11
CHAPTER 1 : CIRCULAR MOTION ( 6 MARKS)
PART 1: UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION
Definition: The motion of a body moving in circular path with a constant speed is
called Uniform Circular Motion.
Characteristics (Features) of Uniform Circular Motion:
 The speed of the body is constant
 The magnitude of acceleration of the body is constant.
 The angular velocity of the body always remains constant.
 The kinetic energy of the body remains constant.
 The direction of the acceleration is towards the center of the circle.
 The linear velocity of body is along the tangent to the path.
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS RELATED TO UCM
 Time taken by a body in uniform circular motion to complete one revolution is
called the Period of Revolution.
 Number of revolutions completed in unit time by a body in uniform circular
motion is called the Frequency of Revolution. The SI unit of frequency is Hz
 Angle traced by radius vector in a given time is called Angular Displacement.
For angular displacement the SI unit is radian and dimension formula is
[M
0
L
0
T
0
] i.e. it is dimensionless
 Angular Velocity: The rate of change of angular displacement with time is
called angular velocity.
The SI unit of angular velocity is rad/sec and dimension formula is [M
0
L
0
T
1
]
 Angular Acceleration: Rate of change of angular velocity with time is called
angular acceleration. The SI unit of angular acceleration is rad/sec
2
and
the dimension formula is [M
0
L
0
T
2
]
The directions of angular displacement, angular velocity and angular acceleration
are given by the right hand rule:
u o
e
u o
o
u o
o
angular
velocity
increasing
angular
velocity
decreasing
angular
velocity
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12
A
r
B
V
ou
os
Right Hand Rule: Consider the axis of rotation in the right hand with fingers curled
round the axis and thumb stretched along the axis , then curled fingers show sense
of rotation, and the thumb shows direction of angular displacement, angular velocity
and angular acceleration
KINEMATICAL EQUATIONS FOR CIRCULAR MOTION
 For Linear Motion: Let u = initial linear velocity, v = final linear velocity, a =
linear acceleration, s = linear displacement. The kinematic equations for linear
motion are :
v = u + a t ; v
2
= u
2
+ 2 a s ; s = u t + a t
2
 For circular motion: Let e
0
= initial angular velocity, e = final angular
velocity,
o = angular acceleration, u = angular displacement. By analogy, the kinematic
equations for angular motion are :
e = e
0
+ o t ; e
2
= e
2
+ 2 o u ; u = e t + o t
2
Questions:
1. Define Uniform Circular Motion and give its characteristics
2. In Uniform Circular Motion define the following : (a) Frequency of revolution
(b) Period of revolution
3. Define: Angular displacement, Angular velocity and Angular acceleration. Also,
give their directions and S.I. units.
4. State kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion.
5. Give the vector representation of angular velocity.
DERIVATION: Relation between linear speed and angular speed in UCM.
The distance covered in unit time by a particle in uniform circular motion is
called the Linear Speed. The angle traced in unit time by a particle in uniform
circular motion is called Angular Speed.
Consider a particle performing uniform circular motion as
shown. Let : r = radius of the orbit ; e = angular velocity ;
v = linear velocity. Suppose that the particle moves distance
AB = os in time ot.
Using : arc AB = radius angle, we have
os = r.ou
t
. r
=
t
s
o
ou
o
o
t
. r
lim =
t
s
lim
0 t 0 t
o
ou
o
o
o o
t
lim . r =
t
s
lim
0 t 0 t
o
ou
o
o
o o
Also by definition we have :
t
s
lim
dt
ds
v
0 t
o
o
= =
o
and
t
lim
dt
d
0 t
o
ou
=
u
= e
o
Hence we get : v = r e . i.e. linear speed = radius angular speed. This equation
gives magnitude of linear velocity.
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13
Direction of Linear Velocity: If ot 0 then points A and B are very close to each
other. In this case displacement vector AB
is tangent to
the circle. Thus v
and r
,
e and r
are related to
each other by right hand rule. In vector form we can write: v
= e
 = v
2
 = v . However v
1
and v
2
have
different directions. To find the change in velocity ov we use the method of
vectors. Suppose PR
represent the
velocity vector at B. Then by triangle law of vectors we have:
PR
+ RQ
= PQ
RQ
= PQ
PR
RQ
= Velocity at B Velocity at A
Thus RQ
r a
2
where negative sign shows that
a and r
and j
is given
by :
r
= OM
+ ON
= i
r.cos et + i
r.sin et
r
= r( i
cos et + i
sin et )
To find instantaneous velocity, differentiate the above equation w.r.t. time

.

