1

mav·er·ick , v. J. An unbranded calí or colt that has straved írom
the herd. traditionallv considered the propertv oí the íirst person who brands
it. 2. a. One who reíuses to abide bv the dictates oí his group: a dissenter. b.
One who reíuses adherence to or aííiliation with anv single organised group
or íaction: an independent.


|l|ere now we are the íour oí us: old Matt Gregorv and old Marcus and old Luke 1arpev:
the íour oí us and sure. thank God. there are no more oí us: and. sure now. vou wouldn`t
go and íorget and lea·e out the other íellow and old Johnnv MacDougall: the íour oí us
and no more oí us and so now pass the íish íor (hrist`s sake. Amen.
Jovce. íivvegav. !a/e. 384,

2
Like John`s Gospel. I start with a coníession.
1
Recentlv. I`·e been reading íivvegav. !a/e
hence the quote abo·e,. I ha·en`t íinished it vet. and in manv respects it`s not a book one
e·er íinishes` reading. but as soon as I turned to the íirst page. its ma·erick` nature
became clear. Jovce`s textual períormance oí the íall-bababadalgharaghtakamminarronn-
konnbronntonnerronntuonnthunntro·arrhounawnskawntoohoohoordenenthurnuk!` 3,-
coníounds. shocks and surprises in equal measure. And then. this íell into mv head:

Ev opyn nv o ioyo.
|oi o ioyo nv ¬po ¬ov ûtov.
|oi ûto nv o ioyo. 1:1,

(ompared to the Svnoptics. 1:1-18 is like the íirst page oí the !a/e! But because we
eííecti·elv lea·e out old Johnnv MacDougall` in our attempts at svntheses and harmonies.
we gloss o·er. íorget. or ignore massi·e diííerences. Svnthesis oí the Svnoptics and the
existence oí O are problems enough:
2
introducing John into the equation complicates
things e·en íurther. \e ha·e the contradiction oí the ser·ile suííering µovoytvn Jn. 1:18
- Mk. 9:9-13,: a mvthical |n¬o oí ltûonµovi Jn. 18:1 - Mk. 14:32,: two temple
cleansings Jn. 2:13-22 - Mk. 11:15-19 pars.,: the Johannine Pentecost` Jn. 20:22 - Ac.
2:1-4,.
3
1he Gospel oí Mamalujo`
4
cannot po..ibty be the wav to proceed! In
introduction.
5
then. I think ma·erick` is a períectlv íair wav to describe John. and this
paper will assess and examine whv.


1
Barrett. ¡obv. 149 an absolute theological íramework`,: (ulpepper. .vatovy. 19: Kvsar. Mareric/. 30:
Lindars. ¡obv. ¯5: Smith. )beotogy. 115 quasi-liturgical`,.
2
1he literature is ·ast. but íurther on the Svnoptic problem`. see Black & Beck. Retbiv/ivg: Goodacre.
Covtaer. 1¯-130: iaev. ´yvoptic Probtev: Gregorv. An oral and written Gospel·`. 9-12: Sanders & Da·ies.
´tvayivg. 51-119: \enham. Reaativg. On O. see loster. Is it Possible.·`: Guijarro. Domestic Space`: leil.
Die O-Rekonstruktion`: Mack. ío.t Co.pet: Robinson et at. Criticat íaitiov: 1uckett. O. 1-82.
3
Note also the Johannine´Svnoptic contrast re. o uio ¬ou ovûpo¬ou Jn. 3:13-14´Mk. 8:38 pars.,. Still.
perhaps there`s an intertextual trace oí the suííering ser·ant` 12:36: c.í. Isa. 53:1íí.: also Balíour.
Antisemitic·`. pp.2¯6-9,. and is the ¬o¬npiov Mk. 14:36 pars., oí suííering alluded to in 18:11· so
Barrett. ¡obv. 516-though I disagree: c.í. 12:2¯-28,
4
Jovce. !a/e. 39¯. MAtt - MArk - LUke - JOhn,
5
Shouldn`t that read conclusion`.· \ell. since this is an introduconclusion`. I can claim to be íollowing
Johannine theologv: e.g. t ûtoooµtûo ¬nv öoEov ou¬ou we ha·e |alreadv·| seen his glorv`. 1:14: c.í. 9:3¯:
11:40: 16:16|·|: 20:18,. Aíter all. these things are written so that vou might cove to betiere` ¬io¬tu on¬t:
20:31. N- A C D I W +
1.13
33 B,.
3
1he 1heological 1echnique of ·Straying from the Herd'

It`s ob·ious John`s Gospel is awkward: but is it pvrpo.etvtty awkward· Does it strav írom
the herd`. or is it just a product oí its historv and en·ironment· Major eííorts ha·e been
made in recent vears to applv social-scientiíic critical methods amongst others, to John.
the major example being Brown`s Covvvvity ot tbe ßetorea Di.cipte.
6
Brown takes his cues
írom Martvn. whose two-le·el drama`
¯
has had massi·e impact on Johannine studies.
8

1he idea is that the narrati·e. as well as standing on its own. reílects what was going on in
the communitv at a gi·en moment in time. 1he exclusi·elv Johannine word
o¬oouvoyoyo 9:22: 12:42: 16:2,. twinned with the 2`.`C¨ ¨3¨2 Benediction
against leretics`. c.85-90(L,. is taken as an indicator that the Johannine communitv had
been expelled írom the svnagogues.
9
(h.9 could be seen as the expulsion storv in
metaphorical microcosm: an unbelie·ing Jew ¬u¢iov t| ytvt¬n. ·.1, comes to íaith
ovtþit¢tv. ··.15.18, in Jesus. and as a result is unceremoniouslv chucked out oí the
svnagogue o¬oouvoyoyo. ·.22,.
10


Lxpulsion írom svnagogues would also explain the Moses polemic` e·ident within the
Gospel 1:1¯: 3:14-15|·|: 4:6-14: 5:46-4¯: 6:32: ¯:19.22-23: 9:28-29: 10:¯,. Jesus is presented
as Moses redidi·us`:
11
he is o op¬o ¬n Con 6:35.48,. whereas the manna the crowd
thinks was pro·ided bv Moses 6:31, is not satisíving.
12
Oí course. ou Mou on ötöo|tv
uµiv ¬ov op¬ov t| ¬ou oupovou. oii o ¬o¬np µou 6:32,. and in the same ·ein.
neither is circumcision írom Moses ¯:22,. o voµo. gi·en bv Moses 1:1¯: ¯:19, is not
suííicient: Moses e·en wrote about Jesus 5:46,. Ma·erick· \es-in the sense that nothing
good about Moses remains in 4G. e·en to the extent that ¬ov¬t oooi niûov |¬po tµou|

