed as /i/ (for the pairs /pik, pik/ or /pk, pik/), and neither is identical to the vowel of the French word pique which is also generally transcribed /i/. That is, letters between slashes do not have absolute values, something true of broader phonetic approximations as well. A narrow transcription may, however, be used to distinguish them: [pk], [pik], [pik].

[edit] Linguists
Although IPA is popular for transcription by linguists, it is also common to use Americanist phonetic notation or IPA together with some nonstandard symbols, for reasons including reducing the error rate on reading handwritten transcriptions or avoiding perceived awkwardness of IPA in some situations. The exact practice may vary somewhat between languages and even individual researchers, so authors are generally encouraged to include a chart or other explanation of their choices.[14]

[edit] Language study

This section requires expansion.

A page from an English language textbook used in Russia. The IPA is used to teach the different pronunciations of the digraph th (//, //) and to show the pronunciation of newly introduced words polite, everything, always, forget.

Some language study programs use the IPA to teach pronunciation. For example, in Russia (and earlier in the Soviet Union), mainland China, and Taiwan[citation needed], textbooks for children[15] and adults[16] for studying English and French consistently use the IPA.

[edit] Dictionaries
[edit] English Many British dictionaries, including learner's dictionaries such as the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary and the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, now use the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent the pronunciation of words.[17] However, most American (and some British) volumes use one of a variety of pronunciation respelling systems, intended to be more comfortable for readers of English. For example, the respelling systems in many American dictionaries (such as Merriam-Webster) use y for IPA [j] and sh for IPA [], reflecting common representations of those sounds in written English,[18] using only letters of the English Roman alphabet and variations of them. (In IPA, [y] represents the sound of the French u (as in tu), and [sh] represents the pair of sounds in grasshopper.) [edit] Other languages The IPA is also not universal among dictionaries in languages other than English. Monolingual dictionaries of languages with generally phonemic orthographies generally do not bother with indicating the pronunciation of most words, and tend to use respelling systems for words with unexpected pronunciations. Dictionaries produced in Israel use the IPA rarely and sometimes use the Hebrew script for transcription of foreign words. Monolingual Hebrew dictionaries use pronunciation respelling for words with unusual spelling; for example, Even-Shoshan Dictionary respells as because this word uses kamatz katan. Bilingual dictionaries that translate from foreign languages into Russian usually employ the IPA, but monolingual Russian dictionaries occasionally use pronunciation respelling for foreign words; for example, Ozhegov's dictionary adds in brackets for the French word (pince-nez) to indicate that the doesn't iotate the . The IPA is more common in bilingual dictionaries, but there are exceptions here too. Massmarket bilingual Czech dictionaries, for instance, tend to use the IPA only for sounds not found in the Czech language.[19]

[edit] Standard orthographies and capital variants

Main article: Case variants of IPA letters IPA letters have been incorporated into the alphabets of various languages, notably in SubSaharan Africa: Hausa, Fula, Akan, Gbe languages, Manding languages, Lingala, etc. This has created the need for capital variants. For example, Kabiy of northern Togo has , , , , , , (or ):

MB AJYA KIGBND GBY KEDIZA SS TM SE. These, and others, are supported by Unicode, but appear in Latin ranges other than the IPA extensions.

[edit] Classical singing

IPA has widespread use among classical singers for preparation, especially among Englishspeaking singers who are expected to sing in a variety of foreign languages. Opera librettos are authoritatively transcribed in IPA, such as Nico Castel's volumes[20] and Timothy Cheek's book Singing in Czech.[21] Opera singers' ability to read IPA was recently used by the Visual Thesaurus, which employed several opera singers "to make recordings for the 150,000 words and phrases in VT's lexical database. ...for their vocal stamina, attention to the details of enunciation, and most of all, knowledge of IPA."[22]

[edit] Letters
The International Phonetic Alphabet organizes its letter symbols into three categories: pulmonic consonants, non-pulmonic consonants, and vowels.[23][24] Each character is assigned a number, to prevent confusion between similar letters (such as and ), for example in printing manuscripts. Different categories of sounds are assigned different ranges of numbers.

[edit] Consonants
Main article: Consonant

Co-articulated consonants Fricatives Approximants w


kp b

These tables contain phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help] Where symbols appear in pairs, leftright represent the voicelessvoiced consonants. Shaded areas denote pulmonic articulations judged to be impossible. * Symbol not defined in IPA.


Asterisks (*) indicate unofficial IPA symbols for attested sounds. See the respective articles for ad hoc symbols found in the literature. In rows where some letters appear in pairs (the obstruents), the letter to the right represents a voiced consonant (except breathy-voiced []). However, [] cannot be voiced, and the voicing of [] is ambiguous.[25] In the other rows (the sonorants), the single letter represents a voiced consonant. Although there is a single letter for the coronal places of articulation for all consonants but fricatives, when dealing with a particular language, the letters may

be treated as specifically dental, alveolar, or post-alveolar, as appropriate for that language, without diacritics. Shaded areas indicate articulations judged to be impossible. The letters [, , ] represent either voiced fricatives or approximants. In many languages, such as English, [h] and [] are not actually glottal, fricatives, or approximants. Rather, they are bare phonation.[26] It is primarily the shape of the tongue rather than its position that distinguishes the fricatives [ ], [ ], and [ ]. The labiodental nasal [] is not known to exist as a phoneme in any language.[27]

