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NEPAL DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY 2011
PRELIMINARY REPORT
Population Division Ministry of Health and Population Ramshah Path, Kathmandu Nepal
New ERA Rudramati Marga, Kalo Pul Kathmandu, Nepal

MEASURE DHS ICF Macro Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A.

U.S. Agency for International Development U.S. Embassy, Maharajgunj Kathmandu, Nepal

August 2011

New ERA

The 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (2011 NDHS) is part of the worldwide MEASURE DHS project which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID. Additional information about the 2011 NDHS may be obtained from New ERA Ltd., P.O. Box 722, Kathmandu, Nepal; Telephone: (977-1) 4413603; Internet: www.newera.com.np. Additional information about the DHS project may be obtained from ICF Macro, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, MD 20705 USA; Telephone: 301-572-0200, Fax: 301-572-0999, E-mail: reports@macrointernational.com, Internet: www.measuredhs.com.

.............................................................................................................................................................................. 10 E.................................................................................................................. 8 C.............................. Sample Design............................................. HIV/AIDS .......................... Child Health ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 D......................................................... 4 D.................................................................................................................... 13 G..................................................................................................................................................................... Fertility............ Fertility Preferences ................................................. Questionnaires....... v INTRODUCTION .................................................................iii FOREWORD............................................................................................................................................................ 26 REFERENCES .................................. Family Planning .............................................................................................................. 24 J............................................................................................................ Training of Field Staff........... Domestic Violence .... Data Processing ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 SURVEY IMPLEMENTATION................................................................. Maternal Care........ 19 I......................................................................................................................................... 3 B............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Characteristics of Respondents.... 4 C......................................... 28 i ................. i TABLES AND FIGURES.........................................CONTENTS CONTENTS ............................................. 5 E................................................................................... 14 H......................................................................... 7 A................................................................................. Response Rates............................................................ 3 A............................................................................................................................... Fieldwork ........................... 7 B.......................................... 11 F................. Nutrition ........................................... 5 PRELIMINARY FINDINGS .....................................................................................

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......... fever.......................... 23 Knowledge of AIDS ........................................................................ 18 Breastfeeding status by age.............. Nepal 1996-2010............................................ 19 Nutritional status of children ........ and diarrhea..................... 24 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods ..................... 12 Immunization coverage of children 12-23 months (1996-2011) .......... 11 Trend in current use of modern contraceptive methods................................................................................ 8 Current fertility ............................................................................................................. 15 Treatment for acute respiratory infection.....................................TABLES AND FIGURES Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17 Table 18 Results of the household and individual interviews...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Anemia among children and women ................................. 16 Trends in early childhood mortality rates for the period 0-4 years preceding the survey.......................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Figure 5 Trends in Nutritional Status of Children under Five years ............................................................................... 12 Maternal care indicators...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Background characteristics of respondents................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Vaccinations by background characteristics ..................................................... 10 Current use of contraception by background characteristics .................................................................................................................................................................. 21 iii .................................. 9 Fertility preferences by number of living children ................................... 10 Current use of any modern method of contraception.................................................................. 27 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Trends in Total Fertility Rate 1984-2010 .................................................................................... 22 Presence of adequately iodized salt in household ............... 25 Multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months: Men ............ 26 Experience of physical violence .................... 17 Early childhood mortality rates........................................................................................................................................

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to USAID Nepal for providing financial support. The study was initiated in January 2010 and data collection was carried out between January 2011 and June 2011. we would like to extend our appreciation to all development partners for their input to the survey. This is the preliminary report of 2011 NDHS and the final report containing more detailed findings will be published in early 2012. Population Division Ministry of Health and Population v . The purpose of this study is to generate recent and reliable information on fertility. family planning. It is now time for program managers and policy makers to use the information to improve the lives of the people in this country. to ICF Macro for providing technical support. infant and child mortality. Nepal.FOREWORD The Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011 is conducted as a periodic update of the demographic and health situation in Nepal. and knowledge of HIV and AIDS. and most important. domestic violence. to New ERA for implementing the survey. which allows monitoring progress through time and addressing these issues. The 2011 NDHS was implemented by New ERA under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Population.and population-related policies and programs. This is the fourth comprehensive national level population and health survey conducted in Nepal as part of the global Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program. It will also be useful to formulate new population and health policies and programs. On behalf of the Ministry of Health and Population. maternal and child health. nutrition. Government of Nepal. Padam Raj Bhatta Joint Secretary Chief. Information provided in this report will help to assess the current health. to the respondents who provided the information on which this report is based. Technical support was provided by ICF Macro and financial support was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID).

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the results shown here should be considered provisional and interpreted with caution. The principal objective of the 2011 NDHS is to provide current and reliable data on fertility and family planning. 1 . and analyze data from complex national population and health surveys. child mortality. children’s nutritional status. Information from the survey is essential for informed policy decisions. and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The survey was implemented by New ERA. The 2011 NDHS also provides population-based information on the prevalence of anemia among women age 15-49 and children age 6-59 months. conduct. It was conducted under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Population (MOHP). and monitoring and evaluation of programs on health in general and reproductive health in particular at both the national and district levels. the utilization of maternal and child health services.674 women age 15-49 in all selected households and with 4. the 2011 NDHS is comparable to similar surveys conducted in other developing countries and therefore affords a national and international comparison. process. These preliminary results are intended to facilitate an early evaluation of existing programs and assist in designing new strategies for improving population and health programs in Nepal.826 households. maternal and adult mortality. A long-term objective of the survey is to strengthen the technical capacity of local organizations to plan. which yielded completed interviews with 12. planning. a private research firm in Nepal. The 2011 NDHS collected demographic and health information from a nationally representative sample of 10. A more detailed final report will be published in early 2012. The 2011 NDHS also adds to the vast and growing international database on demographic and health-related variables. Moreover. Although the figures in this preliminary report are not expected to differ much from the findings to be presented in the final report. This report presents preliminary findings from the 2011 NDHS on a number of key topics of interest to program managers and policy makers. domestic violence. Funding for the survey came from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through its mission in Nepal.121 men age 15-49 in every second household. ICF Macro provided technical assistance through its MEASURE DHS project.INTRODUCTION The 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) is the fourth nationally representative comprehensive survey conducted as part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) project in the country.

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The cross section of these will provide 15 eco-development regions. Sample Selection Samples were selected independently in every stratum. Each EA is totally classified as urban or rural. The number of wards and sub-wards in each of the 13 domains are not allocated proportional to their population due to the need to provide estimates with acceptable levels of statistical precision for each domain. Mountain. including fertility and mortality rates. the sample was designed to provide estimates of most key variables for the 13 ecodevelopment regions (stratums). 35 households in each urban EA and 40 households in each rural EA were randomly selected. and for urban and rural domains of the country as a whole. The VDCs and municipalities are further divided into wards. and Terai. Hill. which are referred to as sub-regions or domains for the 2011 NDHS. which are further divided into smaller administrative units known as Village Development Committees (VDCs) and Municipalities. a partial updating of the 2001 Census frame was carried out by having a quick count of dwelling units in EAs five times larger than the sample required for each of the 13 domains. the ratio of urban EAs over rural EAs in each domain was roughly 1 to 2. An enumeration area (EA) is defined as a ward in the rural areas and a sub-ward in the urban areas. Vertically the country is divided into five development regions. the 2011 NDHS used the list of EAs with population and household information developed by the Central Bureau of Statistics of Nepal for the 2001 Population Census. In order to provide for national urban estimates. The vast majority of the population in Nepal resides in the rural areas. Sample Design The primary focus of the 2011 NDHS was to provide estimates of key population and health indicators. each domain needs a minimum of about 600 households. for the country as a whole and for urban and rural areas separately. In addition. In the first stage. The results of the quick count survey served as the actual sample frame for the 2011 NDHS sample design. urban areas of the country were over sampled. mid-western. The long gap between the 2001 Census and the fielding of the 2011 NDHS necessitated an updating of the 2001 sampling frame to take into account not only population growth. Stratification is achieved by separating each of the 13 domains into urban and rural areas. The 2011 NDHS used the same urban-rural stratification as in the census frame. In total. through a two-stage selection process. A complete household listing and mapping was carried out in all selected clusters. resulting in 93 urban and 196 rural EAs. 25 sampling strata were created. In order to achieve the target sample size in each domain. and far-western mountain regions are combined into one domain yielding a total of 13 domains. In the second stage. EAs were selected using a probability proportional-to-size. Due to the small population size in the mountain regions. In order to provide an adequate sample to calculate most of the key indicators with an acceptable precision. The larger wards in the urban areas are further divided into sub-wards. As the upcoming population census was scheduled for June 2011. 3 . The western/mid-western/far-western mountain regions do not have any urban areas. for a total of 289 EAs.SURVEY IMPLEMENTATION A. but also mass internal and external migration due the 10-year political conflict in the country. To obtain an updated list. namely. the western. Domains The country is broadly divided into three horizontal ecological belts. Sampling Frame Nepal is administratively divided into 75 districts.