6
An interesting little book that o·erstates its case somewhat mostlv wild hvpotheses in 65-6. ¯5-6. 151-5,-
though Brown does implicitlv admit this! I warned the reader. that mv reconstruction oí Johannine
communitv historv carried at most probabitity`. 1¯1. mv emphasis,
¯
Martvn. íi.tory ava )beotogy. 24-36. 49. 59-62.
8
(.í. (ulpepper. .vatovy. 125: Spencer. Narrati·e Lchoes`. 64-8: covtra Bauckham ed.,. Co.pet.: lägerland.
John`s Gospel`. 31¯-21. Klink. Gospel (ommunitv` pro·ides an o·er·iew oí recent debate and
scholarship.
9
Barrett. ¡obv. 361-2: Beaslev-Murrav. ¡obv. 152-3: Brown. ¡obv. lxxi·-lxx·. 380: Martvn. Co.pet. 92. 102-104.
10
Martvn. íi.tory. ch.2 makes an awíul lot oí this.
11
Smith. )beotogy. 125.
12
Balíour. John`s Use`. 365-8.
4
including Moses!, |it¬¬oi tioiv |oi ino¬oi 10:8,. lis ele·ated status in the
transíiguration Mk. 9:2-8 pars., isn`t mentioned in John: similarlv. Jesus doesn`t promote
the Mosaic law in 4G e.g. 1:1¯, but he has no such problem in the Svnoptics Mk. ¯:9-13,.

As well as this. John the Baptist no longer has such a good proíile 1:8.15.19-2¯.30-31.35-
3¯: 3:22-30: 4:1b: 10:¯.40-42,.
13
le`s not the Messiah-íair enough-but in 4G. he`s not o
¬po¢n¬n or Llijah 1:21,. 1his ílat contradiction oí the Svnoptics e.g. Mt. 11:9-14: Mk.
9:11-13, makes the Baptist a mouthpiece íor Jesus. and that`s exactlv how John describes
himselí: as ¢ovn 1:23,
14
and µop¬upiov 1:¯-8.34,. On top oí this. 4L inserts into John`s
mouth the words t |tivov öti ouEovtiv. tµt öt tio¬¬ouoûoi 3:30,: like e·erv other. he`s
t| ¬ov |o¬o 8:23,. 1his has caused some to suggest that 4G is. in part. an apologetic
replv to disciples oí the Baptist.
15
and. at anv rate. perhaps John is not as ma·erick as it íirst
seems here. 1he Baptist is not the light. but he i. o iuyvo 5:35,. a tacit admission oí the
Baptist`s role.

1he abo·e demonstrates the thoroughlv Jewish roots oí John.
16
Other indicators include
similarities between John and the DSS.

and the shared \isdom motií between John and
the O1 e.g. 1:3-4´Pro·. 8:35: c.í. \is. 9:1-2,.
18
lowe·er. this also shows a radicallv
diííerent background to the Gospel ri.·a·ri. the Svnoptics. \hen we consider this. perhaps
John isn`t reatty ma·erick aíter all. just an una·oidablv diííerent beast. \as 4L aware oí the
Svnoptics. though· It`s a gamble.
19
but what seems certain is 4L`s knowledge oí wider
(hristian tradition. and this is indicati·e oí a ma·erick` nature. \enham notes what he

13
(ulpepper. .vatovy. pp.132-3: Dodd. íi.toricat. pp.288-301: Smith. )beotogy. 104-105.
14
Is a distinction made between the Baptist`s inarticulate noise` ¢ovn, and the articulate \ord` ioyo,·
15
Brown. Covvvvity. 69-¯1: McGrath. .potogetic. 202-204.
16
Balíour. Antisemitic·`. 265-9: Brown. Covvvvity. pa..iv but esp. 56. 6¯. 166-¯: Kvsar. Mareric/. 24-6:
Soding. Die Bedeutung`. 39-41 Da| Jesus Jude ist. erweist sich als essentieller Ausdruck seines
Menschseins |Jesus is Jewish. and this íact demonstrates the íundamental unitv oí his people|`. 40. mv trans.,.

Note esp. 1Ol 15´Jn. 1¯. 1OS: 1OM: 4O186|·|: 4O561|·| contain dualism similar to that in John: also c.í.
4O285 írs.4.¯: 4O369 1.ii.4-12: 4O521 ii.4.
18
Balíour. John`s Use`. 3¯4-9: Barrett. ¡obv. 2¯-30. 26¯-8: Smith. )beotogy. 16-20. Anderson`s thesis is that
Johannine lather imagerv is rooted íirmlv in the Deut. 18:15-22 prophet-like-Moses imagerv la·ing-Sent-
Me lather`. 36-40: also c.í. Isa. 63:16: 64:8-9: Jer. 3:19: Zech. 12:10: Mic. 6:¯,.
19
Stibbe. ´torytetter. 188-9 gi·es some Lukan´Johannine similarities. Mostlv. thev`re just examples oí wider
tradition e.g. Lk. ¯:1-10´Jn. 4:46-54,. but I`m almost persuaded bv the thought that. in 21:1-19. there`s a
aetiberate post-resurrection spin gi·en to Lk. 5:1-11 paralleled in Aland. ´yvop.i.. 3¯-8,.
5
calls |t|he Johannine thunderbolt in O.`
20
that peculiarlv Johannine language within Mt.
11:25-2¯ and Lk. 10:21-22. 1he íollowing passages also indicate knowledge oí wider
tradition: 1:32: 2:23 note the plural ¬o onµtio!,: 4:43-44: 6:1-14.42: ¯:41-42 assumed
knowledge,: 12:12-15: 20:12.

Irom Nicodemus to ·Maverick' 1heology, and Back Again

Nicodemus is one oí the more interesting characters within John. and it`s a shame that
scholars tend to íocus on his appearance in 3:1-12.
21
Indeed. since Nicodemus comes bv
vu|¬o 3:2,. this could suggest enthusiasm rather than ¢oþov ¬ov Iouöoiov 19:38,
since nocturnal studv was recommended to rabbis.
22
lis íirst words are Poþþi. oiöoµtv
o¬i o¬o ûtou t iniuûo öiöoo|oio 3:2,. so he thinks he knows who Jesus is oí
course. no-one reatty knows: 6:42: ¯:25-2¯: 14:8-9,-but he has reached this conclusion ·ia
onµtio. and this tvpe oí íaith has just been rendered suspect`
23
in 2:23-25! Indeed. this
ambi·alence towards signs c.í. 4:48: 6:26: ¯:31: 10:41-42: 12:3¯, dissents írom the o·erlv
positi·e attitudes oí Mark and Luke. where signs inaugurate the kingdom oí God
24
and are
períectlv legitimate íor íaith Mk. 1:14íí.: 2:10-12: 10:46-52: Lk. 5:12-15: 10:1¯-20: though
c.í. Mk. 8:11-13,.
25


