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Performance Comparison of Two-leg and Three-leg AC Voltage Controller - Fed Three Phase Induction Motor Drive

Honey Abdullah , and Shubra Goel

1 1. 2 2

Dept. Of Electrical and Electronics, Vidya College of Engineering Meerut, 250002, India abdullah.honey@gmail.com ershubra@gmail.com

1 2

Abstract This paper gives the comparison of the starting performance of three phase induction motor fed from three-leg and two-leg ac voltage controller. Optimum firing angles are obtained for both the systems by considering various electrical characteristics like maximum positive and negative torque pulsations, peak starting current and acceleration time. Two group of induction motors are utilized for comparative analysis of performance with the selected optimum firing angle. Result shows that the performances of both the systems are on par. Thus the cost effective, two-leg controller is the better choice for the induction motor starting. Keywords: Three-leg ac voltage control, Two-leg ac voltage control, Induction motor starting. 1. INTRODUCTION Starting methods of three phase induction motors are mainly classified in to Direct On Line (DOL) starting and reduced voltage starting. DOL starting is the simplest, economic and reliable method of starting, typically used unless there is either an electrical or mechanical constraint which makes this option unsuitable [1]-[3]. But has several draw backs like, large starting current transient leading to voltage dip and brown out conditions, large torque pulsations resulting in reduced life and reliability of mechanical parts. Reduce voltage starting is again classified in to electromechanical reduced voltage starting solid state reduced voltage starting. Electro mechanical reduced voltage starters uses mechanical switches or contact and has disadvantages like need for frequent maintenance and inspection, failure in the moving parts etc.[4]-[6]. Solid state reduced voltage starters use power electronic devices to control the voltage. Thyristorized ac voltage controller and Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) come under this. VFD is more costly and is not generally

preferred as starting equipment. Thyristorized ac voltage controllers are simple, reliable, economical, and compact and are increasingly used in industries nowadays [7]-[13]. Attempts have been made in the past [14]-[18] to improve the starting performance of ac voltage controller-fed induction motors, but the starting performance comparison of two-leg and three-leg ac voltage controller-fed induction motor is not available in the literature. The objective of this paper is to compare the starting performance of thyristorized ac voltage controller-fed three phase induction motors with three-leg and two-leg topologies. Two groups of induction motors with group A consisting of three 2.2kW motors (machines AI, AII and AIII) and group B consisting of two 3.7kW motor (BI and BII) are selected for the work. Optimum firing angle is taken as the firing angle at which the negative torque pulsation is zero with minimum acceleration time with satisfactory values for other electrical characteristics considered[19],[20]. 2. SYSTEM MODELLING AND OPERATION The schematic diagram of thyristorized static switch-fed three phase induction motors in three-leg and two-leg topologies are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Three-leg topology consists of three pairs of back-to-back connected thyristors in series with three phase induction motor, one in each phase forming R, Y, and B phase group, respectively and same firing angle, α with appropriate phase shift is given to all phases. Devices are connected in all the three phases, hence the name three-leg topology or ’α control’. Thyristors in this case is fired in the sequence as marked in Fig. 1. R group thyristor, T1 is triggered at an angle of α and its negative thyristor T4 is fired at (π+ α). Y group thyristor T3 is fired at (2π/3+ α) and its negative thyristor

