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PERUVIAN NORTH AMERICAN ABRAHAM LINCOLN SCHOOL DIPLOMA PROGRAMME

Name: _________________________________________ Date: ___________________ Teacher: Mrs. Sonia Stuart IB Diploma Year 1 (IV) Global Issues: Global Warming Carbon Dioxide and The Kyoto Treaty One major obstacle in the struggle to lower carbon dioxide emissions, which are believed to play a role in Global Warming and climate change, is the destruction of tropical rain forests. Trees naturally store more carbon dioxide as they age, and the trees of the tropical rain forests in the Amazon, for example, store an average of 500 tons of carbon dioxide per hectare (10,000 square miles). When such trees are harvested, they release their carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. This release of carbon dioxide through the destruction of tropical forests, which experts estimate accounts for 20% of global carbon dioxide emissions annually, traps heat in the earth’s atmosphere, which leads to global warming.

The Kyoto treaty set forth a possible measure to curtail the rate of deforestation. In the treaty, companies that exceed their carbon dioxide emission limits are permitted to buy the right to pollute by funding reforestation projects in tropical rain forests. Since forests absorb carbon dioxide through photosynthesis, planting such forests helps reduce the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide, thus balancing out the companies' surplus of carbon dioxide emissions. However, attempts at reforestation have so far been unable to keep up with the alarming rate of deforestation, and it has become increasingly clear that further steps must be taken to curtail deforestation and its possible deleterious effects on the global environment.

One possible solution is to offer incentives for governments to protect their forests. While this solution could lead to a drastic reduction in the levels of carbon dioxide, such incentives would need to be tied to some form of verification, which is extremely difficult, since most of the world's tropical forests are in remote areas, like Brazil's Amazon basin or the island of New Guinea, which makes on-site verification logistically difficult. Furthermore, heavy cloud cover and frequent heavy rain make conventional satellite monitoring difficult. Recently, scientists at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency have suggested that the rates of deforestation could be monitored using new technology to analyze radar waves emitted from a surveillance satellite. By analyzing multiple radar microwaves sent by a satellite, scientists are able to prepare a detailed, high resolution map of remote tropical forests. Unlike photographic satellite images, radar images can be measured at night and during days of heavy cloud cover and bad weather.
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critics of government incentives argue that radar monitoring has been employed in the past with little success. It can be inferred from the passage that photographic satellite images (A) are impervious to bad weather (B) cannot be used efficiently at night (C) are less expensive than radar monitoring 2 . there is. You must support your answers by highlighting or underlining phrases/sentences in the text. make such technology a promising step in monitoring and controlling global climate change. no good solution for the problem of rain forest deforestation. (C) Recent increases in the rate of deforestation of tropical rain forests have caused serious concern and spurred efforts to curb such deforestation. the limited data of the Mapping Project was due only to the small amount of data that could be sent from the satellite. citing the Global Rain Forest Mapping Project which was instituted in the mid-1990s amid concern over rapid deforestation in the Amazon. Answer the following questions. companies that produce an overabundance of carbon dioxide are allowed to offset that carbon dioxide by contributing to reforestation efforts in tropical rainforests. Modern satellites can send and receive 10 times more data than their predecessors of the mid 1990s. (B) One major obstacle to lessening the contribution of atmospheric carbon dioxide caused by deforestation may be removed through satellite radar monitoring. 2. recent technological advances in satellite radar that allow for more accurate measurements to be made. even in remote areas. 1.Nevertheless. the solutions set forth by the Kyoto treaty will not significantly curb the rate of deforestation unless companies begin to lessen their carbon dioxide emissions. as yet. (E) Through the Kyoto treaty. obviating past problems with radar monitoring. Which one of the following better expresses the main point of the passage? (A) Although scientists continue to search for a solution. Furthermore. (D) Although an excellent first step. However.

Which one of the following most accurately describes the author's attitude toward radar monitoring as expressed in the passage? (A) wary skepticism (B) cautious ambivalence (C) grudging respect (D) qualified support (E) reasoned optimism 4. (C) they are protected from deforestation by the Kyoto treaty. (D) they are not always easily reachable by modern transportation. the project may have been successful. The information presented in the passage implies which one of the following about the Mapping Project? (A) The project was unsuccessful because it used only satellite radar monitoring. 3 . (E) The project was designed to monitor only forests in Brazil’s Amazon basin and the forests on the island of New Guinea. the more carbon dioxide it will store. (B) If the satellite had been able to send more data.(D) can send only a small amount of data from a satellite to a base (E) were extensively used in the 1990s to measure tropical forest deforestation 3. (C) It was established by the Kyoto treaty in response to widespread concern over deforestation. 5. each of the following is true about tropical rainforests EXCEPT (A) harvested trees release carbon dioxide (B) they are sometimes subject to heavy cloud cover. (E) in such forests. According to the passage. (D) The project used only conventional satellite monitoring and on-site verification visits. the older a tree becomes.