Nicodemus is also ma·erick` in that. within John. he acts as a progressi·elv positi·e
depiction oí a Pharisee 3:1: ¯:50, and opyov ¬ov Iouöoiov 3:1, covtra Mt. 3:¯: 12:34:
23: Lk. 11:3¯-54,. At íirst. Nicodemus is a tvpical. unbelie·ing Jew` oi Iouöoioi,-
perhaps it`s because we ha·e read the Svnoptics that we tend to íocus on this·-but tbev as

20
\enham. Lnigma`. 153.
21
(ulpepper. .vatovy. 135-6. illustrates this bv applving |t|puµµtvo 19:38, to Nicodemus. whereas the
text onlv applies this to Joseph. Also. preciselv rbev Nicodemus disappears írom ch.3 is uncertain: I suggest
around ··.11-12. where the permanent shiít írom ooi to the plural uµiv happens. (ertainlv. he`s had enough
beíore Jesus answers his question |·.9| in ·.14!,
22
Bultmann. ¡obv. 133: Brown. ¡obv. 130: 1OS 6:¯. 1his doesn`t quite íit with Judas` exit in 13:30 c.í. 3:19:
|esp.| 6:1¯b: 8:12: 12:46,. but vu|¬o needn`t ha·e the .ave meaning in e·erv instance.
23
Jones. !ater. 68.
24
And. strangelv enough. it`s here we ha·e John`s onlv uses oí þooiiti ov ¬ou ûtou 3:3.5,. \e`ll discuss
realised eschatologv shortlv.
25
Nicodemus` words 3:2, assume knowledge oí miracles other than 2:1-11. up till this point the onlv onµti o
in the narrati·e. Barrett. ¡obv. 205 ascribes this to synoptic tradition: ií this is true. then 4L is aware oí this
positi·e attitude towards signs. and is aetiberatety awkward here.
6
we journev through John. he comes to íaith bv the end.
26
1he non-Jewish. Gnostic íla·our
behind the phrase ytvvtnûn ovoûtv c.í. Corp. íerv. 13:2-3,. howe·er. could suggest a
rearticulation. in Bultmann`s dulcet tones. oí Nicodemus` journev to ¬io¬i as journev to
yvooi c.í. ¢o¬iCti. 1:9: also Corp. íerv. ¯:2: 10:15,. In addition. it is noteworthv that
Nicodemus retains his Jewish identitv throughout the Gospel. particularlv in reíerence to
the use oí oi Iouöoioi e.g. 2:18-22: 5:16-18: ¯:15: 8:59: 9:18íí.: 10:24.31.39: 11:8: 18:40:
19:12-15: 20:19,. 1he supposed anti-Semitism oí John is something greatlv discussed:


more so now gi·en the current climate oí postmodernitv.
28
A close reading oí John.
howe·er. shows us that taking oi Iouöoioi as a racial designation is a mistake oí tragic
proportions`.
29
lor one thing. Jesus himselí is Jewish Inoou o NoCopoio o
þooiitu ¬ov Iouöoiov. 19:19: also 4:9.22,.
30
lor another. oi Iouöoioi is usuallv set in
the context oí unbelieí: note the switch írom ¬ov 1opiooiov to oi Iouöoioi in 9:16-18
there is also a íluid transition írom o oyio in 6:22´41,. Other ·erses to be considered
include 11:33.45: 12:9-11.42-43: & 19:38-42. \hen we bear this in mind. it`s no longer
surprising that Nicodemus retains his Jewishness in this ma·erick íashion.

\ith this aííirmati·e depiction. howe·er. in a Johannine context Nicodemus is and must
be, t| ¬ov |o¬o 8:23,. Like ereryove in John. he just can`t understand Jesus: íor example.
does he trv to ridicule Jesus in his ma·erick·, misinterpretation oí ovoûtv and end up
unstuck 3:10: ¬o öuvo¬oi ¬ou¬o ytvtoûoi; c.í. 6:60: ¯:15: 8:22,· 1hose t| ¬ov
|o¬o cannot help but misunderstand the one t| ¬ov ovo. and we are prepared íor this
in the prologue. Nicodemus is also negati·elv contrasted with the woman oí Samaria ch.4,.
his exact opposite man´woman. Jew´Samaritan etc., who comes to íaith much sooner
4:39-42,. ¬o ¬vtuµo o¬ou ûtiti ¬vti 3:8,: there is an air oí mvsterv about who is born
ovoûtv c.í. 1 Ln. 41:3: 60:12: 2 Bar. 48:3-4,. so one cannot predict who will come to

26
Beaslev-Murrav. ¡obv. 358-9: Beirne. !ovev. 93-9. 103-104: Brown. ¡obv. 959-60: Sanders. ¡obv. 414-6.

(ulpepper. .vatovy. 125-32: Smith. )beotogy. 169-¯3.
28
It`s a hallmark oí postmodernitv that minoritv` ·oices are gi·en room to speak: e.g. Bible and (ulture
(ollecti·e. Po.tvoaerv ßibte. 2¯2-308: Boer. Kvoc/iv`. esp. 13-32: lallam. ´oaov`: Moore. ßeavty. esp. 66-89.
133-¯2: Stalev. Reaaivg. 14¯-99: \arrior. (anaanites`. 192-4: \est. Lazarus`.
29
Smith. )beotogy. 56.
30
Prvor. John`. 15-20. 24-26 discusses the textual conjectures at 3:25. and supposes a high probabilitv that
the tradition behind the text originallv read |¬ov| Inoou. 1he reason gi·en íor the editorial change is that 4L
wished to emphasise nothing but harmonv` 24, between the Baptist and Jesus. Oí course. this vearning íor
the cheerv good ol` davs` seems to relv on the rest oí the Gospel being generallv positi·e about the Baptist.
which ain`t necessarilv so Brown. Covvvvity. 69-¯1: c.í. 1:9.19-24: 3:29-30: 10:41,.
¯
belie·e` 20:31,. Dodd also sees a link to earlv tradition in 3:8. noting the similarities with
Mk. 4:26-29.
31
Ií he`s right. then 4L has taken something entwined with þooiitiov ¬ou
ûtou-a parable-and eliminated the íuturist elements oí both.

