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4, AUGUST 1973 V divergence of the curves in the saturated region isprobably due to inexact modeling of the resistanceof the epitaxialregion between the active transistorand the buried,layer (li?Cl Fig. 1). The in limits of the circuit analysisprogram only permit a one-dimensional modeling of the region as shown in Fig. Z. The effect isnoticeable here since crowding has resulted in one eighth of the active’ transistorconducting half of the collector current.While thismodeling is not exact over the entire transistor operating range, it does yield useful information tlhat

275

sister Schottky-barrier-diode integrated logic circuit,” IEEE J. SolidState Circuits, vol. SC-4, pp. 3-12, Feb. 1969.

**[31 A. Y. G. Yu and C. A. Mead, “Characteristics of sluminumsilicon Schottky barrier diode,” Solid-State Electron., vol. 13,
**

pp. 97-104, Feb. 1970.

[41 L. Nagel and R. Rohre:,

“Computer analysis of nonlinear circuits, excluding radiation ((3ANCER) ,“ ZEEE Y. S’otidState Circuits, vol. S(2-6, pp. 166-182,+Aug. 1971. [51 H. K. Gummel and H. C. Pocm, “An integral charge control model of bi~olar transistors.” Bell Svst. Tech. J.. vol. 49I.. rJD. .. 827-851, M~y/June 1970. ‘ Raymond A. Heald (S’71) was born in Portland, Ore. He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1965 and 1972, respectively. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in the area of integrated memories. From 1965 to 1970 he was involved in modeling energy generation and transfer in fission power reactors for the U.S. Navy. Mr. Heald is a member of Tau Beta Pi. David A. Hodges (S’59–M’65) was born in New Jersey on August 25, 1937. He received the B.E.E. degree from Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y., in 1960, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1961 and 1966, respectively. For the academic year 1965 to 1966 he was an Associate in the Electronics Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark. He ioined Bell Tele~hone Laboratories. Inc.. Murray Hill, N. J., in ~966, where he co~ducted exploratory studies on integrated-circuit memory and logic components and on device modeling for computer-aided design, serving finally as Head of the Systems Elements Research Department. Presently, he is Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley. His research interests are in the area of integrated circuits and semiconductor memories. Dr. Hodges is a member of Eta Kappa Nu and Sigma Xi. He was the recipient of Outstanding Paper Awards from the IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference in 1963 and 1969. He is currently the Editor of the IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS.

is very

difficult

if not impossible

to measure

direct] y. IX. CONCLUSIONS This paper shows a method of modeling distributed resistive effects in integrated circuit transistors using arrays or grids of lumped components. From these manylump models, three-lump models are formed that are easily analyzed to determine approximate operating limits, In this way various layouts may be quickly analyzed and evaluated. With this approach, a minimumsize Schottky-clamped transistor layout was developed that has nearly twice the current-handling capacity of the most widely-used minimum-geometry device. The accuracy of the modeling technique was confirmed by comparing results of analysis and experiment for twoclamped integrated circuit transistors. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors and assistance. are grateful to L. W. Nagel for advice

REFERENCES

make IC Scene,” Electronics, pp. 74-W, July 21, 1969. [2] Y. Tarni, Y. Hayashi, H. Teshima, and T. Sekigawa, ‘[Tran-

[11 R. N. Noyce, R. E. Bohn, and H. T. Chua, “Schottky diodes

**Distortion BipolarTransistor in Variable-Gain Amplifiers
**

WILLY M. C. SANSEN AND ROBERT G. MEYER

Absfract-Wide-band variable-gain amplifiers consisting of bipolar junction transistors and exhibiting maximum gain larger than umitv are considered. The mechanisms of distortion are analManuscript received September 6, 1972; revised April 25, 1973. This research was supported by the U. S. Army Research Office, Durham, N. C., under Grant DA-ARO-D31-124-72-G52. W. M. C. Sansen was with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences and the Electronics Research Laboratory, University of California,, Berkeley, Calif. 94720. He is now with the Laboratorium Fymca en Electronics van de Halfgelelders, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium. R. G. Meyer is, with the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences and the Electronics Research Laboratory,

yzed at low and high frequencies. Approximate expressions for distortion are derived and give good agreement with computational results and measurements. The most common high-performance variable-gain circuit realizations are discussed and compared for distortion performance. 1. INTRODUCTION

v

ARIABLE-GAIN

grammable

automatic-gain-control

university

of California, Berkeley, Calif. 94720.