Questionnaires Three questionnaires were administered in the 2011 NDHS: the Household Questionnaire. 2010. and an oral interview to be qualified for the training. and ownership of mosquito nets. type of toilet facilities. The final draft of each questionnaire was discussed at a questionnaire design workshop organized by the Ministry of Health and Population on April 22. 2010 in Kathmandu. and the Man’s Questionnaire. the Woman’s Questionnaire.Due to the non-proportional allocation of the sample to the different domains and to over sampling of urban areas in each domain. including age. height and weight measurements. non-governmental organizations. ownership of various durable goods. media exposure. delivery. Since the 2011 NDHS sample is a two-stage stratified cluster sample. with a one-week break in October 2010 for Dasain vacation. 2011. which was held from September 30 to November 4. sampling weights were calculated based on sampling probabilities separately for each sampling stage taking into account the non-proportionality in the allocation process for domains and urban-rural strata. The Man’s Questionnaire collected much of the same information found in the Woman’s Questionnaire but was shorter because it did not contain a detailed reproductive history or questions on maternal and child health. These questionnaires were adapted from the standard DHS6 core questionnaires to reflect the population and health issues relevant to Nepal at a series of meetings with various stakeholders from government ministries and agencies. or domestic violence. interviewers. B. sampling weights are required for any analysis using 2011 NDHS data to ensure the actual representativeness of the sample at the national level as well as domain levels. and reserves. sex. and postnatal care Breastfeeding and infant feeding practices Vaccinations and childhood illnesses Marriage and sexual activity Woman’s work and husband’s background characteristics Awareness and behavior regarding AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Domestic violence The Man’s Questionnaire was administered to all men age 15-49 living in half the households sampled for the female interview. quality control staff. For children under age 18. These questionnaires were finalized after the pretest. and Bhojpuri and back translated into English. such as the source of water. The Household Questionnaire was used to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview and women who were eligible for interview on domestic violence. and anemia testing were also recorded in the Household Questionnaire. Maithali. The Woman’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from women age 15-49. These questionnaires were then translated from English into the three main local languages−Nepali. education. computer aptitude test. The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. The main training was held in Kathmandu from December 15. C. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed. residential history. The result of the salt test for iodine. nutrition. The Household Questionnaire also collected information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit. etc. in which candidates had to go through a written examination. 4 . and international donors. Training of Field Staff A stringent recruitment process was carried out. A total of 96 persons were trained to serve as fieldwork supervisors. materials used for the floor of the house. and relationship to the head of the household. These women were asked questions on the following topics: • • • • • • • • • • • Background characteristics (education. 2010 – January 16.) Pregnancy history and childhood mortality Knowledge and use of family planning methods Fertility preferences Antenatal. survival status of the parents was determined.

maternal health. abortion. The participants were also trained on measuring height and weight of women and children. and. as well as several days of field practice. training on the use of PC tablets. members of the steering committee. These sessions were helpful in updating progress. 2011. The data were sent to the central office at New ERA by the teams once they checked and closed each EA file. The training had two components: training on paper-based questionnaires. family planning. Regular communication was maintained through cell phones. and conducting anemia testing. Field teams traveled to their respective designated clusters on February 2. 2011 and the second was held on April 21. Two review sessions were held to share field issues and refill supplies. A review session was organized to share the experiences of the teams. D. Special classes on several topics were organized during the training. The CDMA wireless technology using the Internet File Streaming System (IFSS) was used to transfer data from the field to the central office in Kathmandu. Survey managers provided the necessary feedback. and a male supervisor. and practice interviewing in small groups. two field coordinators monitored the overall data quality. These classes were led by experts from the different divisions of the Ministry of Health and Population. on March 3-5. Each team consisted of three female interviewers. the data was edited by a senior data supervisor who had been specially trained for this task. one male interviewer. Fieldwork Data collection was carried out by 16 data collection teams. 5 . The first was held after one month of field work. In the central office. This was mostly done before the team left the EA. Close contact between New ERA central office and the teams was maintained through field visits by New ERA senior staff. The New ERA research team led the three-week training on the paper-based questionnaires and biomarkers while ICF Macro staff led the two-week training on the use of PC tablets. providing feedback to the teams based on field check tables and field observations. nutrition. Data Processing The 2011 NDHS used the ASUS Eee T101MT tablets with data entry programs developed in CSPro. 2011. E. The IFSS package was developed by ICF Macro and tested for the first time in Nepal. and women’s empowerment and domestic violence. Fieldwork supervision was done by six quality control teams. and problems faced by the teams. 2011 for their first clusters to enable intense supervision and technical backstopping. 2011 and the fieldwork was completed on June 14.It was the first time that data collection for the Nepal DHS was carried out using personal computer (PC) tablet. which included upgrading the computer programs in the PC tablets. discussing data inconsistencies. practical demonstrations. presentations. The data entry and editing phase of the survey was completed by the end of June 2011. Teams were deployed around Kathmandu on January 23. staff of the Ministry of Health and Population and USAID/Nepal. including Nepal’s Health Delivery System. The concurrent processing of the data was an advantage because field check tables to monitor various data quality parameters could be generated almost instantly and sent to the teams to improve their performance. each consisting of one male and one female member. Each team completed one cluster each and electronically sent the data to the central office. Additionally. child health. The training included theoretical and practical sessions.

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9 8.701 96. of which 10. To ensure statistical reliability. Table 1.826 were successfully interviewed.888 10.182 3. 10.4 4.121 or 95 percent were successfully interviewed.331 3. Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households.121 95.323 eligible men identified in the selected sub-sample of households.451 1.822 3.1 2.4 3.826 99. with the rural-urban difference in response rates more marked among men than among women.872 2. Response Rates Table 1 shows household and individual response rates for the 2011 NDHS. Of the 4.6 12. yielding a response rate of 98 percent. 12.918 12.3 Households interviewed/households occupied Respondents interviewed/eligible respondents 7 .973 98.770 96. according to residence (unweighted).351 93.353 10.353 households were selected for the sample. Of these existing households. Throughout this report.674 98. 4.323 4. The preliminary tabulations in the next section summarize the main demographic and health findings from interviews with these eligible women and men. giving a household response rate of 99 percent.1 1. A total of 11. number of interviews. and percentages based on 25-49 unweighted cases are shown within parentheses.PRELIMINARY FINDINGS A.706 7.918 women were identified as eligible for the individual interview.096 8. percentages based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases are not shown in the tables.8 9.678 99.022 7.148 98. numbers in the tables reflect weighted numbers unless indicated otherwise.6 11.888 were found to be occupied during data collection. Interviews were completed with 12.674 women. and response rates. Response rates were higher in rural than in urban areas. In these households. Nepal 2011 Result Household interviews Households selected Households occupied Households interviewed Household response rate1 Interviews with women age 15-49 Number of eligible women Number of eligible women interviewed Eligible women response rate2 Interviews with men age 15-49 Number of eligible men Number of eligible men interviewed Eligible men response rate2 1 2 Residence Urban Rural Total 3.

7 0.0 978 685 581 499 542 438 399 3.1 7.B.8 2.658 2.4 3.6 5.5 84.8 19.582 1.6 3. and 4 percent of women and 3 percent of men are Muslim.770 618 1.9 0.1 12.798 3. Table 2.2 19.674 2.3 9.2 21.734 1.404 245 1.1 16.3 24.436 156 1.0 14.986 1.5 39.1 10.561 1.753 2.6 14.9 31.4 75.4 24.5 18.7 0.7 16.674 23.303 4. Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by selected background characteristics.033 4.351 2.486 352 107 92 80 4 618 1.431 1.0 2.266 950 10.3 10.3 34.7 18.625 3 32 17 1.855 805 5.198 327 27 2.472 354 128 86 77 5 597 780 54 372 352 163 196 968 497 127 14 1. Characteristics of Respondents The distribution of women and men age 15-49 by background characteristics is shown in Table 2.218 567 814 1.701 8.154 1.8 13.437 1.0 8.607 1 100 258 1.829 1.313 468 25 2.708 9.2 53.973 2.331 12.4 85. reflecting the young age structure of the Nepalese population.974 5.0 14.7 1.8 23. More than half of women (56 percent) and men (54 percent) are below age 30.8 63.1 1.779 5.444 2.5 17.112 470 195 220 5 1.5 12.7 0.2 8.4 4. 8 .199 169 730 1.557 1.9 1.921 498 815 1.1 2.9 40.9 0.6 3.285 947 10.009 693 567 492 533 458 369 3.5 1.1 0.172 2.297 2.6 4.8 0.058 331 215 236 5 1.6 6.214 559 541 3.4 100.790 2. SLC = School Leaving Certificate The vast majority of respondents are Hindu (84 percent).1 0.090 6.1 14.4 18.805 2.8 3.402 306 532 2.1 3.2 7.121 1. Nepal 2011 Background characteristic Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Religion Hindu Buddhist Muslim Kirat Christian Other Ethnic group Hill Brahmin Hill Chhetri Terai Brahmin/Chhetri Other Terai caste Hill Dalit Terai Dalit Newar Hill Janajati Terai Janajati Muslim Other Marital status Never married Married Living together Divorced/separated Widowed Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Education No education Primary Some secondary SLC and above Total 15-49 Weighted percent Women Weighted number Unweighted number Weighted percent Men Weighted number Unweighted number 21.433 2.2 53.121 Note: Education categories refer to the highest level of education completed.6 9.2 8.7 34.819 10.4 40.1 13.9 9.000 55 303 381 96 180 906 463 106 13 1.209 3.129 1.8 17.088 2.9 4.4 82.667 4. Total includes 1 woman with missing information on education not shown separately.697 1.672 1.003 1.377 4.9 10. 9 percent are Buddhist.7 84.281 2.0 0.2 1.045 2.149 3.6 100.7 12.476 12.837 9.624 3 39 23 717 3.6 13.101 1.459 1 109 268 3.876 2.