[edit] Pulmonic consonants A pulmonic consonant is a consonant made by obstructing the glottis (the space between the vocal cords) or oral cavity (the mouth) and either simultaneously or subsequently letting out air from the lungs. Pulmonic consonants make up the majority of consonants in the IPA, as well as in human language. All consonants in the English language fall into this category.[28] The pulmonic consonant table, which includes most consonants, is arranged in rows that designate manner of articulation, meaning how the consonant is produced, and columns that designate place of articulation, meaning where in the vocal tract the consonant is produced. The main chart includes only consonants with a single place of articulation. [edit] Co-articulated consonants Co-articulated consonants are sounds that involve two simultaneous places of articulation (are pronounced using two parts of the vocal tract). In English, the [w] in "went" is a coarticulated consonant, because it is pronounced by rounding the lips and raising the back of the tongue. Other languages, such as French and Swedish, have different coarticulated consonants. Note

[] is described as a "simultaneous [] and [x]".[29] However, this analysis is disputed. (See voiceless palatal-velar fricative for discussion.)

[edit] Affricates and double articulated consonants Affricates and doubly articulated stops are represented by two letters joined by a tie bar, either above or below the letters. The six most common affricates are optionally represented by ligatures, though this is no longer official IPA usage,[1] because a great number of ligatures would be required to represent all affricates this way. Alternatively, a superscript notation for a consonant release is sometimes used to transcribe affricates, for example t for ts, paralleling k kx. The letters for the palatal plosives c and , are often ~ used as a convenience for t and d or similar affricates, even in official IPA publications, so they must be interpreted with care.

View this table as an image. Tie bar Ligature Description voiceless alveolar affricate ts voiced alveolar affricate dz voiceless postalveolar affricate t voiced postalveolar affricate d voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate t


d t kp b m

voiced alveolo-palatal affricate voiceless labial-velar plosive voiced labial-velar plosive labial-velar nasal stop

voiceless alveolar lateral affricate

On browsers that use Arial Unicode MS to display IPA characters, the following incorrectly formed sequences may look better due to a bug in that font: ts, t, t, dz, d, d, t, kp, b, m.

[edit] Non-pulmonic consonants Non-pulmonic consonants are sounds whose airflow is not dependent on the lungs. These include clicks (found in the Khoisan languages of Africa), implosives (found in languages such as Swahili) and ejectives (found in many Amerindian and Caucasian languages). View this table as an image Clicks Implosives Bilabial Bilabial Laminal alveolar ("dental") Alveolar Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex") Palatal Laminal postalveolar ("palatal") Velar Lateral coronal ("lateral") Uvular Notes

p t k s

Ejectives For example: Bilabial Alveolar Velar Alveolar fricative

Clicks are double articulated and have traditionally been described as having a forward 'release' and a rear 'accompaniment', with the click letters representing the release. Therefore all clicks would require two letters for proper notation: k, , , q, , etc., or k, , , q, , . When the dorsal articulation is omitted, a [k] may usually be assumed. However, recent research disputes the concept of 'accompaniment'.[30] In these approaches, the click letter represents both articulations, with the different letters representing different click 'types', there is no

velar-uvular distinction, and the accompanying letter represents the manner, phonation, or airstream contour of the click: , etc. , Letters for the voiceless implosives , , , , are no longer supported by the IPA, though they remain in Unicode. Instead, the IPA typically uses the voiced equivalent with a voiceless diacritic: , etc.. , Although not confirmed as contrastive in any language, and therefore not explicitly recognized by the IPA, a letter for the retroflex implosive, , is supported in the Unicode Phonetic Extensions Supplement, added in version 4.1 of the Unicode Standard, or can be created as a composite . The ejective diacritic often stands in for a superscript glottal stop in glottalized but pulmonic sonorants, such as [m], [l], [w], [a]. These may also be transcribed as creaky [m, [l, [w, [a. ] ] ] ]

[edit] Vowels
Main article: Vowel

IPA vowel chart

Front Close Nearclose Closemid Mid Openmid Nearopen Open Nearfront Central Nearback Back

iy u e o e

Paired vowels are: unrounded rounded This table contains phonetic symbols. They may not display correctly in some browsers (Help).

o a

IPA help IPA key chart

chart with audio view

Tongue positions of cardinal front vowels with highest point indicated. The position of the highest point is used to determine vowel height and backness

An X-ray film shows the sounds [i, u, a, ] The IPA defines a vowel as a sound which occurs at a syllable center.[31] Below is a chart depicting the vowels of the IPA. The IPA maps the vowels according to the position of the tongue.

The vertical axis of the chart is mapped by vowel height. Vowels pronounced with the tongue lowered are at the bottom, and vowels pronounced with the tongue raised are at the top. For example, [] (said as the "a" in "palm") is at the bottom because the tongue is lowered in this position. However, [i] (said as the vowel in "meet") is at the top because the sound is said with the tongue raised to the roof of the mouth. In a similar fashion, the horizontal axis of the chart is determined by vowel backness. Vowels with the tongue moved towards the front of the mouth (such as [], the vowel in "met") are to the left in the chart, while those in which it is moved to the back (such as [], the vowel in "but") are placed to the right in the chart. In places where vowels are paired, the right represents a rounded vowel (in which the lips are rounded) while the left is its unrounded counterpart. Notes

a officially represents a front vowel, but there is little distinction between front and central open vowels, and ais frequently used for an open central vowel.[14] However, if disambiguation is required, the retraction diacritic or the centralized diacritic may be added to indicate an open central vowel, as in a or .