of a variable-gain

amplifiers are widely used in (AGC) circuits and proAn important parameter attenuators. circuit is its dynamic range. This is

IM. The distortion is then given by In!f2 = *(vBE. . pairs tranapis high-performfor distortion of the The specification of one form of clistortion thus determines the other. is the peak value of v. IJnder low-distortion conditions the power series.] term (7) is zero.”=) (1) the dc collector current.. de- on the ac base–emitter tial relationship of the form voltage vB~ by an exponen- IQ + ic = IC~ exp in which IQ I CS (v’”. Second-order intermodulation (IMZ) is defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the output distortion product at frequency 01 * Wzto the fundamental signal. In this case l-percent IM. Under low-distortion panded in v{ and becomes ic2 = —*g. UGUST A 1973 is considamsuit- Considerations variable-gain circuits are form.4-mV..) by [4] IM.276 the maximum range of input signal amplitudes that circuit can handle for given limits on noise for small nals ered plifiers able first ance sistor and at distortion of distortion both using low and for large high signals. frequencies.4TE OF CIRCUITS. propriate in any performance given allows best and configuration application of the performance of the circuit. The higher order terms in (2) are due to the exponential nonlinearity and give rise to signal distortion.ancl third-order terms need to be considered. the exponential can be expanded and after rearrangement (1) becomes in v. In the limit of very high series resistance. v . small mismatches between transistors cause some second-order distortion. IM2 and IMS are related to secondharmonic distortion (HDZ) and third-harmonic distortion (HD. since collector currents ic. However. III. The base-driven pair is thus able to suppress evenorder distortion but decreases the odd-order distortion by a factor of only 1.~. = *(vBED/ VT)’ in which ~B~~ is the peak value of ~B~. Common measures of this distortion are intermodulation (IM) and harmonic distortion (HD).2 mVr~S. Signal output current icz is given by ?& = IE are restricted to wide-band bipolar in single Using transistors. = lcT/q * 26 mV at 302 K. GAIN CONTROL IN A SINGLE TRANSISTOR AND A BASE-DRIVEN E’AIR In a bipolar pends transistor the at-collector current i. the presence of base and emitter resistance linearizes the transfer characteristic so that the available gain variation is exchanged for distortion reduction. ( 1 1 1 + exp (v. The The third-order term yields IM. Varying the common-emitter current IB changes the gain. de-coupled Such In this paper subject in variable-gain circuits the sigthe IEEEJOURNAL SOLID-ST. Third-order intermodulation (IM~) is similarly defined for distortion at 2~z * ~1 and 2til * w2 and arises from the cubic term in the power series. a differential output [Fig./ v. converges rapidly so that only the second. (4) in which gn = IE/Vy.) and In/I. where g. In practice.. This corresponds however with a reduction in available gain variation.. As an example. This arises from the square term in the power series expansion. 11. integrated quads integrated three Distortion and differential circuits incorporated selection optimization results and gain-control are analyzed This work for chosen compared the the distortion performance..4 compared with a single transistor. and the collector-saturation current. At low frequencies. . Series base and emitter resistances in the transistor linearize the exponential Ic – VBE relationship and thus reduce the distortion [5].HD8. gain can be varied by changing IQ. in monolithic transistors these (5) for realization considered. 1 (a)]. The large values of even-order distortion in the single transistor can be balanced out by applying the input signal vi between the bases of a matched pair [Fig. 1 (a) results in the emitter- . if /3 >> 1.)2 in which v. @) ‘c=g~”./ VT) – ~) (6) For small v. and icz have an opposite phase.vt[l conditions (6) can be ex- — +(vi/vT)2 + . the transistor is current driven and gain variation is possible only as far as current gain /3 clepends on collector current la. is reached at 7. given by (2). l-percent IM3 is reached for a peak input voltage of 5. input signal that is @ times higher than for a single transistor.p/V. is given by (3) 9rn = IQ/vT.HD. second-order = &(v. = 2. [61. 1(a)] can be taken that significantly improves the rejection of even-order distortion. the dc base–emitter voltage.~[’+itt)+it%)+ J ‘2) The first-order coefficient g. IM distortion is defined for two-sinusoidal input signals at frequencies 01 and oz applied to a circuit. As for a single transistor. is the small-signal transconductance of the transistor. The distortion given by (5) is then negligible with respect to distortion caused by this 10 dependence of ~.E V. Consequently. = 3. THE EMITTER-DRIVEN PAIR Interchanging the positions of input signal and gain control in the pair of Fig. A significant improvement in distortion performance can be obtained by applying the signal input as a current via the current source of the differential pair.

