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1.1 Background of the study That there is a serious problem of lacking accountability and transparency in the public service is not only well known but fairly documented. General and specific observations within the service and comments from international bodies like World Bank (WB), Transparency International (TI), all seem to suggest that the problem is not only real but also enduring. A considerable body of literature has developed, particularly examining the nature of governmental accounting and financial reporting. Research in this category typically explains the practical application of accounting standards in the governmental settings, discusses currently unresolved governmental accounting issues, and or questions current practices in governmental accounting and financial reporting (Aruwa, 2002; Giroux and Apostolou, 1991; Granof and Mayper, 1991; Hay and Antonio, 1990; Raman and Wilson, 1990; Ingram, Raman, and Wilson, 1989; Lewis, Patton, and Green, 1988; and Ingram, Raman, and Wilson, 1987). Some of the major issues identified include: a perceived gap in the information content of government financial report and information need of users and lack of external accountability (Aruwa, 2002), the need to integrate budgeting, accounting and financial reporting and that a strong and enduring relationship exists between government accounting and budgeting (Chan, 1992), and the need to reform budgeting processes in view of large budget variances (Granof and Mayper, 1991). Chan (1992) rightly captured the state of the governmental accounting system;
Problem Statement “The present accounting system…is not capable of ensuring that the goods and services procured by governments are necessary; that expenditures are reasonable, that adequate care and safeguards are exercised over government resources, that the system avoids waste and use of unproductive procedures, and that revenues are adequately mobilised and collected”
The Public Accounts Committee (PAC, 2000) also put forward their experience “… it transpired frequently in evidence given to the public Accounts Committee that queries raised at audit are often ignored by the ministry concerned. However, ministries were not always aware that attending to matters raised during audit could help improve their procedures” The government financial reporting function seems to have been subjected to the greatest amount of criticism in recent years with regard to its information content and its apparent inability to meet the assumed need of a variety of user-groups. In addition, individuals and institutions outside the government have become virtually interested in the financial activities and status of governments. Example of such users includes creditors, citizen groups (i.e. taxpayers, service recipients or voters), business enterprises and others, yet the Government Financial Reports remain the singular picture of the resources entrusted, how the resources are employed during a fiscal year, and in what form the resources are now held.
especially in respect of the statutory background of government accounting. Morey (1926) acknowledged that many errors of principle will be committed if there are no material modification to the public accounts. in adopting private sector accounting procedures. incomplete. unreliable and lacking timeliness…’ Gary further submits that to a person schooled in government accounting. 1994). administrative. the adequacy of the information content and the extent to which it satisfies public accountability criteria. legal and social ingredients have not been effective in promoting the desired culture of accountability and transparency in the public service. financial. In addition. As all those elements remain in place and for the fact that any measure. and usefulness and so adversely affect users of Published Government Financial Statements (Oshisami. the Government Financial reporting is disgraceful. A foremost implication is that the existing accounting. if relevant information contained in Government Financial Statements could provide financial information. All of these epithets may have merit. completeness.However. Gary (1992) observes that various persons who have written on the subject of financial reporting in the Federal Government have termed it ‘antiquated. aimed at improving accountability has to build on them. the timing of publication can impair its reliability. These observations and opinions typified above have several implications. this research is intended to examine them more closely with a view to providing further insights into their current status and prospects for remedial action . there are overwhelming calls on government to shift emphasis from traditional stewardship financial reporting to the presentation of more informative Government Financial Statements. fragmented.
.4.1. • To identify the factors that contribute or mitigate the financial reporting system contribution to Governmental accountability.2 Specific objectives In practical essence. Programme accountability. the research shall attempt to achieve the following objectives: • To ascertain if the financial reporting apparatus of Government meets the minimum accountability criteria. Managerial accountability.1 Main objectives The study is aimed at examining Fiscal accountability.3 Research questions • Does the financial reporting apparatus of government meets the minimum accountability criteria? • What factors mitigate or contribute to the financial reporting system contribution to government accountability? • How can government financial reporting system be improved to enhance it role in public accountability? 1.4.4 Objectives of the study 1. 1. and Individual accountability within the context of the role of government financial reporting in public accountability in Ghana.
