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Department o Military Psychology f and Leadership f Royal Military College o Canada Kingston, Ontario, Canada
School o Business f Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Departmenr o Management f Saint Mary k Unrversity HallfM, Nova Scotia, Canada
We developed and tested a model in which transformational leadership affects sports performance indirectly, through the mediating effects of intrinsic motivation. During the season. 168 university athletes provided data on their perceptions of their coach’s transformational leadership and their own intrinsic motivation. At the end of the season, their coaches assessed the performance of the athletes. Using LISREL ‘4111, three models were estimated following the sequence of mediator tests outlined by Kelloway (1996, 1998). The proposed model received considerable support. The results isolate intrinsic motivation as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and sports performance, suggesting that transformational leadership may enhance intrinsic interest in the task.
The theory of transformational leadership was developed by Bass (1 985) and has attracted considerable attention since then (Bass, 1998). Transformational leaders display certain characteristics, such as espousing ideals, acting as role models, and showing care and concern for each subordinate. Also, they inspire their followers by formulating a vision and setting challenging goals, and stimulating them intellectually to think about old problems in innovative ways. Research has demonstrated that perceived transformational leadership is associated with increased performance in various work settings, such as the Navy
’This research was supported by grants from the Principal Discretionary Fund at the Royal Military College of Canada to Danielle Charbonneau and from the School of Business at Queen’s University to Julian Barling. The authors express their appreciation to Catherine Loughlin for constructive comments on an earlier version of this manuscript and to two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtprovoking comments. 2Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Danielle Charbonneau, Department of Military Psychology and Leadership, Royal Military College of Canada, P.O. Box 17000, Stn. Forces, Kingston, Ontario K7K 7B4, Canada.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2001, 31, 7 , pp. 1521-1534. Copyright 0 2001 by V. H. Winston & Son, Inc. All rights reserved.
Pelletier. and predict that transformational leadership affects sports performance indirectly through the mediating effects of intrinsic motivation. Vallerand. There are several reasons for postulating a link between transformational leadership and intrinsic motivation. To date. is an essential component of intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan. In this context. Ceyer & Steyrer. self-determination. 1993). 1998). Ryan. 1990). and Koestner (1 983) suggested that the controlling aspect of rewards decreases intrinsic motivation (see Rummel & Feinberg.. namely intrinsic motivation. Chelladurai and Saleh (1980) showed that coaches’ social support aimed at promoting the welfare of athletes (which parallels individualized consideration) predicted performance. 1998). One objective of the present study is to verify the self-determination claim. 1985). learning. survey research using longitudinal data points to the mediating effects of affective commitment (Barling et al. First. the transformational leadership model has received most empirical attention within organizational settings. However. which would be consistent with transformational leadership. In the current study.. 1996. This is supported to some extent by data showing that a leadership style that is supportive and promotes autonomy. 1988. 1998). There has been speculation about the relevance of transformational leadership within the sports domain (Murray & Mann. and blue-collar maintenance workers (Barling. which reflects individuals choosing to engage in activities for the pleasure that they bring. Weber. Kirkpatrick and Locke’s (1996) experimental study pointed to the mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs. this has been descriptive only and limited to charisma and the importance of having a vision (Yukelson. and the utility of the model would be enhanced if it could be shown to be valid in other contexts as well. intrinsic motivation consists of three aspects.1522 CHARBONNEAU ET AL. However. transformational leaders are known to empower rather than control their followers (Kanungo & Mendonca. and Briere (1 995) applied intrinsic motivation to the sports context.. Indeed. or the experience of choice. Second. Deci & Ryan. 1998). we identify a different possible mediator. 1995). 1998) and trust in management (Barling et al. Mims. Just how transformational leadership affects performance only recently has begun to attract empirical scrutiny. 1997). This empowering process is thought to increase followers’ self-efficacy and capacity for selfdetermination (Kanungo & Mendonca. 1985). Fortier. 1998. Early indications suggest that transformational leadership affects performance indirectly via several mediating mechanisms. Howell & Avolio. namely (a) knowing. Moutinho. enhances intrinsic motivation (Richer & Vallerand. 1996. is by no means new (e. Tuson. teams of Air Force officer cadets (Clover. for a discussion of cognitive evaluation theory). 1998). (Yammarino & Bass. (b) accomplishing and .g. 1990). and understanding. & Kelloway. banks (Barling. & Kelloway. The concept of intrinsic motivation.