HD and IM distortion have been measured at low frequencies. Experiments have been performed on a matched pair of transistors (CA 3018). The experimental results are given in Fig. 1 + rJ3 IM. 1. 1 (b) gives the circuit equations (12b) L(1 )+ I 4’+2= +. As a result there is no distortion (it is assumed throughout that ~ is approximately independent of current). At low frequencies the signal output current iG2 is readily found from (6) for B >>1 and no seriesemitter resistance and isgiven by t& = IX — 1 + The ac voltage drop across the base resistance of the current-carrying transistor represented by exp (~li) in (11). This is also seen from (10). = a. it has a deteriorating effect for the emitter-driven pair. For high attenuation nearly all the current flows in transistor Ql. Their ratio was in very close agreement with the relations given ‘in (4) provided the distortion was low. The distortion associated with the current source was thus negligible compared with the distortion generated in the pair itself. Whereas the presence of base and emitter resistance imprcwes the distortion performance of the base-driven pair. all the current then flows in transistor Q2 [Fig. Note that the secondorder distortion again present due to the unbalancing is of the differentialair.feeds both transistors parallel. The ?M2 and IM3 products are plottedversus relative signal attenuation in Fig. Base resistance was determined by means of the circle diagram and phase cancellation methods [7]. The required voltage-current conversion implies a tradeoff between circuit ‘gain and distortion as will be illustrated in the circuit realizations of Section IV. lE(l‘i) *= =P[++*-’*)] in which iP is the peak value of i. A single transistor with large emitter resistance was used as a current source. no distortion clccurs so that the emitter-driven pair is far superior to the base-driven pair.) exp (rIi) (11) and (b) emitter-driven driven pair shown in Fig. 2).Input currentZE(l + i). 1 (b). in DC voltage VB determines l- t-m the fractionof the input current that flows in the second transistorand develops output voltage VO.i=)’ --(12a) :Xp (b) (9) in which b = VB/V~. There is thus no distortion at an attenuation of 6 dB. They agree very well with the ones obtained by exact calculations (Fig. Since current 10Z is small.liminaE tion of 101 in (10) gives an expressionfor {C2. Since (9) is linear in i. When both transistors carry the same current the exponential in (10] equals unity. are equal and again linear in i. 2. 2. elimination of ICI in (10) gives Ic.l~(l in which + i) exp (–b + Y. Inclusion of base resistances r~l and rB2 in the transistors of Fig.in —— l+r. IV. = ~(?.lcl is then negligible the first in equation and thus Icz is linear in i. 1 (b)]. The values given by (12a) and (12b) constitute an upper limit for the distortion.This nonlinearequation is solved point by point for a sinusoidal input and a Fourier analysisistaken of the output waveform. This distortion is found by expanding exp (~li) in a power series in (rli) and is given by 1 + ?“. Maximum p current gain (0-dB attenuation) is achieved for high negative VB. in which i represents the fractionalsignal level./2 IM2 = r. Almost vcc Vi f J-vEE (0) -IEE Fig. (a) Base-driven ~ 4 IE(l+i) 11 (b) variable-gain pair. thus causes distortion in the attenuated output current. PRACmCAL ~EALIzAT1ONs The excellent properties realized in two commonly of an emitter-driven pair are known transistor quads: t+e m in which lC1 and 1a2 represent total collectorcurrents. Thus the distortion actually present in io2 is never zero but can be made very low at the expense of circuit gain. Currents ICI and IOz. Voltage l’~ is both positive and large compared with Vr. However the input signal must be available as a current. Voltage VB is zero.SANSENAND MEYER: BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR MPLIFIERS A 277 drops across the base resistances are different. The second equation of (1(l)is nonlinear if the voltage . which thus acts as a current-driven common-base stage.

