4
The Textile and Apparel Industry

Objectives
• Analyze the three segments of today’s textile and apparel industry. • Summarize the structure of the textile and apparel industry. • Describe occupations and careers in the textile production, apparel production, and the retail segments and the education and training they require.
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. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . Inc.Textile and Apparel Industry Textile and Apparel Industry Textile Production Apparel Production The Retail Segment continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co.

Inc.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .Textile Production Segment © Bobby Deal/RealDealPhoto/Shutterstock • Focuses on production of fabrics for apparel and other uses © Goodheart-Willcox Co.

Textile Production Segment • Deals with – fibers – yarns – dyes – finishes – methods of fabric production © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use ..

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . Fabric production IV.The Structure of the Textile Industry • Four stages of production I.. Fabric finishing © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Yarn production III. Fiber production II. Inc.

Inc. color combinations. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . and weaves – often use computer design programs to create designs © Goodheart-Willcox Co. prints.Textile Designing • Textile designers – develop designs for fabrics.. patterns.

Think About It What is the difference between a textile designer and a fashion designer? © crystalfoto/Shutterstock © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use ..

and how many yards to produce • Select dye colors and finishes that help fabrics perform as expected © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Inc.Textile Converters • Decide what fibers to use. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . what widths and weights of fabrics to weave or knit.

Manufacturing • Includes textile plant operations or processes – spinning – dyeing – weaving – knitting – finishing continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . Inc..

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .. colorists. yarns. computer.Manufacturing • Employees who use machines in their work include spinners. and machine operators • Engineers—chemical. and plant—play an important part • Laboratory technicians perform tests on fibers. Inc. and fabrics © Goodheart-Willcox Co. loom operators. industrial.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use © Alexander Raths/Shutterstock continued . Inc.Research and Development • Develop and produce new products to meet consumer demand and find ways to produce these products © Goodheart-Willcox Co..

Inc.. dyes.Research and Development • Research—working to find new products such as fibers. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . and finishing techniques • Development—finding practical ways to use products researchers create © Goodheart-Willcox Co. weaves.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .. Inc.Marketing • Marketing—all activities involved in creating and selling profitable products • Manufacturers must decide what raw materials to buy and what fabrics to manufacture • Manufacturers base their decisions on careful studies of what customers want continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co.

Marketing • Market analysts—people who study fashion changes and consumer demands and use forecasting • Selling is the last step in the marketing process • Textile sales associates show fabric samples to clothing manufacturers © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use ..

Inc..Apparel Production Segment • Includes all people and processes involved in designing and making garments © Sapsiwai/Shutterstock © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use continued .

Inc.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .Apparel Production Segment • • • • • • Design garments Make patterns Cut Sew Assemble Distribute finished items to stores © Goodheart-Willcox Co.

. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . Inc. and may include – research and merchandising – design and product development – production – sales and marketing © Goodheart-Willcox Co.The Structure of Apparel Companies • Apparel production companies have various departments or divisions.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .. at the right time so the company will be profitable continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc. at the right price.Research and Merchandising • Apparel production begins with research • A firm’s staff tries to forecast what their customers will buy • Their goal is to have the right products.

. Inc.Research and Merchandising • Apparel designers interpret trends and create sketches and sample designs © Dasha Petrenko/Shutterstock continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

.Research and Merchandising • Sample designs become a part of a merchandising plan • Designers show sample designs to retail buyers who then make selections • Then the selected designs are prepared for production © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

Inc.Design and Product Development • Fashion designers create designs and ideas for clothes and accessories • They make sketches until one is satisfactory © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

.Think About It © AISPIX/Shutterstock In what might fashion designers specialize? © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use ..Production • Garment-making process involves multiple steps performed by many workers including – Production pattern makers make master patterns – Pattern graders make patterns into a wide range of sizes continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc.

continued Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . Inc. and pressers complete the garments © Goodheart-Willcox Co. trimmers..Production • Markers decide how to place pattern pieces to prevent fabric waste • Cutters cut through the layers of fabric with power saws or electric cutting machines • Sewing machine operators sew the pieces together • Finishers.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .. Inc.Production • Workers in engineering and management have good communication and problemsolving skills • Engineering and management positions include – plant managers – production managers – production engineers – costing engineers – quality control engineers © Goodheart-Willcox Co.

Sales and Marketing • Marketing in the apparel industry is primarily wholesale • Manufacturers sell to retail buyers who represent shops and department stores continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . shops and department stores sell to individual customers © Losevsky Pavel/Shutterstock continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc..Sales and Marketing • In retail sales.

Sales and Marketing • New fashions are in production at least a “season.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . retail buyers view them in showrooms during market week continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co.” or six months • When samples are ready. Inc.

retail-store buyers come to fashion centers to view new collections and make selections • In several large cities. Dallas. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use ..Sales and Marketing • During market weeks. Inc. and Chicago. there are also apparel marts © Goodheart-Willcox Co. such as Atlanta.

S.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . fashion centers? © Goodheart-Willcox Co.Think About It © Cedric Weber/Shutterstock Where are the major U. Inc.

Inc.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .Custom Work in Apparel Production • Some people have their clothing custom-made • Tailoring is a form of custom work • Suits and coats are the garments most often tailored © Goodheart-Willcox Co.

Inc.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .Think About It Why might someone choose to have garments custommade? © Levent Konuk/Shutterstock © Goodheart-Willcox Co.

The Retail Segment • Retailers include – department stores – discount chains – specialty stores (carrying specific kinds of apparel) – Internet and mail-order companies continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .. Inc.