6 births per woman age 15-49 (Table 3). The TFR from the 2011 NDHS can be compared with the TFR estimated from the earlier DHS surveys in the country. 1993) to 2. and the crude birth rate for the three years preceding the survey. Current fertility Age-specific and total fertility rate. According to the results of the 2011 NDHS.8 102 25. She was also asked to report her pregnancy outcome and the year of pregnancy termination if she ever had a pregnancy that did not end in a live birth.000 women. while 12 percent of men are Terai Janajati. Rates for age group 45-49 may be slightly biased due to truncation.6 births). A comparison of the three-year rate shows that fertility has declined over the last two decades from 5. This is observed at all levels of education.6 87 197 134 78 39 16 5 2. and the number of pregnancies that did not result in a live birth. with the female-male difference especially obvious among those with no education and those with SLC or higher levels of education. The TFR. The 2011 NDHS data show that fertility among rural and urban women has declined by half a child each from the levels reported in the 2006 NDHS. Women are four times more likely than men to be widowed. Women are disadvantaged in terms of educational attainment. the general fertility rate.8 births) having an average of over one child more than urban women (1. TFR: Total fertility rate expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate expressed per 1.About one in four respondents belong to the Hill Janajati ethnic group. C. the TFR calculated for the three years preceding the survey is 2. sex.6 96 24.5 Total 81 187 126 71 36 14 5 2.000 population 9 .000 among women age 20-24 and then decreases thereafter. For each pregnancy ending in a live birth.1 children per woman during the period 1984-1986 (Ministry of Health. the number who had died. the number living elsewhere. is interpreted as the number of children the average woman would bear in her lifetime if she experienced the currently observed age-specific fertility rates throughout her reproductive years. These data are used to calculate two of the most widely used measures of current fertility. by residence. The overall age pattern of fertility as reflected in the agespecific fertility rates (ASFR) indicates that childbearing begins early. Table 3. the total fertility rate (TFR) and its component. About three in four women (76 percent) and over three in five men (64 percent) are currently married. Fertility All female respondents were asked about their reproductive histories in the 2011 NDHS. Rates are for the period 1-36 months prior to interview. while nearly one in five respondents belong to the Hill Chhetri ethnic group.000 women age 15-44 CBR: Crude birth rate expressed per 1. About four percent of the respondents belong to Newars and Terai Dalit ethnic group each. The large majority (more than 80 percent) of respondents live in rural areas. About 14 percent are Hill Brahmin and 10 percent of women are Terai Janajati and Hill Dalit each. This is because men tend to marry later in life than women. More than one in two respondents live in the Terai. the mother was asked to report on the child’s name. which is the sum of the age-specific fertility rates.6 during the period 20082010 (Figure 1).6 60 16. Nepal 2011 Age group 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 TFR (15-49) GFR CBR Residence Urban Rural 42 135 82 38 16 0 2 1. age-specific fertility rates. Fertility is low among adolescents and increases to a peak of 187 births per 1. and about 6 percent live in the Mountain. Each woman was first asked to report on the number of sons and daughters living with her. Urban-rural differentials in Nepal are obvious with rural women (2.3 Notes: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1. Twenty-one percent of women in the sample have never been married compared with 35 percent of men. age (if alive) or age at death (if deceased) and whether the child was living with her. two in five live in the Hill.

3 64.5 0.0 0. the desire for children refers to a subsequent child. the desire to want another child decreases.8 50. Fertility Preferences Several questions were asked in the survey concerning a woman’s fertility preferences. 2 Wants next birth within 2 years 3 Wants to delay next birth for 2 or more years 4 Includes both female and male sterilization 10 .0 531 6+ 0.0 2.8 1.4 5.7 0.0 100.2 0.608 The number of living children includes current pregnancy.2 2. undecided when Undecided Want no more Sterilized4 Declared infecund Total Number of women 1 0 48.1 100.7 23.8 41.0 2.7 5.0 1.9 100. as the number of living children increases.7 39.996 0. The answers to these questions allow an estimation of the potential demand for family planning services either to limit or to space births.0 2. Nepal 2011 Desire for children Have another soon2 Have another later3 Have another.5 1.4 100. according to number of living children.7 2. when she would like to have the next child. 95 percent of currently married women with 5 living children say they want to have no more children or have been sterilized.1 100.5 0. In general. This is similar to that reported in the 2006 NDHS. For example. Fertility preferences by number of living children Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by desire for children.0 802 1 14.0 20.2 5.5 0.0 0.1 31.7 1.7 0.0 1.4 2.7 65.8 3. not the child she is currently expecting.6 0.155 5 0.Births per woman D. compared with 5 percent of women with no children. For pregnant women.2 31. These questions included: a) whether the respondent wanted another child and b) if so.0 49.9 3.1 100.0 1. Table 4 indicates that 87 percent of married women say that they either want to delay the birth of their next child or want no more children (including those sterilized).6 56.3 1.759 2.7 22.0 73.3 39. Table 4.7 0.0 9.878 Number of living children1 2 3 4 3.1 0.0 0.0 1.8 2. Fertility preferences are closely related to the number of living children a woman has.2 3.0 100.0 1.0 1.4 14.0 487 Total 8.3 44.0 100.0 1.

1 0.0 0. Contraceptive use varies markedly by residence (Table 5 and Figure 2).0 48.1 49.6 45.0 5.0 7.8 51.3 5.0 0.1 53.2 9.6 10.5 8.9 50.0 0. use of modern methods among urban women is 18 percent higher than among rural women. On the other hand.4 5.1 47.2 13. according to background characteristics.844 1.3 9.0 0.7 3.9 6.0 4.3 59.0 0.9 1.6 1.5 37.9 10. injectables.3 7.0 0. Nepal 2011 Traditional method Any tradiNot tional currently InjectMale Other WithTotal IUD ables Implants condom modern method Rhythm drawal Other using 0.6 2.2 1.1 1.8 65.8 6.1 0.7 1.833 1.3 100. and IUD are more popular among educated women.0 100.7 1.0 100.6 4.0 6.2 46.0 0. and folk methods.2 1.659 1.7 12. Women were asked if they (or their partner) were currently using a method.7 23.7 28.0 9. Female sterilization (15 percent) is the most commonly used modern method of family planning followed by injectables (9 percent).5 15.0 1.2 15.8 1.8 1.1 5.4 11.442 3.8 1.0 52.4 1.9 1.1 5.0 4.9 5.4 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.9 0.2 48.6 8.0 3.0 12.0 100.0 0.3 100.1 43.0 100.1 0.5 3.1 1.3 8.6 3.0 100.6 67.350 0.8 8.6 15.0 100.0 0.7 1.0 0.1 2.1 11.7 2.0 0.3 1.914 1. pill.0 47.8 42.8 6.5 2.2 10.1 0.8 0.0 0.1 0.0 3.1 1. For example.1 0.091 999 9.3 5.8 3.0 17.3 1. Use of modern contraceptive methods is highest in the Terai (45 percent).1 0. with use ranging from 4 percent among women with no education to 13 percent among women with SLC and higher education.784 5.0 100.8 2.5 46.6 1.4 1.8 8.5 Pill 3.1 0.0 2.5 13.5 0. Modern methods include female and male sterilization.0 1.3 9.346 630 3.3 1.0 7.2 4.4 12.2 51.4 68. SLC = School Leaving Certificate Use of modern methods of contraception is highest among women with no education with female sterilization being the most popular method (23 percent).0 100.2 0. 11 .5 1.sterilimethod method zation zation 17.9 17.1 4.0 100.2 34.9 2.9 52.8 27.0 1.2 9.3 11.8 6.0 0.7 59.4 43.3 4.6 1.9 4.8 1.3 3. withdrawal.9 0.7 6.0 0. The interviewer described each method and then asked if the respondent knew it. and condom.0 5.5 7.8 9.8 2.2 4.9 0.461 1.9 13.3 0.7 6.4 23. with male sterilization (17 percent) being the most popular method.9 6.9 10.761 1. temporary modern methods like condoms.190 832 1.0 0.0 53.8 40.4 3.4 1.9 5.2 5.8 4.5 4.8 15. only the most effective method is considered in this tabulation.1 0.1 2.2 0.0 1. IUD.7 9.8 9.7 5.8 49.9 3.0 0.3 3.7 1.4 4.4 9.1 0.0 3.1 0.0 Note: If more than one method is used.1 1. The majority of users (43 percent) rely on a modern method and 7 percent use traditional methods.0 5.0 100. Women with no education are less likely to use any traditional methods compared with those with SLC and higher level of education.7 7.1 3.9 48. Current use of contraception by background characteristics Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by contraceptive method currently used.2 Modern method Background characteristic Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Education No education Primary Some secondary SLC and above Number of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Total Any Female Male Any modern sterili.8 6.2 59.0 100.5 3.0 100.0 12.0 0. pills.5 11.0 4.0 0.1 1.9 46.8 0.0 0.0 82.8 52.0 0.7 51.0 100. For analytical purposes.7 9.8 1.5 6.7 1.7 9.0 0.5 7.2 7.8 5.1 10.1 22.3 1.4 32.9 34.4 51.6 5.9 1.5 0.0 38.4 7.0 100.3 48.7 14.1 0.5 6.2 53.8 53.0 47.6 31.4 3.5 22.3 9.0 0.1 1.0 100.7 6.2 87.3 1.3 10.6 0.4 70.0 100.7 5.9 1. A similar pattern was also observed in the 2006 NDHS.8 47.5 0.193 4.2 5.3 40.8 60.9 6.7 6.2 5.5 1.E.0 0.1 0.1 1.9 2.0 0.8 18.0 0. implants.9 59.1 9.3 4.8 1.7 0.0 0.3 1.0 100.1 1.7 4.7 40.1 6.075 4.6 11.261 8.1 4. contraceptive methods are grouped into two types in the table: modern and traditional.8 39.1 1. Family Planning Information about knowledge and use of contraceptive methods was collected from female and male respondents by asking them to mention any ways or methods by which a couple can delay or avoid a pregnancy.0 3.3 3.5 53.6 29.3 0.0 0.1 4.0 9.1 22.4 1.6 7.6 45.1 6. One in two currently married women age 15-49 is using a method of contraception.0 49.0 8.580 1.2 8.5 5.6 5.4 54.5 Number of women 792 1.7 1. There has been a 20 percent increase in the use of modern contraception in the Mountain zone in the last five years.6 48. Traditional methods include rhythm method.4 4.4 1.0 3.0 0.0 100.0 46.3 2.7 0.1 40. Table 5.608 4.0 0.

