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A

SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

ON

AXEL COUNTER

AT

SUBMITTED BY:MITIL KUMAR 0829021409 EEE, 4th - year


ABES IT GHAZIABAD

CONTENTS
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Certificate . Acknowledgement Company Profile. The organization CEL Divisions of CEL...... Products of CEL Nations Pioneer & World leader in SPV. Innovative Electronic System.. Quality Policy of CEL.. Universal Axle Counter. Introduction . Flow manufacturing chart of of

Principle working...
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Brief description.. Specifications Description of various modules of Axle Counter System...... Other products of CEL. SPV products. Cathodic protection system Ferrite Products New Products Media Gallery Self Evalution .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am very thankful to Mr. ASHOK KOHLI (GM/ SPD) for providing me the opportunity to undergo the practical training in the Systems Production Division (SPD) of Central Electronics Limited under the supervision of Mr. M. D. Mishra (CM). They all guided me from time to time and gave me dynamic ideas and suggestions by which I am able to complete my training successfully. I also want to thank all the visible and non-visible hands, which helped me to complete the practical training with great success.

MITIL KUMAR

INTRODUCTION :-

Central Electronics Limited is a public sector Enterprise under the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India. It was established in 1974 on 26th june with an objective to commercially exploit the indigenous technologies developed by national laboratories and R & d Institutions in the country. CEL is one of the rare companies which utilized the homegrown technologies during all these years of its existence

CEL has developed a number of products for the first time in the country through its own R&D efforts and in close association with the premier National & International laboratories including Defense Laboratories. In recognition of all these efforts, CEL has been awarded a number of times with prestigious awards including NATIONAL AWARD for R&D by DSIR.

CEL is pioneer in the country in the field of Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) and it has developed state of the art technology with its own R&D efforts. Its solar products have been qualified to International Standards

EC503/IEC1215 by the European Commission, joint Research center, and ISPRA, ITALY

.CEL, pioneer in the field of Railways Safety & Signaling, has been identified as a major indigenous agency for design an development of modern electronic signaling and safety equipment by Indian Railways. The equipment manufactured in CEL finds extreme usage in Railways in the form of Axle Counter, Axle Counter Block System and Train Approach Warning devices. CELs Digital Axle Counter is approved as per European CENELEC safety level SIL-4 by RDSO(Research Design and Standard Organization of Indian Railways )as an approved source in part-1 for various railway safety and signaling equipments for more than 25 years.

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE COMPANY AND COLLABORATING AGENCY CEL IS A HIGH TECHNOLOGY COMPANY
Central Electronics Ltd. is a public sector enterprise, under the administrative control of the Deptt. Of Scientific & Industrial Research.

CEL is a pioneer in the field of solar Photovoltaic in the country and is today ranked among the first few in the world in this area of activity. CEL is also credited with many firsts in the country, professional Ferrites being one of them.

CEL is presently engaged in the development, production and sale of selected electronic components (Professional Ferrites, Electronics Ceramics and Phase Shifters), selected electronic systems, solar photovoltaic cells, modules and SPV systems and to take up engineering development &

production based on indigenous technology developed through in house efforts or know how from National Laboratories / Institutions.

The Operations of the company are divided into three Business Groups. Solar Photovoltaic Group (SPVG), Systems Group (SG) and Components Group (CG).

ORGANISATION STRUCTURE OF CEL

CHAIRMAN & MANAGING DIRECTOR

GENERAL MANAGER (CP & HRD)

GENERAL MANAGER
(PROJECT MANAGEMENT)

Jt. GENERAL MANAGER (FINANCE)

Jt. GENERAL MANAGER


(MATERIALS MANAGEMENT )

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
(OPERATIONS)

AGM
(QUALITY ASSURANCE)

GENERAL MANAGER (SYSTEMS)

Jt. GENERAL MANAGER (MICROWAVE)

AGM (FERRITE)

GENERAL MANAGER (SPV)

Jt. GENERAL MANAGER

Jt.GM (CERAMICS)

(R&D)

DIVISIONS OF CEL

Five business groups handle the total commercial operations of the Company. These are as follows:

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC GROUP (SPV):


CEL, backed by an integrated production facility, has opened up new horizons in the field of Solar Photovoltaics. It fulfils the various demands from rural & urban areas, thus, harnessing the solar energy. The products of this division are Solar Cells, Modules and systems, which serve the industrial needs of Railway Signaling, Microwave Repeaters, Defence equipments, Obstruction warning lights at airports, etc. and rural needs such as pumping systems for irrigation, street lighting systems, solar lanterns and rural telecommunications.

ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS GROUP (ESG):


The Company is a pioneer in manufacturing of Railway Signaling and Safety Equipments. It manufactures Axle
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Counters, Railway Level Crossing Warning System, Solid State Interlocking System for Railways. The other products of this division include Electronic Switching System, Cathodic Protection System for underground pipelines and VSAT.

COMPONENTS GROUP:
A large range of products is manufactured here using state-of-art technologies to meet the requirements of communications, defense, consumer and industrial sectors.

It is divided into three sub departments. Their products and applications are as follows:

(a) Professional Ferrites:

This department manufactures different types of ferrite cores for high frequency applications. The different types of cores manufactured are Pot cores, E, U, I, RM, torroids etc. These are called professional because they require highly sophisticated techniques for their manufacture and give a superior performance. The various applications of ferrite cores include TV sets, Communication equipments, computers, electronic ballasts, switch mode power supplies (SMPS) and Microwave equipments.

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(b) Electronic Ceramics:

This department manufactures piezo-electric transducer elements, high temperature crucibles, high speed bearings and other alumina products. These products are used in Defense ammunitions, Ultrasonic cleaners, Buzzers, Sonars, Gas Lighters, Automobiles, etc.

(c) Microwave Electronics:

This department components such as

manufactures

microwave

Phase Shifters used in Radars, Direction Finding Systems, Frequency Correlators, Antennas, etc.

PRODUCTS OF CEL

The organization manufactures different products that can be classified according to the divisions of CEL as follows:

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Solar Photovoltaic Group :

Solar Cells/Modules Solar Lantern Street Light System Home Light System Water Pumping System

Electronic Systems Group :

Single / Multiple Entry / Exit Axle counters Universal Axle counters Block proving system Railway Level Crossing Warning system Solid State Interlocking System for Railways Cathodic Protection system Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Electronic Switching Equipments

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Components Group :

Different types of ferrite cores like Pot, RM, E, U, I, etc Piezoelectric transducer elements Special Bearings used in Heavy Water Plants Microwave Ferrite Phase shifters Direction Finding Systems Frequency / Phase Correlators

NATIONS PIONEER & WORLD LEADER IN SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC

In an era of growing energy needs and rising concern for environment, solar energy, the abundant and pollution free non-conventional energy source, offers the best alternative solution.

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CEL, with its commitment to harness the solar energy, has opened up new vistas in the field of solar photovoltaics; CEL is the poignant and the largest producer of solar photovoltaics.

Backed by an integrated production facility, CEL has made accumulative supply of over 1.5 lakhs SPV systems (20 MW) spread over 28 different types, covering both rural and industrial applications. The company has not only given a fillip to the Indian SPV market but also exported products to Indonesia, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Egypt, Cuba, Nepal, Mali, Columbia and Costa Rica.

CEL has successfully transferred technology for manufacturing SPV Modules and Systems to Rajasthan Electronics & Instruments Ltd. India in 1985 and very recently to Scientific Studies and Research Center (SSRC), Syria in May 1997. This is the first case of SPV Technology Export from the Developing World.

CELs SPV Modules conform to the international specifications JPL Block V and IEC specification No. CEI / IEC 61215. CEL SPV Modules were certified by European Solar Test Installations (ESTI), JRC, Ispra, Italy.

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INNOVATIVE ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

Signalling Railways :-

& Safety Systems for the Indian

CEL is the pioneer Public Sector Company supplying Railway Signaling and Safety equipments to Indian Railways.

CEL continually identifies new requirements of the Railways and develops / manufactures the same in association with Research, Design and Standards Organization (RDSO) and Railway Board.

The Company is currently engaged in development of Digital Axle Counter in association with RDSO and Department of Scientific Industrial Research (DSIR).

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The product is undergoing extensive field trials in different zones of Indian Railways and software validation is under progress. The product is expected to be deployed in Indian Railways Signalling network in large numbers by the end of year 2002.

Cathodic Protection Systems :-

CEL supplies Automatic Cathodic Protection Systems for the protection of oil / gas pipelines to organizations like Indian Oil Corporation, ONGC and GAIL.

The Company supplies different types of Cathodic Protection Systems operating with solar photovoltaic or thermoelectric power sources or operating on grid supply.