α is taken as the firing angle of phase R group thyristors and β to phase B group thyristors. Thyristors are connected only in two phases. Schematic diagram of two-leg voltage controller-fed induction motor The matrix differential equation of the motor described in stator reference frame [21] is given by. line voltages. Positive electrodynamic torque peak. idr and iqr are the direct and quadrature axis rotor currents. forming R phase and B phase group of thyristors and Y phase is directly connected to the motor. speed and electrodynamic torque waveforms of the motor are analyzed for various firing angles. (3) Equations (1). TL is the load torque and P the number of poles. These values are given in appendix and are used to simulate the machines. Similarly β and (π+ β) are the firing angle to TfB and TbB respectively. (1) Where rs and rr are the stator and rotor resistances respectively. hence the name two-leg topology or ’αβ control’.2. for demonstration purpose. = + Figure. Lm. AC voltage controller-fed induction motors are modeled and simulated in MATLAB Simulink. ωr is the rotor speed. T5 is given at (4π/3+ α) and T2 at (π/3+ α). ids and iqs are the direct and quadrature axis stator currents. stator and rotor inductances respectively. Line currents. negative Figure. Schematic diagram of three-leg voltage controller-fed induction motor The two-leg topology has only two pairs of back-to-back connected thyristors and is connected in series with R and B phases. and (3) are used to develop the motor model in Matlab/Simulink for analyzing the starting transients of the motor drive system. Similarly triggering pulses to B group thyristors.T6 at (5π/3+ α). Vds and Vqs are d-axis and qaxis stator voltages and are functions of α. Ls and Lr are the magnetizing. . low rating machines available in the lab set up are used for the simulation work. Firing pulses are suitably adjusted in certain time sequence to achieve smooth starting of the motor. The electromagnetic torque is governed by the equation. α is the firing angle to TfR and (π+ α) is the firing angle to TbR. The machine parameters of the motors were obtained from the manufacturer and subsequently modified through no load and blocked-rotor tests. (2).1. (2) The speed is given by. Even though starting problems are more significant in high rating machines.

Table 1: Tabulated data in pu for machine AI for different values of α (α = 0 is the condition of DOL starting) Peak –ve Torque (pu) -0.88 3.09 Peak –ve Torque (Nm) 11.14 17. Similarly optimum firing angles for machines AII and AIII are obtained and are found to be at 57. line voltages. In the previous work [19]-[20].65Nm for optimum α.β combination obtained and the performance characteristics were observed.22 I AII AIII BI BII Α (Degrees) 0 30 60 65 75 90 Peak +ve Torque (pu) 1. This paper concentrates on the performance comparison of three-leg and two-leg topologies with two groups of induction motors.7 2.48 0. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Various performance characteristics observed are tabulated for all the machines and values for machine AI is shown in Table 1 and it is seen that optimum α is in between 60° and 65°. (a) (c) (b) (d) Figure.8s for optimum α. α with a fixed value of β to obtain the optimum α.55° and 59.3Nm while that for optimum α is zero.10 4. Various electrical characteristics are tabulated and plotted against β to get the optimum β value.electrodynamic torque peak.32 Acceleration Time (S) 2.64 0.88 0. (c)steady state line voltage vs time. speed and torque waveforms with optimum α= 62. The electrical characteristics under consideration are observed in two-leg topology also and are plotted against firing angle.65° respectively.57Nm for DOL starting to 13.3 5. 3.77 2. Table 2:Performance values with DOL starting for various Machines Machine Peak +ve Torque (Nm) 25. peak starting current is reduced from 23.34 Acceleration Time (S) 2.83A to 19.32 4. Fine tuning of α is done by repeated simulation on the three-leg topology.19 3.57 13. Performance characteristics under considerations are plotted against firing angle α. Once this optimum α is obtained for a machine.2A but acceleration time is increased from 2. keeping this value constant.2°. Plots to find optimum α for machine AI Optimum α in this case is found to be at 62.99 0.14 1.55 6.80 2. Finally the machines are simulated with this optimum α.77s to 2.25 11.65 1.2° for machine AI is shown in Figure 4 and it is seen that motor voltages and currents are sinusoidal under steady state condition. This fixed value of β taken initially is the optimum firing angle obtained with α control.95 Peak Current (A) 23.3.83 9. Results show that various electrical characteristics considered are significantly reduced with three-leg controller compared to DOL starting. Simulation is repeated with the firing angles between 60° and 65°. hence the performance values for DOL starting is also given in Table 2 for comparison. Also the line voltage and currents are having sinusoidal waveforms at steady state.32 26. (b) transient current and speed vs time.22 18.68 For example in machine AI. firing angle to phase B ie β is varied.05 6.16 12. each group consisting of equally rated machines having different motor parameters.42 6. negative peak torque pulsation for DOL starting is found to be 11. it is found that the optimum firing angles depends largely on machine parameters. and peak line current are tabulated in per unit values and are plotted against α to obtain the optimum α.80 2.77 -0.063 0 0 0 Figure.63 13. it can be started like DOL starting.77 2. (a)Transient electromagnetic torque vs time.4. acceleration time. Once the optimum firing angle is obtained for the machine.75 1.29 5. (d) . Line currents. Plots for machine AI in group A machines is shown in Figure 3 as an example.10 4. Peak positive torque pulsation is reduced from 25.60 Peak Current (pu) 5.50 0.5 28.