cooperation from staff with respect to questionnaire answering. Secondly.5. Programme accountability. and Individual accountability within the context of the role of government financial . direct application of would-be findings to non-public sector institutions will be misplaced because this will be a case study. and Individual accountability within the context of the role of government financial reporting in public accountability in Ghana. Managerial accountability.10 Scope and Limitation of the study The study is focused on examining Fiscal accountability. It is envisaged that there may be some issues of non. The study will focus on the Controller and Accountant-General's Department and the Audit Service as these are the two main institutions the entire government reporting and accountability rest on . and Individual accountability within the context of the role of government financial reporting in public accountability in Ghana. Programme accountability. Managerial accountability.7 Significance of the study The study will help the researchers to understand Fiscal accountability.• To suggest improvements on Government Financial reporting system that could enhance its role in public accountability 1. The research will provide the basis for the organization to review the Fiscal accountability. Managerial accountability. 1. Programme accountability.
limitation of the study. sample and sampling techniques. and data collection procedure and data analysis. population. The research will become a corner stone on which further researchers in the field of public sector finance will be built on. etc. statement of the problem. The third chapter will cover research methodology which will cover areas such as research design. research objectives. conclusion and recommendations. Chapter two will cover literature review. Chapter four will cover data presentation and analysis of findings. instruments. The last chapter will cover summary. Chapter one will be the introduction and include background of the study. 1. research questions. The research will throw light on public sector Accountability and the theories backing it. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW .8 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY The study will be organized in five chapters. research methodology.reporting in public accountability in Ghana.
financial regulations and financial instructions provide for the control and management of public finances at the federal level and for the audit of the accounts of individual states.2000.2 Objectives of Government Accounting 2. The legal instruments at the national level include: The Constitution of Ghana. which sets the general framework for the total financial management. The financial memoranda regulate the local governments’ accounting.0 Introduction the following topics would be critically examined as basis for the study: 2. and federal financial regulations and states financial instructions are founded.2. the Audit Service Act. the Financial Administration Act(FAA). 1992.4 Form and Content of accountability 2. treasury circulars. .2006. However. the external controls for operating the accounting system in terms of audit and investigations.1 Legal framework of Government Accounting 2.1 LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING The public sector accounting in Ghana is rooted in a number of legal instruments.3 Government Financial Statements and Uses 2. respectively. According to Oshisami (1992). 2003. the Constitution covers the following key areas in government accounting: The operation of funds. government accounting and financial reporting. Financial Administration Regulation (FAR).5 Summary of Literature 2. Anyafo (1994) notes that these legal instruments constitute the statutory bed rock upon which the government accounting manuals. and the Annual Appropriation and Supplementary Appropriation Acts. and the appropriation procedure.
but principally to provide for the issue from the Consolidated Fund such sums of money as demanded justifiable for the recurrent expenditure including contribution to the Oil Fund for capital projects for the service of the nation. The Audited financial statements are thereafter presented to the public accounts committees of the Parliament . not only for regulating financial and accounting matters. The Audit Service Act of 2000 sets out the duties of the Auditor-General for the nation. The constitution. The Constitution authorises the President to make withdrawals from the Consolidated Fund of the sum necessary to meet the expenditure and the appropriation of those sums for the purpose specified therein. 2003 governs the management and operation of government funds. the Financial Administration Act.2003 and the Audit Service Act. to the Auditor-General for the nation the accounts showing the financial position of the republic of Ghana on the last day of such financial year. the most important aspect of the Act is that it regulates the accounting format and basis of accounting for the preparation of government accounts. Appropriation Acts are enacted annually for the purpose.The Financial Administration Act (FAA). 2000 mandate the Accountant-General of the nation to sign and present. within a period of seven months after the close of each financial year. 1994). The Audit Service Act of 2000 provides for the Audit and accountability for the public funds of government in Ghana. The mandatory use of cash basis accounting as specifically . Perhaps. The legal instruments of Government accounting are not without criticisms in respect of certain stipulations. the books of accounts to be maintained and the procedures to be followed in the preparation of accounts and government financial statements (Anyafo. In addition the Act regulates the accounting system.