3. The constant amount of distortion at high attenuation is obtained by expanding (10) for very small b and is found to be about 10 dB lower than the maximum distortion of the AGC amplifier (Fig. This results in an infinite value for IM3 at an attenuation level . Arbitrarily increasing RE thus decreases the distortion but also the maximum current gain. = ——a— 1 + (. 5. the fractional third-order distortion approaches a constant value because the fundamental and the third-order component itself both decrease at the same rate. as Fig. 20 — z w 5 40 — 4 h 6Q60 -40 -20 (IM2) o i? -vEE Fig.278 Distortion (dB) IEEEJOURNAL SOLID-ST.3 and the multiplier [3] shown in Fig. At low-frequencies feedback caused by emitter resistance RE however reduces this to IA!I. 2 for attenuation between 6 and O dB. Even-order distortion is thus absent for perfectly matched transistors. which is given by -tEE (14) Consequentlyj a tradeoff has to be made in the choice of emitter resistance RE.RJEJ2 (13) kc ! V. --. Both circuitis employ a base-driven pair with emitter degeneration as a differential current source. The IM3 distortion is computed from (10) and plotted versus attenuation in Fig.A 3018 with r. However. The use of a balanced quad arrangement results in cancellation of the second-order distortion of the emitter-driven differential pair discussed previously. 2 and the maximum value is given again by ( 12b). if the multiplier is not fully compensated [3] for mismatches. Variable-gain quad based on signal subtraction plier). The IM3 distortion versus attenuation is thus as given in Fig. For zero input voltage VD. = 0. (multi- attenuation increases. Even-order distortion is canceled if perfect matching is achieved. distortion for the emitterdriven pair for C. However.—computed. AGC amplifier [1] represented in Fig. (AGC Fig. the third-order component cancels at a different value of VB than does the fundamental. == 0. For negative VD the attenuated ac collector currents ic2 and ic3 become highly distorted but are negligible in magnitude with respect to the increasing ac collector currents icl and ic4.. Variable-gain quad based on signal summation amplifier). 2) given by ( 12b). The multiplier has thus actually a better distortion performance than the so-called AGC amplifier itself. all collector currents are equal and the signal output V. and IM. 4.385 and i..) ‘ if the signal output current has the same amplitude as without feedback [8]. The AGC quad using the multiplier configuration is shown in Fig. o measured.4TE OF CIRCUITS. 4. 4. but now expanded over the whole attenuation range of the multiplier.25 . Thedistortion of the input current with no feedbacks thus given by (8). Thus the amount of third-order distortion at low frequencies is similar to that in Fig. The AGC quad shown in Fig. UGUST A 1973 -40 “~ (1M3) -20 1 6 m u c “.approximated (12). 2. Low-frequency IM. is zero. This is true only if the transistors are perfectly matched. Odd-order components however add. 3 is formed by balancing two emitter-driven pairs.