(B) A problem is described and a possible solution to the problem is suggested. (E) A theory is stated. the methodology for implementing such a solution is described. then qualified in light of new evidence. Which one of the following. (B) New technology promises other forms of monitoring that may be even more effective than radar monitoring. (C) A solution to a problem is described. difficulties with the implementation are noted. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the passage? (A) A problem is described and a possible solution to the problem is suggested.6. and the solution is dismissed. (D) Some data from the 1990s satellites was later found to be more accurate than was originally believed. an alternative solution is suggested. (C) The cost of radar monitoring may render it more expensive than some countries can afford.asp 4 . if true. 7. and one solution is recommended over the others. the possible outcomes of each solution are evaluated. the solution's shortcomings are noted. (E) No form of monitoring can ever offer complete assurance of a government’s compliance with deforestation incentives. and the theory is dismissed in light of new evidence.com/lsat/reading_comprehension_questions. an alternative solution is suggested.admissionsconsultants. possible shortcomings of the solution are noted. and a potential obstacle to the solution is discussed. most weakens the author's argument against the critics of government incentives? (A) Radar images sent by satellites in the mid-1990s would have needed to have stored 100 times more data in order to have been useful for radar monitoring. (D) A problem is described and a possible solution to the problem is suggested. multiple solutions to the problem are discussed. Source: http://www. objections to the theory are noted.

rather than about photographic imaging. (Note that "may" is a safe word that the LSAT often uses in its correct answers. so the Kyoto treaty is not protecting the forests. Choice E does not contain any untrue facts. The author's agenda is to discuss a possible solution for deforestation. The author refutes the criticism by stating that "Modern satellites can send and receive 10 times more data than their predecessors of the mid 1990s. C. The passage tells us that it has provisions for reforestation. In the fourth paragraph of the passage." This implies that photographic satellite images cannot be used efficiently at night. not whether it could force government compliance. Choice B is incorrect because even if another type of technology is even more promising. Choices A and E can be found in the first paragraph. 3.) Choice D is incorrect because "qualified" means 'modified. This answer choice is supported by the line "However. this doesn't weaken the author's argument that radar monitoring is more feasible now than it was in the 90s. B.) Choice A is incorrect because nothing in the passage indicates that only satellite radar monitoring was used during the project. the passage also notes that the rate of deforestation is faster than the rate of reforestation." However." This implies that if more data had been able to be sent. Choice C is tempting but incorrect because nowhere in the passage does it mention that there has been a recent increase in the rate of deforestation. Choice D simply helps support the idea that some of the radar monitoring in the 90s was good. and C ("ambivalent" means to have two conflicting opinions about something. B. A. Choice E is incorrect because the author's argument was about whether the radar monitoring could be used for surveillance. then the author's argument is severely weakened. the project may have been successful. the author states "Unlike photographic satellite images. 6. which can help curb deforestation. E. Choice C is incorrect because the cost of the satellites is never discussed in the passage. 2. but are true about radar imaging in the 90s. limited. which does not contradict the author's argument. However. 5 . choice D and E are both incorrect because nothing in the passage says that only conventional monitoring was used or that only Brazil and New Guinea were monitored. Choice C is incorrect because nothing in the passage implies that the monitoring needs to be affordable for every country. if 100 times more data is needed. Choice D cites a recommendation – the lessening of emissions by companies – that is not discussed in the passage. 5. Choices B and D can be found in the third paragraph. 4. or restricted in some way.' whereas the author's support of radar monitoring is not restricted at all. which eliminates choices A. B. the author is clearly excited about the prospect of radar monitoring. it does not protect rainforests from deforestation. Likewise. Support for this answer choice can be found in the final sentence of the passage. B. It's very safe to say that something "may" happen. but it too narrow to be the main point of the passage.Answer key!!!!!!!! 1. rather than impervious to it. The author is clearly excited about radar monitoring. Choices D and E are discussed in the final paragraph. Choice A is incorrect because the passage's focus is not to discuss a lack of solutions. radar images can be measured at night and during days of heavy cloud cover and bad weather. Choice C is incorrect because nothing in the passage indicates that the project was developed in response to the Kyoto treaty. and riskier to say that something "will" happen. While the Kyoto treaty does address deforestation. the limited data of the Mapping Project was due only to the small amount of data that could be sent from the satellite. Choice A is incorrect because the passage implies that the photographic satellite images are actually obscured by clouds and rain.

Choice B is incorrect because the author does not restrict the solution of radar monitoring based on new evidence (see the definition for "qualify" in the explanation for question 3. nor does the choice describe the passage in the correct order. Choice E is incorrect because the author does not discuss anything that can correctly be labeled a "theory" (and even if 'radar imaging' could be correctly labeled as a 'theory. not dismissed. Choice A is incorrect because the final solution (radar imaging) is endorsed by the author. D. Choice C is incorrect because the author never evaluates the outcome of any of the solutions.' the final portion of the answer choice – that the theory is dismissed – would still render the choice incorrect.7.) 6 .

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