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Apa Bezanya Masalah Rutin Dengan Masalah Bukan Rutin ?

Masalah-masalah matematik boleh dikategorikan kepada berbagai-bagai bentuk. walaupun demikian, ada kalanya kita dapati ada masalah yang bertindih kategorinya. Masalah rutin Masalah-masalah yang melibatkan hanya satu operasi aritmetik sahaja dalam penyelesaiannnya dikategorikan sebagai masalah rutin. masalah-masalah rutin hanya memerlukan pelajar memahami masalah, memilih operasi yang sesuai serta mempraktikkan algoritma-algoritma yang telah dipelajari. Prosedur penyelesaiannya diketahui oleh pelajar. walaubagaimana pun masalahmasalah matematik yang rutin ada fungsinya kerana ia:
  

memberi latihan dalam ingatan fakta-fakta asas dan langkah-langkah yang berturutan mempertingkatkan kemahiran-kemahiran dalam operasi-operasi asas memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk berfikir tenteng perkaitan di antara sesuatu operasi dan aplikasinya kepada situasi-situasi sebenar.

Masalah rutin adalah masalah yang diketahui jalan penyelesainnya dengan satu strategi mudah

Apabila menyelesaikan masalah-masalah rutin, pelajar perlu mengenalpasti:
   

Apakah soalannya yang perlu dijawab fakta-fakta atau nombor-nombor yang perlu digunakan Operasai-operasi matematik yang sesuai digunakan anggaran nilai penyelesaian

Masalah bukan rutin Sudah tentu masalah-masalah bukan rutin memerlukan proses-proses yang lebih tinggi daripada yang terlibat dalam penyelesaian masalah-masalah rutin. Kejayaan dalam penyelesaian masalahmasalah bukan rutin bergantung kepada kebolehan pelajar menggunakan pelbagai strategi penyelesaian masalah bersama dengan fakta-fakta dan maklumat dalam pertimbangan. Prosedur menyelesaikannya adalah tidak diketahui pelajar. Masalah-masalah bukan rutin biasanya diselesaikan dengan pelbagai cara yang memerlukan proses pemikiran yang berbeza-beza. Nyata sekali pelajar dikehendaki menggunakan kemahiran secara kritis dan kreatif dalam penyelesaian masalah bukan rutin. Masalah bukan rutin perlu diselesaikan dengan pelbagai cara yang memerlukan pemikiran kritis dan kreatif Masalah-masalah bukan rutin harus digunakan dalam program matematik sekolah rendah kerana boleh;

mengembangkan penggunaan strategi-strategi penyelesaian masalah

After devising the plan they carry out the devised plan. Polya’s Problem Solving Model This problem solving model is made by a Hungarian who immigrated to the United States in 1940. a good problem solving includes 4 phases or steps. they devise a plan. students will not be able to find a correct solution. First phase is understanding the problem.   membekalkan peluang kepada pelajar untuk memikirkan pelbagai cara penyelesaian. First step: Understand the Problem This seems so obvious that it is often not even mentioned. Once students understand the problem. or even in part. peraturan dan fakta tanpa kefahaman. According to Polya (1957). mendorong pelajar untuk menikmati keindahan dan logik yang wujud dalam matematik mengembangkan kemahiran-kemahiran berfikir secara kritis berbanding dengan hafalan petua. yet students are often stymied in their efforts to solve problems simply because they do not understand it fully. Polya suggested that in the end they must look back at the solution to verify its correctness. His name was George Polya (1887 – 1985). berkongsi kaedah-kaedah penyelesaian masalah dengan pelajar-pelajar lain dan mengembangkan keyakinan diri dalam penyelesaian masalah matematik. Without understanding the meaning. Polya taught us to ask students questions such as:     Do you understand all the words used in the problem? What are you asked to find or show? Can you restate the problem in your own words? Can you think of a picture or a diagram that might help you understand the problem?  Is there enough information to enable you to find a solution? Second step: Devise a plan .

We will find choosing a strategy increasingly easy. given that you have the necessary skills. If it continues not to work discard it and choose another.  Ensure that the steps are correct. This is how mathematics is done. all you need is care and patience. A partial list of strategies is included:        Guess and check Make and orderly list Eliminate possibilities Use symmetry Consider special cases Use direct reasoning Solve an equation        Look for a pattern Draw a picture Solve a simpler problem Use a model Work backward Use a formula Be ingenious There are a few questions that guides us in the process of devising a plan to solve the problem:  What is the relationship between the data and the unknown?  Is this problem similar to another problem that you have solved?  What strategies can you see? Third step: Carry out the plan This step is usually easier than devising the plan.  Check each step of the plan as you proceed. Persistent with the plan that you have chosen. In general. The skill at choosing an appropriate strategy is best learned by solving many problems. even by professionals. .Polya suggests that it were many reasonable ways to solve problems.  Use the strategy you have selected and solve the problem.

.Forth step: Look back Polya mentions that much can be gained by taking the time to think and look back at what you have done. This step is always overlooked in problem solving. we should remind our students to always check their answers. we need to know various strategies to enable us to solve problems. As a teacher. In Step 2 of Polya’s Model. what worked and what did not. is it correct?  Does the solution seem reasonable? We need to teach our students how to solve mathematical problems. Learning to use Polya’s Model is a first step towards becoming a good problem solver. Doing this enables us to predict what strategy to use in solving future problems. Some guidelines are as following:  Reread the questions.  Did the question asked answered?  If it is answered.

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