New ERA and Macro International Inc. Trend in Contraceptive Use Data from the four Demographic and Health surveys conducted in Nepal over the past 15 years show that current use of modern contraception has increased from 26 percent in 1996 to 44 percent in 2006 and then declined slightly in 2011.2 4.3 9.0 6.Use of modern contraception increases with the number of living children. Trend in current use of modern contraceptive methods Percentage of currently married women who are currently using modern contraceptive methods.2 7.2 18..4 1. use of implants and IUDs has increased in the last five years.1 5.7 8. 2002. 3 MOHP. Nepal 1996-2011 Methods Any modern method Female sterilization Male sterilization Pill Injectables Condom Implants IUD Number 1996 NFHS1 26.8 4.9 0. 2MOH.1 9.3 7.0a 12.5 10.0 6.608 Sources: 1Pradhan et.4a 15.2 15.257 2011 NDHS 43.. The use of male sterilization has gradually increased with greater involvement of men in family planning.8 0.9 0.4 4.3 1. Table 6.4 2. This may be a reflection of the recent shift in emphasis in the family planning program in Nepal encouraging the use of long-term temporary methods. At the same time there has been a decrease in the use of female sterilization.342 2006 NDHS3 44. For example. New ERA and ORC Macro.982 2001 NDHS2 35.3 3.6 0.4 0.3 1.8 0.5 1. 1997. al.4 8.2 1. There is a shift in the use of modern methods. 2007 a Includes users of vaginal methods 12 .6 8. from 9 percent among women with no children to 60 percent among women with 3-4 children.1 4. and then falls slightly to 47 percent among women with 5 or more children.

For each birth in the same period. respectively. 13 . New ERA and Macro International Inc. Table 7 presents information on some key maternal care indicators. 2007). Tetanus Toxoid Tetanus toxoid injections are given during pregnancy to prevent neonatal tetanus..F. This is an increase of 33 percent compared with that reported in the 2006 NDHS. The urban-rural difference is large.. Women who give birth at a younger age (<20 years) are more likely to receive assistance from health professionals during delivery and also more likely to have delivery at a health facility than women who give birth at an older age. only 36 percent of babies are delivered by a doctor or nurse/midwife. from 68 percent among women with no education to 93 percent among women with SLC or higher levels of education. Similarly. Maternal Care Proper care during pregnancy and delivery are important for the health of both the mother and the baby. Antenatal Care Antenatal care from a trained provider is important in order to monitor the risks associated with pregnancy and delivery for the mother and her child. The likelihood of having the last live birth protected against neonatal tetanus increases with the mother’s educational attainment. an important cause of infant deaths. with 87 percent of urban women having their last live birth protected against neonatal tetanus compared with 76 percent of rural women. a doctor. from 19 percent in 2006 to 36 percent. New ERA and Macro International Inc. that is. Delivery Care Proper medical attention and hygienic conditions during delivery can reduce the risk of complications and infections that can cause the death or serious illness of the mother and/or the baby. There has been a marked improvement in antenatal care from health professionals in the rural areas than in the urban areas with increase by 46 percent and 4 percent. and 28 percent are delivered at a health facility indicating that Nepal has a long way to go to meet the Millennium Development Goal target of 60 percent births attended by a skilled provider (Table 7). they were asked about postnatal care. it is encouraging to note that the proportion of babies attended by skilled provider over the last five years has nearly doubled. while the proportion of babies delivered in a health facility has increased from 18 percent in 2006 to 28 percent (MOHP. when the percentage of women receiving antenatal care from a doctor. 2007). Table 7 indicates that 77 percent of women had their last live birth protected against neonatal tetanus. In the 2011 NDHS. Antenatal care for the last live birth in the five years before the survey is lower in the Mountain (52 percent) and Hill (53 percent) zones compared with the Terai zone (63 percent). Eighty-eight percent of women in urban areas and 55 percent of women in rural areas received antenatal care at least once during their pregnancy from a skilled provider. According to the 2011 NDHS. or nurse/midwife was 44 percent (MOHP. This is similar to the level reported in the 2006 NDHS (78 percent). and whether they received vitamin A capsules and iron supplements postpartum. the mothers were also asked what type of assistance they received at the time of delivery and where the delivery took place. with use ranging from 42 percent among women with no education to 89 percent among those with SLC and higher levels of education. Although 58 percent of mothers received antenatal care from a doctor or nurse/midwife for their most recent birth. Education impacts use of antenatal care from health professionals. However. women who had given birth in the five years preceding the survey were asked a number of questions about maternal health care. or nurse/midwife. mothers were asked whether they had obtained antenatal care during the pregnancy and whether they had received tetanus toxoid injections or iron supplements during pregnancy. For the last live birth in that period. 58 percent of women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the survey received antenatal care at least once for the last live birth from a health professional.

percentage who received antenatal care from a skilled provider for the last live birth and percentage whose last live birth was protected against neonatal tetanus. As Nepal is going through the transitional phase from implementation of tetravalent to a pentavalent vaccination scheme.3 92.1 42.550 1.0 42.910 380 503 4. Information on vaccination coverage was obtained in two ways—from health cards and from mothers’ verbal reports.9 54.039 723 5. Child Health The 2011 NDHS obtained information on a number of key child health indicators.5 84. and tetanus. Deliveries in the Terai zone are most likely to be assisted by a health professional.8 26. These vaccinations should be received during the first year of life.391 Skilled provider includes doctor.1 68.5 59.0 54. by background characteristics.8 19. which ranges from 17 percent in the Mountain zone to 31 percent in the Terai. Nepal 2011 Percentage whose last live birth was Percentage with antenatal care protected from a skilled against neonatal provider1 tetanus2 Background characteristic Mother's age at birth <20 20-34 35-49 Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Mother's education No education Primary Some secondary SLC and above Total 1 Number of women Percentage delivered by a skilled provider Percentage delivered in a health facility Number of births 63.9 53. or two or more injections (the last within 3 years of the last live birth).730 306 1.8 66. or three or more injections (the last within 5 years of the last live birth).079 1.1 53.9 30.4 89. or four or more injections (the last within ten years of the last live birth).0 58.6 25.1 86.669 2.9 739 3. pertussis.3 55.3 2 78.4 16.2 28.9 52.833 2. and among all live births in the five years before the survey.2 74. nurse or midwife Includes mothers with two injections during the pregnancy of her last live birth.4 31. percentage delivered by a skilled provider and percentage delivered in a health facility.6 75. The 2011 NDHS collected information on the coverage of these vaccinations for all children under age five.085 325 418 3.8 72.0 72.3 79. Maternal care indicators Among women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. All mothers were asked to show the interviewer the vaccination cards on which the 14 .3 18. or five or more injections at any time prior to the last live birth SLC = School Leaving Certificate Delivery by health professionals increases significantly with education from 19 percent of births to women with no education to 76 percent of births to women with SLC or higher level of education.8 76.3 86.1 35.174 1.0 36.9 19.130 2.148 42.8 31. Vaccination of Children According to the World Health Organization. and one dose of the measles vaccine.0 35.5 87.101 3. at least three doses of the polio vaccine.4 76.9 68.1 1. G. including childhood mortality rates. three doses of the DPT vaccine to prevent diphtheria. and treatment practices when a child is ill.1 54.2 27. immunization of young children.Women’s utilization of delivery services varies markedly by place of residence. Delivery by health professionals is more than two times higher in urban areas (73 percent) than in rural areas (32 percent).9 30.4 42. Table 7. A similar pattern is seen for delivery in a health facility.822 835 866 627 4.0 56. care was taken to capture both these schemes. a child is considered fully immunized if he or she has received a BCG vaccination against tuberculosis.888 428 2.9 25.3 16.7 32.2 63.7 15.