\e see a constant elimination oí íuturist eschatologv in 4G.
32
þooiitiov ¬ou ûtou
33

3:3.5, is replaced with Conv oioviov
34
3:15-16: 6:2¯.40.4¯.68: 10:28: 12:25.50: 1¯:2-3:
20:31 |N C(¨) D I + ¹´ Ir'''|,. something belie·ers possess vor 3:36,. 1he íunction oí the
¬opo|in¬o-another exclusi·elv Johannine term-is to be the presence oí Jesus
with´in the belie·er:
35
reinterpreting the Parousia in this wav eliminates the need íor Jesus
to return because be`. atreaay bere 14:16b÷20:21-23,. 1hen there`s temple-replacement
theologv:
36
John is the onlv Gospel account to explicitlv make Jesus` ooµo¬o the temple
2:18-22: c.í. Mk. 14:58,. and the Jewish imagerv oí Israel as a ·ine usuallv a useless one:
Isa. 5:1-¯: Lzk. 15:1-8: 19:10-14, is reapplied to the communitv in a positi·e wav 15:1-6:
are ··.2.6 indicati·e oí 2`.`C¨ ¨3¨2´schism·,. 1hese indi·idual strands. with the
exception oí the ¬opo|in¬o. don`t seem that ma·erick. as other N1 texts share some
aspects. \e ha·e Paul`s inaugurated eschatologv e.g. Rom. 8:1-1¯: Gal. 3:13-14,. the
christologv oí lebrews esp. chs.1-3, and the possible \isdom christologv` oí Mt. 11:25-
30 c.í. Sir. 51:23-25: Pro·. 9:4-6: also 1 (or. 1:24.30,. \ithin John. howe·er. the
combination results in this awkward. almost completelv realised eschatologv!

(h.3 also contributes to another stubborn strand oí Johannine theologv: is John anti-
sacramental. or not· Opinions on this are. unlike the unbroken` motií in John.

highlv

31
Dodd. )raaitiov. 364-5.
32
Ashton. |vaer.tavaivg. 424: Barrett. ¡obv. 6¯-¯0.
33
N¨ 0141 e read þooiiti ov ¬ov oupovov at 3:5: possible gi·en 3:12-13 and later dualism 6:54-58:
16:8: 1¯:1-5,. though Bultmann. ¡obv. 98 bases this reading on Mt. 18:3. In anv case. kingdom` is still
dragged into the present!
34
On the concept oí Conv oio viov. see Brown. ¡obv. cx·i-cx·iii. ¯51-3: Lindars. ¡obv. 69-¯2.
35
(.í. 14:15-1¯.26: 15:26-2¯: 16:¯-11.13-14: also. note that ¬opo|in¬o is íunctionallv the .ave as Jesus
5:43´16:13: 16:28´15:26: 3:16´14:16: c.í. 1 Jn. 2:1-6´4:6,. 1he term also has a distinct Jewish íla·our c.í.
Jub. 1:24: 1OS 3:6-¯: 4O28¯: 4O434: 4O436,. lor more. see Brown. ¡obv. 1135-44: Bultmann. ¡obv. 56¯:
Kvsar. Mareric/. 110-112: Smith. )beotogy. 140.
36
Barrett. ¡obv. 194-202.

L.g. 13:34: 15:12-1¯: 1¯:12.21-23: 19:33: 21:11. Note also the lack oí Lucharistic o·ertones in chs.13-1¯-
no |ioo here! Mk. 14:22 pars.: 1 (or. 11:24 N- C´ D- F G + 1739º°: e·en in Jn. 6:11. there is no
|o¬t|iootv |Mk. 6:41|. but öitöo|tv instead!,
8
schismatic.
38
and since I tend to see an anti-sacramental bias. bv deíinition 4L knows oí the
sacraments and is deliberatelv stubborn. ¬o ¬vtuµo to¬iv ¬o Coo¬oiouv. n oopE ou|
o¢titi ouötv 6:63, is kev here. as is 3:6 ¬o ytytvvnµtvov t| ¬n oop|o oopE to¬iv.
|oi ¬o ytytvvnµtvov t| ¬ou ¬vtuµo¬o ¬vtuµo to¬iv,. which in its context must
surelv be seen as a redirection oí baptismal imagerv uöo¬o. 3:5, towards spiritual
matters. It`s ·erv hard to see. as Kvsar does.
39
that 4L knows nothing oí the sacraments:
aíter all. Paul mentions the Lucharist 1 (or. 11:1¯-34,. and Jesus` disciples baptise within
4G 4:1-2: also c.í. 3:22: 1:32´Mk. 1:10,. lootwashing also has possible sacramental status
within John 13:13,: ma·erick` in itselí because the rest oí the N1 knows nothing oí this
sacrament`!
40
Johannine sacramentalism is best seen as a radical. ma·erick` reivterpretatiov oí
the sacraments. initiated mainlv bv 4L`s realised eschatologv c.í. 6:58: Cnooi ti ¬ov
oiovo,. rather than the ignorance oí Nicodemus.

Passion-ately Maverick?

\e turn. íinallv. to the crux oí John. the passion narrati·e 18:1-20:31,-although how
correct it is to speak oí a single narrati·e block` is debatable. as Jesus` death and
resurrection run throughout 4G 1:29.38: 2:19-22: 3:16: 4:34|·|: ¯:30.39b: 11:25-26: 12:1-8:
13:36: 16:16-24,. 1hough the result is the same. the route to cruciíixion´resurrection is
radicallv diííerent when one compares John and the Svnoptics.
41
Onlv 4L knows oí the
¬ooyo motií 13:1: 19:29.31-36: c.í. 1:29.38,:
42
onlv 4L has Jesus þoo¬oCov tou¬o ¬ov