\

e e + e e =

.

\

e + e =

.

\

e + e e =
t cos j t sin i . r v
To find instantaneous acceleration, we differentiate this equation w.r.t. time
e =

.

\

e + e e =

.

\

e e e e e =

.

\

e + e e =
r t sin j t cos i r
t sin j t cos i r t cos j t sin i
dt
d
. r
dt
v d
2 2
e = r a
2
O
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15
This equation gives both the magnitude and direction of linear acceleration. The
magnitude of linear acceleration is a = r e
2
and negative sigh shows that
a and
r
\

rg
v
2
This expression gives the Angle of Banking. We find that the angle of banking
depends on:
 The maximum speed (v) the vehicle
 The radius (r) of curve
 The acceleration due to gravity (g).
Also the expression for angle of banking does not involve mass (m) of the vehicle.
It means that angle of banking does not depend on mass of vehicle.
Questions:
1. What is banking of roads? Why is it necessary?
2. Derive an expression for the maximum speed on a banked road.
3. Derive an expression for the angle of banking for a banked road.
4. Write the expression for angle of banking. State the factors on which the
angle of banking depends.
5. Show that the angle of banking does not depend on mass of a vehicle.
CONICAL PENDULUM; MOTION IN HORIZONTAL CIRCLE
Conical Pendulum: A conical pendulum consists of a body (bob) attached to one
end of a light inextensible string. The bob moves in horizontal circle with uniform
speed and the string describes a cone of semivertical angle u.
DERIVATION: Expression for Speed of bob in case of conical pendulum
Consider a conical pendulum as shown. Let : m =
mass of bob ; l = length of the string ; v = speed of
circular motion of bob ; r = radius of path.
At point P, the forces acting on bob are : Tension
Force (T) in string and the Weight (mg) of bob. The
tension force can be resolved in two components as :
 Vertical component T.cosu : This component
balances weight mg of bob
T cos u = mg . . . (1)
 Horizontal component T.sinu : This component
provides centripetal force required for circular
motion.
T sinu =
mv
2
r
. . . (2)
Divide equation (2) by equation (1) and simplify to get :
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18
tan u =


.

\

rg
v
2
This expression gives the inclination u of the string.
We also have: v = rg tanu
This expression gives the speed of bob of a conical pendulum.
Related Notes:
 Expression for Period: The period of conical pendulum is defined as the
time required by the bob to complete one revolution.
u
t =
u
t
=
t
= =
tan . g
r
2
tan . rg
r 2
v
r 2
Speed
nce Circumfere
T
Also from the diagram we have: r = l sin u
Period: T = 2t
lcosu
g
 Expression for tension: The tension in string is calculated as follows:
Squaring and adding equations (1) and (2) we have
T
2
sin
2
u + T
2
cos
2
u =
m
2
v
4
r
2
+ m
2
g
2
T
2
( sin
2
u + cos
2
u ) = m
2
(
v
4
r
2
+ g
2
)
T
2
( 1 ) = m
2
g
2
(
v
4
r
2
g
2
+ 1 )
1
g r
v
mg T
2 2
4
+ =
This gives the string tension. We find that string tension is directly
proportional to the weight (mg) of bob
Questions:
1. In the case of a conical pendulum, show that the inclination of the string with
the vertical is given by tan u = v
2
/rg
2. What is a conical pendulum. Derive the expression for periodic time of a
conical pendulum with string length = l and bob moving in horizontal circle of
radius r
3. For a conical pendulum obtain the expression for : (a) speed of bob (b) period
4. For a conical pendulum derive the expression for string tension
5. For a conical pendulum show that : T
4
= 16t
4
\

.