7 2.6 11. The comparative values for other machines are also shown in Table 3. Plots to find optimum α with β = 62.1.β combination for machine AI is shown in Figures 5-6 and optimum α.2. speed and torque waveforms of the motor with optimum values of α= 55. (a) Transient electromagnetic torque vs time.8 10.6 11.6.5 59.9Nm for two-leg controller.4°. there is not much difference in their performance values.7.09 11.7 56.05 14. Peak starting current is 19. Various performance values are observed and are given in Table 3 with the comparison of three-leg and twoleg topology.0.4° for machine AI are shown in Figure 7.1 Analysis has been done for group B machines also.β control). It is noted that 0 0 . 62.6 BII 2.88 8.2° and β= 62.β values are obtained for other machines also and are 56.7 8. and similar results are obtained. it is seen that there is no negative torque pulsation in both two-leg and three-leg topology. line voltages.β combination is obtained as 55.4 1.2 13.8s where as it is 2.7 0 59.4 62.5° for machine AII and 59° and 60.78 19.7 2.2A for three-leg and 19.7 10. βopt (Deg.9 2. (a) (c) (b) (d) Figure.8 AI AII AIII BI Figure.2 13.6 19.73 21. 56.7 11.2 57.5° and 58.2° for machine AI 55.5.9 2.3.5° for machine AI in two-leg topology Table. Results show that.7° for machine AIII.08 21.9 14. (b) transient current and speed vs time. Similarly α.6 56.1.25 1. 58.17 2.5. Line currents.3A for two-leg controller and the value of acceleration time is 53. The comparative performances for all the machines are shown in Table 3.2° for machine AI in three-leg topology The performance characteristics are also analyzed with two-leg topology (α.) Two-leg controller +ve T (Nm) -ve T (Nm) Ta (S) Ta (S) Ip (A) Ip (A) Figure.65Nm for three-leg controller and 13.3 2.7 0 0 10.8 53. 53.14 2.steady state current and speed vs time for optimum α = 62. Plots to find optimum β with α = 55.8 8. 60. The plots for finding optimum α. for machine AI.2° and 62. (d) steady state current and speed vs time for optimum α = 54. (c)steady state line voltage vs time.4 10.5 8. hence the cost effective two-leg controller is a better choice for AC voltage controller-fed induction motor starting.78s for two-leg controller. Comparison of three-leg and two-leg controller for various machines Three-leg controller Machine +ve T (Nm) -ve T (Nm) αopt (Deg. 2.9 From Table 3.5° and β= 61.) αopt. Peak positive torque pulsation is 13.2° for machine AI 0 0 0 0 0 56.