38
Anti-sacramentalists include Bultmann. ¡obv. 11. 6¯¯-9: Kvsar. Mareric/. 122-4 though Kvsar is probablv
better described as vov-sacramental,. and me. Pro-sacramentalists include Barrett. ¡obv. 82-5: Beaslev-Murrav.
¡obv. 48-9 who cites 1OS 3:6-9: 1Ol 11:12-14 as support íor sacramental interpretation oí ytvvtnûn t E
uöo¬o |3:5|,: and those in the middle include Jones. !ater. 231-8: Morris. ¡obv. 32-33. 313-15.
39
Kvsar. Mareric/. 123-4: covtra Brown. Covvvvity. 88-91.
40
One possible explanation íor this is lellenistic´Gnostic iníluence: yivoo|t¬t ¬i ¬t¬oin|o uµiv; 13:12:
also ·.1¯, Oí course. beíore Jesus is gloriíied. the answer íor the disciples and anv communitv outsiders, is a
resounding no`-but thev`ll understand beíore long 13:¯: c.í. 16:29-30÷20:31,. 1homas. íootra.bivg. 1¯4-
189 argues íor the sacramental status oí íootwashing. but doesn`t resol·e whv John is the onlv canonical book
to mention it.
41
See Brown. Jobv. ¯8¯-803. 828-36. 885-9: Dodd. íi.toricat. 21-151: Smith. )beotogy. 42-8.
42
1here is some debate as to whether uooo¬o 19:29, is a corruption oí uooo spear`. Lat. pitvv,. 1he
majoritv oí Old Latin manuscripts support this conjecture see Dodd. íi.toricat. 123-4 ín.2,. but the íact
remains that there is no reason to suggest this: uooo¬o íits the Passo·er context 13:1: 19:14, períectlv well
Barrett. ¡obv. 553: Brown. ¡obv. 909-910,.
9
o¬oupov 19:1¯,: onlv 4L has the Belo·ed Disciple 18:16: 19:26-2¯: 20:2-10, and
Nicodemus 19:39, on the scene. Nicodemus. as we ha·e seen. íulíils a large theological
role: likewise. this disciple whom Jesus lo·ed` 13:23, is. apart írom Jesus. the theological
íigure par e·cettevce in 4G. 1hev
43
are the ideal disciple`. set in opposition to Peter 1:35-
42|·|: 18:15-18: 20:4-9,.
44
and. I would contend. a literarv de·ice with the purpose-shared
with 4G as a whole 20:30-31,-oí µop¬upov to Jesus 21:24,.
45
L·en Pilate`s role is
extended with this intent on witness` o¬o otou¬ou ou ¬ou¬o ityti n oiioi ti¬ov
ooi ¬tpi tµou;. 18:34: c.í. 18:3¯: 19:22|·|,.
46


As well as this. though. 4L`s intent and ma·erick reinterpretation oí tradition must be seen
as christological in purpose. 1he culmination oí the onµtio 2:1-11: 4:46-54: 5:1-18: 6:1-15:
9:1-12: |esp.| 11:1-44, is the passion: the cruciíixion´enthronement takes place. covtra
Svnoptics. on the ¬opoo|tun 19:14, to show Jesus as the new Passo·er lamb: Jesus
carries his own cross 19:1¯, because vo·ove takes his liíe-onlv be lavs it down and takes it
up again 10:18,.

1he explicit ioyo christologv oí 1:1-18. implicit in the rest oí John.
48

comes into its own at ·ital moments in the passion 18:4: 19:28,: Jesus knows e·ervthing.
and orchestrates e·ervthing írom o o¬oupo. his throne. e·en to the extent that he savs
öi¢o not because he actuallv does. but rather ivo ¬titioûn n ypo¢n 19:28,. And the
trulv ma·erick touch· 1he (hrist who is cruciíied in John has alreadv been cruciíied. is
alreadv the post-Laster (hrist 1:14: 12:2¯-28,-at least. írom the perspecti·e oí the
Johannine communitv e.g. 3:16,.


43
I deliberatelv exclude gendered pronouns here-not out oí íeminist concerns. but because the BD`s
íunction is inclusi·elv svmbolic and shouldn`t be tied to male´íemale covtra Beirne. !ovev. 1¯0-94. who sees
Jesus` mother and the BD as a gender pair`,.
44
Brown. ¡obv. 1005 though he minimises a Petrine polemic`: 822-4. 1006-100¯,: (ulpepper. .vatovy. 122-3:
Stibbe. ´torytetter. 9¯-9. 103-104: 1olmie. ¡e.v.` íarerett. 138-9.
45
Lincoln. Lvewitness`. 18-9. 25-6. I`m not saving the BD covtav`t ha·e been a historical íigure: what I
suggest is that 4L-as with the Baptist 1:19-34, and the íeeding oí the 5.000 ch.6. esp. ··.4.22íí.,-puts a
ma·erick` spin on historv.
46
(ulpepper. .vatovy. 143.

Brown thinks. and I would concur. that there is a aetiberate exclusion oí Simon oí (vrene ¡obv. 916-8,.
1here is. oí course. also an Isaac motií at plav here Gen. 22:6,. which íits with the other O1 imagerv
notablv the priestlv yi¬ov opo¢o oí 19:23b´Lx. 28:31íí.,.
48
See Barrett. ¡obv. ¯3-5: Brown. ¡obv. 519-24: Kvsar. Mareric/. 29-40: McGrath. .potogetic. 52-5. 131-44. 218-
22 íor more discussion oí implicit logos christologv.
10
It is clear. thereíore. that the Johannine passion. as well as the whole Gospel. íunctions as
theologv rather than historv.
49
1his is not to sav. howe·er. that there are no similarities with
the svnoptics and´or earlv tradition. Both Luke and John lack the crv oí dereliction` Eioi
tioi itµo ooþoyûovi: c.í. Mk. 15:34: Mt. 2¯:46,. and Paul describes Jesus as ¬o ¬ooyo
nµov 1 (or. 5:¯: c.í. 1 Pet. 1:19,. It`s also clear that each Gospel has its own touches: the
brutalitv oí Mark 14:66: 15:19-20,. the iníamous ¬o oiµo ou¬ou t¢ nµo |oi t¬i ¬o
¬t|vo nµov oí Matthew 2¯:25,. the penitent thieí oí Luke 23:39-43,: and Burridge`s
argument that all íour canonical Gospels are þioi-ancient Greek biographies-has
strength.
50
Still. these traces oí aitteravce seem a íar crv írom the ma·erick dissimilaritv oí
John. though Moore makes the point that John`s Jesus has been the orthodox christological
benchmark since the 4th-centurv (L.
51
1he Johannine Jesus` impact on pop-culture e.g.
)be Pa..iov ot tbe Cbri.t, and de·otional literature cannot be underestimated either. So.
perhaps John isn`t as ma·erick as it was-perhaps it should be. and we`ll ha·e to hold that
thought!-but our original statement and Kvsar`s metaphor
52
still hold true.


49
Moore. ßeavty. 94-5: Morris. ¡obv. 35-42: Sanders. ¡obv. 16-8. Reading ¬io¬tun¬t at 20:31 as
I'''!¹ N¨ B O 0250, would help make this case.
50
Burridge. !bat... 55-82. 238-9. 1he question oí whether. because s´he retains the þio genre. 4L is
aware oí the Svnoptics is implied but not resol·ed 239,.
51
Moore. ßeavty. 93.
52
Kvsar. Mareric/. 3. 26.
11
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Commentaries on John
Barrett. (. K. )be Co.pet .ccoraivg to ´t. ¡obv London: SP(K. 19¯8
2
,.
Beaslev-Murrav. G. R. ¡obv \B( 36: \aco: \ord. Incorporated. 198¯,.
Brown. R. L. )be Co.pet .ccoraivg to ¡obv 2 ·ols.: AB 29´29A: London: Geoíírev
(hapman Ltd.. 19¯1,.
Bultmann. R. )be Co.pet ot ¡obv trans. G. R. Beaslev-Murrav: Oxíord: Basil
Blackwell. 19¯1,.
Morris. L. )be Co.pet .ccoraivg to ¡obv NI(: Grand Rapids: \m. B. Lerdmans
Publishing (o.. 1995
re·
,.
Sanders. J. N. )be Co.pet .ccoraivg to ´t. ¡obv ed. B. A. Mastin: BN1(: London:
A&( Black. 1968,.