respectively.5. Residual second-order distortion. which is given in ( 12b). o measured at low frequencies. 6) using CA 3045.4NSISTOR MPLIFIERS A IM3 Distortion (dB) 279 o . 6).. distortion is absent only if [2] 7’1-?” 2=0 (15) in Fig. 7’. For a given operating current. A measured at high frequencies for B~.. 7.35 and i. The same predistortion concept is applied in highperfo. Fig. the maximum amount of distortion given by (16) is larger than the maximum distortion in the AGC amplifier.riable-gain quad based quad). The input signal is converted into a current and predisto~%ed by the transistors Q1 in order to cancel the distortion generated in the base-driven pair of transistors Q2. by the third-order distortion can be approximated in which rl and Vz are defined as in (11) for the first and second pair. The distortion null however. The null in distortion is measured at a lower gain than predicted. In this case. due to device imbalances can be further reduced by taking a differential output (Fig. r.(Gilbert’s IM3 Distortion ( dB) determined by the degree of mismatch.. the fundamental cancels but nok the third-order component. Base resistance is added to make distortion measurement easier. The results given by (16) and the measured data are plotted also in Fig. For negative VB however. This isillustrated ~60 built with four-matched transistors (CA 3045).SANSENAND MEYER: BIPOLAR TR. a Dower series ex- in which ~ is the fractional current swing in transistors Qz.approximated at low (16) and high (25) frequencies. The gain is controlled by the ratio of pair currents I. Low-frequency IM~ distortion for multiplier using CA 3045 with r. D 0. 5 for a multiplier [ -40 -20 0 z -20 —0 6 .. 6. 5). The fractional distortion thus increases with a slope of 20 dB/decade.rmance multipliers [3]. a single-ended output ideally does not contain second-order distortion. Howetier. 7. Vo. Condition (15) is fulfilled for only one gain value. — computed for matched transistors. D 0. -. — computed. 40 – Fig. This is caused by some residual distortion present in the current source that adds on one side of the null and subtracts on the other side [4]. 1 pansion. = 4.35 and ip n 0. Using-. IM.= .5. : = a “00 0 . 5. o measured. ~.w and 1E2.. and is plotted versus attenuation in Fig. Ideally.. and distortion occurs for lower and higher gains. on prechstortion .- -80 -60 -40 * I -20 I I ‘w’ ) 0 0 40I ‘1 o VB negotive o 0 / o o 0 0 00 -1 “1 ~t 1 I I -vEE Fig. Evenorder distortion is canceled by taking a differential output of two pairs. The waveform is thus distortionless at an attenuation of about 30 dB (Fig. is less shar~ and thus Gilbert’s vari- .~. even from a single-ended output. At low frequencies this distortion is found from the nonlinear equation describing the quad [3] using the methods described in Section III.~ n 0. VARIABLE-GAIN QUAD BASED ON PREDISTORmON The gain variation in the AGC amplifier and the multiplier are based on unbalancing a differential pair. The quad is shown in Fig. B = 4 corresponds to a frequency of 48 MHz.(CQ ‘0 . A different variable-gain quad is based on Gilbert’s wide-band amplifier technique [2]. V. distortion versus attenuation for Gilbert?s quad (Fig. Mismatch is such that for positive VB the third-order component is zero but not the fundamental. no second-order distortion is present. It can thus be concluded that a multiplier has superior distortion performance compared with the AGC amplifier provided full four-potentiometer compensation [3] is applied. 6.