Demerdash. No. [9] I. [6] J. 20. Vol. K. India. 2005. Yang. 512516 2009. Solveson. 137. 1986. [16] Adel Gastli.Haw. Direct torque control of induction motor soft starting. Mohamed Magdy Ahmed. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. PEDES 2010 21-23 December 2010. M. CONCLUSIONS Starting performance of three phase ac voltage controllerfed induction motors are compared under three-leg and two-leg topologies. 7. 48-53. De Souza Marques. E. Cadirci M. Faiz. Nafeesa. I. C. B. 448-453. 1990. Sheeba. H. Bowerfind. pp. L. Vol. Soft started induction motor modeling and heating issues for different starting profiles using a flux linkage ABC-frame of reference. 402-412. 3. Shashikant Kaul. V. Saly George. H. [13] Ali M. Performance optimization of induction motors during voltage-controlled soft starting. S. Shanmughasundaram. Sastry. In: IEEE International conference on Power Electronic Drives and Energy Systems. 152. M. No. [4] K. J. [20] K. Vol. 2006. pp. [7] K. Performance analysis of fast re-closing transients in induction motors. 2008. Dias. No. and Michael K. pp. B. [10] J. Datu Harun. pp.. 922-932. INDICON 2010. the performances were on par and hence the cost effective two-leg controller is preferred over three-leg controller. 19. 2008. [3] John Larabee. PCICON 2005. M. S. Ermis. pp. Gurkan. Ming-Sheng Liu. Vol. Sundareswaran. 42. Cuneyt. N. B. 12. R. 217-222. 112. Jian-Guo Lu. A. Wood. 109-114. Among the topologies compared. COBEP. M. G. [18] K. Ermis. Development and analysis of novel soft starter/energy-saver topology for delta connected induction motors. 17-19 December. REFERENCES [1] Robbie F. V. Optimum firing angle is taken as the firing angle at which the negative torque pulsation is zero with minimum acceleration time and other electrical characteristics under considerations are having satisfactory values. [19] K. pp. pp. Ertan. F. R. T. [21] P. L. 1999. A Genetic Algorithm Based Approach towards Induction motor starting with minimum torque pulsation. 1997. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics. Y. Sivakumar. [8] Wen-Xiong LI. International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion Vol. Jie Zhao. Ghaneei.O. 2010. 101-107. Isik Cadirci. Applications of soldstate motor starters in pulp and paper industry. April 3-6. 1. A. P. Annual IEEE India conference. Design of intelligent soft start controller for induction motor. 3. [2] W. R. 1. Kumar. Nied. 3. Abdulghany. R. IEE Proceedings on Electric Power Applications. K. ”Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy based Soft Starting of Voltage-Controlled Induction Motor Drive. De Oliveira. 2. Brian Pellegrino. [17] Rajaji. . Alabama. 1965. L. No. N0.the performance with both the systems are on par. No. Pillay. pp. IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications. 1999. D. Vol. India. C. No. B. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. Huntsville. Saly George. J. Keyhani. 14. No. Brazil. A. Novel digital implementation of AC voltage controller for speed control of induction motor. India. McElveen. IEEE Transactions on Industry Application. [15] Z. Analysis of variable voltage thyristor controlled induction motors. Industry Applications Society 52nd Annual Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference. [14] V. Hamed. Benjamin Flick. Prasad. No. [11] S. M. 2005. 13481354. Dec. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. Power Electronics Conference. IA-22.A. 497-503. Vol. 14. Optimal soft starting of voltage controller-fed IM drive based on voltage across thyristor. Performance Optimization of Direct On Line Static Switch Fed Three Phase Induction Motor Drive. 1986. N. Rahman. Vol. C. 4. Shanghai. IEEE Southeast conference. A. Hamouda. Flynn and A. Mirafzal. A solid state Direct On Line starter for medium voltage induction motors with minimized current and torque pulsations. Proceedings of IEE. [12] M. pp. Vol. 278-288. 37. Malaysia. Campbell. 137-144. Nalcaci. Thus the two-leg topology with only two groups of thyristors is cost effective and is the preferred method of starting compared to three-leg topology. 4. pp. 2004. pp. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications. Vol. pp. A. Proc. 2001. Transient torques in induction motors due to switching of the supply. N. 806-814. No. 2010.4. Results show that there is a significant improvement in the performance characteristics under three-leg and twoleg topologies compared to DOL starting. Shyam. Toney. Performances of the motors are analyzed and optimum angles are obtained by considering different electrical characteristics. Induction motor starting methods and issues. Starting high-inertia loads. Chalmers. Krause. 2004. 2009. M. pp. 184-193. IEEE Region 10 Colloquium and the Third ICIIS. Alolah. Proceedings of IEE. Optimization of Starting Performance of Thyristorized Static Switch Fed Three Phase Induction Motor. Jose. 8-10. [5] J. Two groups of induction motors with each group having same rated motors with different motor parameters are used for the simulation work. pp. Third Int. Sundareswaran.2. Eltamaly. Analysis of electric machinery: McGraw-Hill. Nour. Vol. Assessment and Comparison of Conventional Motor Starters and Modern Power Electronic Drives for Induction Motor Starting Characteristics. M. Nafeesa. 6. B. Conference on MachineLearning and Cybernetics. October 4-6. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. ANN based soft starting of voltage controlled fed IM drive system.

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