Books/Monographs on John
Ashton. J. ´tvayivg ¡obv: .pproacbe. to tbe íovrtb Co.pet Oxíord: (larendon
Press. 1994,.
|vaer.tavaivg tbe íovrtb Co.pet Oxíord: (larendon Press. 1991,.
Balíour. G. Is John`s Gospel Antisemitic· \ith Speciíic Reíerence to its Use
oí the Old 1estament` unpub. Ph.D. thesis. Uni·ersitv oí
Nottingham. 1995,.
Beirne. M. M. !ovav ava Mev iv tbe íovrtb Co.pet: . Cevvive Di.cipte.bip ot íqvat.
JSN1S 242: Sheííield: SAP. 2003,.
Brown. R. L. )be Covvvvity ot tbe ßetorea Di.cipte New \ork: Paulist Press. 19¯9,.
(ulpepper. R. A. .vatovy ot tbe íovrtb Co.pet: . ´tvay iv íiterary De.igv Philadelphia:
lortress Press. 1983,.
Dodd. (. l. íi.toricat )raaitiov iv tbe íovrtb Co.pet (ambridge: (UP. 1963,.
Jones. L. P. )be ´yvbot ot !ater iv tbe Co.pet ot ¡obv JSN1S 145: Sheííield: SAP.
199¯.,
Kvsar. R. ¡obv. tbe Mareric/ Co.pet Lousi·ille: \estminster´John Knox Press.
1993
re·
,.
Lee. D. A. )be ´yvbotic ^arratire. ot tbe Co.pet ot ¡obv JSN1S 95: Sheííield: SAP.
1994,.
Le·ine. A.-J. ed., . íevivi.t Covpaviov to ¡obv 2 ·ols.: (le·eland: 1he Pilgrim Press.
2003,.
Lindars. B. ¡obv Sheííield: SAP. 1990,.
Martvn. J. L. íi.tory ava )beotogy iv tbe íovrtb Co.pet Nash·ille: Abingdon Press.
19¯9
2
,.
)be Co.pet ot ¡obv iv Cbri.tiav íi.tory New \ork: Paulist Press. 19¯9,.
McGrath. J. l. ¡obv`. .potogetic Cbri.totogy: íegitivatiov ava Deretopvevt iv ¡obavvive
Cbri.totogy SN1SMS 111: (ambridge: (UP. 2001,.
Moore. S. D. Are 1here Impurities in the Li·ing \ater 1hat the Johannine Jesus
Dispenses·` in Le·ine ed., 2003: 1: ¯8-9¯.
Robinson. J. A. 1. )be Priority ot ¡obv London: S(M Press. 1985,.
12
Savwer. D. John 19.34: lrom (ruciíixion to Birth. or (reation·` in Le·ine
ed., 2003: 2: 130-9.
Smith. D. M. )be )beotogy ot tbe Co.pet ot ¡obv N11heo: (ambridge: (UP. 1995,.
Stalev. J. L.. Reaaivg ritb a Pa..iov: Rbetoric. .vtobiograpby ava tbe .vericav !e.t iv
tbe Co.pet ot ¡obv New \ork: (ontinuum. 1995,.
Stibbe. M. \. G. ¡obv a. ´torytetter SN1SMS ¯3: (ambridge: (UP. 1992,.
1homas. J. (. íootra.bivg iv ¡obv ]² ava tbe ¡obavvive Covvvvity JSN1S 61:
Sheííield: SAP. 1991,.
1olmie. D. l. ¡e.v.` íarerett to tbe Di.cipte.. ¡obv ]²:]·]¨:2ó iv ^arratotogicat Per.pectire
Leiden: Brill. 1995,.
\est. M. 1he Raising oí Lazarus: A Lesbian (oming Out Storv` in Le·ine
ed., 2003: 1: 143-58.

Periodicals on John
Anderson. P. N. 1he la·ing-Sent-Me lather: Aspects oí Agencv. Lncounter. and
Ironv in the Johannine lather-Son Relationship`. ´eveia 85 1999,
33-58.
Balíour. G. 1he Jewishness oí John`s Use oí the Scriptures in John 6:31 and
¯:3¯-38`. )ß 46.2 1995, 35¯-80.
lägerland. 1. John`s Gospel: A 1wo-Le·el Drama·`. ¡´^) 25.3 2003, 309-322.
Lincoln. A. 1. 1he Belo·ed Disciple as Lvewitness and the lourth Gospel as
\itness`. ¡´^) 85 2002, 3-26.
Prvor. J. \. John the Baptist and Jesus: 1radition and 1ext in John 3.25`.
¡´^) 66 199¯, 15-26.
Soding. 1. \as kann aus Nazareth schon Gutes kommen·` Joh 1.46,. Die
Bedeutung des Judeseins Jesu im Johannese·angelium`. ^)´ 46.1
2000, 21-41.
Stalev. J. L. Disseminations: An Autobiographical Midrash on latherhood in
John`s Gospel`. ´eveia 85 1999, 12¯-154.
\enham. D. 1he Lnigma oí the lourth Gospel: Another Look`. )ß 48.1
199¯, 149-¯8.