[edit] Diacritics
Diacritics are small markings which are placed around the IPA letter in order to show a certain alteration or more specific description in the letter's pronunciation.[32] Sub-diacritics (markings normally placed below a letter) may be placed above a letter having a descender (informally called a tail), e.g. , .[32] The dotless i, , is used when the dot would interfere with the diacritic. Other IPA letters may appear as diacritic variants to represent phonetic detail: t (fricative release), b (breathy voice), a (glottal onset), (epenthetic schwa), o (diphthongization). Additional diacritics were introduced in the Extensions to the IPA, which were designed principally for speech pathology. View the diacritic table as an image Syllabicity diacritics


Consonant-release diacritics

e Non-syllabic


Phonation diacritics

d No audible release

Nasal release

dLateral release

n d Voiceless b Breathy voiced[b] a

Articulation diacritics

s Voiced t

b Creaky voiced a

t d t d u t e


t d Linguolabial t d Laminal i t Retracted e Mid-centralized




Raised ( = voiced alveolar nonsibilant fricative)

Lowered ( = bilabial approximant)

Co-articulation diacritics

More rounded

t d velarized

Labialized or labio-

t d Velarized

Less rounded x

t Palatalized d

t Pharyngealized a

t d Labio-palatalized

z pharyngealized

Velarized or

e o z

Advanced tongue root Nasalized

e o Retracted tongue root Rhotacized

Notes a^ With aspirated voiced consonants, the aspiration is also voiced. Many linguists prefer one of the diacritics dedicated to breathy voice. b^ Some linguists restrict this breathy-voice diacritic to sonorants, and transcribe obstruents as b. The state of the glottis can be finely transcribed with diacritics. A series of alveolar plosives ranging from an open to a closed glottis phonation are:

[t] voiceless [d breathy voice, also called murmured ] [d slack voice ] Sweet spot [d] modal voice [d stiff voice ] [d creaky voice ] Closed glottis [t] glottal closure
Open glottis

[edit] Suprasegmentals
These symbols describe the features of a language above the level of individual consonants and vowels, such as prosody, tone, length, and stress, which often operate on syllables, words, or phrases: that is, elements such as the intensity, pitch, and gemination of the sounds of a language, as well as the rhythm and intonation of speech.[33] Although most of these symbols indicate distinctions that are phonemic at the word level, symbols also exist for intonation on a level greater than that of the word.[33] View this table as an image Length, stress, and rhythm Primary stress (symbol goes Secondary stress (symbol goes a before stressed syllable) before stressed syllable) a Long (long vowel or a k geminate consonant) a Half-long a.a Syllable break Extra-short sa Linking (absence of a break) Intonation Minor (foot) break | Major (intonation) break Global rise Global fall Tone diacritics and tone letters Upstep ke e Extra high / top e

e e e e

High Mid Low Extra low / bottom

Rise Fall ke Downstep

Finer distinctions of tone may be indicated by combining the tone diacritics and letters shown here, though not many fonts support this. The primary examples are high (mid) rising ; low rising ; high falling ; low (mid) falling ; , , , , peaking ; and dipping . A work-around for diacritics sometimes , , seen when a language has more than one rising or falling tone, and the author does not wish to completely abandon the IPA, is to restrict generic rising falling the higherand for pitched of the rising and falling tones, and , and to use the non-standard subscript diacritics and for the lower-pitched rising and falling tones, and . When a language has four level tones, the two mid tones are sometimes transcribed as high-mid (non-standard) and low-mid .

[edit] Obsolete and nonstandard symbols

Main article: Obsolete and nonstandard symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet The IPA inherited alternate symbols from various traditions, but eventually settled on one for each sound. The other symbols are now considered obsolete. An example is which has been standardised to . Several letters indicating secondary articulation have been dropped altogether, with the idea that such things should be indicated with diacritics: for z is one. In addition, the rare voiceless implosive series has been dropped; they are now written or p t c k q. A rejected competing proposal for transcribing clicks, , , , is still sometimes seen, as the official letters , , may cause problems with legibility, especially when used with brackets, the letter l, or theprosodic marks |, .[34] There are also unsupported or ad hoc letters from local traditions that find their way into publications that otherwise use the standard IPA. This is especially common with affricates such as the "barred lambda" for [t].

[edit] IPA extensions

Main article: Extensions to the IPA The "Extensions to the IPA," often abbreviated as "extIPA," and sometimes called "Extended IPA," are symbols whose original purpose was to accurately transcribe disordered speech. At the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989, a group of linguists drew up the initial extensions.[35] The extensions were first published in 1990, then modified, and published again in 1994 in the Journal of the International Phonetic Association, when they were officially adopted by the ICPLA.[36] While the original purpose was to transcribe disordered speech, linguists have used the extensions to designate a number of unique sounds within standard communication, such as hushing, gnashing teeth, and smacking

lips. The extensions have also been used to record certain peculiarities in an individual's voice, such as nasalized voicing.[2] The Extensions to the IPA do not include symbols used for voice quality (VoQS), such as whispering.