QUALITY POLICY

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The complete manufacturing operation, marketing and installation services of the company is certified under ISO 9002 : 1994. The company has enunciated the following quality policy to meet customer needs and expectations through supply of quality products and services.

CEL is committed to strive for leadership in the product marketed by the way of continuous improvements in the quality of its products and services and meeting the consumers needs in time and every time at a competitive price.

These shall be achieved through continuous upgrading of technology and process improvement by involving all the employees, vendors, dealers and customers.

Quality is our basic business principle.


Quality objective

On time delivery of defect free products

Providing effective customer support

Continual improvement of processes

Improvement of infrastructure

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Development of human resources

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UNIVERSAL COUNTER
FOR

AXLE

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INDIAN RAILWAYS

INTRODUCTION
Axle counters were developed as a substitute for track circuiting. Initially axle counters were imported from Germany to gain experience and to evaluate their suitability for adoption on Indian Railways. Having gained acceptability for introduction on a wide scale on Indian Railways, it was considered to take up indigenous development of axle counters, which was taken up in collaboration with IIT, Delhi and DOE. Two models of axle counters known as single entry/exit axle counter and multi entry/exit axle counters emerged and after extensive laboratory and field trails under various conditions, the design was finalized and commercialized through private sector as well as public sector.
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Based on the feedback from field, a new axle counter has been developed by RDSO, known as UNIVERSAL AXLE COUNTER.

NEED FOR AXLE COUNTERS :


The track circuits are considered as the vital components of signaling system to achieve safety of train operations. Various Accident Enquiry Committees have recommended to bring more and more tracks under track circuiting to safeguard against reception of trains on occupied lines. The track circuiting could not achieve desired progress due to virtual scarcity of wooden sleepers, prohibitive cost and environmental consciousness in the country and the world at large. Availability of concrete sleepers have solved the problem to some extent but track circuiting on loop lines, points and crossings still suffers for want of adequate supply and insertion of concrete sleepers.

ADVANTAGES :
The advantages of Axle Counter over a conventional track circuit are: (i) It does not require wooden sleepers (where concrete sleepers are not available) except for short track circuits to suppress the counts due to movement of insulated trolleys.

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(ii)

An Axle Counter System can cover a very long section of upto 15 km as compared to 750 mtrs. of maximum length of operation of conventional track circuit.

(iii) It does not get affected either by flooding of track or poor maintenance of tracks unlike track circuits, which is highly susceptible to these conditions. (iv) It does not require insulating joints, thus, rails can be continuously welded. This reduces track maintenance cost, lower wear and tear of tracks and vehicles and to increase traveling comfort.

APPLICATIONS :
Axle counters are finding more and more uses on modern safety signaling systems in the railways. These are being used presently for the following applications:

(i) (ii)

Monitoring of berthing tracks in station areas and yards. Monitoring of point zones in station areas and yards.

(iii) Automatic signaling systems. (iv) Block section monitoring (between stations) through axle counters using multiplexers with cable or radio communication (18 GHz).
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(v)

Level crossing warning system.

FLOW CHART FOR MANUFACTURING OF AXLE COUNTER

Fabrication Electronic Components Raw Materials


COMPONENT CABINET

PCB

INSPECTIO INSPECTIO

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Rej ected Rejected Accepted Accepted


WAVE

PAINTING

Mechanical Components
MECHANICAL FITTING REWORK STATION

CLEANING

INSPECTIO

CABINET WIRING

Rejected Accepted
CARD TESTING

LACQUERING

SYSTEM

INTEGRATION

SYSTEM TESTING

INSPECTION

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SHIPMENT

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

Signal aspect for train movement is controlled based on clear or occupied status of the track section. If a train occupies the track section, signal at the entry point of the section is made RED and the next train is stopped from entering into the section. When the track section is clear the signal is made GREEN and the train is allowed to proceed into the section.

The clear or occupied condition of the track section is decided by Axle Counter by counting the number of axles of train at entry and exit points of the section. The axle counter compares the IN and OUT counts and in case of count equality TRACK CLEAR signal is given. In all other conditions TRACK OCCUPIED signal is given.

Signal Signal

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R1 R3

R2 R4

Railway Track

T1 T3 T4 Entry Point Exit Point

T2 Track Section

EJB 1

EJB 2

Signal Control Relay Output

Cable

EVALUATOR

Cable

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AXLE COUNTER INSTALLATION

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BRIEF DESCRIPTION
The Axle Counter is an electronic device and the complete system consists of :

(i)

Track mounting and trackside equipment.

