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360 Degree Performance Appraisal as a TQM Tool in Engineering Education

1.Manoj Khaladkar 2.Dr..A.S.Warke (Marathwada Mita Mandal’s College of Engg., Pune) 3.Shitalkumar Rawandale (Pimpri Chinchwad College of Engg., Pune) 4.Ratna Patil (Kanpur Institute of Technology, Kanpur) Abstract: Total Quality Management (TQM) concept of measurable & predictable error reduction can be applied to talent management. 360 degree performance appraisal processes have increasingly become a mode of evaluation & employee development. As an enhancement to a traditional review, where employees are given a single evaluation by superior, 360 degree performance appraisal provide a multisourced review. In this paper, an attempt is made to propose this system to engineering education. Concept, implementation strategy & reasons are discussed. Optimum utilization of human resource is the key in engineering education. Talent audit system can be used as best TQM tool in educational field. The predictive ability of 360 degree feedback process highlights long term success factors. Keywords: Performance appraisal, 360 degree feedback, talent audit systems, peers, multi source, multi layer.
Superior External customer Self Internal custome r

taking views of principal, head of the department, teaching staff members, students, laboratory assistants & university results. This appraisal system fits well with TQM initiatives in an educational institute. It will be a big task to measure individual’s skills, competencies, motivational drivers, work habits & potential for developing future competencies precisely. It is the best tool for identification of strengths of staff members for career development. It also identifies weaknesses for training & it can be used for salary recommendations. Feedback can be obtained by using a questionnaire which asks participants to rate the individual according to observed competencies / behaviors & data.

II Concept

I Introduction
360 degree performance appraisal / feedback is an evaluation tool that utilizes opinions of many different people that interact with the employee on a routine basis. It generates more accurate feedback by gathering information from people about individual’s performance as seen by the organizational structure & expectations of their boss, self, peers, subordinates & customers. Definition takes different form when this system is applied to engineering education. Here participants are principal, head of the department, teaching staff members, students & laboratory assistants. In industries, 360 degree performance appraisal system is widely used nowadays. In 1997, only 8% industries were using it, while this percentage has gone up to 52% by 2008. As far as engineering education is concerned (India & Abroad), this percentage is very less (upto 12%). Implementing 360 degree performance appraisal system provides more comprehensive performance ratings, as employees are given an opportunity to map their competencies. Performance rating of teacher can be decided by
Peer

Subordinat e

Fig.1. Concept of 360 degree performance appraisal (Industry lookout)

Typically, performance appraisals have been limited to a feedback process between employees & superiors. With the increased focus on teamwork, employee development & customer service, the emphasis has shifted to employee feedback from the full circle of sources. This multi input approach to performance feedback is called “360 degree assessment” to connote that full circle as shown in fig. 1. This system is a holistic approach incorporating views from many angles, multi level & multi source appraisal. Now by changing focus from industry to academia, sources in the circle will change. Different methods are available to assess the performance. Proper questionnaire has to be

colleagues.2. .Critical incidents method. rating of students should also be decided. feedback from principal.Mixed standard scales. B) Behavioral method . 1 2 3 Marks 20 20 15 10 10 10 5 5 5 III Implementation Planning Piloting 360 Degree Performance Appraisal Review Feedback Fig. Community partnership includes developing partnerships with individuals. feedback from principal. Sr. students. Cycle of implementation Implementation 4 5 6 7 8 9 Participant in Feedback Students' feedback Subject Result HOD Community partnership Self development Peers Principal Lab assistant Self appraisal Table 1. .designed. Marking scheme : As an introduction. students. Detailed description of methods is not covered in this paper: A)Trait method . Subject matter Mastery Contribution to curriculum development Instructional design & delivery Establishing a positive learning environment Completing related administrative requirements 5. colleagues. 3.Forced choice method. Institute can implement an appeal system to settle disagreements. Concept of 360 degree performance appraisal (Institute lookout) Different methods are available to assess the performance. social organizations outside the institute.Productivity measure. HOD & lab assistant will play an important role. 2. . For a teaching staff member.Essay method. Subject results should be compared with the university results. Marks Rating for teaching staff . 4.Graphic rating scales. Standards must be based on observable/measurable behavior of data.Checklist. While taking feedback from students. Following aspects are important for teaching staff member : 1. Proper questionnaire has to be designed. 100 marks rating method is proposed here for teaching staff member & HOD as follows: Lab Assistants Self Peers HOD Subject results Fig. can provide written copy of standards to the teacher before appraisal.Observation scale. Principa l Students Communit y partners Organization should ensure that this system doesn’t violate principles of fair employment practices. C) Result method:. 3. . HOD & lab assistant will play an important role. . Proper training is necessary to appraisers. Head of institute/head of Dept. For a teaching staff member. Methods: Following are few methods which can be mixed & questionnaire can be designed. No. groups.