= r(dI. The previous analysis was restricted to low frequencies where charge storage is unimportant. The ac torted because of the exponential 10 – V~E relationship.s.. E/V. o measured. 8 “. H03 I “1 / I I I -30 I (HDZ) 00“ . and V~E are total values for base current.. 8.(B. 7 is the base transit time..approximated (24. This voltage is highly disin which y = V~/YBIIn and thus yB = COT1 or f/j’T. Also pressionderived as follows. l+TB ~ (%92)’2 ‘24b) HD as predicted by the previous equation is plotted versus frequency in Fig. distortion due to the presence of base resistance zero at fullgain and at half that gain./dt) eXp (V. distortion becomes maximum. increases with frequency due Volterra series of the form [9] to the presence of the base resistance [7]. B = 4 (60 MHz) and i. For high attenuation. Frequency is normalized as given by The HD components [which at high frequencies are not necessarily related to the IM products by a constant ratio as given by (4) ] are derived from (23) and given by ‘D’ ?“~T2B2)”2 = “ ‘------(ww” ‘24a) + HD. and HD.)(l ( ‘) + iYBz) Equation ( 18b) describes the nonlinearity.AUGUST 1973 able-gain quad is quite attractive for a limited tion range around the null in distortion. distortion for the emitterdriven pair using CA 3018.25. However. This . 4).B. Then a comparison is made of the distortion performance of the AGC amplifier (Fig. = l/27rT. emitter voltage vi is determined entirely by the common-base input im(21) pedance of transistor Q1. = 0. These voltage drops are now time differentials so that the distortion is frequency dependent.(B. 6).(B. As for low frequencies. “ Bt) are the ith order Volterra kernels operating on input signal i. and Gilbert’s quad (Fig. 10 is not low) and that the frequencies are high enough that recombination current is negligible. 8.. which is jB1l+~ (19) H. 1 (b)]. High-frequency HD. part of collector current Z& can then be represented by a Also the magnitude of v. at high-attenuation maximum value can be predicted by an analyticalexlevels. is For high attenuation. 8 and 9. = ~. Both In (18a) and (18b) 1C2 isneglectedwith respectto 10I. and base-emitter voltage.. respectively.. & = [~E exp (– b)] I(BJo. The distortion in the emitter-driven pair [Fig. Agreement is satisfactory.--- mu IEEEJOURNAL SOLID-STATE OF cIRCUITS. BJ f.] (22) in which lli (Bl. The circuit equations are then given by Fig. B. HIGH-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS attenuao 6 — : 20— E z z . The output As for low frequencies. Corisider now the situation at high frequencies. VI. the maximum effects are caused by direct signal feedthrough via the The ac part of lCI is then found from (18a) and given junction capacitances CjE1 and Cjcz of output transistor in the frequency domain by Q2 [Fig. computed. 1 (b)] is analyzed first. 8. where 13. . This equation has been solved directly by computer aids and a Fourier analysis has been taken of the output waveform. They are found by substituting (21 ) and (22) in ( 18b) and they are given by Equation (18a) shows that off at their common base about both collector currents roll cutoff frequency.). For the emitter-driven pair. H. The amount of distortion at one specific frequency is plotted in Fig. 9 and as asymptotes in Fig. available attenuation is limited. Then I. z 40— -80 -60 Dlstortlon ( dB ) -40 (H03) -. = (1 + j7B. --. . 3).e. i3 + . Experimental results are also shown in Fig. deviations occur as can be seen in Fig. this is caused by the difference in voltage drop across the base resistances. assume that the device ~~ is constant (i. 8. Eliminating Icl in (18a) and ( 18b) gives a nonlinear differential equation of the first order. lc. “ . the multiplier (Fig.)o. i [II &)o”i2 + + II. initially. collector current. I -50 I (17a) (17b) 6Q70 - ~C = I.

