Among Engineering Lecturers in Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia. By Asst. Prof. Dr.

Hanipah Hussin Deputy Dean Academic, Center for Academic Services Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia Taman Tasik Utama, .Ayer Keroh. 75460.Melaka. Malaysia Abstract This paper reflects a research done on a cohort of engineering lecturer (46) with the aims of emergent the effectiveness of educational practice. Part one describes that university challenge brings engineering lecturers and students together in a joint effort to promote the integration of professional practice of their specialization (Electric Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Manufacture Engineering) and to apply their knowledge to solve industrial related need. Part two pealed the practical action research design methodology and the reflective model used. It explored the notion of reflective practice and practical action research and it impact to the innovative and creative teaching and strategies in respective engineering faculty. Part tree discussed how the data was gathered and how content analysis procedure used for data analysis. Research finding, is in part four; it explained the introductory and advanced coaching during the cycle of practical action research. The challenges faced by the practitioner of practical action research were discussed on depth. All reflective journals of the 46 lecturers were analyzed and eight teaching knowledge bases were identified through content analysis. Part five explained the most important teaching knowledge base reflected by lecturers was self-knowledge as lecturer, knowledge of learners and knowledge of context of industries. The role of peers, university supervisors, and industries supervisors in creating collaborative emergent the effectiveness of educational practice is discussed widely. Part six concluded that this study affirmed that practical action research and reflective practice could be embarking in every faculty at KUTKM as an appropriate means to enhance professional development among lecturers.

Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

Instructional Practices and Reflective Writing Among Engineering Lecturers
in Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia. By Asst. Prof. Dr. Hanipah Hussin Deputy Dean Academic, Center for Academic Services Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia Taman Tasik Utama, .Ayer Keroh. 75460.Melaka. Malaysia


Introduction Drawing on my experience as pedagogies practitioner since 1984, I argue that

reflective practice and action research emerged or spread as an aspect of the universities lecturers based curriculum reforms in the integrated education system in Malaysia. In doing so, I attempt to counter the contemporary approach that lecturers-as-researchers movement was initiated by academics in the higher-education sector. This article show how the idea of reflective practice and practical action research was explicitly brought by professor and their cohort engineering lecturer in Kolej University Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia (KUTKM) that was volunteer to create and improve from the conventional system of teaching and learning to initiated curriculum reforms based on their subject matter. According to Foshay (1998:110) and Hanipah , (2004:51) during the process of reflective practice and practical action research, the professor and new lecturers learn together to establish a systematic, orderly procedure for exploring problems and finding possible actions to eliminate problems or at least to make them more manageable in nature of student and the university. The effective development of reflective lecturer or tutor is largely dependent on the behavior of professor in the faculty and for that reason professional development of professor is very important. Thus, it is encouraging to note that in KUTKM, Centre for Teaching and Learning (CTL) work and innovation of the Staff Development Programs in five faculties, teamwork was very much appreciated. Therefore, other than team coaching and team supervision that is presently in practice, there should be more prerequisite to enable professor to work together in pairs or in small teams during supervisory. This arrangement is not only to facilitate peer observations and to allow professor and new lecturer to practice content pedagogical knowledge skills but also to accord them opportunities to discuss with reference to content per-se and share their observations reflectively.

Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

Statement of The Problem in Instructional Practices and Reflective Writing Many engineering programs throughout the country are seeking ways to improve undergraduate education. Moving toward output-based education and student-centered learning, strengthening the focus on communications abilities, and examining innovative ways to increase student commitment to engineering education are all significant components of undergraduate engineering education reform. In keeping with our goal of increasing opportunities for student-directed learning experiences, CTL with some experienced Professors and senior lecturers piloted a spiral courses to embark Instructional Practices among Faculties lecturers. 1. Sesi Penerangan Bersiri Mengenai Konsep Pendidikan Teknikal Berorientasikan

