Point to Point Label Switching Protocol for Optical Access Networks
Jungjoon Lee, Jun kyun Choi
Abstnrrt-This paper concentrates on the provisioning of services using point-to-point protocol (PPP) and label switching scheme in IP over DWDM access networks. For the reason of usefulness of PPP and the efficiency of label switching technique in access networks, I propose three -solutions for end-toend or end-to-provider communicationon the optical access networks. T r e solution candidates for access networks are 10 Gigabit he Ethernet network, Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) network, and Passive optical network (PON).These Topologies have their own advantages. So this article presents how we can use these architectures properly in the access networks with the PPP and label switching techniques over a DWDM layer.
Index Terms-Access switching, PPP
Back Bone (Tbps)
Fig. 1 Access area bottleneck
networks, I over DWDM, Label P
II. IP/ PPP OVER DWDM
The ultimate solution would be to take IP directly over DWDM. This will bring about scalability and cost-effectiveness. Now we have industry products that actually implement IP over DWDM already. In effect we are totally eliminating ATM and SONET layers from the networks. The proponents of IP over DWDM say that SONET’s reliability is due to a lot of redundancy. This overkill prevents the network from using a large portion of its resources. With the development oferbium-doped fiber amplifiers most systems that use IF’ over DWDM using SONET fiames have removed the SONET multiplexers. Furthermore,major carriers such as AT&T, Sprint, Enron, Frontier, Canarie, have all begun to realize the huge economic potential of IP over DWDM and there is no longer any skepticism about this technology [Fig. 2.1. To do this, we need to insert a certain protocol that makes it possible for I to be carried over DWDM networks between an P IP and a DWDM layers. Point-to-point Protocol (PPP), which is a kind of solution that has customers access an Intemet service, is a well-known n service i circuit-switched telephone networks. But it is also considered a good choice for the delivery of broadband services in packet networks. The reason why we want to employ PPP over IP over DWDM Network is it satisfies easily most of the requirements associated with remote connectivity to an NSP, such as IP address assignment, security, and AAA (authentication, authorization and accounting) functions. In addition, since ISPs and corporations are familiar with PPP based connectivity, easy migration fiom existing ISP infrastructure is expected, if the protocol is light (efficient). But so far there is little activity in this area. For the reason of above statements, the link protocol between an IP and a DWDM layers should be similar to PPP and have the properties of PPP.
I. INTRODUCTION owadays Internet access architectures for residents, SOH0 (Small Office Home Office) and local area network subscribers are being developed largely with xDSL, Fast Ethemet, and furthermore Gigabit Ethemet. And they can access a network with the data rate fiom 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps. In addition, the backbone area network can support up to few Tbps by using DWDM technology [l]. But the problem is the access area that connect customer premises network to Internet backbone network. Still now, the access network only use T1 T3 line as shown in Fig. 1. Therefore upgrading this area is very urgent problem to figure the problem out bottleneck of access Internet or Service providers. So we need a certain optimized structure and a adjust protocol to expropriate the large number of subscribers in access networks without degradation of speed. This article suggest the proper structure is the combination of Ethernet packet Ring and Passive Optical Network (PON), and the proper protocol for that network is a LABELING protocol scheme and PPP extensions by using IPPPPDWDM architecture.
This w r was supported in part by the Electronics and ok Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRl), Korea Telecom, and KOSEF. Jungioon Lee is with the School of Engineering, Information and Communications University, TAEJON, KOREA (telephone: 82-42-866-6231, e-&: firstname.lastname@example.org). Jun kyun Choi is With the School of Engineering, Information and Communications University, TAEJON,KOREA (telephone: 8242-866-6 122, e-mail:email@example.com).
IEEE Catalogue No. 01CH37239 0-7803-7101-1/01/$10.000 2001 IEEE.
and multicast packets. Labeling is a key ingredient in building such
For the above reasons. ACCESS
reservation. The label switching forwarding component is not specific to a particular Network Layer. this protocol feature is that the spatial consists of*o rings*The Reuse protocol useS both two rings for active packet transfer. As you can see from the name. LABEL SWITCHINGTECHNOLOGY
One reason that we eliminate the redundant layers and employ a DWDM network is for the cost efficiency. ih
. 3 Extended labeled PPP Structure
switching upon the various that have been tried for IP with ATM-based re"% the med for complex sub-~e"ks This procedures and protocols that deal with issues such as address resolution and the different models for multicast and resource
B. it is very easy to migrate an extended labeled PPP.3 shows the extended PPP structure that includes MPLS shim header in a PPP frame. In a I O Gigabit Ethernet If a 10 Gigabit Ethernet is used in access network. while also lowering the cost of ownership bome by the customer. The carrier's infrastructure has been 'Virtualized' to support many independent mutually
invisible networks. Label switching also has the advantage of a clean separation between its control and forwarding functions. Each part can evolve without impacting the other part. and predictable behavior of these networks over shared carrier facilities holds the promise of providing extra service revenues to the carrier. A carrier offering that emulates the secure. in the core network will be used the Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) in a few years and access network also need to expend capacity by employing label switching so that the label exchange will be occurred in the border between an access node and a backbone edge router.To implement this configuration. Label switchingcan permit the actual IP header in a packet to be encmted since all that must be available to the LSR is the label itself. In this way the sources and destinations of the data are no longer observable while in
Phvsical Fiber Plant
Fig. Previous Fig. is using tag scheme. One other advantage of label switching that is not generally visible to the user is that it supports all types of forwarding: unicast. less costly. unicast wt type of service. the label format and control plain in an access network had better take after those in a core network. NETWORKR C ~ C T U R E S A IV. Many organizations use private networks built using leased lines to connect multiple sites. Explicitly routed hn Label Switched Paths are far more efficient t a the source route option in IP. One of the methods. which makes the evolution of networks easier. Label switching is also able to operate over virtually any Data Link Layer protocols. Basically this Resilient Packet Ring scheme is based on the Ethernet Rmg. Actually most of the real infrastructure is constructed as a ring topology.