mandated by the Financial Administration Act. and fiduciary. and thus enhances their relevance. However. They posit that the present general application of cash basis of accounting may not entirely permit the Government financial reports to achieve its objectives. NCGA recommends use of the accrual basis to the fullest extent practicable in the Government environment. the report of research conducted by Likireman and Vass (1984) on government expenditure recommended continued adoption of cash basis of accounting by government. Oshisami (1992). considering the voluminous annual report resulting from this practice. Gary (1992). 1981) of USA. and liabilities incurred by that particular fund (Tackie-Yaoboi. proprietary. or expendable and nonexpendable funds. This provision in its present state makes the accrual basis of accounting illegal. In essence. assets owned or held. The Financial Administration Act. 2008). neutrality. all funds of a government must be classified into one of three fund categories: Governmental.2003 also requires the preparation of government accounts on fund basis. Chan (1992).2003 . The category of a fund determines the type of accounting and financial reporting that is accorded the activities conducted. A question arose as to whether each fund should also constitute a reporting entity. completeness and comparability. Critics further argue that reporting by fund creates a fragmentary and incomprehensible picture of government . They contend that Cash basis of accounting is adjudged useful for short term fiscal control whereas Accrual basis of accounting is the superior method for the economic resources of any organisation. it results in accounting measurements based on the substance of transactions and events rather than merely when cash is received and disbursed. have been criticised variously by Ngwu (1999). timeliness. and National Council on Governmental Accounting (NCGA.
however justifiable on grounds of stewardship. Tackie-Yaoboi (2008) states the objectives of government accounting as: • To ensure that a full account is made to the legislature on management of public finances and that its financial control as prescribed by the operated in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Ghana.finances. In the light of Financial Administration Act No. legal and contractual compliance. 1994). Chan (1992) opines that this practice.it produced comprehensive reports that are not comprehensible. The primary focus of financial accounting and reporting in those early days was determining whether cash. usually generated from general tax levies support current operating activities. 654 2003. Holder (1992) submits that the primary users of such reports were the administrators and legislative representatives of government that were guided by that information in performing their duties. 2. was collected in amounts that at least equalled the cash paid for those purposes and whether laws restricting the collection and expenditure of public funds were followed by those who administered the programmes. Holder (1992) opines that little thought was originally given to the usefulness of the information content of Government Financial Statements for external accountability. and .2 OBJECTIVES OF GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING Ghanaian system of government accounting has its roots from the British colonialists who were confronted with accounting and reporting problems that required resolution without the assistance of professional accounting standard-setting organisations (Anyafo. it is not ‘user-friendly’. certainly.
• To provide financial information useful for planning and budgeting and allocation of resources on the achievement of operational objectives. . Similarly. • To provide financial information useful for monitoring performance under terms of legal. use of funds requires stewardship reporting. However. the report of the committee on Public Sector Accounting stated the primary objectives of accounting in the public sector organisations as provision of information necessary for management controls and public accountability. the accounts showing fully the financial position as at the last day of each financial year of the Consolidated Revenue Fund and all other Government funds. the purpose of government accounting is to provide information about the economic and financial affairs of government agencies. balances and requirements of short-term financial resources of the government unit. Glyn (1987) reports that in Australia. contractual and judicial requirements.• To enable the Accountant-General to present to the Auditor-General for audit purposes. which preclude external reporting by the government. and • To provide information useful for evaluating managerial and organisational performances. In essence. It is tailored to emphasize the use of funds provided to accomplish objectives designed in the best interest of tax payers. institutions and units. Glyn (1987) relates these objectives to include: • To provide information useful for determining and predicting the flows. • To provide information useful for determining and predicting the economic condition of the government unit and changes therein.
Comparatively. 1999): Cash accounting seems to constrain the realization of Accounting system being capable of serving the basic financial information needs of development. programme-planning and appraisal of performance in physical and financial terms. Governmental Accounting Standard Board (GASB) of USA (1987) proposed the following objectives: • Financial reporting should assist in fulfilling government’s duty to be publicly accountable and should enable users to assess that accountability. and • Financial reporting should assist users in assessing the level of services that can be provided by the government entity and its ability to meet its obligations as they become due. lacking in the legal requirement of financial reporting in the Ghanaian context is the external reporting by government. • Financial reporting should assist users in evaluating the operating results of the government entity for the year. yet the financial reporting requirement have not changed from what were the practices in the colonial period. planning programming budgeting system (PPBS) and the accrual basis of accounting need . A comparison of Ghanaian Governmental Accounting system and the United Nations’ model for Government Accounting further highlights the areas of discrepancies (Ngwu. It is however observed that what is published by the Nigerian government varies greatly in the relative emphasis given to each of these objectives and functions. The importance of using Published Government Financial statements as a vehicle for public accountability through meeting external reporting requirements has been steadily increasing. After considering the governmental environment and users needs.