(ii)

Transmission media between trackside equipment and central evaluator.

(iii) Central evaluator with EV relays and SUP relays as its output.

(iv) Reset box.

(v)

Line verification box.

Track mountings and track side equipments :

The track mounting equipment consists of a pair of transmitter and receiver coils housed in specially designed housings, which are fixed to flange of a rail section by means of suitable rail clamps using bolts and nuts. Each detection point has two sets of such tracks devices mounted on same rail with a fixed stagger between them. The two transmitter coils of a detection point are
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connected in series to 5 kHz oscillators housed in electronic junction box which is installed in a location box by the side of the track. The output of two receiver coils of a detection point serve as inputs to two receivers amplifiers housed in the same electronic junction box through cables which are part of the track mounting equipment. Electronic junction box is powered by 24 V DC supply.

Transmission media between trackside equipment and central evaluator :

The connection between trackside equipment and central evaluator is made using balanced twin twisted quad cables of specification IRS: TC/41/90. The output of electronic junction box and input of central evaluator are matched for an impedance of about 180 ohms at 5 kHz.

There is attenuation of signal from electronic junction box to central evaluator, which limits the length of the cable. Other media such as optic fiber and wireless system may also be used in place of cable by incorporating appropriate interfacing equipment at transmitting and receiving ends.

Central evaluator with EV relay and SUP relay as its output :

The signals received from electronic junction boxes are processed in the central evaluator first by analog circuits and then by digital circuits to produce suitable output in

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terms of picking up or dropping of EV and SUP relays. The Dips generated by wheels as they pass over the track

devices installed at detection points, after they get processed, generate count pulses in a fail safe manner.

These pulses are identified as IN COUNTS or OUT COUNTS depending on the direction of movement of vehicles over the monitored section. The counts are also displayed through the 7-segment display on the front panel of the evaluator. The display unit is useful in fault localization and initial and periodical adjustments.

The evaluator is provided with its own power supply unit known as DC DC converter mounted in the same rack and requires 24 V DC supply for its operation. The output of the EV and SUP relays are used to indicate TRACK CLEARED or TRACK OCCUPIED conditions.

Reset Box :

This equipment is installed in the station masters room to enable resetting of central evaluator in case of failure of system after observing prescribed procedure. The reset unit consists of a RESET key (which gets actuated after inserting, turning and pressing), the counter and 3 LED indications (Red, Yellow and Green). This unit requires 24 V DC supply for its operation. This unit functions in conjunction with the line verification box.

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Line Verification Box :

This box is required to be kept near monitored track portion outside Station Masters (SM) office for achieving co-operative feature. This is a box consisting of a lock with a key fixed inside. The lock gets actuated only when the key is inserted, turned and pressed. Whenever there is a failure of axle counter, SM will depute his ASM/Switchman to verify whether the track section controlled by axle counter is clear or not. ASM/Switchman after verification of the track, if found clear, will report to SM who in turn will handover the key of line verification box for operation.

TYPE OF SYSTEMS :

There are four types of system used in the Indian Railways. They are named below :

(i)

One Device (1-D) System.

(ii)

Two Device (2-D) System.

(iii) Three Device (3-D) System.

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(iv) Four Device (4-D) System.

1-D System:

In this system, there is a common detection point at entry and exit point of monitored section. This system is useful for monitoring the berthing track of terminal yard. A train after passing the detection point generates pulses equal to axles in it and these pulses are counted and stored by the evaluator as IN COUNTS.

At the time of exit of train, the same detection point will be encountered and it generates the same number of pulses as that during the entry. These pulses are counted and recorded as OUT COUNTS by the evaluator. When the IN COUNTS and OUT COUNTS are equal, the system gives a

Track clear indication, otherwise it gives the Track occupied indication.

2-D System :

The principle of working of this system is similar to 1-D System except that in this system there are two detection points, one at each end of the monitored section. This system is useful for providing track circuiting on berthing track.

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3-D System :

In this system, there are three detection points. The principle of working of this system is similar to 2-D system. This system is useful for providing track circuitry on points, crossings and sidings.

4-D System :

In this system, there are four detection points. The principle of working of this system is similar to 2-D system. The system is useful for providing track circuiting on branch lines, sidings and points and diamond crossings.