networks. VPNs are an emulation of these Private Networks across carrier facilities in such a manner that each customer perceives himself to be running on a Private Network. reliable. Because the system that would transfer a received packet have to scan only the label in a packet rather than look into the inside of packets. increasing packet transfer speed.OY"II
F o 1OGEA rm Fig 4 ExtendedlabeledPPP Structure over 10 Gigabit Ethemet
Fig.3ae) follows a standard Ethernet flame (802. The h h e n t a l protocol ofthe Resilient packet Ring is Spatial Reuse Protocol. 4. And the performance of 10 Gigabit Ethemet that is relatively not expensive is high. In a Resilient Packet Ring Architecture Another choice is that we employ the new topology that is using packet ring architecture. 2 J over DWDM protocol Stacks P
m. and less prone to errors. Therefore we can insert the extended labeled PPP frame over 10 Gigabit Ethemet The fixme structure is shown Fig. A key feature of labeling is its support for explicit routes. And there are some other advantages of using labeling.
. And another is to boost speed up. It was already well studied to send PPP frames over Ethemet [ 5 ] .3). Because the 10 Gigabit Ethernet fixme (802.
which is distinguished from other ring type architectures. So this Spatial Reuse Protocol is two times efficient if the protection and restoration is guaranteed. such a ring network is not efficient. 8.
P H Y 4
D P H Y
IP payload Fig. Fig. 6 shows briefly a SuperPON system. The Passive Optical Network (PON) has tree topology. In a Passive Optical Network Architecture But the network consists of asymmetrical subscribers or the traffic of the subscribers is concentrated on one node in the network.0 Generic header format. 8 Optical access network
. statistically the aggregated traffic would be distributed to each nodes with equal amount. Spatial Reuse Protocol's stack is modified like Fig.
C. for the long-term evolution of the core network. an access network is needed that multiplexes a large number of subscribers (around 2000) on a single line termination. But in the case oftraffic is concentratedon one node.
0 -90 km
SuperP:JH 1: B 8 4 2488 I 31 1 MMJs
Fig. RPR is not efficient. and trammission speed up to 622 h4b/s. In this case we had better use star of tree topology. 5 is a Spatial Reuse Protocol version 2. Thus. the optimized topology is like Fig. Intelligent Protection Switching (IPS)  solves the protection and restoration problem. CONCLUSION
This ring architecture is proper topology among fair load sharing nodes. this provides a major opportunity to maximize ring bandwidth. 5. since the cost of a switching node is determined above all by the line cards.However. Hence. The traffic of individual subscribers is usually heading for the core network. because each ring node can source packets onto the ring concurrently. So the optimized access network would be combined form. In addition.
Customel's access passive optical network
3. As a consequence. the range of the access network will increase significantly.
P H Y . To adapt the extended labeled PPP. SRP derives its name from the protocol's destination-strippingoperation. Because most of other ring architectures use one active ring and one backup ring.r
Fig. The last row is the payload ofthe data packet in a PPP frame. Hence. access core network. an extensive node consolidation is expected since switching cost decreases with the size of the switching site.
Fig. which extends distance up to 100 km and increase the capacity to accommodate subscribers. a range of up to 20 km. Therefore the tree architecture is preferred. 5 Extended labeled PPP Structure over Resilient Packet Ring
. And the second row is MPLS shim header format. The typical specifications for the broadband PONS currently being deployed are splitting factors below 32. which have same upload bandwidth and down load bandwidth. 7 Extended labeled PPP S t r u m over PON system
V. Previous data ring technologies such as FDDI or Token Ring did source stripping. Ranges of up to 100 km are being envisaged. 5 Extended labeled PPP Structure over Resilient Packet Ring
The first row of Fig. the number of accesses must be minimized. And the other side. Recently there are a lot of study activities in the field of PON.
&e. n  Reuven Cohen. ‘‘Service provisioning in an ATM-over-ADSL Access network”. “Dekition of the differentiated Services Field @ Field) i the P v 4 and IPv6 Headers”. RFC 2474.txt>. June 1999. IEEE Communication Magazine.
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This work was supported in part by the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI).. Nichols et al.
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