Other Books
Bauckham. R. ed., )be Co.pet. tor .tt Cbri.tiav.: Retbiv/ivg tbe Co.pet .vaievce. Grand
Rapids: \m. B. Lerdmans Publishing (o.. 1998,.
Bible and (ulture )be Po.tvoaerv ßibte New la·en: \ale Uni·ersitv Press. 1995,.
(ollecti·e
Black. D. A. & Retbiv/ivg tbe ´yvoptic Probtev Grand Rapids: Baker Book louse.
Beck. D. R. eds., 2001,.
Boer. R. Kvoc/iv` ov íearev`. Door: tbe ßibte ava Popvtar Cvttvre London:
Routledge. 1999,.
Burridge. R. A. !bat are tbe Co.pet.. . Covpari.ov ritb Craeco·Rovav ßiograpby
SN1SMS ¯0: (ambridge: (AP. 1992,.
13
lallam. P. lrom )be ßoo/ ot ´oaov` in Jobling et at eds., 2001: 233-45. Orig.
pub. as lallam. P.. )be ßoo/ ot ´oaov London: Verso. 1993,.
Goodacre. M. S. )be ´yvoptic Probtev: . !ay )brovgb tbe Ma.e BS 80: Sheííield: SAP.
2001,.
Covtaer ava tbe Co.pet.: .v í·avivatiov ot a ^er Paraaigv JSN1S
133: Sheííield: SAP. 1996,.
Jobling. D.. Pippin. 1. )be Po.tvoaerv ßibte Reaaer Oxíord: Blackwell Publishers. 2001,.
& Schleiíer. R. eds.,
Jovce. J. íivvegav. !a/e London: Penguin Books. 2000: orig. pub. London:
laber & laber. 1939,.
Mack. B. )be ío.t Co.pet: )be ßoo/ ot O ava Cbri.tiav Origiv. Longmead:
Llement Books. 1993,.
Moore. S. D. Coa`. ßeavty Partor: ava Otber Oveer ´pace. iv ava arovva tbe ßibte
Staníord: Staníord Uni·ersitv Press. 2001,.
Coa`. Cyv New \ork: Routledge. 1996,.
Robinson. J. M. )be Criticat íaitiov ot O: ´yvop.i. ivctvaivg tbe Co.pet. ot Mattber ava
et at eds., ív/e. Mar/ ava )bova. ritb ívgti.b. írevcb ava Cervav )rav.tatiov. ot
O ava )bova. Minneapolis: lortress Press. 2000,.
Sanders. L. P. & ´tvayivg tbe ´yvoptic Co.pet. London: S(M Press. 1989,.
Da·ies. M.
1uckett. (. M. O ava tbe íi.tory ot íarty Cbri.tiavity Ldinburgh: 1&1 (lark. 1996,.
\arrior. R. A. (anaanites. (owbovs. and Indians: Deli·erance. (onquest. and
Liberation 1heologv 1odav` in Jobling et at eds., 2001: 188-94.
\enham. J. \. Reaativg Mattber. Mar/ c ív/e London: lodder & Stoughton.
1991,.

Other Periodicals
loster. P. Is it Possible to Dispense with O·`. ^or) 45.4 2003, 313-3¯.
Gregorv. A. An oral and written Gospel· Reílections on remembering Jesus`.
í·) 116.1 2004, ¯-12.
Guijarro. S. Domestic Space. lamilv Relationships and the Social Location oí
the O People`. ¡´^) 2¯.1 2004, 69-81.
leil. (. Die O-Rekonstruktion des internationalen O-Projekts: Liníührung
in Methodik und Resultate`. ^or) 43.2 2001, 128-43.
Klink III. L. \. 1he Gospel (ommunitv: State oí the Ouestion`. CßR 3.1 2004,
60-85.
O`Neill. J. (. \ho is (omparable to Me in Mv Glorv·` 4O491 lragment 11
4O491(, and the New 1estament`. ^or) 42.1 2000, 24-38.

Iilm
Gibson. M. dir., )be Pa..iov ot tbe Cbri.t Icon Distribution Ltd.. 2004
DVD
,.

14
Reference
Aland. K. ed., ´yvop.i. ot tbe íovr Co.pet. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaít.
198¯
8
,.
Nestle. L. & ^orvv )e.tavevtvv Craece Stuttgart: Deutsche Biblegesellschaít.
Aland. K. eds., 1993

,.
Re·ised Standard )be íoty ßibte. covtaivivg tbe Ota ava ^er )e.tavevt. ritb tbe
Bible Version .pocrypbat´Devterocavovicat ßoo/.: ^er Reri.ea ´tavaara 1er.iov.
(ommittee London: larper(ollins Publishers. 1989,.
Vermes. G. )be Covptete Deaa ´ea ´crott. iv ívgti.b London: Penguin Books.
2004
re·
,.

All translations oí ^orvv )e.tavevtvv Craece will usuallv be the author`s own. \here thev
are not. it will be clearlv stated. and the translation used will be the New Re·ised Standard
Version NRSV,.

15
Abbreviations

|·| Possiblv
4L lourth L·angelist i.e. author´s oí John,
4G lourth Gospel
AB Anchor Bible (ommentarv
BD Belo·ed Disciple
BN1( Black`s New 1estament (ommentarv
BS 1he Biblical Seminar
CßR Cvrrevt. iv ßibticat Re.earcb
(UP (ambridge Uni·ersitv Press
DSS Dead Sea Scrolls
í·) í·po.itory )ive.
¡´^) ¡ovrvat tor tbe ´tvay ot tbe ^er )e.tavevt
JSN1S Journal íor the Studv oí the New 1estament Supplement Series
¡´O) ¡ovrvat tor tbe ´tvay ot tbe Ota )e.tavevt
JSPS Journal íor the Studv oí the Pseudepigrapha Supplement Series
NI( New International (ommentarv
^or) ^orvv )e.tavevtvv
NRSV New Re·ised Standard Version
^)´ ^er )e.tavevt ´tvaie.
N11heo (ambridge ^er )e.tavevt )beotogy Series
OUP Oxíord Uni·ersitv Press
SAP Sheííield Academic Press
SN1SMS Societv íor New 1estament Studies Monograph Series
)ß )yvaate ßvttetiv
\B( \ord Biblical (ommentarv

Abbreviations for Biblical/Lxtra-canonical Literature

Old 1estament New 1estament
Apocrypha/
Pseudepigrapha
Other
Gen.
Lx.
Deut.
Pro·.
Isa.
Jer.
Lzk.
Mic.
Zech.
Genesis
Lxodus
Deuteronomv
Pro·erbs
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Lzekiel
Micah
Zechariah
Mt.
Mk.
Lk.
Jn.
Ac.
Rom.
1 (or.
Gal.
1 Pet.
1 Jn.
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Acts
Romans
1 (orinthians
Galatians
1 Peter
1 John
1 Ln.
2 Bar.
Jub.
Sir.


1 Lnoch
2 Baruch
Jubilees
Sirach´
Lcclesiasticus

Corp. íerv.