Aplikasi dan Amalan Dalam Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran, 2. Kursus Asas Methodologi Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran untuk Pensyarah FKEKK dan FKE, 3. Kursus Asas Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran untuk Pensyarah and 4. Bengkel Untuk Pensyarah Pembimbing KUTKM Every course was developed to help new lecturer to: 1. Develop their abilities to conduct and present pedagogical content knowledge and general pedagogy in engineering education, to 2. Identify and articulate problems, and to critically reflect on their own work and that of others. 3. 4. Write some feedback and self-assessment in a reflective way. Pondering the problem-based learning technique during learning to be a reflective lecturer

Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

Instructional Practice and Reflective writing is one of the tool that has been chosen as an engine to move the educational approach in to teaching engineering subject matter effectively. Lecturers have to learn new skills during teaching that we know as reflective writing. To persuade that ‘learning to be reflective’ has been in line with application orientation during teaching CTL develop a serial design. The serial design included two or more cycles in order to answer the process of practicing the reflective writing and to take an action to innovate new teaching and learning techniques and professional development among new lecturers. The introduction of learning to be reflective started with contemporary issues and these issues are complimentary with Malaysian Conceptual Model of Education.

Malaysian Conceptual Model of Education and Accountability The central points are Teaching Knowledge Base (Shulman:1987). In this matter, the researcher uses reflective as the effective tool to create the awareness in beginner lecturers of a lecturer’s role and their accountability toward their organization and Allah/God. This is clearly the main root towards building lecturers professionalism in Malaysian ways of philosophic. ALLAH/GOD

Knowledge Skills Attitudes SELF AS LECTURE R SOCIETY

Why reflective practice and practical action research is needed in KUTKM? i. To increase lecturers competence in pedagogical reasoning. ii. To increase the awareness of giving a meaning to classroom experience. iii. To produce lecturers that are able to think and take action without being ask to do so in increasing their professionalism. iv. To produce lecturers that are innovative and proactive in order to increase the skill of assessing their strength and weakness as a lecturer.
Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

v. To analyze the teaching and learning problems of lecturers through their writings in the reflective journals. vi. To identify the trust and values of lecturers towards their colleagues, supervisor and professor that influences their pedagogical way of thinking. The study focuses on the content of reflective writing in helping lecturers to develop their pedagogical reasoning in classroom during field experiences. At last this study brings forward these research questions clearly:

Research Questions 1. What is the pedagogical reasoning of lecturers toward their respective engineering field? 2. Does the reflective format facilitate lecturers to think reflectively in instructional practice? 3. What do lecturers report about the influence of the university community (colleagues, mentors and professor) in developing pedagogical reasoning.

Method and Procedure Research in Action The research design that is used by the researcher is Practical Action Research Design as in Table 1 Table 1: Practical Action Research Design Type of Action Research Practical Action Research in classroom Aim Head Researcher/Professor Roles Co-researcher / Principles Researcher coaching and scaffolds and encouraging self reflection The Relationship between facilitator and subjects Co-operation (Consultation) Coach Scaffold

Formatted the reflective writing to help lecturer reflect effectively. The effectiveness of reflective practice in developing professionalism

Source: Zuber-Skerrit,Ortrun (2001:1) and Hanipah (2004:50)

Research Procedures Qualitative approach used in this research. case study has been used. Practical Action Research Model and Reflective Model has been used as a technique to gather data. Action research model that is used has two cycles (reflex 2 phases) where every cycle has fives smaller spiral (reflect 5 faculties). The reflective process that is used moves two cycles and smaller spiral simultaneously. This technique is called second order action research where the researcher or professor and supervisor subject matter co-operate in coaching and

Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

scaffolding, exchange data, reflective and re-plan teaching and learning to improve the current practice. Diagram 1 : Reflective Practice on Practical Action Research

1 2 Introductory coaching 3 4 Action Research 5

2 1 Advance Coaching




Cycle 1 shown researcher’s spiral in introductory coaching. 14 weeks length

Cycle 2 shown researcher’s spiral in advance coaching

The triangulation process is repeated until the 5th spiral in the practical action research model, (see Diagram 1 above)

