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ROLE OF GLOBALIZATION

ROLE OF GLOBALIZATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • 1. Globalization of Media…….……………………………………………

  • 2. Types and Categories of Globalization………………………………… ..

  • 3. Impact of Globalization………………………………………………….

  • 4. Conclusion……………………………………………………………… ...

  • 5. References………………………………………………………………… ..

1. Globalization of Media

The term ‘globalization of media’ is not of global nature. No media is genuinely global in nature (Sparks, 2000). Besides, the so-called global media’s audience is ‘too small, too rich and too English-speaking to be considered inclusive’ (Jan, 2009). Mass media at both the domestic and international level have made these globalizing trends possible.

Globalization is a process which is often viewed as a ‘positive force’ that unifies widely different societies, incorporating them into a ‘global village.’ This enriches all in the

process. It is seen as an inevitable by-product of human evolution and progress, governed by the laws of nature. However, globalization is not entirely a natural succession resulting from the communication and interaction of people and cultures around the world. Instead, it is a process stemming from choices elaborately made by a dominant group of countries and international bodies which have stakes in the process. The new communications and information technologies have been powerful tools in providing methods for large corporations to maximize profits by entering foreign markets.

Media industry models ways of organizing and creating media is the level at which globalization of media is most pervasive. The world’s market is becoming an

increasingly integrated market based in capitalist economics. Nations are pressurized to make media more commercial with the support of advertising and targeting consumers. Privatization of telecommunication communications that were once state-owned is also becoming popular. The resulting rapid changes have had profound impacts. Nations are encouraged to make their own television productions, magazines and music and if these

are based on another country’s model or genre ideas then these national productions are

somewhat globalized in nature. Even if a national soap drama reflects its own culture, foreign products can still be advertised in another part of the global market. Such

productions done with global forms and ideas have been termed ‘global’ by Roland

Robertson in 1995.

Globalization has also penetrated the media technology. There are about 2,267,233,742 internet users worldwide (Internet World Stats, 2012). About 5 billion people are subscribed to mobile phone subscriptions (The Independent, 2011). In the beginning only

the world’s richest and best educated could use such new media as the internet, mobile

phone or television but now that line dividing the developing countries and the developed countries is almost invisible. Bangladesh, being a developing country, had about 995,560 internet users as of August 2010 (Internet World Stats, 2010).

2. Types and Categories of Globalization

Globalization describes the process in which the various aspects of a nation are viewed as part of a global community or village. The world is a global village now and this has

brought several changes in how the nations are viewed in today’s time and age.

Globalization also refers to the increased interdependence and integration of international social relations and economic activity (Jonathan, n.d.). The term may tend to have economic connotations but it also describes an increase in technology usage, exchange of ideas and the field of research and development.

Globalization Effects and Drivers

Regions that were once isolated from the rest of the world are now reachable, connectable and accessible. Globalization has helped join the whole world and has helped nations to be more than just neighbors. It has helped remove some international trade restrictions, brought about profound technological change, enabled foreign investment by developed countries into developing countries and brought about an overall westernization of developing countries. Communication between nations is becoming increasingly easier and possible.

Market Globalization

This term describes the aggregation of separate national market markets into one global market. This process has given birth to international trade and has enhanced the removal of trade barriers. Consumers now have a wide range of products to choose from in fact a global range of products and services. The tastes from different global consumers are homogenized to create global standards which would enable the consumers to receive the same products from different companies. Market globalization has also brought in stiffer competition as companies compete for consumers from around the world. This has enhanced production process and the quality of products to some extent.

Production Globalization

This type of globalization enables producers to get raw materials, land, capital and labor for their products (both tangible and intangible) from different parts of the world. Producers can take advantage of differences in quality, cost and the performance of things. The chances of increasing both the quantity and volume are better while keeping production costs low at the same time. Competition reaches a new height as companies compete to develop their respective international production networks. Globalization of products is also closely related to production globalization as there is the constant need to producer newer products to be made available to the global market.

Other types of globalization

Cultural globalization

The creation of media throughout the world as enabled the exposure of different cultures

to the global village. These cultures seep into the local cultures and at today’s time the

fine line between different cultures is gradually disappearing.

Geopolitical globalization

Political decisions of one nation can now have effects in other countries. Thus, politics

are no longer concentrated to just one nation. Countries form organizations to regulate events that happen in participating countries.

Ambient globalization

Economic activities of one nation does not affect the environment of that nation only but

has global implications. This type of globalization concerns global warming which is the increase in the average temperature of the world.

3. Impacts of Globalization

Media

globalization

cannot

be

stopped.

It

is

a

result

of

new

communications

technology.

It

is

also

the

prerequisite

and

facilitator

for

all

other

forms

of

globalization. Multi-national media is critical to global industries. Many feel that

we ought

to

enjoy

the

benefits

of

media

globalization,

such

as

global

communication,

rather

than

fearing

and

attempting

to

avoid

the

consequences

which ironically include hindrance of free speech.

 

Communicating internationally has

never

been

easier.

Thanks

to

new

media

platforms, we can have a video conversation with a loved one who is 10,000

miles away or keep up-to-date on the stock market with our cell phones. The

internet can

also improve our

health or save

our lives.

Your doctor

may send

an

X-ray or MRI to another it within hours.

doctor in

India or

China for a second opinion

and have

A

majority

of

all

media

is

owned

by

a

very

small

percentage of wealthy

corporations. Local media is being swallowed alive by conglomerations. Freedom

of

speech

is

threatened

by these

multinational

corporations;

they drown

out

the

voice

of

local

media

with

profit-maximizing

formulas.

Media

moguls

have

the

most to gain from globalization of media. Their power is concentrated; they have merged, often with companies that are unrelated to the field.

Multi-national media corporations produce products which maximize their profits while decreasing the cost of production. Jobs which might usually have been performed locally are being shipped internationally and performed at less than half the cost. Corporations are increasing profit by cutting costs and selling to an international audience. The wealthiest countries have the resources to produce the most media; therefore, the media delivered to the global audience will promote the culture of the wealthiest countries. And it is the wealthiest minority within these countries who defines the content of the media, thereby influencing culture around the world.

More media is

readily available

to

us

than there

ever

has

been

before.

 

As

the

number of media vehicles increases, so does competition in the open market. This

increase in

competition

has

not

led

to

an

increase

in

content

diversity.

Instead,

media content,

or

media

products,

have

become

standardized

to

fill

a

profit

formula

as

the largest

media corporations compete with each other for audience

share. Even news stations have taken up the profit formulas.

4. Conclusion

This paper has defined globalization of media and its impacts and significance in today’s time and age. Globalization of media is a process that cannot be stopped. It is a continual process that is taking place even as we write. This process has brought media to a new height. Its positive effects have been enjoyed by several nations. The world has come a long way from the age of discovering nations by long voyages. Now, information about the various aspects of a nation is available at the tip of our fingers. Nations have benefited from the globalization of media. Of course, at the same it has brought about significant challenges for some nations especially in regards to media and cultural policy. The dominance of the first world countries is still very much present in global media and

so a truly global media culture that blends cultural traditions and social values from different countries has yet to develop.

  • 5. References

    • 1. Jan, M., 2009. Globalization of Media: Key Issues and Dimensions. European Journal

of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-216X Vol.29 No.1 (2009), pp.66-75.