Staff Students' feedback Subject Result Self development Community partnership Lab assistant Self Appraisal Table 2. it is necessary to align personal goal of staff member with organizational expectation. 3)Team based culture can be a catalyst for attaining organizational objectives. Staff members become more inclined to consider factors beyond HOD’s expectations when exhibiting behaviors & striving for results. This is information repository where organizations have a complete inventory of strengths & weaknesses of all the employees in every key position. engineering institute can be in a position to prepare Talent Audit System. 4)It detects barriers to success. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Marks 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 Participant in Feedback Principal Dept. 1)360 degree feedback determines relationship between strategic plan/vision of institute & performance expectations. IV. Guidelines:i) Ask for self assessment ii) Invite participation iii) Express appreciation iv) Minimize criticism v) Change behavior. At the end. No. Reasons to implement 360 degree performance appraisal For educational institutes. For teaching staff members. not the person. 2) It increases focus on customer service & reinforce TQM & continuous process improvement programs. Following lacunas come out:- Pie chart 1 : Marks Rating for teaching staff Sr.vii) viii) 5% 5% 10% 5% 20% 1 2 3 4 5 10% 20% 6 7 8 10% 15% 9 Support Establish goals Some issues related to execution of 360 degree Performance Appraisal : 1) How will the new process be communicated to staff members? 2) Should an outside consultant be used? 3) Whether computer based evaluation or paper & pencil form be used. Marks Rating for HOD 5% 10% 5% 20% 1 2 3 4 5 20% 6 7 8 15% 10% 15% Pie chart 2 : Marks Rating for HOD It is expected that all marking will be done only after proper setting of questionnaire. This system can be used as a diagnostic & assessment tool to increase employee participation & to demonstrate a commitment to their workforce. six questionnaires of following participants are expected : a)HOD b)Student c)Peers d)Principal e)Lab Assistant f)Self Head of institute will take care of marking of community partnerships. vi) Focus on solving problems i) Inflexibility ii) iii) Lack of initiative Inappropriate leadership style .

360 degree performance appraisal is the best tool to achieve this goal. .about. Evaluation & communication 4. If implementation takes place in a systematic way. In industries ROI as high as 700% is observed after successful implementation. Objective of this system is to identify areas for both organizational & individual improvement. REFERENCES: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) www.hr. as described then new era of TQM implementation will be open for the educational organizations.gov TQM-Journal for quality April 2007. Follow up 6. Survey.opm. academic & career oriented growth of students & staff.com www.org www.quality. social. Formation of developmental plans. US office of personnel management supports research that shows “assessment approaches with multiple rating sources” provide more accurate reliable & credible information. Feedback process 3.org. can use these results to plan departmental training needs.managers.businessballs. 5.5) iv) Unwillingness to learn recent technologies.opm.com www. (V) Conclusion Good engineering institutes are those where activities are designed & prompted which result in personal. Each Dept. Design questionnaire 2.org www.uk www.com http://humanresources. Easy to implement: Steps of implementation: 1.