Similarly. increased performance in martial arts has been linked to a mastery orientation. learning. Related concepts (e. The definition of mastery orientation is reminiscent of the knowledge and taskorientation aspects of intrinsic motivation. we asked sports players to rate their coaches’ leadership and their own intrinsic motivation. That is. through the mediating effects of intrinsic motivation. respectively. Generally. as Deci and Ryan ( 1 985) noted. In turn. as defined by Pelletier et al. there is some evidence linking intrinsic motivation to some aspects of performance. as well as academic performance in high school (Vallerand & Bissonnette. Several methodological comments are in order. and we asked team coaches to rate each individual’s performance. To avoid monomethod bias. transactional leadership and extrinsic motivation) were not examined. and (c) experiencing stimulation and sensations. performance data were collected from the coach. longitudinal format.3 notion of intrinsic motivation. we predict that it is intrinsic motivation that will result in enhanced sports performance.g. performance relative to other fellow athletes and each individual’s improvement over the season. We suggest that the very nature of the different components of transformational leadership will be particularly suited to predicting Pelletier et al. motivation has been found to be a weak predictor of performance.. athletes filled out the transformational leadership and intrinsic motivation questionnaires during the season. charisma raises individuals’ and groups’ expectations about what they can achieve and is likely to increase the accomplishment and taskorientation component of intrinsic motivation. Because of this short-term. in an attempt to arrive at a representative perspective of performance. which consists of improving skills and gaining understanding (King & Williams. the nature of the athletic season allowed us to use a short-term. 1992) and on a competitive swimming team (Pelletier & Tuson. we used two performance indicators. prospective relations are permitted. First.TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP 1523 being task oriented. namely. (1995). 1997). 1992). Specifically. Intrinsic motivation is uniquely appropriate to the sports context. in order to limit the scope of the study. Second. longitudinal design. However. Indeed. 1992). Finally. the primary motivation for amateur athletes is intrinsic. leadership studies are often plagued by the exclusive use of self-report data. such as effort and persistence in school (Vallerand & Senecal. the intellectual-stimulation component of transformational leadership is likely to increase knowledge. The main objective of the present study is to test a model in which transformational leadership affects sports performance indirectly. . and understanding. and to approach old problems in new ways. intrinsic motivation is examined in the particular interpersonal context of a transformational influence strategy. With its emphasis on stirring individuals to think for themselves. At the end of the season. Additional evidence supporting a link between intrinsic motivation and performance comes from the literature on goal orientation.
S D = 1. e. and the remaining eight would be considered team sports (e. Eight of these teams would be considered individual sports (e.g. but at different levels. Instruments The university from which the data were collected is a bilingual institution (English and French). and individualized consideration (4 items. and biathlon. motivation. were in their second year of studies ( M = 2..1524 CHARBONNEAU ET AL Method Participants The participants were athletes and their coaches recruited from among the varsity sports teams at one small university.g. . Some were competing at the university level. all of whom were undergraduates. judo. 45 females) remained (representing a response rate of 7 1YO). or both. volleyball. Another 22 participants were excluded because of incomplete data on leadership. whereas others competed at the collegiate level. Transformational leadership is divided into three factors: charisma (8 items..07) and were between 17 and 22 years of age. A complete data set consisted of the questionnaires filled out by athletes and the coaches’ evaluation of the same athletes. average. Most respondents took the language version that corresponded to their stated official language. “Seeks different perspectives when solving problems”). The 5-point Likert-type answer scale ranges from 0 (not at alf) to 4 Cfrequently or always). In total. e. only those sections that measure transformational leadership are discussed. For the purpose of this study. In total. whereas the remaining 35 (2 1%) answered in French. intellectual stimulation (4 items.. which is considered a lower level. Leadership.g. Bass & Avolio. After the elimination of incomplete data sets. 1995) measures athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ leadership. 133 (79%) respondents took the English questionnaires. males and females) were excluded because of missing performance data. “Considers me as having different needs and abilities than others”).g. basketball). while 16 team coaches (all males) provided performance data for each athlete. 45 participants were excluded because of missing performance data. all males.12. six were all-male. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire-Form 5 X (MLQ. swimming). That is.. 170 male athletes and 65 female athletes completed the questionnaires on transformational leadership and intrinsic motivation. “Talks optimistically about the future”). Scores on each of these three factors were obtained by dividing the raw score by the number of items. two were all-female. Of the teams. e. and eight had both female and male members. These teams were all competing.. the responOn dents. 168 participants (123 males. Data from two teams (squash.g.