7 91. measles and three doses each of DPT and polio vaccine excluding polio vaccine given at birth SLC = School Leaving Certificate There are only slight variations in children fully immunized by gender.7 78.9 96. Nepal 2011 Percentage All basic No with a vaccina.8 3.7 86.2 79.7 94. Vaccinations by background characteristics Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received specific vaccines at any time before the survey (according to a vaccination card or the mother's report).0 98.3 96. ranging from 78 percent among children of mothers with no education to at least 92 percent among children whose mothers are educated.9 1.7 31. and polio 1.0 91.4 85. However.7 94.0 94.4 89. full immunization coverage varies by mother’s education.9 94.3 98.5 94.9 33. If the card was available.3 96. Immunization coverage of children age 12-23 months has increased from 83 percent in 2006 to 87 percent in 2010 (Figure 3). and ecological zones.1 96.0 98.5 91.2 37. DPT 1.6 98.4 93.9 94.1 75 402 523 94. polio.vaccination 2 card tions tions 87.7 96.1 93.000 DPT vaccinations include DPT/HEP B as well as DPT/HEP B/Hib vaccinations BCG.2 94.6 30. respectively).4 90.9 90.5 84.5 97. Nearly nine in ten children (87 percent) were fully immunized and 96 percent of the children received BCG.5 85.1 94.2 96.1 94.2 96.1 94. DPT.0 86.2 38.4 45.2 96.3 91. by background characteristics.0 0.1 Polio 1 96.5 25.3 97.8 89.4 93.4 94. who should have been fully immunized against the major preventable childhood illnesses.1 95.3 98.7 98.1 96.3 1.3 97.5 91.9 26.3 90.3 93. 15 .0 97. residence. the proportion of children who have not received any vaccinations at all has remained unchanged (3 percent) in the last five years.2 89.8 98.6 91.7 91.vaccina.7 2. the interviewer copied the dates on which each vaccination was received.9 96.4 94.7 96.3 94.0 98.7 Polio 3 Measles 92.5 1.4 93.7 96. the mother was asked to recall whether that particular vaccination had been given.7 33.8 43.6 90.3 97.9 35.1 DPT 1 96.0 92.2 87. and percentage with a vaccination card.2 2.6 98. Children in the Terai are less likely to be fully immunized than children in the other zones (84 percent compared with 88-89 percent).8 98.6 4.8 87.0 95.4 2. she was asked about the number of doses of each that the child had received.5 96.0 92.3 92.1 92.3 88.4 95. The proportion of children receiving the third dose of DPT and polio is slightly lower (91 percent and 92 percent.9 452 200 211 137 1.8 86. as is the proportion receiving the measles vaccination (88 percent).4 91.4 96.7 88.4 Number of children 501 499 97 903 Background characteristic Sex Male Female Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Mother's education No education Primary Some secondary SLC and above Total 1 2 BCG 96. If a vaccination was not recorded on the health card.0 3. If she indicated that the child had received the polio or DPT vaccines.2 97.5 85.9 96. As expected. Table 8 presents information on vaccination coverage for children 12-23 months.4 90.3 94.2 Polio 2 94. Table 8.4 94.1 DPT 2 94.5 97.1 4.5 DPT 3 91.3 96.1 34. and measles.9 96.5 97.4 96.5 96.3 96. If the mother was not able to present a health card for her child.1 86.9 91.child(ren)’s immunization status was recorded.8 96.3 3.7 99. she was asked to recall whether the child had received BCG.8 95.

Data from the 2011 NDHS show that 5 percent of children under five years had symptoms of ARI. children in the Terai. rapid breathing (symptoms of ARI). mothers were asked if the child had experienced cough with short. crucial in reducing child deaths.Childhood Illnesses Acute respiratory illness (ARI) and dehydration from severe diarrhea are major causes of childhood mortality. Prompt medical attention for children experiencing symptoms of these illnesses is. The administration of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a simple means of counteracting the effect of dehydration. and 14 percent had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey (data not shown). In the 2011 NDHS. Table 9 shows that half of the children with symptoms of ARI and 42 percent of children with fever were taken to a health facility or provider for treatment. for each child under five years. or by increasing the amount of fluids given to children with diarrhea. therefore. and children of educated mothers are more likely than other children to be treated for their illness. 19 percent had fever. children living in urban areas. and diarrhea in the two weeks before the survey. For children with diarrhea. or homemade fluid. Children age 12-23 months. ORT includes a solution either prepared by mixing water with the powder in a commercially prepared oral rehydration packet (ORS). mothers were asked whether children under five had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. In the 2011 NDHS. To obtain information on how childhood illnesses are treated. 16 . fever. mothers were asked what had been done to treat the diarrhea.

and diarrhea Among children under age five who had symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) or had fever in the two weeks preceding the survey.4 38.6 40. and percentage given zinc by background characteristics.7 5.8 5.2 40.age for whom for whom for whom advice or advice or advice or treatment treatment treatment was sought was sought was sought Percent age from a health from a health from a health given fluid Number with Number with Percent age Percentage facility/ facility/ facility/ from ORS provider2 ARI provider2 fever provider2 given ORT 3 given zinc packet * (47.8 35.7 40.9 52.8 (34. and traditional practitioner 3 ORT includes fluid prepared from oral rehydration salt (ORS) packets.0 6.2 31.5 106 51 52 29 238 33.2) 59.3 24 215 55.6 (3. percentage for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider.9 46.8 (48.2 9.8 39.5 (57.8 44.5 41.4) 5.2 39.3 30. Treatment from a health facility or provider is slightly lower in the Mountain (36 percent) compared with other ecological zones (38-39 percent).6 41.4 4.6 48.4 49.7 6.0 10.2 347 144 147 74 711 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed.0 13 105 120 43.8 56.9 37. This is probably due to older children being more susceptible to food contamination than very young children.9 39.7) 1. fever.4 40. Urban children are more likely than rural children to get treatment from a facility or provider.6 40. percentage given a fluid made from oral rehydration salt (ORS) packets.1 5. Nearly two in five children (38 percent) with diarrhea were taken to a facility or provider.5 59 345 557 35.9 51.5 91 869 43. percentage for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider. who are more likely to be breastfed.9 (45.2 37.9 38.0 44.9 34.5 55.4 47.8 43. percentage given oral rehydration therapy (ORT). Six percent of children were given zinc during diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey.3 8.4 53. Nava Jeevan. Overall.5 48.2 39. Children under six months are slightly less likely to be treated for diarrhea than older children. and among children under age five who had diarrhea during the two weeks preceding the survey.2) (40.8 35.0 49. and recommended home fluids (RHF) SLC = School Leaving Certificate Table 9 shows treatment practices for children who had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey.5 38.age Percent.2 (55.2 38.5 412 299 69.0 39.8 91 146 242 195 166 119 32.9 407 190 233 129 960 33. and Orestal.5 54 258 400 45.2 39.5) 5.5 5.2 46.0 7.2 48.7 44.5 44.0 47.2 122 116 42.7 45.0 42.1 40.3 38. 45 percent of children were given ORT.6 43.1 8.0) Number with diarrhea 68 118 239 144 90 52 46.8 34.6) 49.0 35.8 47.3 65 646 (45. 17 .5 7.6) 47.6) * 21 37 79 41 40 20 34.9 6. whereas mothers with no education are least likely to take their children to a health facility or provider (34 percent).age Percent.9 39.1 543 417 40. and 39 percent of children were given a solution prepared from an ORS packet. Diarrhea treatment practices vary by background characteristics.5 38.9 46.6 38.8 39.Table 9. Nepal 2011 Background characteristic Age in months <6 6-11 12-23 24-35 36-47 48-59 Sex Male Female Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Mother's education No education Primary Some secondary SLC and above Total Children with symptoms of Children with fever Children with diarrhea ARI1 Percent. Treatment for acute respiratory infection. commonly known as Jeevan Jal.4 43. Mothers with some secondary education are most likely to take their children with diarrhea to a health facility or provider (50 percent).3 41.9 3.0 37. rapid breathing which was chest-related and/or by difficult breathing which was chest. shop.7 6.related) is considered a proxy for pneumonia 2 Excludes pharmacy.2 45.5 44.1 52. 1 Symptoms of ARI (cough accompanied by short.

For example. postneonatal. infant. Caution should be exercised in interpreting mortality information.. comparison of mortality data from the four past Nepal DHS surveys indicates that while mortality has been declining in the past (Figure 4). Under-five mortality for the most recent period (0-4 years before the survey or 2006–2010) is 54 deaths per 1. 1997) to 64 per 1.Infant and Child Mortality Information on infant and child mortality is important for the improvement of child survival programs and for identifying those segments of the child population that are most vulnerable. New ERA and Macro International Inc.000 live births during the period 2001-2005 (MOHP. A similar trend is seen for the other mortality indicators. Table 10. to 46 per 1. there has been a slow pace in the most recent years. Mortality data are also generally subject to large sampling errors. infant. however. Eighty-five percent of deaths among children under five occur during the first year of life: infant mortality is 46 deaths per 1.000 live births during the period 1996-2000 (MOH. Because women are generally reluctant to talk about their dead children. The issue of data quality will be examined in greater depth in the NDHS final report.000 live births during the period 1991-1995 (Pradhan et.000 live births in the 10-14 years preceding the survey to 60 deaths in the 5-9 year period preceding the survey and to 46 deaths in the most recent fiveyear period. it is subject to a greater degree of misreporting.000 live births. infant mortality declined from 79 per 1.).000 live births. Nepal 2011 Postneonatal mortality (PNN) 1 13 23 25 Infant mortality (1q0) 46 60 70 Under-five mortality (5q0) 54 70 87 Years preceding the survey 0-4 5-9 10-14 1 Approximate calendar year 2006-2010 2001-2005 1996-2000 Neonatal mortality (NN) 33 37 45 Child mortality (4q1) 9 10 19 Computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates Data from the 2011 NDHS indicate that there has been a slight decrease in childhood mortality. This means that one in 19 children born in Nepal dies before their fifth birthday.000 live births in the most recent five year period (2006-2010). child. respectively. However. Neonatal. and 48 per 1. New ERA and ORC Macro.000 live births. the risk of neonatal deaths and postneonatal deaths is 33 and 13 deaths per 1. and under-five mortality rates for five-year periods preceding the survey. and under-five mortality rates are shown in Table 10 for cohorts of children born in three consecutive five-year periods before the survey. al. For example. child. 2002). During infancy. post-neonatal. Early childhood mortality rates Neonatal. 18 . since its reliability depends on the quality of information collected in the birth history section of the Woman’s Questionnaire. infant mortality declines from 70 deaths per 1.