[edit] Segments without letters

The remaining blank cells on the IPA chart can be filled without too much difficulty if the need arises. Some ad hoc letters have appeared in the literature for the retroflex lateral flap, the voiceless lateral fricatives, the epiglottal trill, and the labiodental plosives. (See the grey letters in the PDF chart.) Diacritics can supply much of the remainder, which would indeed be appropriate if the sounds were allophones.[37]

[edit] Consonants
Representations of consonant sounds outside of the core set are created by adding diacritics to letters with similar sound values. The Spanish bilabial and dental approximants are commonly written as lowered fricatives, [] and [] respectively. Similarly, voiced lateral fricatives would be written as raised lateral approximants, [ ]. A few languages such as Banda have a bilabial flap as the preferred allophone of what is elsewhere a labiodental flap. It has been suggested that this be written with the labiodental flap letter and the advanced diacritic, [ [38] ]. Similarly, a labiodental trill would be written [] (bilabial trill and the dental sign), and labiodental stops [p b] rather than with the ad hoc letters sometimes found in the literature. Other taps can be written as extra-short plosives or laterals, e.g. [ / ], though in some cases the diacritic would need to be written below the letter. A retroflex trill can be written as a retracted [r], just as retroflex fricatives sometimes are. The remaining consonants, the uvular laterals ( etc.) and the palatal trill, while not strictly impossible, are very difficult to pronounce and are unlikely to occur even as allophones in the world's languages.

[edit] Vowels
The vowels are similarly manageable by using diacritics for raising, lowering, fronting, backing, centering, and mid-centering.[39] For example, the unrounded equivalent of [] can be transcribed as mid-centered [], and the rounded equivalent of [] as raised []. True mid vowels are lowered [e o], while centered [ ] and [] are near-close and open central vowels, respectively. The only known vowels that cannot be represented in this scheme are vowels with unexpected roundedness, which would require a dedicated diacritic, such as [] and [u] or [] and [u ] .

[edit] Symbol names

Main article: Naming conventions of the International Phonetic Alphabet

An IPA symbol is often distinguished from the sound it is intended to represent, since there is not necessarily a one-to-one correspondence between letter and sound in broad transcription, making articulatory descriptions such as 'mid front rounded vowel' or 'voiced velar stop' unreliable. While the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association states that no official names exist for its symbols, it admits the presence of one or two common names for each.[40] The symbols also have nonce names in the Unicode standard. In some cases, the Unicode names and the IPA names do not agree. For example, IPA calls "epsilon", but Unicode calls it "small letter open E". The traditional names of the Latin and Greek letters are usually used for unmodified letters. [note 5] Letters which are not directly derived from these alphabets, such as [], may have a variety of names, sometimes based on the appearance of the symbol, and sometimes based on the sound that it represents. In Unicode, some of the letters of Greek origin have Latin forms for use in IPA; the others use the letters from the Greek section. For diacritics, there are two methods of naming. For traditional diacritics, the IPA notes the name in a well known language; for example, is acute, based on the name of the diacritic in English and French. Non-traditional diacritics are often named after objects they resemble, so d is called bridge. Pullum and Ladusaw list a variety of names in use for IPA symbols, both current and retired, in addition to names of many other non-IPA phonetic symbols.[8] Their collection is extensive enough that the Unicode Consortium used it in the development of Unicode.

[edit] ASCII and keyboard transliterations

Several systems have been developed that map the IPA symbols to ASCII characters. Notable systems include Kirshenbaum, Arpabet, SAMPA, and X-SAMPA. The usage of mapping systems in on-line text has to some extent been adopted in the context input methods, allowing convenient keying of IPA characters that would be otherwise unavailable on standard keyboard layouts.

[edit] See also

Articulatory phonetics Index of phonetics articles International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration ICAO spelling alphabet IPA chart for English dialects List of international common standards Luciano Canepari Phonetic transcription Semyon Novgorodov inventor of IPA-based Yakut alphabet TIPA provides IPA support for LaTeX Unicode Phonetic Symbols Wikipedia:IPA for English

English Phonetic Alphabet

[edit] Notes
1. ^ "The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers [...] to the 'International Phonetic Association'. But it is now such a common practice to use the acronym also to refer to the alphabet itself (from the phrase 'International Phonetic Alphabet') that resistance seems pedantic. Context usually serves to disambiguate the two usages." (Laver 1994:561) 2. ^ For instance, flaps and taps are two different kinds of articulation, but since no language has (yet) been found to make a distinction between, say, an alveolar flap and an alveolar tap, the IPA does not provide such sounds with dedicated letters. Instead, it provides a single letter (in this case, []) for both. Strictly speaking, this makes the IPA a partially phonemic alphabet, not a purely phonetic one. 3. ^ There are five basic tone diacritics and five basic tone letters, both sets of which are compounded for contour tones. 4. ^ "The non-roman letters of the International Phonetic Alphabet have been designed as far as possible to harmonize well with the roman letters. The Association does not recognise makeshift letters; It recognises only letters which have been carefully cut so as to be in harmony with the other letters." (IPA 1949) 5. ^ For example, [p] is called "Lower-case P" and [] is "Chi." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 171)