49. The content of the questions. when backtranslated. e. e. 1995). Reliabilities for the three motivation scales range between . and . but only the 12 items pertaining to intrinsic motivation were used in this study.79 and . 1995) and in English (Pelletier et al. individual sports provided a reliability of . Performance. respectively.72 for accomplishment. The reliability for individualized consideration falls just under the considered acceptable range.g. in the English version. respectively. remained the same.74 and . For instance.SO for stimulation.81 and .81 for charisma for English and French. “Why do you practice your sport?” There are 28 items in total. This questionnaire is available both in French (Briere. Reliabilities obtained on the English and French questionnaires are comparable: . for the French version). but was nevertheless included in the analysis.57 and . This French version was backtranslated into English by a bilingual individual who did not have access to the original questionnaire. and accomplishments (4 items. as measured from the overall sample. Intrinsic motivation is composed of three factors: knowledge (4 items. For the purpose of the present study.g.65.. Performance of the athletes was measured at the end of the season using two questions. only the sections on intrinsic motivation are discussed. . “For the satisfaction I experience while I am perfecting my abilities”). Reliabilities for the different scales are reported in the diagonal in Table I.as indicated in the diagonal of Table 1. Intrinsic motivation. Respondents were asked to answer the question. stimulation (4 items. “For the pleasure of discovering new training techniques”).77 and .77. 1996).45 for team sports ( S 7 and . Bass & Avolio. . Blais... . They provided an estimate of the percentage of improvement for each team member throughout the season. The reliability of intellectual stimulation in French and that of individualized consideration in both languages were below the typical levels found in the literature ( a > .. coaches categorized each athlete on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) in terms of performance relative to all other athletes on the team.TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP 1525 Translation of the questionnaire from English to French was completed by the principal investigator with the help of a professional translator. Coaches estimated the athletes’ performance during both training and competition. respectively.83 and . Intrinsic motivation was measured with the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). In addition. for the entire sample. e.85. & Pelletier.89 for knowledge for English and French. The 7-point answer scale ranges from 1 (does not correspond at all) to 7 (corresponds exactly).68 and . Further analyses reveal that reliability was higher for individual sports than for team sports for both language versions.62 for individualized consideration.69 for intellectual stimulation. Vallerand. The English and French scales revealed acceptable reliabilities: . whereas the reliability was only . and . “For the intense emotions I feel doing a sport that I like”).g.
0 Table 1 I b rn Descriptive Statistics and Intercorrelationsfor All Study Variables z z rn 8 m 0 b C rn M SD 1 2 4 5 3 6 7 I . **p < . Intellectual stimulation 2. Knowledge .36 1. Charisma 3.46 26.I5 .14 -a -I $ .03 . no reliability.I3 .39** .18* .68** .27** .78 0. Wne-item scale.19* 4.19* 5. *p < . Italicized numbers are alpha coefficients.01.21** . Accomplishment 5.18 .53 .25** .28** .21** .57 Note.41** . Percentage improvement -a 4 I . N = 168.03 .68 .52 1.80 4.74 3.52** .55** .90 .37** .44** . . Performance category 1.16 0.23** .I4 .85 2.78 8.32** .22** .o 1 .30 .41 6.05. Individualized consideration 2.21** . Stimulation 5.81 .81 7.15* 3.77** .56** .19* .66 1.63 0.