the collector voltage. Base resistance is neglected also. Although other parasitic capacitances such as collector substrate capacitance are present the model of Fig. with collector l~ad R..x > 1) Gilbert’s quad . and HD. — computed. For high frequencies (Bl~z ~. The HDZ is reduced by taking a differential output and has usually become smaller than HDS. constant capacitances at the emitters of the quad. 4) the level obtained for high attenuation. (~+g@c. The distortion at high frequencies in Gilbert’s variable-gain quad is obtained by means of a Volterra series expansion using the model described by (17). ) B IC dt (27) in The ac component of base current i~ can be expanded ic. In the multiplier (Fig.. Model of output transistor Q. 9. 6 introduces distortion that subtracts from the distortion obtained for high attenuation. Maximum HD. – B. = (iP2/8) (1?. As for low frequencies the HDa curve shown in Fig. such as collector-substrate capacitance Cc~ and emitter–base junction capacitance cjE1 become important. in Gilbert’s signal QI is worse developed is applied directly of transistors Qz.25 and ~ H 0. Fig. 6) amplifier. n 0. 4) full compensation at high frequencies is not feasible and the attenuation range for a given distortion level is quite limited. cjE2 A current source is nonideal when it is shunted by a finite resistance or by capacitance. This amount of distortion is usually small enough to be neglected unless the current sources are replaced by resistors. Output signal V. 4).SANSENANDMEYER: BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR MPLIFIERS A Frequency B 281 has a better than at distortion direct AGC emitters in the the performance feedthrough amplifier. is the emitter voltage and v. As for low bert’s variable-gain quad increases only linearly with frequencies this distortion subtracts from the distortion frequency whereas in the AGC amplifier (Fig. at high attenuation. 8 for the emitter-driven pair applies directly for the AGC amplifier (Fig. fast. (29) The maximum distortion at high frequencies in Gilfor small Cc and frequencies below f~/3. 7. In a first-order analysis Cjn is voltage independent and thus the same for both transistors of the pair under any attenuation level. Presence of shunt resistance Rg at the commonemitter points of the AGC circuits in Figs. The distortion is given approximately by (for Gilbert’s quad take X~E = 2 1~1). the ac part of Ic. Expression (17a) becomes then ~.approximated (24). predicted.r-driven pair. 10. of transistors than The the AGC quad voltage (Fig. At low frequencies and for high attenuation it is found by power series expansion and given by (26) Cjc2 fi t ? r-r--l I RL + V. v. Using a Volterra series approximation the QI and Q. is thus even more distorted than v. respectively. OO”F- However. for the quad transistors. 10 has yielded values of maximum available attenuation that are in good agreement with experimental data. --. The distortion is then (25) HD. O meamu-ed. The multiplier is thus not very attractive as an AGC circuit at high frequencies. 10. distortion versus frequency for the emitte.00. At high frequencies. VII. and meadistortion is given by sured results are represented in Fig. Agreement is satisfactory. to the junction capacitances Cjcz THE INFLUENCE OF NONIDEAL CURRENT SOWRCES Fig. as given by with 2CC ‘ VT TO = ~+. transistor with collector load RL is nearly cutoff and can thus be simulated by a second-order high-pass filter shown in Fig. Computed. 3 and 4 or at the emitters of transistors QI in Gilbert’s quad in Fig. given by (24b) increases twice as and (29) leads thus to worst case analysis.) found in the collector current of one emitter-driven in which B1 and B2 are defined as in (20) for transistors transistor. ov* TI = ———r I EE 72 = 8CC . Also its amplitude increases with frequency. They can be modeled by assuming a current dependent base-transit time .— I EE 4C. Omission of (26) maximum distortion. VT2 I’EE and Cc = 2~jB + Ccs for one pair. i.