Statement of Recurrent Expenditure. Consolidated Revenue Fund (CRF). The five statements conform to the basic minimum which should be prepared for government. under operational criteria: the balance sheet. 1992): finalisation of accounts for publication. the users of corporate reports are defined as: “Having a reasonable right to information concerning the . Although the federal government supplies additional information. However. It is held also that a presentation of financial statements for the year without budgetary comparisons is first of all not in conformity with standard accounting principles and practice. All of the financial data in these publications contain up-to-date figures. statement of sources and operation of funds. the presentation format. but do not remove all the inadequacies. 2. Statements of Revenue. In the corporate report (1975) published in the United Kingdom. 1994). and is generally considered short of full disclosure (Anyafo.3 GOVERNMENT FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND USES The five Audited Financial Statements made available by the Auditor-General of Ghana represents the authentic and legal financial position of government at any time. the five statements suffer from some technical deficiencies in three areas (Oshisami. and the Development Fund.to be firmly implemented for the accounts to provide financial data useful for economic analysis and reclassification of government transactions to assist in development of national accounts. These financial statements include. statement of operations. Statement of Assets and Liabilities. and the inadequacies inherent in the application of cash basis of accounting without supplementary information.
In particular. and other external users. and Trade unions. Investors and Creditors. the respondents (users) were interested in information regarding events that may materially affect the statements after balance sheet date: contingent liabilities and instances of non-compliance with laws. regulations and agreement. The Governmental Accounting Standard Board (GASB. . Public official. Hay and Antonio (1990) observe that interviewees indicated that notes disclosures on government financial reports should be concise and contain essential information. 1978) and the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA. only material differences need to be disclosed in the notes. We consider that such rights arise from the public accountability of the entity whether or not supported by legally enforceable powers to demand information. Users recommended that for each major fund.” The National Council on Governmental Accounting (NCGA. ability or resources to obtain specific information.reporting entity. Another disclosure that users would like to see is material differences between the original budget and the final budget (due to supplementary appropriations). as voters. following the approach similar to that of Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB. 1981) of USA sponsored research paper identified many internal and external groups (and uses) as potential users. 1987) of USA however. Ngwu (1998) identified internal users (and uses) of Government financial reports as Government. Chan (1992) equally identifies external users of Government financial statements as: Citizens group: as service recipients. Legislative and oversight officials. and as taxpayers. focused on external users who have limited authority. 1974) paper group on the objectives of financial statement. users’ states that if budget and GAAP reporting differences are not reconciled on the face of the statements. In addition.
all those who have any role to play at any point in the organisational process carry the responsibility to account for actions undertaken (United Nations Development Programme. The mutually reinforcing transparency is worthless if it does not match appropriate accountability for use of discretion. Managerial accountability. Accountability and transparency are inseparable. Managerial accountability deals with the generation of essential information for decision . The form and content of accountability is further enhanced by procedural influences such as timeliness (or report authentication and communication) as well as the process (details of form and content).a five year history be provided regarding each major revenue source and a five-year expenditure history for each major fund by function. accuracy and fairness of reports. 1996). it becomes strengthened and even stronger if account is documented in writing and backed by supporting documents to evidence claims in the account. Oral representation or verbal account of actions represent the minimum and weakest form in the discharge of responsibility for accountability. program. and additional disclosures regarding assets and liabilities are necessary 2. These include Fiscal accountability. Four important criteria are regarded as basic to public service accountability. Furthermore. UNDP.4 FORM AND CONTENT OF ACCOUNTABILITY By the nature of accountability. or other category. and complete legitimacy of expenditure. and accountability is meaningless if it does not spring from transparent medium. Programme accountability and Individual accountability (UNDP. accountability is enhanced by the extent to which the duty to answer is discharged. 1996). Fiscal accountability is concerned with adherence to applicable laws and regulations. consistency with appropriate accounting principles and traditions.