in evaluating our proposed model. The correlation between the two indexes of performance (r = .94. any biasing effects of sample size should be constant across the model tests we perform.27 to . and (b) overly conservative tests of individual parameters comprising the model.97. although significant. All identifying information was removed from the questionnaires after the performance data were obtained. the goodness of fit index (GFI). ns. our focus is on the comparison of different models within the same sample. individualized consideration correlated significantly with intrinsic motivation. Thus.TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP 1527 Procedure Athletes completed the questionnaires within 2 weeks of the midpoint of the season for their respective sports.Ol).15. Performance data were obtained from the coaches at the end of the season. three indicators for intrinsic motivation. Our sample falls below the commonly recommended standard of 200 (e. charisma did not correlate with either index of performance and appears to be the least influential factor on intrinsic motivation.90. Contrary to expectation.59. AGFI = .41. In spite of its low reliability. the normed fit index (NFI). GFI = . Participants wrote their names on a removable yellow Post-ItTMnote attached to the questionnaires. p < . Kelloway. is rather low. we first established the fit of the measurement model before moving to a consideration of the full structural model. x2( 17. Model fit was assessed through consideration of the chi-square test. improvement and performance category. raising the possibility of (a) an overly liberal test of model fit. Moreover. are related to all three aspects of intrinsic motivation ( r range = .. The proposed model was estimated as a latent variable model with three indicators for leadership. This variability was necessary to accommodate the teams’ availability and competing schedule. intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration. The remaining two transformational factors. making it possible to pair the questionnaires with the performance evaluation supplied by the coaches. the adjusted goodness of fit index (AGFI). we use multiple measures of model fit. 1998). Following the recommendations of Anderson and Gerbing (1988). All model tests were based on the covariance matrix and were estimated using maximum likelihood estimation as implemented in LISREL VllI (Joreskog & Sorbom.g. N = 168) = 20. . p < .05). The measurement model provided a satisfactory fit to the data. Thus. Structural equation models were used for data analysis. and two indicators for performance. Acceptable model fit is indicated by a nonsignificant chi-square test and fit indexes exceeding . 1992). and the comparative fit index (CFI). Results Descriptive statistics and intercorrelations of all variables in this study are presented in Table 1.
1998). As shown. To assess the proposed structural model (Figure 1) we estimated three models following the sequence of mediator tests outlined by Kelloway (1996.1528 Table 2 CHARBONNEAU ET AL. Performance .37 . p < .01.41** Motivation Leadership . Second. with the partially mediated model allowing for their comparison with the chi-square difference test. we estimated a fully mediated model suggesting that leadership predicted intrinsic motivation and that motivation predicted performance. we estimated a partially mediated model suggesting that leadership predicted both motivation and performance and that motivation predicted performance.83** .95. x2difference( I .01. As shown.99. the partially mediated model provided a better fit to the data than did the nonmediated model. N = 168) = 7. Both the fully mediated and nonmediated models stand in nested sequence.71** . First.61** .01). Standardized Parameter Estimates for the Measurement Model Latent variables Observed variables Percentage improvement Performance category Knowledge Stimulation Accomplishment Charisma Intellectual stimulation Individualized consideration * * p < . Proposed model linking transformational leadership and sports performance. F it indexes for the three models are shown in Table 3.95** . NFI = .69** Figure I . all estimated parameters were significant (p < . CFI = .so** .61. Standardized parameter estimates for the model are presented in Table 2 . but was not significantly different from . we estimated the nonmediated model suggesting that leadership predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance (but that motivation did not predict performance). Finally.
GFI = goodness of fit index. These results extend findings from previous studies. CFI = comparative fit index. p < . in isolating intrinsic motivation as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and sports performance. the N = addition of the path from leadership to performance in the partially mediated model resulted in a nonsignificant parameter estimate (p = 0. While there is no research on intrinsic motivation in organizations. The fully mediated model accounted for 40% of the variance in performance and 24% of the variance in intrinsic motivation.98 . AGFl = adjusted goodness of fit index. 168) = 1.27. contributing to a greater understanding of the several ways in which transformational leadership affects performance. Moreover.65. performance was predicted by intrinsic motivation (p = 0. Discussion The results of this study provide strong support for the proposed model in which intrinsic motivation mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and athletic performance. the fully mediated model xZdifference(l.94 NFI . Standardized parameter estimates for the model are presented in Figure 2. Results of the LISREL VIll analyses linking transformational leadership and sports performance. NFI = normed fit index.99 ~ 18 18 17 Note.94 .43 28. ns.97 AGFl . Kirkpatrick and Locke (1996) showed that having a charismatic leader is associated with perceiving one’s work as more interesting.97 . First. and intrinsic motivation was predicted by transformational leadership (p = 0. .TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP 7 529 Table 3 Fit Indexes for the Structura[ Models Model Mediated Nonmediated Partially mediated x2 22. p < .01). we point to a mediator not addressed in previous research. Based on these observations.95 .94 .95 CFI .99 .96 .84.92 .50. As shown.59 c f GFI .20 20. the fully mediated model was retained for further analysis. ns). Figure 2.Ol).