Reflective Writing Practices All of these skills are critical ones for engineering lecturers, and they make up the essential core of skills that fall under the often-vague heading of "communications." The 46 lecturers who registered for the course were able to learn how and why engineers communicate in the context of a truly learner-centered class. Participants chose to reflect a broad range of topics in engineering curriculum and how their instructional practices took over. The reflective writing activities took about 45 minutes and it was set up to provide lecturers with specific reflective writing format, in order to help them understand writing as an aid to pedagogical reasoning, not as an activity that takes place after the "real work" has been completed. By including communications tasks such as identifying and articulating problems, the format of reflective writing encouraged lecturers to develop the abilities to understand the scope of a pedagogical problem and to write problem statements. Such skills are critical to the success of lecturers, not only as they participate in teaching supervision
Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

later in their engineering curriculums, but also as they learn to think about themselves as problem solvers, and as they begin to understand that defining the full scope of any problem require broad-mindedness and the ability to see the interconnectedness of many issues in engineering.

Few Limitations Although the study included some faculty but then, this research has a few limitations in these areas: 1. It was a 46-acceptance journal, which was, involves some expertise and professors) and 46 lecturers that share the clinical supervision 2. Based on the small number of participant the research findings can only show the processes of reflective practice are done in that faculty and their nature. An interesting point that the researcher wants to highlight is the researcher has choose content pedagogy and general pedagogy based on cohort study, that is those that are directly under the researcher’s supervision. The good point about this is coaching and scaffolding can be done directly to the participant during field experience in all spirals planed by the researcher, Hanipah 2004:51. ‘Although Hanipah rightly pointed out that her finding of her study are not intended to be broad-spectrum, after reading her thesis, I suspect that there may be many commonalties in the difficulties experienced by lecturer and professor in the Malaysian context, and those experienced by many Australian lecturer and professor. These commonalties suggest that they may be considerable potential for cross-cultural differences between the two contexts. I found the study valuable in that it alerted me to this possibility. An additional strength of the study, in my view, is that it very clearly demonstrates the usefulness of practical action research in addressing the ongoing challenges in developing professional lecturers in university.
(Dr.Jennifer Sumsion, Lecturer in Faculty of Education, Macquarie University, Australia,1999)


Triangulation technique

Triangulation technique has been used to make sure the data is valid. There are 6 ways that has been used by the researcher to gather data that is. 1. Lecturer’s weekly journal.

2. Transcript from audio tape of semi-structured interview 3. Researcher’s weekly reflective journal 4. Feedback forms of clinical supervision from supervisor/professor

Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

The triangulation process that is done by the researcher can be illustrated as Diagram 2. As summary of the techniques used by the researcher for data gathering is that 4 techniques has been used. The console on the validity of the data using the triangulation technique shows the maturity of the researcher. The continuous analyses of data is planned from one spiral to the other thus the data is vital and generative. This means the data from one spiral stimulate data in the next spiral. Diagram 2 : Triangulation process Feedback from professor, peers and supervisor

Reflective by lecturer



Reflective by trainees/professor

Feedback by Peers

Reflective by Researcher

3.4 Data Analysis Data analysis in this study followed the Strauss and Corbin (1990) procedures called Reflection on Data Analysis in Practical Action Research. Researcher used the participants data entry or data collection (for example interview, journal, observational forms) and followed 4. Findings of the Research

The findings of this research, the thinking pattern of the trainees can be detected by reflective practice can be shown as below:

Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

( Example Cohort.1) Zulhari Othman BENT 4123 - Industrial Pneumatic Problem -Quality of assignment is below norms of engineering report (eg. typed, clear heading, good control of language (grammar, spelling, and vocabulary) and in terms of theoretical content (deficiency in understanding or/and application of knowledge). Why it is happened -Uneven distribution of course content’s descriptive topics and analytical topics. Descriptive topics / sub topics before semester break, while analytical topics are the only topics/ subtopics covered after semester break. -Since assignments are analytical problem solving type (design), the 3 assignments are grouped within the last 7 weeks. -Delivery of subtopic related to assignments are done in haste, or ineffective -Final year students emphasized on final year project (PSM 11) completion, during the last 7 weeks of semester. Discovery and Awareness -No descriptive assignment given -Too much focus on analytical or design content of the syllabus or practical aspect of subject. -Delivery of content is done only in lecturer slots (2 hrs per week) -Not encouraging teamwork in assignment completions. Teamed assignments would take shorter time and more fulfilling to do. All assignments are assumed individually done -Not specific in terms of quality of assignment – just assumption based on seniority of students. Solution/Proposal -Redistribute course content with descriptive & analytical intermix just as long as the flow of the course is logical -Reduce volume of assignments from 3-2 in syllabus -Design a problem-based assignment that is descriptive in nature -Delivery of content &context more effectively as PKPP course (Effectiveness, methodology & others, is still new to me -Delivery of content & context should take advantage of all available slots: Lecture,lab,tutorial-hrs.

Action I’LL should be able to take all proposal to be implemented immediately. But for the remaining few weeks, proposal #5 will implemented with immediate effect

Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

( example cohort.2) Yronne Low (FKEKK) BENT 2143 Network Analysis Problem -Student can’t do well when I give them test or problems. They can’t answer well. This indicates they don’t really understand. Why it is happened -Student claims that they already forget most of the fundamental knowledge (no matter related to this subject or engineering Mathematics), which they need to know when they asked to solve problems for this subject. Awareness -No matter what students should take responsibility on what they have learned in previous semester. I will give them to do revision if necessary. My philosophy in learning -Right attitude is the key in learning. Solution - to give as mush as revision to them -give students copies of related information (extra notes) -advised and remind them Action - Students should be exposed to motivation courses. -I will prepare more problem solving questions (which similar to final paper)

Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

( example cohort.3) Muhammad Fahmi Bin Miskum Fakulti Kejuruteraan Elektrik M/P Litar Elektik 1 (BEKU 1223) Masalah -Saya hadapi kesukaran untuk memberi markah untuk sesi ujikaji makmal sbjek Litar Elektik 1, biasanya 20% diperuntukkan untuk 5 sesi makmal tidak termasuk ujian makmal Punca masalah -Saya dapati tidak adil untuk menilai pelajar yang baru pertama kali menjalankan ujian, lainlah kalau dah 2 atau 3 diberi peluang! -Sesi makmal diberi peluang bercakap. Bagi saya tidak adil memberi markah kerana ada kemungkinan besar mereka meniru dalam memberi keputusan atau jawapan dalam report mereka. Kesedaran -saya dapati sistem pemarkahan sesi makmal yang sedia ada tidak adil untuk menguji dan mengkelaskan pelajar -prosedur ujikaji makmal Litar Elektik 1 perlu diperbaikidari segi pembahagian markah Kesan kepada kualiti kerja -Pemarkahan pelajar yang saya lakukan untuk sesi makmal menjadi kurang adil Cadangan untuk pembaikan -Saya perlu menkaji instrument pemarkahan dengan mendalam -saya akan kurangkan jumlaj peratusan markah untuk sesi makmal -saya akan menggantikan markah pada sesi makmaldengan ujian kompetensi makmal. Tindakan - Saya akan memanjangkan masalah ini untuk dibincangkan dan dikaji bersama Timbalan Rektor Akademik

5 5.1

The Implication of the Study Researcher Reflects on Their Experienced?

‘I learned, as a pedagogies professor, theories can be explicitly practices, and that theorizing consisted of articulating those ‘tacit theories’ and subjecting them to critique in free and open professional discourse. I also learned that high-quality professional discourse depends

Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

upon the willingness of everyone involved to tolerate a diversity of views and practices.’ (Hanipah:2004) 5.2 Peer Acknowledgement?


What Are the External Practitioner Report on The Study?