L
2
r
2
g
2
MOTION IN VERTICAL CIRCLE
DERIVATION: Expression For MinimumVelocity at highest and lowest points for
uniform circular motion in a vertical circle.
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19
Consider a body tied to the end of a string and whirled round in a vertical path so
that it just completes the vertical circle. As shown A is the lowest point and B is
the highest point.
Let m = mass of body ( weight of body = mg )
r = radius of the circular path
V
A
= velocity of body at point A
V
B
= velocity of body at point B
T
A
= tension in string at point A
T
B
= tension in string at point B
At point A, a part of tension balances the weight of
body. The remaining part provides the centripetal
force.
mg T
r
mv
A
2
A
= . . . (1)
At highest point B, centripetal force is provided by the
tension and weight.
mg T
r
mv
B
2
B
+ = . . . (2)
Minimum Velocity at Top: For minimum velocity at top, the tension at highest
point will be, zero. In this case, equation (2) becomes
mv
B
2
r
= 0 + mg v
B
= gr
This is the minimum velocity at point B for which the body will just complete
the circle. If velocity at B is less than gr , the body will not complete the circle
and the string will slack.
Minimum Velocity at Bottom: To find the minimum velocity at the bottom, we
use the principle of conservation of energy.
We have: P.E. at A = 0
P.E. at B = mgh (where h = 2r )
K.E. at A = mv
A
2
K.E. at B = mv
B
2
(where v
B
= gr )
The total energy at A is: E
A
= P.E. at A + K.E. at A
E
A
= 0 + mv
A
2
E
A
= mv
A
2
The total energy at B is: E
A
= P.E. at B + K.E. at B
E
B
= mgh + mv
B
2
E
B
= mg(2r) + m(gr)
E
B
=
5
2
mgr
The total energy is conserved, hence: E
B
= E
B
A
O
V
A
T
A
T
B
mg
mg
V
B B
highest
point
lowest
point
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110
1
2
mv
A
2
=
5
2
mgr mgr 5 mv
2
A
=
gr 5 v
2
A
= gr 5 v
A
=
Related Notes: Total Energy of Body at various points on Circle
As shown in figure, consider the position of a body at
points A, B and C on the circle. We have to find total
energy at these points.
 At Point A : The body is at lowest point i.e. h = 0 .
Hence body has only K.E.
Total energy at A = mV
A
2
+ mgh
= m( gr 5 )
2
+ mg(0)
=
2
5
mgr + 0 =
2
5
mgr
 At Point B: The body is raised through height = 2r.
Hence the body has both K.E. and P.E.
Total Energy at B = mV
B
2
+ mgh = m( gr )
2
+ mg(2r)
= mgr + 2 mgr =
2
5
mgr
 At Point C : The body is raised through height = r. Hence the body has both
K.E. and P.E.
Total Energy at C = mV
C
2
+ mgh = m( gr 3 )
2
+ mg(r)
=
2
3
mgr + mgr =
2
5
mgr
We find that: Kinetic energy and potential energy of the body in vertical circular
motion changes but total energy at every point is same. Thus, energy is conserved
in vertical circular motion.
The energy i.e.
2
5
mgr is also the minimum energy that a body must have to be
able to perform vertical circular motion.
SHOW THAT: In vertical motion for a body tied at
the end of a string, the difference in string tension at
highest and lowest points is 6 times the weight of
body
Consider a body tied to end of a string and whirled
round in a vertical path so that it is just completes
the vertical circle. As shown A is lowest point and B
is the highest point.
Let : m = mass of body ( weight of body = mg )
r = radius of the circular path
A
O
V
A
= 5gr
V
B
= gr
V
C
= 3gr
B
C
A
O
V
A
T
A
T
B
mg
mg
V
B
B
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V
A
= velocity of body at point A
V
B
= velocity of body at point B
T
A
= tension in string at point A
TB = tension in string at point B
At point A, a part of tension balances the weight of the bogy. The remaining part
provides the centripetal force. Hence
mg T
r
mv
A
2
A
= . . . (1)
At highest point B, centripetal force is provided by the tension and weight. Hence
mg T
r
mv
B
2
B
+ = . . . (2)
Subtracting equation (2) from (1) we get:
mg 2 T T
r
mv
r
mv
B A
2
B
2
A
=
mg 2 T T ) v v (
r
m
B A
2
B
2
A
=
r g v and 5gr v : Substitute
B A
= =
mg 2 T T ) gr gr 5 (
r
m
B A
= mg 2 T T ) gr 4 (
r
m
B A
=
mg 2 T T mg 4
B A
=
B A
T T mg 6 =
mg 6 T T
B A
=
Questions
1. A stone is tied to end of a string and whirled round in a vertical path so that it
is just able to complete the vertical circle. Find minimum velocity at the
highest and lowest points.
2. Show that, in the case of vertical motion of s body tied at the end of a string,
the difference in string tension at the highest and lowest points is 6 times the
weight of the body
3. In vertical motion of a body, obtain the energy at the minimum and maximum
heights. Show that the energy is conserved in vertical circular motion.
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112
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS
SET 1 BANKING OF ROADS: u = tan
1


.