we further extend transformational leadership. Barling. Several avenues for future research can be suggested.g. Second. showing that it can be effective among young people. which later has positive effects on performance). our findings extend previous research by showing that transformational leadership influences behavior in a context that has not received much attention previously. Steers. 2000). we suggest that future research should focus on whether transformational leadership is effective in the extent to which it enhances intrinsic interest in the task. Zacharatos. As a result.. In the current study. very little research has focused on younger adults’ use of transformational leadership. because students provided perceptions of their coaches’ leadership and self-ratings of intrinsic motivation. Bass (1 998) points to the extent to which transformational leadership has been applied in contexts other than formal work organizations ( e g . 1979). athletes already have the purpose of winning and do not benefit as much from a leader’s vision as would organizational teams. Nonetheless. First. 1996) has shown that transformational leadership can be enhanced via training. & Terborg. the athletes may have been aware of their coaches’ opinions on their performance. By focusing on university athletes in this study.e. Finally. training coaches in transformational leadership enhances players’ intrinsic motivation. & Kelloway. Taken together with the findings in the present study. This may reflect a difference between sports teams and organizational teams. Second. This possibility cannot be ruled out.. we used a short-term longitudinal design in which data on performance were collected several months after the data on perceived leadership and intrinsic motivation were collected. It is possible that on sports teams. Inferences concerning mediation could be strengthened. however. we reduced the extent to which the findings could be a function of single-source bias. and there are indications that the model is equally valid in the educational context (Koh. if support was derived from experimental studies using longitudinal data (i. Vallerand . This is important because of the concern inherent in many leadership studies that the perception of leadership is a function of performance (Lord & Maher. the military).1530 CHARBONNEAU ET AL. for whom the purpose and vision need some clarification. in comparison with intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration. One surprising finding in the study is the smaller relative contribution of charisma to intrinsic motivation. which could have biased their self-reported motivation or their leaders’ evaluations. with few exceptions (e. First.. previous experimental research (Barling et al. at midseason. external validity remains an empirical issue (Cook & Campbell. 1995). while coaches evaluated sports performance. The degree of confidence inherent in these findings is strengthened by two methodological issues. Second. we tested for mediation using correlational data. the possibility of reverse causality is less likely. However. and the present results add to the external validity of the model. 1991).
in team sports. The use of extrinsic reward to control performance. contingent reward). Perhaps the perceived individual attention given to athletes in team sports is less consistent than in individual sports. Future research may investigate the possible mediating role of positive verbal feedback between transformational leadership and intrinsic motivation. The use of performance-standardized scores for each athlete within each team was rejected because of the difficulty of identifying a criterion that would have been fair to all players within a team sport. Fourth. Indeed. future research should still use a more comprehensive and specific measure of sports performance. players often have different roles. the essence of transactional leadership (in particular. the two items measuring performance may not have adequately captured a sufficient variety of performance aspects. there are differences between sport teams and organizational work teams. intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and sports performance. the comparison of performance across different team sports and individual sports presented a hurdle. In conclusion. Furthermore. and the amount of time required to train for competitions. as they would both bias any results conservatively. In contrast. However. Again. 1995) was not adapted to the sports context. our measure of sports performance had to accommodate individuals from different sports. Indeed. and the reliability of one factor (individualized consideration) is less than desirable. relative performance may be related more to skills than to effort. future research might profitably use a more specific measure of transformational leadership. Improvement may depend more on personal effort than on skills. This may be an issue because there was a difference in the reliability of individualized consideration of team sports and individual sports. indicating that two independent aspects of performance were measured. the results of the present study extend our understanding of how transformational leaders affect performance. While these two issues do not threaten the validity of the present results. it would be interesting to contrast transformational leadership with transactional leadership in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Similarly. In this study. Third. In addition. and as a result may have been too general. 1985). transformational leaders may provide more informational feedback on performance than nontransformational leaders. Zhang. should decrease intrinsic motivation and increase extrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan. the win-lose dichotomy. Indeed. and Mann (1997) claim that scales developed in industry and business areas are not necessarily relevant to sports contexts because of the time-limited nature of athletic teams.TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP 1531 ( I 983) has shown the importance of positive verbal feedback on intrinsic motivation. while any effects of these differences on the present findings would be to bias the results conservatively. the correlation between improvement and relative performance was low. the MLQ (Bass & Avolio. For instance. suggesting that any such influence is indirect. . Jensen.
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