Inc.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .The Retail Segment • Fashion merchandising includes – planning – buying – selling • Merchandising is the central function of retailers continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co.

they are ready for sale to consumers continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Inc.The Retail Segment © Blend Images/Shutterstock • After garments are through production. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

The Retail Segment • Fashion promotion is an important part of selling • It includes – advertising – setting up window and store displays – media publicity – special events as fashion shows continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . Inc..

. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .The Retail Segment • Merchandising and promotion involves – merchandise managers – buyers – sales associates – market researchers – fashion coordinators – display directors – illustrators – writers – models © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc.

Inc. and special events • Decide what merchandise to sell and at what price © Goodheart-Willcox Co. © Dinga/Shutterstock Permission granted to reproduce for educational use ..Merchandise Managers • Operate one or more departments within a store • Plan seasonal sales. promotional sales.

Buyers • Responsible for selecting clothes to sell in stores they represent • May go to major fashion centers or markets several times a year • Order items and amounts to be delivered to their stores after viewing manufacturer’s merchandise continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

Inc.Buyers • Keep records about what customers are buying in their stores • Are interested in what styles. colors. and sizes are selling best • Make decisions that largely determine a store’s profits © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

Inc. or salary plus a commission © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock © Goodheart-Willcox Co.Sales Associates • Only store employees most customers ever meet • May form lasting bonds with devoted customers • Earn an hourly rate. salary.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

Inc.Stock Clerk • Receive merchandise • Prepare price tags • May help with straightening stock © Robert Kneschke/Shutterstock © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . and buyers © Stephen Coburn/Shutterstock © Goodheart-Willcox Co. designers.Market Researchers • Study customer wants and needs • Communicate this information to manufacturers.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .Fashion Coordinators • Promote stores and merchandise • Gather and relay fashion information to merchandise managers and buyers • Work with advertising and publicity • Plan fashion shows © Benis Arapovic/Shutterstock © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Inc.

. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .Display Directors • Create attractive displays seen in stores and store windows • Work closely with fashion coordinators © Adisa/Shutterstock © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc.

Fashion Illustrators • Work for retail stores.. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . pattern companies. and advertising agencies • Create attractive and detailed drawings © VikOl/Shutterstock © Goodheart-Willcox Co.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . Inc.Fashion Writers • Inform public about new trends in fashion as soon as they occur © samotrebizan/Shutterstock © Goodheart-Willcox Co..

Fashion Models
• Serve many needs in photos for press releases, Internet and mail-order catalogs, pattern catalogs, and advertisements • Are essential in fashion shows
© Benis Arapovic/Shutterstock

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Alterations

© siart/Shutterstock

• Alterations specialists must have superior sewing skills, work fast, and fit clothing properly
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Objective

Summarize the concept of vertical integration.

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Inc..Vertical Integration of the Textile and Apparel Industries • Prior to 1970s. most companies focused on one aspect of fabric/apparel production – Textile mills produced fabrics that they sold to apparel manufacturing companies – Apparel manufacturing companies produced apparel that they sold to retailers continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

Vertical Integration of the Textile and Apparel Industries • Today many large corporations handle all stages of production (vertical integration) – They produce fibers – They sew garments – They sell garments in stores • This allows them to control all steps in the creation of their apparel. leading to greater cost control © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

Review 1. fiber production. Inc.. fabric production. the retail segment 2. textile production. apparel production. fabric finishing continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Name the four stages of production that form the basic structure of the textile industry. Name the three segments of the textile and apparel industry. yarn production. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .

” What does this mean? How is it done? They set prices by computing all the costs involved in producing the fabric. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Inc. Textile converters are responsible for “costing the fabric. They then add a margin of profit to the production cost to determine the fabric’s selling price.Review 3.

What kinds of activities take place during market weeks? Manufacturers hold special fashion shows for buyers. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . Models wear the new designs to help convince buyers to order them. Inc. continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Fashion writers and fashionpromotion specialists attend these invitation-only shows and gather information about the new fashions..Review 4.

Review 5. continued © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Describe an occupation in each of the three segments of the textile and apparel industry. Answers will vary. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .. Inc.

Review 6.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . a system used by some large corporations that handle all stages of production from producing the fibers to sewing the garments to selling them in stores © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Summarize the concept of vertical integration. Inc.

Garments that are specially designed for an individual. • custom-made. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use .Glossary • apparel mart.. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc. Buildings where many garment manufacturers have permanent showrooms and sales offices. A percentage of a sales associate’s total sales that is paid in addition to his or her salary. • commission.

Dallas. • fashion merchandising. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . • fashion center. Atlanta.. All phases of planning. buying. Cities such as New York. Chicago.Glossary • development. and Miami where retail-store buyers come during fashion weeks to view the new collections and make their selections. and selling apparel. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Los Angeles. Finding practical ways to use products that researchers create.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . • marketing.. setting up window and store displays. and special events such as fashion shows. All of the activities involved in creating and selling profitable products. • forecasting. Inc. Projecting future market trends for the coming months and years. media publicity.Glossary • fashion promotion. Advertising.

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use ..Glossary • market week. Time periods when apparel companies offer the next season’s fashion lines. Inc. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. • merchandising plan. The producer’s plans for creating a line of designs for a given season.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc.Glossary • research. Selling small quantities of goods to consumers. dyes. Working to find new products such as fibers.. • retail. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . and finishing techniques. • retailers. weaves. Businesses that buy garments from manufacturers and sell them to customers.

Glossary • vertical integration. A company that handles several or all steps in production and/or distribution. • wholesale.. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use . Selling quantities of goods for resale. © Goodheart-Willcox Co.

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