3 100.3 0.0 5.6 53.3 12.8 6.5 0.8 0.3 93.0 Percentage currently breastfeeding 98.5 97.3 99.Exclusively plain water consuming complementary non-milk Total other milk foods feeding breastfed only liquids1 1.0 10.2 94.0 8.1 3.2 100.0 73.6 100.3 100.5 90.H.7 1.6 Number of youngest Percentage Number of all children using a children under two bottle with under two years a nipple years 131 5.4 4. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended during the first six months of a child’s life because it limits exposure to diseases as well as provides all of the nutrients that a baby requires.4 0.3 99.0 7. other milk.7 195 267 5. 1 Non-milk liquids include juice.9 336 531 352 338 1.0 0.0 0. exclusively breastfed.0 0.0 0.0 100.7 12. Nutrition Breastfeeding Breast milk is the optimal source of nutrients for infants. and the percentage of all children under two years using a bottle with a nipple. according to age in months. Children who are classified as breastfeeding and consuming plain water only consumed no liquid or solid supplements.7 92.0 0.5 14.1 5.0 0.0 0.5 22.3 100.8 0.7 0.3 5.7 4.0 0.4 91. nonmilk liquids. Overall. The categories of not breastfeeding.5 6.1 1. Breastfeeding status by age Percent distribution of youngest children under two years who are living with their mother.0 99.8 9.3 0.1 10.2 92.5 268 221 8. clear broth or other liquids 19 .3 0.4 99.000 297 Note: Breastfeeding status refers to a "24-hour" period (yesterday and last night).1 0.9 3.8 87. Table 11.0 100. juice drinks.9 100.5 70.2 69.2 0.4 13. Any children who get complementary food are classified in that category as long as they are breastfeeding as well.2 0.0 0.0 5. breastfeeding and consuming plain water.0 5.4 79.0 0. This is a remarkable improvement since 2006.2 204 195 8.4 0.3 7.3 131 203 3.0 7.5 93.0 0. 70 percent of children under six months are exclusively breastfed. Thus children who receive breast milk and non-milk liquids and who do not receive other milk and who do not receive complementary foods are classified in the non-milk liquid category even though they may also get plain water.3 99. Table 11 shows that 88 percent of children less than two months of age are exclusively breastfed. Nepal 2011 Age in months 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-8 9-11 12-17 18-23 0-3 0-5 6-9 12-15 12-23 20-23 Percent distribution of youngest children under two living with their mother by breastfeeding status Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and and Not consuming consuming and and breast. by breastfeeding status and the percentage currently breastfeeding.2 100.2 0.9 9.0 0.0 92.1 0.6 11.4 92.0 100.0 1.4 10. and complementary foods (solids and semi-solids) are hierarchical and mutually exclusive.1 15.0 0.0 100.0 6. and their percentages add to 100 percent.7 2.0 2.0 9. but this percentage drops sharply at subsequent ages.1 468 335 530 351 325 952 272 4.0 0.0 94.6 532 435 5.6 100.6 100.3 0.4 0.5 0.9 2.0 65.7 0.0 100.0 224 516 6. when only 53 percent of children of the same age were exclusively breastfed.6 0.2 93.7 0.

7 -1.4 32.9 (11.9 22.259 -1.2 3.7 41.5 13. Excludes children whose mothers are not listed in the Household Questionnaire.2 13.8 16.2 51.1 2.7 -1. 2 Includes children who are below -3 standard deviations (SD) from the WHO Growth Standards population median 3 For women who are not interviewed. by background characteristics.2 10.6 9.6 7.8 10. while those who fall more than three standard deviations (-3 SD) below the reference median are considered severely undernourished.3 -1.5 26.4) 46.2 40.4 7.9 -0.5 -1.6 -0.1 2.6 0. Forty-one percent of children under five are short for their age.1) 0.9 16.148 -1.1 37.4 0.5 5.1 7.5 38. weight-forheight.8) -0. Nutritional Status of Children Under nutrition places children at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality and is also associated with impaired mental development.3 0. Stunting is the outcome of failure to receive adequate nutrition over an extended period and is also affected by recurrent or chronic illness.7 -0.2 22.8 -0.475 Note: Table is based on children who stayed the night before the interview in the household.7 40.5 0.4 (0.7 53.0 (26.3 -0. Table 12.5 -0.6 (6.7 7.4 2.2 0.1 465 -0.3 9. standing height is measured for all other children.6 41.4 0.2 -0.3 35 58 -1.2 3. These three indices are expressed as standard deviation units from the median for the international reference population recommended by the World Health Organization. and weight-for-age.5 30.4 47.2 16.3 5.8 16.2 22.3 0.4 7.4 989 -1.1 13. and not in the household4 Total -1. The height and weight data are used to compute three summary indices of nutritional status: height-for-age.7 15.5 -0.Although bottle-feeding is not common in Nepal.379 (-1.5 (7.3 7.0 0.6 29.0) 0.7 -0.9 8. Nepal 2011 Height-for-age Weight-for-height Weight-for-age Mean Mean Mean Percentage Percentage ZPercentage Percentage Percentage Z.4 2.9 26.7 -1.0 -1.3 -1. and 16 percent are severely stunted. weight-for-height.0 216 -1.6 3.5 1.6 -1.5 -0.8 2.9 -1.7 -0. Height and weight measurements were obtained for all children born in the five years before the survey in the sub-sample of households selected for the male survey.2 13. information is taken from the Household Questionnaire.2 28.1 0.6 -0.2 19.1 -1.6) -1. Each of the indices is expressed in standard deviation units (SD) from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards adopted in 2006.2 20.8 -1.0 0.4 0.4 469 -1.7 1.5 1.6 -0.5) -1.6 1.3 6.5 -0.7 14.7 -2.2 7.7 6.207 -1.7 3.9 7.1 3.2 3.2 16.7 1.9 320 16.2 18.6 28.7 1.1 -1.9) 19.9 1.8 24. Nutritional status of children Percentage of children under five years classified as malnourished according to three anthropometric indices of nutritional status: height-for-age.7 2.6 11.0 30.2 1.7 0.5 30.0 1. Table is based on children with valid dates of birth (month and year) and valid measurement of both height and weight.5 2.9 0.3 3.0 16.2 11.6 42.4) 26.8 2.3 1.7 195 -1.7 28.5 0.6 (43.7 5. and weight-for-age.291 -1.3 0. The indices in this table are NOT comparable to those based on the previously used 1977 NCHS/CDC/WHO Reference.0 0.0 -1.2 18.3 -1.7 2.6 -1.268 -1.9 37.7 -0.4 7.3 4.6 10.5 26. 4 Includes children whose mothers are deceased SLC = School Leaving Certificate Total includes 4 children with missing information on mother’s education and mother’s interview status not shown separately.7 -1.2 17.0 43.5 2.6 1.0 -1. Bottle feeding peaks at 9 percent among children 4-5 months old.3 (0.4 1.2 1.4 0.4 -1.4 2.8 -0.2 -1.7 -1.5 1.6 16.3 0. 20 .3 4.7 7.4 -1.2 7.2 7.5 -1.1 -0.7 -2.4 -0.0 -2.3 (37.0 8.0 6.5 227 135 110 266 221 500 524 492 Background characteristic Age in months <6 6-8 9-11 12-17 18-23 24-35 36-47 48-59 Sex Male Female Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Mother's education No education Primary Some secondary SLC and above Mother's interview status Interviewed Not interviewed but in household Not interviewed.7 8.7 4.8 11.6 1.6 28.9 1.1 3.2 4.0) 1.5 -0.1 10.1 9.3 0.7 19.4 31.9 25.7 (-1.9 -0.4 1.0 0.7 14.8 52.6 1.6 6.8 0. Children who fall more than two standard deviations (-2 SD) below the reference median are regarded as undernourished.6 -2.2 0.4 26.4 39.4 3.5 1.4 -0.7 13.4 1.2 -1.6 -0. Children whose height-for-age is below minus two standard deviations from the median of the reference population are considered stunted or short for their age.7 (-0.9 10.9 42.0 -1. Anthropometry provides one of the most important indicators of children’s nutritional status.0 29.3 0.5 -1. there has been a slight rise in the practice from 4 percent in 2006 to 6 percent in 2011 among children 0-5 months.0 35.8 12. 1 Recumbent length is measured for children under age 2.0 2.3) 8.8 18.7 24.5 4.0 9.8 1.2 11.Number Percentage Percentage Percentage Zbelow -3 below -2 score below -3 below -2 above +2 score below -3 below -2 above Score of 2 2 2 (SD) (SD) (SD) children SD SD SD SD SD SD SD +2SD 7.4 17.0 5.9) 6.9 8.2 0.5 0.3 11. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases.0 0.4 41.