vol. Sansen (S’65–M’72) was born in Poperinge.53. The AGC amplifier covers the widest attenuation range at both low and high frequencies. ED-15. of Theauthors with the Department ~~e Arkan~~~. Gilbert’s quad gives higher distortion than both the previous circuits at both high. The GLCMOS circuit significant improvement in performance and reduction in circuit has smaller propagation delay. Tech.s.. “A precise four-quadrant multiplier with subnanosecond respke. “Transistor distortion analysis using Volterra series remesentation. U~i~~rsit~ cuits dissipate as much power as the GLCMOS circuits. vol. Sansen and R. Dec. [81 A. 1968. Mar.t University of Ark~~sa. Sansen is a member of the Koninklijke Waamse Ingenieurs Vereniging (Belgium) and Sigma Xi. at high attenuation its distortion is relatively high. If large-scale integrated CMOS circuits are used in a system. Meyer. 315-342.and low-attenuation levels. Narayanan. “Eliminating broadband distortion in transistor amplifiers. May 1968. His interests are in device modeling and in distortion and noise limitations in integrated circuits. In 1971 he was employed as a Teaching Fellow at the University of California. ~~ork supported This ~va. Eng. pp. Fellowship. “The decibel relationships between amplifier distortion products. Swst. C. ‘(A high-performance monolithic IF amplifier incorporating electronic gain control. 1968. 1071-1086. in 1972. In 1968 he was employed as an Assistant at the Katholieke Universiteit. J. The grounded load complementary MOS (GLCMOS) (CMOS) circuits has been evaluated. Tech. Solid-State Circuits. UGUST A 1973 transistors. pp. Dec. Solomon. Belgium. It has been found that a very inverter circuit is shown in Fig.” IEEE Trans. Leuven. vol. p. vol. At high frequencies the distortion is lower than in both other amplifiers but the attenuation level is severely limited by “feedthrough. Manuscript received February 2. ‘[Theory of nonlinear distortion produced in a semiconductor diode. degree from the University of California. 47.s inpart bythe and occupies much less area. Solid-State Circuits. London: Pitman. C.. Solid-State Circuits. R. 1943. 365-373.E.. C. 72701. M.-Mech. Simons.282 VIII. 353-365? Dec.T. At high-attenuation sidered here approach constant distortion values that are given by simple analytic expressions. H’. 1968. Davis and J. INTRODUCTION The performance characteristics of complementary MOS (CMOS) circuits [1]. W. Solid-State Circuits. REFERENCES [11 W. SC-7. A. pp. [2] with the gate of the load device grounded have been evaluated and compared with other type of Abstracf—The performance of grounded load complementary MOS circuits. vol. 58. Experimental results show good agreement with these calculations. 9911024. [51 [61 [71 “A new wide-band amplifier technique. IEEE. 1 (a). pp. Dec. . K. 46. July 1970. K. in 1967 and the Ph. vol. pp. This is not feasible however at high frequencies. 416. on May 16. A multiplier used as a variable-gain amplifier exhibits less distortion but needs full compensation for offset in order to obtain the same attenuation range as in an AGC amplifier. pp. CONCLUSION IEEE JOURNAL SOLID-STATE OF CIRCUITS. Belgium. Katholieke Universiteit. requires only n + 1 devices per logic function rather than 2n devices as in CMOS circuits. Lokch. 294-307. Mr.” Proc.” IEEE J. [21 B. T. W.” {~6E~ J. E. 1972.1973. Thomas. vol. SC-3.” IEEE J. “Characterization and measurement of the base and emitter resistances of bipolar Correspondence Grounded Analysis Load Complementary FET Circuits: Sceptre area might be achieved by employing grounded load devices in portions of a system employing large-scale integrated CMOS circuits. G.. HIROO SAKAMOTO AND LEONARD FORBES . In September 1969 he received a CRB Fellowship from the Belgian American Educational Foundation and in 1970 a G. Starr. L. degree in electronics from the Katholieke Uuiversiteit. He received the E1. of Electrical Engineering. vol.D. However. 19. J.” IEEE J. Three high-performance variable-gain amplifier configurations are identified and compared. [91 S. 492498. Radio and Radar Technique. [31 [41 Winy M. “ Distortion in wide-band transistor variable-gain amplifiers has been analyzed at both low and high frelevels all circuits conquencies. CMOS cirComputing Ce~ter the a. At high frequencies. Gilbert. M~y/June 1967’.” Bell. pp. V. Fayetteville. SC-3. 408-416. SC-3. Electrom Devices. Berkeley. In 1972 he was appointed by the National Fund for Scientific Research in Belgium to conduct research at the Laboratorium van de Fysica en Elektronica van de Halfgeleiders.” Bell tl~st. Ark.

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