. 1996). the compliance with every pertinent provision or personal quality of moral and financial rectitude cannot singularly ensure accountability. it involves such attributes as commitment. probity and integrity. Individual accountability is related to the personal qualities and conduct demonstrated by accountable officers. Programme accountability is broadly concerned with overall evaluation of programme impact and the extent to which intended goals and aspirations are attained.making. trust. The extent to which each element of accountability has to be strengthened to provide necessary and sufficient inducement for strong accountability should form the primary concern of such improvement. All have to go concurrently. honesty. It is also useful to note that the foregoing criteria serve to define the dimensions of accountability. The capacity for efficient service delivery also depends on the honesty and integrity of the public service. 2. prompt generation of credible reports. and the need for economy. It is held that individual accountability enhances overall transparency (UNDP. the maintenance of adequate records and books of account.5 Summary of literature review The level of accountability and transparency in the public service has serious implications for economic and social development. and effectiveness of operations. The existence of procedures and regulations. efficiency.
2 Population The target population for the study was the staff of the Controller and AccountantGeneral's Department and Audit Service of Ghana.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3. 3. and sourcing of data.1 Introduction This chapter looks at the methodology employed for this research. The population of the study was 124 staff .
Primary data were sourced through the use of questionnaires evaluated to the staff of controller and accountant general department and Audit service while secondary data were sourced through the use of books from the library. and internet sources.5 Sources of data Both primary and secondary data were used in this study. 3. scale used to measure perception of respondents about government accountability and the use of both qualitative and quantitative techniques like statistical tools and the use of figures to give pictorial representation of findings.3 Sample size A sample size of One hundred and twenty. .four employees at the Controller and Accountant-General's Department and Audit Service of Ghana was selected for the study. articles from journal.4 Sampling technique A systematic random sample of the population of 102 was taken only as representative of the aggregation of the elements that comprise the research sample. 3.3. 3.6 Research design This study made use of questionnaires.
the mean will be 45. The analysis tools used include mean. and use of tables for data presentation. Since there are 15-items. This means that data collected from the study will be handled with care.4.3. 3.8 Data analysis The procedures employed for data analysis were based on responses from the likertscale measures. The cut-off mean of 45. The sum of weights 5. coded and classified in a manner that will ensure errors and mistakes are minimized. 3. grouped. coded and classified in other to ensure that errors and mistakes are minimized. grouped.9 Type of statistical test The study tested for the standard deviations.2 and 1 is 15 which when divided by 5 (number of response categories) yields 3.10 Data presentation .0 (3.3. standard means.7 Quality control Data collected from the study will be handled with care.0 X 15) 3. and averages to understand the relationships between responses given by respondents.0 was determined along the following logic.0. The focus of quality control is to ensure that the process of data collection and data collected are error-free or error is minimized to the barest minimum.
Data presentation will look at the procedures and the manner in which data collected would be arranged and presented in a meaningful manner for easy understanding.11 Limitation of the methodology Data gathering was a very big headache during the research. Enquiries / Comments • • • • • • • HOME ABOUT US WHAT WE DO OUR WORK BY SECTOR GUIDANCE & BEST PRACTICES CONTACT US NEWS . The researchers will make use of descriptive statistics in the form of frequency distribution tables and diagrams. 3.It will involve the use of descriptive statistics in the form of frequency tables and diagrams.
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The 1969 Constitution made it an oversight body to promote good governance. Audit Service is the only institution mandated by the Constitution to monitor the use and management of all public funds and report to Parliament. Public Corporations and Organisations established by an Act of Parliament and report the findings to Parliament. This denied the Road Fund the needed reven.[ Read More ] CAPITATION GRANT OF GH¢ 13. and the Supreme Audit Institution (SAI) of Ghana. Municipal and District Assemblies. 910 USED FOR PTA MEETINGS: 14 March 2012 The Accra Metro Education Directorate of the Ghana Education Service for two academic years imposed levies totaling GH¢ 13.. The Service is headed by the Auditor General who is mandated to audit the public accounts of Ghana and all public offices including Metropolitan... Thus. [ Read More ] ARTICLES / FEATURES .Audit Service of Ghana is a constitutional body under the direction of a seven (7) member governing board . HIGHLIGHTS BANKS DENY GHANA ROAD FUND TIMELY ACCESS TO REVENUE: 21 March 2012 A special audit report on the Ghana Road Fund revealed that fuel levy totalling GH ¢30. 910 on the capitation grant to pay for Parent Tea..77million were held on by two banks between September 2008 and June 2010. Audit Service is therefore the monitoring and accountability organ of the state. ensure accountability and transparency in the Public Sector and Article 188 of the 1992 Constitution reaffirms this position.