In general. Nearly three in ten children (29 percent) are underweight and 8 percent are severely underweight. About half of children in the Mountain are stunted and more than one-third are underweight. However. when most children (91 percent) are given complementary foods as seen in Table 11. Note: The data are based on the WHO Child Growth Standards. 21 . the proportion of children who are wasted declined only slightly from 13 percent in 2006 to 11 percent in 2011. Table 12 shows that nutritional status among children deteriorates after age 9-11 months. 11 percent of children are wasted and 3 percent are severely wasted. Fiftyseven percent of children were stunted in 2001 compared with 41 percent in 2011 and 43 percent of children were underweight in 2001 compared with 29 percent in 2011. the nutritional status of children in Nepal has improved over the last decade (Figure 5). In Nepal. Especially striking are differences by place of residence and mother’s education. The measure reflects the effects of both acute and chronic undernutrition. Children whose weight-for-age is below minus two standard deviations from the median of the reference population are considered underweight.Children whose weight-for-height is below minus two standard deviations from the median of the reference population are considered wasted or thin. in terms of all three measures. For example. wasted. or of a rapid deterioration in food supplies. Wasting represents the failure to receive adequate nutrition in the period immediately before the survey. or underweight than children whose mothers have attended school. and typically is the result of recent illness episodes. especially diarrhea. rural children are much more likely to be nutritionally disadvantaged than urban children. Children whose mothers have no education are more likely to be stunted.

2 46.9 g/dl 10. there has been hardly any improvement in the anemia status of children and women in Nepal 2006.3 0. The majority of children who suffer from anemia are classified as having mild or moderate anemia (27 and 19 percent.7 29.0 g/dl 38.7 18.0 g/dl <11. Anemia among children and women Percentage of children age 6-59 months and women age 15-49 years classified as having anemia.2 22. Women and children with <7.4 31.6 36. Levels of anemia were classified as severe.0 g/dl of hemoglobin have severe anemia. Selected interviewers were trained to conduct this procedure.9 g/dl 32. women and children with 7.0-10. by background characteristics. —as well as dietary deficiencies and parasitic infections.423 3. Anemia is characterized by decreased concentration of hemoglobin in the blood.0-11.2 0.5 0.8 35.4 0.5 41.2 3.6 28.0. —which is endemic in some parts of the country.6 28.2 0.4 19.5 21.3 0.Anemia Anemia has been a major problem in Nepal.0 g/dl 0. based on hemoglobin levels.3 0.339 1. In the 2011 NDHS. children and women who live in the Terai are most likely to be anemic than those in other zones.2 0.0 5.271 403 2.0-9. in the case of an unmarried minor.1 22.8 5. The concentration of hemoglobin in the blood was measured using the HemoCue system.3 0.9 g/dl) 22.9 5. was asked for their consent to participate in the anemia testing.0-9. Across zones.4 0. Causes of anemia are malaria.8 Mild anemia 10.7 26.7 21.al. 35 percent show evidence of anemia.8 35.3 0.0 g/dl) 0. Overall. Anemia among both children and women is especially prevalent in rural areas.1 18.198 Note: Table is based on children and women who stayed in the household the night before the interview. and non-pregnant women with 10. and the majority is mildly anemic (29 percent). Nepal 2011 CHILDREN Anemia status by hemoglobin level Background characteristic Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Total Any anemia (<11. respectively) while less than 1 percent are severely anemic.0 24.2 16. 1989).0 50.081 Moderate anemia (7.5 Severe anemia (<7. especially among young children and pregnant women.5 30.9 6.0 g/dl <7.2 WOMEN Anemia status by hemoglobin level Any anemia Background characteristic Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Total Not pregnant Pregnant <12.1 26.5 Number of children 188 2.7 6.0 g/dl) 41. is adjusted for altitude (for children and women) and smoking (for women) using CDC formulas (CDC.3 34.7 27. 22 . Prevalence of anemia.7 26.2 0.7 41.8 26.0-11.8 7.9.118 2.7 47.3 Number of women 1.9 34. moderate.255 6.0-10.2 29.0-10.9 g/dl have moderate anemia.9 g/dl 7.9 g/dl) 18. onetime use lancets that allowed a relatively painless puncture.4 0. or mild according to criteria developed by the World Health Organization (DeMaeyer et.510 1. 46 percent of Nepalese children ages 6-59 months are anemic.8 26. where nearly half of the children (47 percent) and more than one-third of women (36 percent) have some degree of anemia.9 27.7 4.1 5.9 g/dl 5.6 0.2 Mild anemia (10. Table 13. Overall.0-9.134 976 1.9 g/dl have mild anemia.. to measure the level of hemoglobin.011 179 902 1.1 32.5 0.2 46.1 27.123 810 5. capillary blood was taken in the field from a finger using sterile.8 Moderate anemia 7. Each respondent and her parent or guardian.9 g/dl and children and pregnant women with 10. 1998). Anemia is less common among women.0 4. Table 13 presents anemia levels for children age 6-59 months and for women age 15-49.7 Severe anemia <7.

MI and New ERA.453 10.5 0. The fortification of salt with iodine is the most common method of preventing IDD.215 99. There has been a marked improvement in households using adequately iodized salt since 2006. Table 14 presents the findings on salt test carried out at the household level.5 99.6 79.1 99.546 9.538 5. MI and New ERA. Table 14.3 0. Urban households are more likely to use adequately iodized salt than rural households (94 percent and 78 percent.3 99. which allows the information to be compared over time. 2005). Presence of adequately iodized salt in household Among all households.7 0.532 9.0 756 4.4 80. Fortified salt that contains 15 parts per million (ppm) or more iodine at the consumption level is considered as adequately iodized to prevent IDD. and among households with salt tested. respectively).280 94.4 77.9 0. Nepal 2011 Among all household.7 1. The NDHS used MBI Kits that provide an estimate of the iodine content in salt in one of three levels: 0 ppm. Previous national surveys in Nepal have indicated that nearly 95 percent of the households in Nepal use salt with some iodine (MOHP.747 Salt with 15 PPM iodine or more 23 .7 1.1 99. percentage of households tested for iodine content and percentage of households without salt. Four in five households in Nepal use adequately iodized salt.7 81. and >=15 ppm to record the adequacy of iodine content in the salt.826 72. according to background characteristics. Households in the Mountain are slightly less likely to consume adequately iodized salt compared with those in the Hill and Terai zones (73 percent versus 80-81 percent). 2005). 2005).Iodized Salt Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) is a public health problem in Nepal and government programs have been geared towards promoting universal salt iodization (USI) since 1998 under a five year Plan of Action for Control of IDD (1998-2003) in collaboration with UNICEF and JICA (MOHP.502 10.7 761 4. when only 58 percent of households consumed adequately iodized salt in Nepal (MOHP. MI and New ERA. the percentage Background characteristic Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Total 1 Among households with tested salt: Percentage with adequately iodized salt1 Number of households With salt tested Without salt Number of households 99.9 0. the percentage with adequately iodized salt.563 5.3 0. <15 ppm.

.291 2..303 4.331 12. Heard of HIV/AIDS Table 15 shows that awareness of HIV/AIDS is much higher among men than women (97 compared with 86 percent).088 2.7 85.855 805 5.437 1.779 5.7 * 91.3 86.9 80.691 9. The level of knowledge of AIDS has increased since 2006 (92 percent for men and 73 percent for women).674 98. with knowledge somewhat higher among currently married women than among those formerly married.0 97. Not surprisingly.7 71.3 5. Education has a positive impact on AIDS knowledge among all respondents.0 88.4 97.626 62 717 3. Never-married women and men age 15-49 are slightly more likely to have heard about AIDS than ever-married women and men. For example.404 245 1. Knowledge of AIDS is also higher among women in the Hill zone. with no obvious difference among men by ecological zones.045 2.8 94. 24 .9 80. HIV/AIDS The 2011 NDHS included a series of questions that addressed women’s and men’s awareness about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). by background characteristics.8 95.433 352 1.9 86.Ever had sex .3 96.081 2..7 85.I.663 978 685 581 1.050 2.4 84.041 836 1.1 96. with the urban-rural difference being greater among women than men.3 89. SLC = School Leaving Certificate Knowledge of AIDS is higher among younger than among older respondents.8 85.20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Never married .3 99.0 99.4 96. Table 15.6 100.297 2.3) 99.0 81.708 18 2. knowledge of ways to avoid the disease.608 358 1.232 2.4 (92. Nepal 2011 Background characteristic Age 15-24 .658 2. and knowledge and use of condoms for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).121 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases.101 3. knowledge of AIDS is much higher among urban than rural respondents..3 99.8 99.218 567 814 1.753 2.7 89. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed.1 97. These questions sought information on respondents’ source of knowledge.4 97.0 85.7 98.090 6.4 94.8 98.209 3.6 91.1 97. Knowledge of AIDS Percentage of women and men who have heard of AIDS.9 93.Never had sex Married/living together Divorced/separated/widowed Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Education No education Primary Some secondary SLC and above Total 15-49 Women Men Have Have heard of Number heard of Number AIDS of women AIDS of men 89.0 96. nearly all women and men with some secondary education and higher have heard of AIDS compared with 71 percent of women and 85 percent of men with no education.8 1.819 10.15-19 .0 96.