[edit] References
1. ^ a b c d International Phonetic Association (IPA), Handbook. 2. ^ a b c d e f MacMahon, Michael K. C. (1996). "Phonetic Notation". In P. T. Daniels and W. Bright (eds.). The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 821846. ISBN 0-19-507993-0. 3. ^ Wall, Joan (1989). International Phonetic Alphabet for Singers: A Manual for English and Foreign Language Diction. Pst. ISBN 1877761508. 4. ^ The inverted bridge under the t specifies it as apical (pronounced with the tip of the tongue), and the superscript h shows that it's aspirated (breathy), both qualities which cause the English [t] to sound different from the French or Spanish [t], which is a laminal (pronounced with the blade of the tongue) and unaspirated [t]. t and t are thus two different IPA symbols for two different, though similar, sounds. 5. ^ a b c d e International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 194196 6. ^ "Originally, the aim was to make available a set of phonetic symbols which would be given different articulatory values, if necessary, in different languages." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 195196) 7. ^ Passy, Paul (1888). "Our revised alphabet". The Phonetic Teacher: 5760. 8. ^ a b c Pullum and Ladusaw, Phonetic Symbol Guide, pp. 152, 209

9. ^ Nicolaidis, Katerina (September 2005). "Approval of New IPA Sound: The Labiodental Flap". International Phonetic Association. Retrieved 2006-09-17. 10. ^ International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 186 11. ^ From its earliest days...the International Phonetic Association has aimed to provide a separate sign for each distinctive sound; that is, for each sound which, being used instead of another, in the same language, can change the meaning of a word. (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 27) 12. ^ Laver, Principles of Phonetics,pp. 174175 13. ^ "The new letters should be suggestive of the sounds they represent, by their resemblance to the old ones." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 196) 14. ^ a b Sally Thomason (January 2, 2008). "Why I Don't Love the International Phonetic Alphabet". Language Log. 15. ^ For example, the English school textbooks by I.N.Vereshagina, K.A. Bondarenko and T.A. Pritykina. 16. ^ For example, "Le Franais la porte de tous" by K.K. Parchevsky and E.B. Roisenblit (1995) and "English Through Eye and Ear" by L.V. Bankevich (1975). 17. ^ "Phonetics". Cambridge Dictionaries Online. 2002. Retrieved 2007-03-11. 18. ^ "Merriam-Webster Online Pronunciation Symbols". Retrieved 2007-06-04. Agnes, Michael (1999). Webster's New World College Dictionary. New York, NY: Macmillan USA. xxiii. ISBN 0-02-863119-6. Pronunciation respelling for English has detailed comparisons. 19. ^ (Czech) Fronek, J. (2006) (in Czech). Velk anglicko-esk slovnk. Praha: Leda. ISBN 80-7335-022-X. "In accordance with long-established Czech lexicographical tradition, a modified version of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is adopted in which letters of the Czech alphabet are employed." 20. ^ "Nico Castel's Complete Libretti Series". Castel Opera Arts. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 21. ^ Cheek, Timothy (2001). Singing in Czech. The Scarecrow Press. p. 392. ISBN 0-8108-4003-0 ISBN 978-0-8108-4003-4. %5EDB/CATALOG.db&eqSKUdata=0810840030. 22. ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (2008-05-14). "Operatic IPA and the Visual Thesaurus". Language Log. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2009-09-29. 23. ^ "Segments can usefully be divided into two major categories, consonants and vowels." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 3) 24. ^ International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 6. 25. ^ Ladefoged and Maddieson, 1996, Sounds of the World's Languages, 2.1. 26. ^ Ladefoged and Maddieson, 1996, Sounds of the World's Languages, 9.3.

27. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. p 18 28. ^ Fromkin, Victoria; Rodman, Robert (1998) [1974]. An Introduction to Language (6th ed.). Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. ISBN 003-018682-X. 29. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Ian Maddieson (1996). The sounds of the world's languages. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 329330. ISBN 0-631-19815-6. 30. ^ Amanda L. Miller et al., "Differences in airstream and posterior place of articulation among Nuu lingual stops". Submitted to the Journal of the International Phonetic Association. Retrieved 2007-05-27. 31. ^ International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 10. 32. ^ a b International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 1415. 33. ^ a b International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 13. 34. ^ "John Wells's phonetic blog". 2009-09-09. Retrieved 2010-1018. 35. ^ "At the 1989 Kiel Convention of the IPA, a sub-group was established to draw up recommendations for the transcription of disordered speech." ("Extensions to the IPA: An ExtIPA Chart" in International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 186.) 36. ^ "Extensions to the IPA: An ExtIPA Chart" in International Phonetic Association, Handbook, pp. 186187. 37. ^ "Diacritics may also be employed to create symbols for phonemes, thus reducing the need to create new letter shapes." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 27) 38. ^ Olson, Kenneth S.; & Hajek, John. (1999). The phonetic status of the labial flap. Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2), pp. 101114. 39. ^ "The diacrtics...can be used to modify the lip or tongue position implied by a vowel symbol." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 16) 40. ^ "...the International Phonetic Association has never officially approved a set of names..." (International Phonetic Association, Handbook, p. 31)

[edit] Further reading

Ball, Martin J.; John H. Esling & B. Craig. Dickson (1995). "The VoQS system for the transcription of voice quality". Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet 25 (2): 7180. doi:10.1017/S0025100300005181. Duckworth, M.; G. Allen, M.J. Ball (December 1990). "Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for the transcription of atypical speech". Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 4 (4): 273280. doi:10.3109/02699209008985489. Hill, Kenneth C.; Pullum, Geoffrey K.; Ladusaw, William (March 1988). "Review of Phonetic symbol guide by G. K. Pullum & W. Ladusaw". Language 64 (1): 143 144. doi:10.2307/414792. JSTOR 414792. International Phonetic Association (1989). "Report on the 1989 Kiel convention". Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet 19 (2): 6780.