…‘This study makes a welcome contribution to the research literature about reflective practice in lecturer education by moving beyond the Western focus of much of the existing literature. As a Western reader, I found the Malaysian context of this study most interesting, and in my opinion, this focus gives a number of strengths. This document provides Western readers with insights into Islamic beliefs and their relevance to the professional preparation of Malaysian lecturer. More specifically, it highlights how religious beliefs can be instrumental in fostering a commitment to reflection. The role of religion, and spiritual aspects of reflection in general, are rarely mentioned in the contemporary Western literature about reflection, so the thesis makes a particularly worthwhile contribution in this respect’… …‘I also found the discussion of issues and implications arising from the study very thorough and perceptive. In my view, this chapter demonstrated Hanipah’s ability to critique socio-cultural and political influences impacting on the Malaysian lecturer education context, and to engage, herself, in critical reflection’… (Dr.Jennifer Sumsion, Lecturer in Faculty of Education, Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia,)

5.3.2 Senior Professor Perspective …‘A very good report in which she has incorporate a long list of up to date relevant references. In Malaysia, there has not been that many research projects on action research and reflective teaching. Although reflective teaching is a familiar concept to most has been done to promote it seriously. Similarly, clinical supervision became popular especially in lecturer training colleges of Education Ministry in the 80’s. Hanipah’s study should be able to revive the interest of Malaysian educators in those two areas, which if taken seriously, may be able to contribute to effective teaching. All educational systems need more reflective
Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.

practicing lecturers. The report is well written and presented. Reseach questing were stated clearly and all have been answered generally in quite a comprehensive, organized and wellstructured manner. The research methodology was also quite appropriately chosen for the kind of study she had undertaken. She also took measures to control the reliability and validity of instruments used in her study. The theoretical framework and model on which her study is based is clearly explained and rationalized. The title of the study describes the work done accurately’… (Prof. Dr.Zaiton Sidin, Dekan Fakulti Pendidikan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia) 6. Conclusion

The researcher has discuss this study in two main parts that is: 1. How the researcher does action research and the changes that is faced. 2. Discussion on ‘Knowing How’ and Application on Research Methodology in work place. Some difficulty in every spiral had discussed analytically. Grounded Theory and inquiry method had shown clearly. All data used by the researcher and participants to develop new data in their new cycle of action research. The processes carried for four and the half-month. A few obstacle has been identified like getting the co-operation from 2 out of 46 participants to write reflectively and getting the co-operation from the university community to plan reflective thinking is reported hard to supervise. Nevertheless the main matter that was discussing in the thinking pattern is the self-knowledge of being a reflective lecturer where by new lecturers does have more of this. They are also reported to emphasize values and selftrust, aims and commitment in the subject matter. The researcher has made description about the thinking pattern. The second matter that was discussed by the lecturers is their knowledge about their students. The research has made detail comparison of each sub category. Thus, the terms ‘reflective thinking’, ‘reflection’ and ‘reflective practice’ are used interchangeably throughout this study to refer to the process lecturers employed as they reviewed, reconstructed, and critically analyzed issues of concern that arose from their field experience. The process is defined as active and critical. Careful consideration is given to knowledge, beliefs, values, feelings and interesting events in light of the grounds, which support them, and in light of their consequences. In summary, the problems that prompted this study include the background of contemporary issues in the professional development of lecturers in Malaysia and the need to explore of how reflection can be facilitated in early profession. Bibliografi Elliott, J. (1991). Action research for education change. Buckingham: Open University Press. Foshay,A. (1998). Action research in the nineties. Journal of The Education Forum,
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62,108-112. Hanipah Hussin. (2004). Learning to be reflective: From theory to practices Malaysia experiences. Penerbit Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris. Tanjong Malim. Kim, Paik Lah. (1994). Developing field inquiry models: A multidimensional approach. An unpublished PhD. Thesis, University of Sydney. Kemmis, S, and Mc Taggart, R. (1981). The action research planner. Victoria: Deakin University. Shulman, L.(1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), 1-22. Strauss,A and Corbin, J (1990). Basic of qualitative research: Grounded theory.procedures and techniques. California: Sage Publication.

Buletin PPA/Instructional Practice and Reflective Writing among engineering lecturer in KUTKM.