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Homeostasis and Hormones Assignment

By Sivakumarran Agilan 12/18/2011

excretory products. The adapt to. osmotic gradients. pH and temperature. in other words the input and output. or the nervous system co-ordinated by the control centres in the brain and spinal chord. Similarly the nature and amounts of materials synthesised within the cell are controlled by the rates of protein synthesis. conditions as best they can. gasses.1. and the activity of the modulators. The mechanism of formation of this remarkably stable fluid and the mechanisms of its control have been widely studied. ions. . and tolerate. In all cases these parameters have one of several tissues. Metabolic activities in cells are determined by enzymes produced by the transcription and translation of the base sequence codes of DNA into the primary structure of proteins which act as enzymes. organs or organ systems to maintain control within narrow limits. haemolymph in insects. active mechanisms involving membrane bound carrier systems and changes in membrane distribution as shown by pinocytosis. electrical gradients. The internal environment of an organism and its control may be considered at two levels: the cellular level and tissue level. This is called sap in plants. if they posses locomotory mechanisms move to more favourable surroundings but for the most part they are at the mercy of the environment. They may. It is birds and mammals that show most control over the composition and its parameters of water. In the case of single-celled organisms their immediate environment is the external surroundings over which they have no control over. water in echinoderms and tissue fluid. The mechanisms of control in most animals involve responses by endocrine glands. In terms of control systems the maintenance of a steady state within a cell depends upon the rates of supply and utilisation of cellular material. The immediate environment of cells of multicellular plants and animals is an extracellular fluid. The sheer number of these minute species reflects their degree of success in surviving in spite of their structural simplicity. In mammals the immediate environment of all living cells is tissue fluid. nutrients. The cell is composed of cytoplasm whose constituents are modulated by the partial permeability of the cell membrane and by enzyme activity under the control of protein synthesis. Both single-celled organisms and cells of multicellular organisms control their internal environment as described above. hormones. The cell membrane only permits certain molecules to enter and leave the cell and the rates at which exchange is permitted are strictly controlled by diffusion gradients. The composition of this extracellular fluid can be regulated by the organism to varying degrees depending upon the efficiency and the effectiveness of their environment of their homeostatic organs. Regions of DNA carrying the code for a specific protein are known as genes and the switching on and off of genes are thought to be controlled by systems of induction and repression.

. At your lower lethal temperature (about 250C) your system will collapse and you will probably die. When the temperature of the blood is too low the hypothalamus sends a signal to the nervous system for vasoconstriction. If the body temperature continues to fall the nervous system signals muscles to contract therefore body heat is conserved and gained by muscle activity. Endothermic organism. When the temperature of the blood is too high the hypothalamus sends a signal to active sweat glands and for vasodiliation. In hot conditions the thermo-regulatory centre in the hypothalamus detects the temperature in the blood. At extreme internal body temperature you r body has to employ other strategies. Humans regulate their body temperature depending on the external environment. If your upper lethal temperature of about 420C is reached you will die. Your high critical temperature is very high. Their internal body temperature is independent of the external temperature. Body heat is now lost to the surroundings and is dropped towards normal.These are organisms that regulate their own body temperature internally. Your low critical temperature is about 270C and at temperatures this low your metabolic rate changes. In cold conditions where the temperature is low the thermorecptors in the skin detect the decrease in temperature in the blood and send a signal to the thermo-regulatory centre in the hypothalamus. It increases out of control. sweat gland to remain inactive and shivering causing hairs to stand up. For example: humans. but if it is reached your metabolic rate cannot decrease to lower it. This gives a rise in temperature towards the normal. This causes a decrease in metabolic rate and the hair lie flat. When this occurs we have an increase in metabolic rate.2.

parathyroid. Stimulates cholesterol side cleavage enzyme which makes the rate limiting step in streiodogensis. beta-endorphin hormone. stimulates the growth of all internal organs excluding the brain. Adrenocorticotropic hormone is a polypeptide tropic hormone. increase in muscle mass. thyroid gland. It consists of 39 amino acids. follicle-stimulating hormone. adrenal cortex. Posterior pituitary secretes the following hormones: oxytocin and antidiruectic hormone Growth hormone is a peptide hormone which stimulates growth. Reduces liver uptake of glucose.stimulating hormone. calcium retention.3 a) Hormone – a naturally occurring substance secreted by specialised cells that affects the metabolism rate or behaviour of other cells possessing functional receptors for the hormone. increases the transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria and activates hydrolysis. melanocyte. like insulin in which case the receptors are on the cell surface or lipophillic. promotes glyconeogenisis in the liver and stimulates the immune system. prolactin. Thyroid stimulating hormone regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland. b) The major endocrine glands are pituitary gland. Hormones may be hydrophilic. . gonads. Functions – Increase in height. promotes lipolysis. cell reproduction and regeneration in humans. like the steroids where the receptor can intracellular. Pituitary gland The pituitary gland is located in the middle base of the brain. luteinizing hormone. The pituitary gland consists of two components anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. adrenal medulla and the pancreas. plays role in homeostasis. adrenocorticotropic hormone. The anterior pituitary secretes the following hormones: growth hormone. thyroid stimulating hormone. Function: Stimulates lipoprotein uptake into cortic cells. inferior to the hypothalamus.