accountability and probity in the public financial management system of Ghana by auditing to recognized international auditing standards. delivering professional. On 22nd August 1969. It was headed by a Director. In the 1950s.. The 1992 Constitution (Article 187. the name was changed to AuditorGeneral's Department. excellent. Vehicle and Licensing Authority (DVLA) willfully violated the Pub. and cost effective auditing services. This was to increase the degree of independence of the Service. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES The seven strategic objectives listed below. The Auditor-General and the head of Civil Service or his representative are automatic members of the Governing Board. MISSION STATEMENT The Audit Service exists to promote good governance in the areas of transparency. the Driver. (Act 584) reaffirms provisions made in the 1969 Constitution. 189) and the Audit Service Act 2000..DVLA WILLFULLY VIOLATES PROCUREMENT ACT [13/3/2012] A special audit report of the Auditor-General has revealed that from January 2008 to December 2009. 188. underpin the Audit Service's vision and mission statements . the management of public resources and reporting to Parliament. The President in consultation with the Council of State appoints the chairman and four other members of the Board. VISION The vision of Audit Service is to be one of the leading Supreme Audit Institutions in the world. the constitution of the 2nd Republic converted the department into the Audit Service headed by an Auditor-General. GOVERNING BODY A seven-member body called Audit Service Board governs the Audit Service.read more ESTABLISHMENT Audit Service was established in 1910 by the colonial government and was called the Audit Department.
(MDAs). submit his report to parliament and shall. WHAT WE DO Article 187(5) of the 1992 constitution states that "The Auditor-General shall.Central Departments Judiciary Municipal. To introduce and implement human resource policies and practices that promote the recruitment. 3. 2. draw attention to any irregularities in the accounts audited and to any other matter which in his opinion ought to be brought to the notice of Parliament. in that report. Councils. Houses . Courts. facilities and logistical support needs to ensure optimal performance by all staff of the Service. To promote increased accountability.1. administrative and operational independence of the Audit Service. 4. the Audit Service carries out among other duties. 6.The b) c) The Metropolitan. empowerment. 5. other professional bodies. 2. 7. To establish and operate quality control standards and performance assessment." MANDATE OF THE AUDITOR-GENERAL By Article 187(2) of the constitution. probity and transparency in the management and utilization of public resources by applying modern and emerging auditing techniques. 4. of Chiefs Ghana. To increase audit coverage and to produce regular and timely audit reports on all areas mandated by the Constitution and the Audit Service Act and promptly make such reports accessible to interested parties and stakeholders. To improve and sustain communication and cooperation between the Audit Service and its clients. career development. training. the auditing of: a) The public accounts of 1. within six months after the end of the immediately preceding financial year to which each of the accounts mentioned in clause (2) of this article relates. monitoring and reporting policies and procedures to promote cost effective and efficient delivery of auditing services. and and and which Agencies or District Traditional include: Government. motivation. advancement and retention of high professional calibre staff.Parliament Assemblies.Ministries. Parliament and the accountability and good governance agencies. To provide the enabling environment. To implement the provisions in the 1992 Constitution and the Audit Service Act 2000 (Act 584) and the Audit Service regulations (constitutional instrument number CI 56) towards the financial. 3.
g) An entity established with public funds or an act of Parliament e. has the primary responsibility for the audit of all the Ministries. •IT/Computerised Systems Audit •Payroll Audit OUR WORK BY SECTOR The Audit Service is made up of five (5) departments.d) Public Educational Institutions. . Commercial Audit Department (CAD) The CAD is responsible for the audit of Public Boards. tertiary and other Statutory Institutions. Departments and Agencies (MDAs) of Central Government. These are: •Financial Audit / Regularity Audit •Performance/Value For Money Audit. the Bank of Ghana. NHIS. which are consistent with international standards. Corporations. For this purpose. h) Half yearly foreign exchange receipts & payments statement of the BoG for the periods ending June 30 & Dec 31. These departments are: Central Government Audit Department (CGAD) The CGAD. GETfund. the Audit Service has offices in most MDAs in Accra. Road fund. 584) require varieties of audits.g. f) Public offices established by the constitution and other public offices as defined by Article 295 of the 1992 constitution. e) Governing boards: Bodies established with public funds including corporations. including Ghana’s foreign missions abroad. A Deputy Auditor-General (DAG) heads each department. At the Regional and District levels. companies and other enterprises. audits of MDAs are carried out by our offices located in those regions and districts. AUDITING FUNCTIONS The 1992 Constitution and the Audit Service Act 2000 (Act. which the Audit Service must perform. •Forensic Audit •Environmental Audit.