International Phonetic Association (1999). Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65236-7 (hb); ISBN 0-521-63751-1 (pb). Jones, Daniel (1988). English pronouncing dictionary (revised 14th ed.). London: Dent. ISBN 0521862302. OCLC 18415701. Ladefoged, Peter (September 1990). "The revised International Phonetic Alphabet". Language 66 (3): 550552. doi:10.2307/414611. JSTOR 414611. Ladefoged, Peter; Morris Hale (September 1988). "Some major features of the International Phonetic Alphabet". Language 64 (3): 577582. doi:10.2307/414533. JSTOR 414533. Laver, John (1994). Principles of Phonetics. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45031-4 (hb); ISBN 0-521-45655-X (pb). Pullum, Geoffrey K.; William A. Laduslaw (1986). Phonetic symbol guide. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-68532-2. Skinner, Edith; Timothy Monich, and Lilene Mansell (1990). Speak with Distinction. New York, NY: Applause Theatre Book Publishers. ISBN 1557830479.

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: International Phonetic Alphabet Wikimedia Commons has media related to: IPA charts

The International Phonetic Association web site York University IPA Interactive Flash Charts Video recordings of the sounds of IPA by The University of Sheffield Information on IPA by Omniglot IPA Chart in Unicode and XHTML/CSS IPA copy & paste charts, keyboards, etc by Learning the IPA for English, (Standard American English) Various resources including a glossary by Peter Roach. The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 2005) Symbols for all languages are shown on this one-page chart Using IPA fonts with Mac OS X: The Comprehensive Guide, an article explaining how to install and use freeware fonts and keyboard layouts to type in the International Phonetic Alphabet on OS X Visual Thesaurus IPA Introduction This site was especially designed to act as an introduction to the International Phonetic Alphabet as used for English.

[edit] Education

Interactive Saggital Section Phonetics: the Sounds of English and Spanish Note: requires Flash 7 or higher.

IPA Charts with an interactive chart of all IPA letters with their sounds (Flash)

[edit] IPA font downloads

Charis SIL, a very complete international font (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic) in roman, italic, and bold typefaces that includes tone letters and pre-composed tone diacritics on IPA vowels, the new labiodental flap, and many non-standard phonetic symbols. Based on Bitstream Charter, this font suffers from extremely bad hinting when rendered by FreeType on Linux. DejaVu fonts have full Unicode IPA support. Doulos SIL, a Times/Times New Roman style font. It contains the same characters as Charis SIL, but only in a single face, roman. Gentium, a professionally designed international font (Latin, Greek, Cyrillic) in roman and italic typefaces that includes the IPA, but not yet tone letters or the new labiodental flap. For bold typefaces but only the most basic IPA letters, Gentium Basic may be used. TIPA, a font and system for entering IPA phonetic transcriptions in LaTeX documents.

[edit] Keyboard input

Extended IPA keyboard layout for Microsoft Windows: for Unicode IPA input Complete Guide: Beginners guide to using IPA on Windows, Mac OS and Linux, covering many office applications and browsers Downloadable IPA keyboard layout for Microsoft Windows for Unicode IPA input Downloadable IPA-SIL keyboard layout for Mac OS X for Unicode IPA input IPA Character Picker Web-based input method IPAPalette is the Mac OS X input method on which IPACharMap is based. IPACharMap (scroll down to see it) is an on-screen keyboard for point and click character entry, which can then be copied and pasted into a unicode-aware word processor. Based on IPA Palette. IPATotal keyboard This free UNICODE based keyboard encodes the whole character and diacritics charts of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), designed to represent all the sounds of speech in any language. IPA Writer: The IPA Writer. Online tool to write IPA. Microsoft Template Creates a Toolbar for Microsoft Word. (This uses macros) Online keyboard[dead link] IPAEdit Unicode-compliant Transcription Editor for Linux, Mac OS X and Windows from the University of Marburg PhonPad online IPA editor. Lenz Windows program that allows typing IPA symbols directly into other programs. Online Smart IPA Keyboard quickly type IPA phonetics without memorizing symbol codes

IPANow! - Automatic Foreign Language IPA Transcription : IPANow! is shareware that automatically creates phonetic transcriptions of texts in Latin, Italian, German, and French.

[edit] Sound files

An introduction to the sounds of languages Complete IPA chart with sound samples, including English diphthongs IPA chart with MP3 sound files for all IPA letters on the chart (limited version is available to anyone) IPA chart with AIFF sound files for IPA symbols Peter Ladefoged's Course in Phonetics (with sound files)

[edit] Unicode charts

International Phonetic Alphabet in Unicode Unicode chart for main IPA lettersPDF (246.8 KB) Unicode chart for IPA modifier lettersPDF (203 KB) Unicode chart including IPA diacriticsPDF (231.2 KB) IPA with Unicode superimposedPDF (1.6 MB) from the University of Marburg MySQL Unicode collation chart for IPA and other phonetic blocks Unicode-HTML codes for IPA symbols: Tables of symbol names, character entity references and/or numeric character references at Penn State.

v t e

International Phonetic Alphabet


IPA topics
IPA Phonetics International Phonetic Association History of the IPA Kiel convention (1989) Journal of the IPA (JIPA) Naming conventions Diacritics Segments Tone letter Place of articulation Manner of articulation