\

rg
v
2
;
u = tan rg v .
1. Find the angle of banking for a curved road of radius 100 m if the limiting
safety speed of a vehicle is 108 km per hour. Neglect friction ( g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
2. Calculate the maximum speed with which a car can be driven safely along a
smooth curved road of radius 80m banked at 2134 with horizontal.
3. Calculate the maximum speed with which a car can be driven safely along a
curved road of radius 100m if the coefficient of friction between the tyres and
the road is 0.2 ( take g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
4. Calculate the maximum speed with which a car can be driven safely along a
curved road of radius 30m if the coefficient of friction between the tyres and
the road is 0.3 ( take g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
5. A road is 6 m wide and elevation of the outer edge of road is 2 m. Calculate
the limiting safety speed for a car on the road if radius of curvature path is
25 m ( take g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
6. A motor car is travelling at a speed of 80 km/hr along a curve of radius 40 m.
If the road is banked at an angle of 30 will the car be safe? (Use g=9.8 m/s
2
)
Answers:
(1) 4234' (2) 17.71 m/s (3) 14 m/s (4) 9.39 m/s (5) 9.035 m/s (6) The max.
safe speed is 15.04 m/s. The car travels with a speed more than max. safe speed.
So the car is not safe.
SET 2 BANKING OF RAILWAY TRACKS
1. A train rounds a curve of radius 150 m at a speed of 20 m/s. Calculate (a)
the angle of banking so that there is no side thrust on the rails. (b) the
elevation of the outer rail over the inner rail if the distance between the rails is
1 metre.
( g = 9.8 m/s2 )
2. A train rounds a curve of radius 800 m for which the maximum safe speed is
54 kmph. Calculate the angle of banking. Also find the elevation of the outer
rail over the inner rail, if the distance between the rails is 1.8 m ( g = 9.8 m/s2
)
3. A train of mass 10
5
kg rounds a curve of radius 150 m at a speed of 20 m/s.
Find the horizontal thrust on the outer rail if the track is not banked. At what
angle must the track be banked so that there is no side thrust on the rails.
( g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
Answers:
(1) Angle = 1513' ; elevation = 0.2625 m (2) Angle = 139' ; elevation = 0.05166
m (3) 2.667 10
5
N ; 15 13'
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SET 3: MOTION IN HORIZONTAL CIRCLE
1. A certain string breaks under a tension of 45 kg wt. A mass. A mass of 100
grams is attached to this string of length 500 cm and whirled in a horizontal
circle. Find the maximum number of revolutions per second without breaking
the string
2. A body of mass 1 kg is tied to the end of a string and revolved in horizontal
circle of radius 1 metre. Calculate the maximum number of revolutions per
minute performed by body so that the string should not break. The breaking
tension of the string is 9.87 N
3. A certain string breaks under a tension of 10 kg wt. A mass of 400 grams is
tied to this string of length 1 m and whirled in a horizontal circle. Find :
(a) tension in string if mass is whirled with speed of 2 m/s (b) the maximum
number of revolutions per second without breaking the string
4. A body of mass 3 kg is tied to the free end of a string of length 2 m and
revolved in a horizontal circle making 420 rpm. Calculate linear velocity,
centripetal acceleration and the centripetal force on the body
5. An object of mass 400 g is whirled in a horizontal circle of radius 2 m. If it
performs 60 rpm. Calculate the centripetal force acting on it.
6. An object of mass 0.5 kg is whirled in a horizontal circle of radius 20 cm. If it
performs 0.6 radians/second. Calculate the centripetal force acting on it.
Answers:
(1) n = 4.726 Hz (2) n = 30 rev/min (3) T = 1.6 N ; n = 2.492 Hz (4) v = 87.98
m/s ; a = 3870 m/s
2
; F = 11610 N (5) F = 31.55 N (6) F = 0.036 N
SET 4: MOTION IN VERTICAL CIRCLE
1. A motor cyclist rides in vertical circles in a hollow sphere of radius 4 m. Find
the minimum speed required so that he does not lose contact with the sphere
at the highest point ( take g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
2. A motor cyclist rides in vertical circles in a hollow sphere of radius 3 m. Find
the minimum speed required so that he does not lose contact with the sphere
at the highest point ( take g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
3. A small spherical body is tied to a string of length 0.5 m and revolved in a
vertical circle such that the tension in string is zero at the highest point.
Calculate linear speed at the highest and lowest positions.