(orpus
lermeticum

16
Scripture Index

J. Old 1estament

Reterevce Page
Genesis
22:6 9n4¯
Lxodus
28:31íí. 9n4¯
Deuteronomy
18:15-22 4n18
Proverbs
8:35 4
9:4-6 ¯
Isaiah
5:1-¯ ¯
53:1íí. 2n3
63:16 4n18
64:8-9 4n18
Jeremiah
3:19 4n18
Lzekiel
15:1-8 ¯
19:10-14 ¯
Micah
6:¯ 4n18
Zechariah
12:10 4n18


2. New 1estament

Reterevce Page
Matthew
3:¯ 5
11:9-14 4
11:25-2¯ 5
11:25-30 ¯
12:34 5
18:3 ¯n33
23 5
2¯:25 10
2¯:46 10
Mark
1:10 8
1:14íí. 5
2:10-12 5
4:26-29 ¯
¯:9-13 4
8:11-13 5
8:38 2n3
9:2-8 4
9:9-13 2
9:11-13 4
10:46-52 5
11:15-19 2
11:25-2¯ 4n
14:22 ¯n3¯
14:32 2
14:36 2n3
14:58 ¯
Mark 14:66 10
(cont.) 15:19-20 10
15:34 10
Luke
5:1-11 4n19
5:12-15 5
¯:1-10 4n19
10:1¯-20 5
10:21-22 5
11:3¯-54 5
23:39-43 10
John
1:1-18 2
9
1:1 2
1:3-4 4
1:¯-8 4
1:8 4
1:9 6
6n30
1:14 2n5
9
1:15 4
1:1¯ 3
4
1:18 2
1:19-34 9n45
1:19-2¯ 4
1:19-24 6n30
1:21 4
1:23 4
1:29 8
1:30-31 4
1:32 5
8
1:34 4
1:35-42 9
1:35-3¯ 4
1:38 8
2:1-11 5n25
9
2:13-22 2
2:18-22 6
¯
2:19-22 8
2:23-25 5
2:23 5
3:1-12 5
3:1 5
3:2 5.
5n25
3:3 5n24
¯
3:5 5n24
¯
¯n33
8
8n38
3:6 8
John 3:8 6
(cont.) ¯
3:9 5n21
3:10 6
3:11-12 5n21
3:12-13 ¯n33
3:13-14 2n3
3:14-15 3
3:14 5n21
3:15-16 ¯
3:16 ¯n35
8
9
3:19 5n22
3:22-30 4
3:22 8
3:25 6n30
3:29-30 6n30
3:30 4
3:36 ¯
4 6
4:1-2 8
4:1b 4
4:6-14 3
4:9 6
4:22 6
4:34 8
4:39-42 6
4:43-44 5
4:46-54 4n19
9
4:48 5
5:1-18 9
5:16-18 6
5:35 4
5:43 ¯n35
5:46 3
6:1-15 9
6:1-14 5
6:4 9n45
6:1¯b 5n22
6:22íí. 9n45
6:22 6
6:26 5
6:2¯ ¯
6:31 3
6:32 3
6:35 3
6:40 ¯
6:41 6
6:42 5
6:4¯ ¯
6:48 3
6:54-58 ¯n33
6:58 8
6:60 6
6:63 8
6:68 ¯
¯:15 6

John ¯:19 3
(cont.) ¯:22-23 3
¯:22 3
¯:25-2¯ 5
¯:30 8
¯:31 5
¯:39b 8
¯:41-42 5
¯:50 5
8:12 5n22
8:22 6
8:23 4
6
8:59 6
9:1-12 9
9:1 3
9:15 3
9:16-18 6
9:18íí. 6
9:18 3
9:22 3
9:28-29 3
9:3¯ 2n5
10:¯ 3
4
10:8 4
10:18 9
10:24 6
10:28 ¯
10:31 6
10:39 6
10:40-42 4
10:41-42 5
10:41 6n30
11:1-44 9
11:8 6
11:25-26 8
11:33 6
11:40 2n5
11:45 6
12:1-8 8
12:9-11 6
12:12-15 5
12:25 ¯
12:2¯-28 2n3
9
12:36 2n3
12:3¯ 5
12:42-43 6
12:42 3
12:46 5n22
12:50 ¯
13-1¯ ¯n3¯
13:1 8
8n42
13:¯ 8n40
13:12 8n40
13:13 8
13:1¯ 8n40
13:23 9
13:30 5n22
13:34 ¯n3¯
John 13:36 8
(cont.) 14:8-9 5
14:15-1¯ ¯n35
14:16 ¯n35
14:16b ¯
14:26 ¯n35
15:1-6 ¯
15:2 ¯
15:6 ¯
15:12-1¯ ¯n3¯
15:26-2¯ ¯n35
15:26 ¯n35
16:2 3
16:¯-11 ¯n35
16:8 ¯n33
16:13-14 ¯n35
16:13 ¯n35
16:16-24 8
16:16 2n5
16:28 ¯n35
16:29-30 8n40
1¯ 4n1¯
1¯:1-5 ¯n33
1¯:2-3 ¯
1¯:12 ¯n3¯
1¯:21-23 ¯n3¯
18:1-20:31 8
18:1 2
18:4 9
18:15-18 9
18:16 9
18:34 9
18:3¯ 9
18:40 6
19:12-15 6
19:14 8n42
9
19:1¯ 9
19:19 6
19:22 9
19:23b 9n4¯
19:26-2¯ 9
19:28 9
19:29 8
8n42
19:31-36 8
19:33 ¯n3¯
19:38-42 6
19:38 5
5n21
19:39 9
20:2-10 9
20:4-9 9
20:12 5
20:18 2n5
20:19 6
20:21-23 ¯
20:22 2
20:30-31 9
20:31 2n5
¯
8n39
John 20:31 cont., 10n49
(cont.) 21:1-19 4n19
21:11 ¯n3¯
21:24 9
Acts
2:1-4 2
Romans
8:1-1¯ ¯
J Corinthians
1:24 ¯
1:30 ¯
5:¯ 10
11:1¯-34 8
11:24 ¯n3¯
Galatians
3:13-14 ¯
Hebrews
1-3 ¯
J Peter
1:19 10
J John
2:1-6 ¯n35
4:6 ¯n35


3. Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha,
Dead Sea Scrolls

Reterevce Page
J Lnoch
41:3 6
60:12 6
JQH
11:12-14 8n38
15 4n1¯
JQS
- 4n1¯
3:6-9 8n38
3:6-¯ ¯n35
6:¯ 5n22
JQM
- 4n1¯
2 Baruch
48:3-4 6
4QJ86
- 4n1¯
4Q285
ír. 4 4n1¯
ír. ¯ 4n1¯
4Q287
- ¯n35
4Q369
1.ii.4-12 4n1¯
4Q434
- ¯n35
4Q436
- ¯n35
4Q52J
ii.4 4n1¯
4Q56J
- 4n1¯

18
3. Apocrypha etc. (cont.)

Reterevce Page
Jubilees
1:24 ¯n35
Sirach
51:23-25 ¯
Wisdom of Solomon
9:1-2 4


4. Secular Literature

Reterevce Page
Corpus
Hermeticum
¯:2 6
10:15 6
13:2-3 6