Special Extensions to the IPA Obsolete and nonstandard symbols IPA chart for topics English dialects Encodings SAMPA X-SAMPA Conlang X-SAMPA Kirshenbaum TIPA Phonetic symbols in Unicode WorldBet


Chart Pulmonics Non-pulmonics Affricates Co-articulated image [show]

Front Close Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Nearfront Central Nearback Back

iy u e o e o

Vowels: IPA help chart [show]

chart with audio view

v t e

Phonologies of the world's languages


v t e

Types of writing systems

History of writing Grapheme Writing systems o undeciphered o inventors Languages by writing system / by first written accounts








Balinese Batak Baybayin Brhm Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Devangar Dhives Akuru Assamese/Bengali Grantha Gujarati Gupta Gurmukh Hanun'o Javanese Kadamba Kaithi Kalinga Kannada Khmer Lanna Lao Lepcha Limbu Lontara Malayalam Meitei Mayek Mithilakshar Modi Mon Ngar Nepali Old Kawi Oriya Pallava 'Phags-pa Ranjana Rejang Rencong rad Saurashtra Sinhala Siddha Soyombo

Sundanese Sylheti Nagari Tagbanwa Tai Dam Tai Le Takri Tamil Telugu Thai Tibetan Tocharian Varang Kshiti Boyd's syllabic shorthand Canadian Aboriginal Ge'ez Japanese braille Kharoh Meroitic Pollard Sorang Sompeng Tna Thomas Natural Shorthand




Armenian Avestan Bassa Vah Borama Coptic Cyrillic Deseret Duployan shorthand Eclectic shorthand Elbasan Fraser Gabelsberger shorthand Georgian Glagolitic Gothic Gregg shorthand Greek

Greco-Iberian alphabet Hangul International Phonetic Kaddare Latin Manchu Mandaic Mongolian Neo-Tifinagh New Tai Lue N'Ko Ogham Ol Chiki Old Hungarian Old Italic Old Permic Orkhon Osmanya Runic Shavian alphabet Visible Speech Vithkuqi Braille Hebrew Korean Maritime flags Morse code New York Point Semaphore line Flag semaphore
o o


Moon type




Traditional Simplified Hanja

Hn t Kanji Ch Nm Jurchen Khitan large script Tangut Zhuang Anatolian Cuneiform Maya Yi Demotic Hieratic Hieroglyphs Hindu-Arabic Abjad Greek (Attic) Roman


Other logo-syllabic






Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Southwest Paleohispanic Pahawh Hmong Zhyn fho Khitan small script



Syllabarie s

[edit] Technical note

Most IPA symbols are not included in the most widely used form of Times New Roman (though they are included in the version provided with Windows Vista), the default font for Latin scripts in Internet Explorer for Windows. To properly view IPA symbols in that browser, you must set it to use a font which includes the IPA extensions characters. Such fonts include Lucida Sans Unicode, which comes with Windows XP; Gentium, Charis SIL, Doulos SIL, DejaVu Sans, or TITUS Cyberbit, which are freely available; or Arial Unicode MS, which comes with Microsoft Office. On this page, we have forced Internet Explorer to use such a font by default, so it should appear correctly, but this has not yet been done to all the other pages containing IPA. This also applies to other pages using special symbols. Bear this in mind if you see error symbols such as "" in articles. Special symbols should display properly without further configuration with Mozilla Firefox, Konqueror, Opera, Safari and most other recent browsers.

The sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet

Tomasz P. Szynalski, This chart contains all the sounds (phonemes) used in the English language. For each sound, it gives:

The symbol from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), as used in phonetic transcriptions in modern dictionaries for English learners that is, in A. C. Gimsons phonemic system with a few additional symbols. The chart represents British and American phonemes with one symbol. One symbol can mean two different phonemes in American and British English. See the footnotes for British-only and American-only symbols.

Two English words which use the sound. The underline shows where the sound is heard. The links labeled Amer and Brit play sound recordings (Flash is required) where the words are pronounced in American and British English. The British version is given only where it is very different from the American version.

To print the chart, use the printable PDF version.

vowels IPA examples listen cup, luck Amer : arm, father Amer / Brit cat, black Amer e met, bed Amer away, cinema Amer : turn, learn Amer / Brit hit, sitting Amer i: see, heat Amer hot, rock Amer / Brit : call, four Amer / Brit put, could Amer u: blue, food Amer a five, eye Amer a now, out Amer e say, eight Amer o go, home Amer boy, join Amer e where, air Amer / Brit near, here Amer / Brit pure, tourist Amer / Brit

consonants IPA examples b bad, lab d did, lady f find, if g 1 give, flag h 2 how, hello 2 j yes, yellow k cat, back l leg, little 3 m man, lemon n 45 no, ten sing, finger p pet, map r red, try s sun, miss she, crash t 6 tea, getting t check, church 17 think, both 7 this, mother 7 v voice, five w wet, window z zoo, lazy pleasure, vision d just, large

listen Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer 8 Amer Amer Amer 9 Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer Amer

1. 1. Almost all dictionaries use the e symbol for the vowel in bed. The problem with this convention is that e in the IPA does not stand for the vowel in bed; it stands for a different vowel that is heard, for example, in the German word Seele, or at the beginning of the e sound in English. The proper symbol for the bed vowel is (do not confuse with :). The same goes for e vs. . 2. 2. In and :, the is not pronounced in BrE, unless the sound comes before a vowel (as in answering, answer it). In AmE, the is always pronounced, and the sounds are sometimes written as and . 3. 3. In AmE, : and are one vowel, so calm and cot have the same vowel. In American transcriptions, hot is written as h:t. 4. 4. About 40% of Americans pronounce : the same way as :, so that caught and cot have the same vowel. See cot-caught merger. 5. 5. In American transcriptions, : is often written as : (e.g. law = l:), unless it is followed by r, in which case it remains an :.