Traditional Councils Performance Audits Department (PAD) This department is made up of three sections. including Ghana’s foreign missions abroad. Corporations. OUR WORK BY SECTOR The Audit Service is made up of five (5) departments. Departments and Agencies (MDAs) of Central Government. At the Regional and District levels. (Act 584) mandates the Auditor General to audit programmes and activities of public offices with due regard to economy. efficiency and effectiveness in the use of resources. A Deputy Auditor-General (DAG) heads each department. the Audit Service has offices in most MDAs in Accra. and Information Technology Audit Section 13(e) of the Audit Service Act 2000. Commercial Audit Department (CAD) The CAD is responsible for the audit of Public Boards. 2. Municipal and District Assemblies. 3. These departments are: Central Government Audit Department (CGAD) The CGAD. Pre-University public Educational Institutions. tertiary and other Statutory Institutions. All Metroplitan. has the primary responsibility for the audit of all the Ministries. audits of MDAs are carried out by our offices located in those regions and districts. Educational (EIDA) Institutions and District Assemblies .Educational (EIDA) Institutions and District Assemblies EIDA is responsible for the audit of the following entities: 1. namely: • • • Performance Audit Special Funds Audit. For this purpose. the Bank of Ghana.
At the Regional and District levels. Departments and Agencies (MDAs) of Central Government. namely: • • • Performance Audit Special Funds Audit. 3. Commercial Audit Department (CAD) The CAD is responsible for the audit of Public Boards. Educational (EIDA) Institutions and District Assemblies EIDA is responsible for the audit of the following entities: . OUR WORK BY SECTOR The Audit Service is made up of five (5) departments. (Act 584) mandates the Auditor General to audit programmes and activities of public offices with due regard to economy. efficiency and effectiveness in the use of resources. Pre-University public Educational Institutions. All Metroplitan. 2.EIDA is responsible for the audit of the following entities: 1. For this purpose. has the primary responsibility for the audit of all the Ministries. including Ghana’s foreign missions abroad. A Deputy Auditor-General (DAG) heads each department. tertiary and other Statutory Institutions. the Bank of Ghana. These departments are: Central Government Audit Department (CGAD) The CGAD. the Audit Service has offices in most MDAs in Accra. Municipal and District Assemblies. Traditional Councils Performance Audits Department (PAD) This department is made up of three sections. audits of MDAs are carried out by our offices located in those regions and districts. and Information Technology Audit Section 13(e) of the Audit Service Act 2000. Corporations.
A Deputy Auditor-General (DAG) heads each department. audits of MDAs are carried out by our offices located in those regions and districts. At the Regional and District levels. Departments and Agencies (MDAs) of Central Government. (Act 584) mandates the Auditor General to audit programmes and activities of public offices with due regard to economy. For this purpose. namely: • • • Performance Audit Special Funds Audit. Educational (EIDA) Institutions and District Assemblies EIDA is responsible for the audit of the following entities: 1. the Audit Service has offices in most MDAs in Accra. All Metroplitan. These departments are: Central Government Audit Department (CGAD) The CGAD. the Bank of Ghana. and Information Technology Audit Section 13(e) of the Audit Service Act 2000. efficiency and effectiveness in the use of resources. 3. Corporations. All Metroplitan.1. 3. Pre-University public Educational Institutions. Municipal and District Assemblies. 2. Traditional Councils . Pre-University public Educational Institutions. 2. Municipal and District Assemblies. Traditional Councils Performance Audits Department (PAD) This department is made up of three sections. including Ghana’s foreign missions abroad. Commercial Audit Department (CAD) The CAD is responsible for the audit of Public Boards. tertiary and other Statutory Institutions. OUR WORK BY SECTOR The Audit Service is made up of five (5) departments. has the primary responsibility for the audit of all the Ministries.
Performance Audits Department (PAD) This department is made up of three sections. . (Act 584) mandates the Auditor General to audit programmes and activities of public offices with due regard to economy. namely: • • • Performance Audit Special Funds Audit. and Information Technology Audit Section 13(e) of the Audit Service Act 2000. efficiency and effectiveness in the use of resources.
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