4. The vertical section of a road over a bridge is in form of an arc of radius 4.4 m.
Find maximum speed to cross the bridge without losing contact with road the
highest point. The center of gravity of the vehicle is 0.5 m above the ground.
5. The vertical section of a road over a bridge is in form of an arc of radius 100
m. Find maximum speed to cross the bridge without losing contact with the
road at highest point.. The center of gravity of the vehicle is 1 m above the
ground.
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114
6. A bucket containing water is tied to the end of a rope 6 m long and rotated in
a vertical circle. Find the maximum number of rotations required so that water
in the bucket may not spill.
7. A bucket containing water is tied to the end of a rope 8 m long and rotated in
a vertical circle. Find the maximum number of rotations required so that water
in the bucket may not spill.
8. A stone of mass 0.5 kg tied to the end of a string of length 40 cm. The stone is
revolved in a vertical circle so that the speed at the lowest point is 3 m/s. Find
the tension in the string at this point.
Answers:
(1) v = 6.26 m/s (2) v = 5.422 m/s (3) v = 4.95 m/s (low) ; v = 2.214 m/s (high)
(4) 6.93 m/s
2
(5) 31.46 m/s
2
(6) n = 12 rpm (7) n = 10.58 rpm (8) T = 16.15 N
SET 5: LEANING ANGLE WITH THE VERTICAL
1. Find the angle which the bicycle and its rider will make with the vertical when
going round a curve at 54 km/hour on a horizontal curved road of radius 50
m
( g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
2. A bicycle rider going at 72 km/hour on curved road. The angle, which bicycle,
and its rider makes with vertical is 45. Calculate radius of track (g = 9.8
m/s
2
)
3. Find the angle, which a bicycle and its rider will make with vertical when going
on curved road of radius 10 m with a speed of at 18 km/hour. ( g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
Answers:
(1) 24 40' (2) 40.82 m (3) 14 19'
SET 6: ANGULAR VELOCITY, ANGULAR ACCELERATION
1. The minute hand of a clock is 10 cm long. Calculate the linear speed of the tip
of the minute hand.
2. A body having a mass 0.2 kg moves in circle of radius 2 m and performs 120
rev/min. Calculate the following: (a) period (b) angular speed (c) linear speed
(d) centripetal force (e) kinetic energy of body.
3. The frequency of a particle performing uniform circular motion changes from
60 rpm. to 180 rpm. in 20 seconds. The radius of circular path is 20 cm.
Calculate: (i) angular acceleration (ii) tangential acceleration
4. The frequency of a particle performing uniform circular motion changes from 2
Hz to 4 Hz in 2 seconds. Calculate angular acceleration of the particle
5. The frequency of a spinning particle is 10 Hz and it is brought to rest in 6.28
s. Calculate the angular acceleration of the particle.
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115
Answers:
(1) linear speed = 1.746 10
4
m/s (2) period = 0.5 sec ; angular speed = 12.56
rad/s ; linear speed = 25.12 m/s ; centripetal force = 63.168 N ; kinetic energy =
63.1 joule (3) angular acceleration = 0.6284 rad/s
2
; tangential acceleration =
0.12568 m/s
2
(4) 6.28 rad/s
2
(5) 10 rad/s
2
SET 7: MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
1. To stimulate acceleration in space rockets, astronauts are spun at end of
long rotating beam of radius 9.8 m. What angular velocity is required to
generate a centripetal acceleration 8 times acceleration due to gravity ? ( g =
9.8 m/s
2
)
2. A coin kept on a horizontal rotating disc has its center at a distance of 0.1
m, from the center of the axis of rotation of the disc. If the coefficient of friction
between the coin and the disc is 0.25, find the angular speed of the disc at
which the coin would be about to slip off ( take g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
3. At what angular speed should the earth rotate about its own axis so that the
apparent weight of the body on the equator is zero. Also calculate the period
in this case ( Radius of earth = 6400 km ; g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
4. A conical pendulum has length 1 m and the angle made by the string with the
vertical is 10 . The mass of the bob is 0.2 kg. Find the velocity, centripetal
force, tension in string and period of circular motion of bob. ( use g = 9.8 m/s
2
; sin10 = 0.17365 ; tan 10 = 0.17633 ; cos 10 = 0.98480 )
Answers:
(1) e = 2.828 rad/s (2) 4.950 m/s (3) e = 1.237 10
3
rad /sec ; Period = 1 hr
25 min (4) Hints : r = l sin u = 0.17365 m ; v = rg tanu = 1.732 m/s ;
centripetal force = mv
2
/r = 3.456 N ; Tension = mg
v
4
r
2
g
2
+1 = 3.972 N ; period
= 2t
lcosu
g
= 1.99 s