3 74.6 89.9 91.3 88.6 92.9 96.6 76.4 84.8 93.5 72.Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention HIV/AIDS prevention programs that target the general population promote monogamy and condom use as the primary ways of avoiding HIV infection among sexually active men and women.0 85..9 88. say that people can reduce the risk of getting the AIDS virus by using condoms every time they have sexual intercourse. men are aware of both programmatically promoted messages of using condoms and limiting sexual intercourse to one uninfected partner (89 percent).2 83.0 82.7 73. Variability in knowledge of HIV prevention methods is more pronounced among women than among men.753 2.4 76.5 84.232 2. Knowledge of HIV prevention methods is highest among nevermarried women and lowest among those who were formerly married.433 352 1.Ever had sex .297 2.15-19 .8 80.7 (65.6 83.9 88. while among men.7 59.2 92.5 72.2 88.3 93.045 2.090 6.7 70. and by having one sex partner who is not infected and has no other partners.2 78.8 * 80..4 91.9 74. the 2011 NDHS respondents were asked specific questions about whether it is possible to reduce the chance of getting the AIDS virus by having just one uninfected sexual partner and using a condom at every sexual encounter.0 87.404 245 1.779 5.0 93.437 1.4 85.088 2.3 91.0 87..3 76.674 91.6 83.081 2.0 87.0 91.3 68.9 88. Among women.6 * 82.4 78.9 89.0 77.7 90.3 66.2 88.1 71.3 85. younger women and men are generally more knowledgeable of the various modes of prevention than older women and men.7 70. by background characteristics.6 86.708 18 2.20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Never married .7 83.1 92.2 87. Among women.9 78. While women are more aware that the chances of getting the AIDS virus can be reduced by limiting sex to one uninfected partner who has no other partners (79 percent).7 68.0 77.4 97.3 81.8 76.8 89. Knowledge of HIV prevention methods Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who.3 88.5) 84.218 567 814 1. levels of knowledge of preventive methods are higher in urban than in rural areas.3 57.1 73.8 93.9 69.4 80.0 63.3 77.5 54. Women and men with higher levels of education are more likely than those with little or no education to be aware of various preventive methods.2 79. Table 16.1 80.0 62.2 64.658 2.209 3.4 (65.4) 91.041 836 1.1 88.7 68.7 92.4 (55.331 12.9 83.5 69.4 * 87.4 89.5 85. Table 16 shows that men are generally much more aware of the various prevention methods than women.4 77.291 2.4 70.2 89.0 90.1 5.8 72.3 90.7 79.6 71.819 10.4 81.1 94.6 84.0 89.9 96.6 83. There is considerable variability across ecological zones in knowledge of prevention methods..8 91.855 805 5.4 89.5 91. Nepal 2011 Percentage of women who Limiting sexual intercourse to one uninfected Using 1 condoms partner2 say HIV can be prevented by: Percentage of men who say HIV can be prevented by: Using condoms and Limiting sexual Using condoms and limiting sexual intercourse to limiting sexual intercourse to one one uninfected intercourse to one Number of Number Using 2 1 2 uninfected partner of women condoms partner uninfected partner2 men Background characteristic Age 15-24 .7 94. 25 . in response to prompted questions. who make up the majority of all adults in virtually every population. To ascertain whether programs have effectively communicated these messages. knowledge is highest in the Hill zone (77 percent).4 87.626 62 717 3.7 88.8 76.1 91. 1 Using condoms every time they have sexual intercourse 2 Partner who has no other partners SLC = School Leaving Certificate As Table 16 shows.2 85.5 87.5 80.303 4.121 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. knowledge is highest in the Mountain zones (88 percent).6 59.8 77.2 73.3 1.050 2.691 9.663 978 685 581 1.Never had sex Married/living together Divorced/separated/widowed Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Education No education Primary Some secondary SLC and above Total 15-49 78.5 94.608 358 1.7 85.4) 89.7 50. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases.5 85.101 3.

.6 2. Young men.1 2.7) (21.6 2.0 2.437 1.8 1.433 2.8 3.5 lifetime sexual partners. The mean number of sexual partners is higher among never-married men (3. et al.041 836 1. 1 Means are calculated excluding respondents who gave non-numeric responses SLC = School Leaving Certificate Four percent of all men 15-49 years had more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months.1 * (43. This led to the need to further explore this area of women’s situation in Nepal. and the failure to use condoms particularly if they have more than one sexual partner.5 7. Nepal 2011 All men Percentage who had 2+ partners in the past 12 months Number of men 3.3 3.0 32.age who reported using a condom during last Number of sexual inter.1 2.218 567 814 1.0 5.658 2. Multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months: Men Among all men age 15-49.224 1.663 978 685 581 1. Men age 2024 are more likely to have had more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months than men in other age groups.404 245 1.4 2.2) 10.6 2.4 * 33.2 2. Table 17.7 2.5 Number of men 666 202 463 528 1. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases.618 537 701 922 877 3. 26 . and the mean number of sexual partners during their lifetime for men who ever had sexual intercourse. Among men who had more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months. the percentage reporting that a condom was used at last intercourse. Information on women facing different types of domestic violence was collected for the first time in the 2011 Nepal DHS.3 3. 27 percent reported using a condom during the last sexual intercourse.15-19 .3 2.626 62 717 3. was the single leading cause of maternal death among women (15-49 years) (Pradhan. by background characteristics. A. Men reported an average of 2.9 4.20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Never married Married/living together Divorced/separated/widowed Residence Urban Rural Ecological zone Mountain Hill Terai Education No education Primary Some secondary SLC and above Total 15-49 An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed.7 26.4 (5. those living in urban areas and those who live in the Hill zone are more likely to report using condom during the last sexual intercourse. those living in the Terai (2. Table 17 presents information collected from men who had ever had intercourse.2) (12.5 3. J.6 24.Potentially risky sexual activities relate to men and women. and those having some secondary education (3.2 4. who have multiple sexual partners.3 3. As it is not common for women in Nepal to have multiple sexual partners this assessment is done only for men.5) 2.1).3 2.7 2.4 4.0 (10. Domestic Violence The Nepal Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Study 2008/2009 indicated that suicide.2).7 * 34. the percentage who had sexual intercourse with more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months. on the number of sexual partners they had had during the 12 months period before the survey and over their lifetime and condom use at last sex among men reporting more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months.8 1. among those having more than one partner in the past 12 months.8 * * 38. not child birth complications.016 827 352 2.626 59 496 2.2 3.8 2.1 2.9 3.2 2.037 Background characteristic Age 15-24 .4 2.course men 45.121 Among men who had 2+ partners in the past 12 months: Percent.3) 4..303 4. those who are never married.5 21. 2010).5 63 14 48 33 35 25 43 106 6 31 125 7 56 93 24 20 57 54 155 Among men who ever had sexual intercourse: Mean number of sexual partners in lifetime1 2.7 3.4) * (60.7 2.0 4.540 194 1.7).

9 5.7 4. while seven percent experienced physical violence only sometimes.085 3.4 5.3 29. As women attain higher levels of education their chances of experiencing physical violence declines.8 442 2.034 824 4.0 11.3 37.8 9.7 47.4 1.473 1.7 10.5 23.2 7.3 977 3. was selected to be interviewed with the domestic violence module.3 61.2 8.4 2. respectively).059 334 29.6 51.7 10.5 9.6 10.7 25.0 14.2 8. Currently married women are the victims of more recent physical violence compared with single women.0 3.3 9.7 11. Women in the Terai are more likely to experience physical violence than women in the other zones.4 35.4 989 827 649 989 759 8.8 44.7 11. Nepal 2011 Percentage who ever experienced physical violence since age 15 In the past 12 In the past 12 In the past 12 Ever1 months: Often months: Sometimes months: Any Background characteristic Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Never married Married/living together Divorced/separated/widowed Number of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Region Mountain Hill Terai Education No education Primary Some secondary SLC and above Total 1 Number of women 13. The proportion of women who have ever experienced physical violence is highest among women with no education (51 percent).3 0. by background characteristics.1 1.4 1. Table 18.2 1. indicating some degree of intimate partner violence.7 7.3 13.1 1.658 697 1.9 4.9 33. in the sub-sample of households selected for the male survey.9 1. only one woman per household. Among women who experienced physical violence in the past 12 months.4 1.4 2.1 1.213 Includes in the past 12 months 27 .347 1.8 49.094 141 13.7 10. Women age (40-49) and those with more than 5 or more living children are more likely to have ever faced physical violence.4 6.3 8.4 10.4 1.4 2. Experience of physical violence Percentage of women age 15-49 who ever experienced violence since age 12 and percentage who have experienced violence during the 12 months preceding the survey.2 9.2 2.For ethical reasons.9 3. Rural women are more likely to have ever experienced physical violence than urban women (35 percent compared with 29 percent.4 6.3 8.1 0.7 3. A high level of confidentiality was ensured while administering the domestic violence module.048 1.4 9.9 40.8 2.3 5.5 5.4 2.3 7.2 13.6 1.4 3.9 6.128 28.6 1.2 0.6 25.6 3.6 8.3 12.3 8.4 45. less than two percent reported that the physical violence often occurred.1 1.723 51.5 2.3 8.8 1.5 2.0 7.1 7. 15 percent of women with SLC and higher levels of education had ever experienced physical violence.1 3.9 10. Table 18 shows that one in three (34 percent) women age 15-49 years have ever experienced physical violence since age 15 years and nine percent of these women reported experiencing physical violence within the past 12 months.6 35.1 1.

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