6. 6. In British transcriptions, o is usually represented as . For some BrE speakers, o is more appropriate (they use a rounded vowel) for others, the proper symbol is . For American speakers, o is usually more accurate. 7. 7. In e , the r is not pronounced in BrE, unless the sound comes before a vowel (as in dearest, dear Ann). In AmE, the r is always pronounced, and the sounds are often written as er r r. 8. 8. All dictionaries use the r symbol for the first sound in red. The problem with this convention is that r in the IPA does not stand for the British or American r; it stands for the hard r that is heard, for example, in the Spanish word rey or Italian vero. The proper symbol for the red consonant is . 9. 9. In American English, t is often pronounced as a flap t, which sounds like d or (more accurately) like the quick, hard r heard e.g. in the Spanish word pero. For example: letter. Some dictionaries use the tsymbol for the flap t. special symbols IPA what it means The vertical line () is used to show word stress. It is placed before the stressed syllable in a word. For example, /kntrkt/ is pronounced like this, and /kn trkt/ like that. Word stress is explained in our article about phonetic transcription. is not a sound it is a short way of saying that an r is pronounced only in American English. For example, if you write that the pronunciation of bar is /b:/, you mean that it is /b:r/ in American English, and /b:/ in British English.

However, in BrE, r will be heard if is followed by a vowel. For example, far gone is pronounced /f: gn/ in BrE, but far out is pronounced /f: rat/. i is usually pronounced like a shorter version of i:, but sometimes (especially in an old-fashioned British accent) it can sound like . Examples: very /veri/, create /kriet/, previous /pri:vis/, ability /blti/. l means that the consonant l is pronounced as a separate syllable (the syllabic l, which sounds like a vowel), or that there is a short sound before it. Examples: little / ltl/, uncle /kl/. Instead of the l symbol, some dictionaries use an l with a small vertical line underneath, or simply l, as in /ltl/. n means that the consonant n is pronounced as a separate syllable (the syllabic n, which sounds like a vowel), or that there is a short sound before it. Examples: written /rtn/, listen /lsn/. Instead of the n symbol, some dictionaries use an n with a small vertical line underneath, or simply n, as in /rtn/.

Does this chart list all the sounds that you can hear in British and American English?
No. This page contains symbols used in phonetic transcriptions in modern dictionaries for English learners. It does not list all the possible sounds in American or British English. For example, this page does not list the regular t (heard in this pronunciation of letter) and the flap t (heard in this one) with separate symbols. It groups them under a single symbol: t. (In other words, it groups a number of similar sounds under a single phoneme, for simplicity. To understand how sounds are grouped into phonemes, read the article on phonemic transcription.) So this page actually lists phonemes (groups of sounds), not individual sounds. Each symbol in the chart can correspond to many different (but similar) sounds, depending on the word and the speakers accent. Take the phoneme p in the above chart. It occurs in the phonemic transcriptions of pin /pn/ and spin /spn/. In pin, this phoneme is pronounced with aspiration (breathing). This aspirated p sound has its own special symbol in the IPA: p In spin, the phoneme is . pronounced normally; this normal p sound is represented by p in the IPA. So the p phoneme represents two sounds: p and p. (This can be confusing, because p can mean both the p phoneme and the p sound.)

Typing the phonetic symbols

You wont find phonetic symbols on your computers keyboard. How do you type them in a Word document, e-mail message, or SuperMemo collection? There are two solutions:

You can go to the IPA phonetic keyboard at, type your transcriptions, and copy & paste them to your document. You can use the ASCII Phonetic Alphabet, which replaces IPA symbols with characters that you can type on your keyboard.

Learning to pronounce the sounds

We offer English pronunciation software called PerfectPronunciation which teaches learners to pronounce the most frequently used English words. It lets you listen to examples of English sounds, practice your pronunciation, and review your knowledge. PerfectPronunciation uses the ASCII Phonetic Alphabet.

A part of the vocal tract which is actively involved in the production of a particular sound, especially one which is used to form the primary constriction in the production of a consonant. Typically articulators are used in pairs, with one moving more than the other;

the one that moves more is called the active articulator, and the other is the passive articulator. For example, in alveolar sounds (such as t), the active articulator is the tongue tip and the passive articulator is the alveolar ridge. (Sometimes the tongue is described as the articulator for vowels. ) Perbaiki Kelompok Kata: kata benda Persamaan Kata: Industri/Domain: Bahasa Kategori: Tata Bahasa Produk: Perusahaan: Lebih banyak detail Bahasa Lain: articulator Bahasa Inggris (EN) articulateur Bahasa Prancis (FR) Artikulator Bahasa Jerman (DE) articolatore Bahasa Italia (IT) Bahasa Mandarin - Sederhana (ZS) Bahasa Rusia (RU) artikulator Bahasa Indonesia (ID) Lebih banyak bahasa
- Dibuat oleh Armana di 2011/06/14, Terakhir kali disunting oleh Armana di 2011/06/14 -

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Industry/Domain: Bahasa; Category: Tata Bahasa In the production of a consonant, the articulator which moves more.