The design of 4-D system is such that it can be converted into a 2-D system or a 3-D system and viceversa.

SPECIFICATIONS
Universal Axle Counter System mainly comprises of following equipments : 1. Rack, ACS-55/56/57 -- (Common type for all models) 1 No. 2. Evaluator 1 No.
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-- EV 542 / 543 / 544

3. DC-DC converter Card) 1 No.

-- (inside Evaluator only as 10th

4. Electronic Junction 2 Nos. box , JB-533 3 Nos. 4 Nos.

-- for 2D system (ACS-55-2D) -- for 3D system (ACS-56-3D) -- for 4D system (ACS-57-4D)

5. Reset box 1 No.

-- RB 257B

6. Track Device 2 Nos. Assembly 3 Nos. TR 556 4 Nos.

-- for a 2D system (ACS-55-2D) -- for a 3D system (ACS-56-3D) -- for a 4D system (ACS-57-4D)

7. 1 No.

Line

verification

box

--

LV

261

PARAMETER SPECIFICATIONS

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1. No. of Detection Points ACS-55 / 56 / 57 2/3/4

2. Maximum Train Speed

200 kmph

3. Counting Capacity

1023

4. Max. Line Attenuation (over cable) 20 dB

5. Signal Input (5 KHz) sinusoidal mv.rms mv.rms 6. Relay Drive Voltage for 1000 ohm Shelf type 4F / 4B relay or Q Style Plug in Relay 1000 ohm, 4F / 4B > 10 V

Min. 150 Max. 1500

Power Requirement :
Powers required by various units are as follows :

DC DC Converter 24 V (-10% to +20%)

1.5 Amp max.

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Evaluator 24 V (21.6 28.8 V DC)

1.5 Amps

Junction Box 24 V (21.6 28.8 V DC)

< 250 mA

Reset Box 24 V (21.6 28.8 V DC) reset key is

500 mA (only when pressed)

Environmental Conditions :
Relative Humidity Condensing Temperature range : 95 % - 98% Non

Universal Evaluator C

0 to + 60

Junction Box & Track Devices

0 to + 70 C

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PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS :
The approximate dimensions and weights of various units of Universal Axle Counter are given as follows :

Name of UNIT

WIDT H (mm )

DEPT H (mm )
650 650 439 280 175 330

HEIGH T (mm)
1065 1460 310 170 115 170

WEIGH T (kg)
70 100 21 5 2.3 15

SINGLE RACK DOUBLE EVALUATOR JUNCTION BOX RESET BOX TRACK DEVICE ASSEMBLY LINE VERIFICATION BOX

570 600 482 208 255 515

150

135

80

1.20

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Colour :
The rack is painted in a combination of light and dark grey colours. Evaluator, Junction box and Reset box are also painted in the same colour combination. The track devices are painted in black colour.

IDENTIFICATION :
Rack :

The identification label of the rack is put at the left hand top on the front side of the rack with inscription. a) b) c) For a 2D system Universal axle Counter, ACS 55 with EV 542 Evaluator. For a 3D Universal Axle Counter System, ACS 56 with EV 543 Evaluator. For a 4D Universal Axle Counter System, ACS 57 with EV - 544 Evaluator.

The serial no. label is mounted on the right hand top side of the rack at the back.

Evaluator :

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The label Evaluator, EV - 542, EV - 543 or EV - 544, for a 2D, 3D or a 4D system respectively is marked on the front side of the evaluator. The serial no. label is on the back side.

Junction Box :

On the top (front) of the Junction Box the label JUNCTION BOX, (JB-533) given whiles the serial no. label is on the back plate.

Reset Box :

The label RB 257B is given on the front side. The Sr. No. label is on the back side.

Line Verification Box :

The label LINE VERIFICATION BOX, LV - 261 is put on the front side and the Sr. No. label is on the right side cover.

Track Devices :

Labels indicating the Tx and Rx coil of the Track Devices are given on each track transducer.
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DC DC Converter :

It is the 10th Card Module inside the Evaluator and it is marked as POWER SUPPLY.

DESCRIPTION MODULES OF SYSTEM :

OF AXLE

VARIOUS COUNTER

1.EVALUATOR :

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The Evaluator consists of 10 PCB modules. The interconnections between the various PCB cards are made with the help of a motherboard. The polarization arrangement (to avoid wrong insertion of modules) is provided on the aluminum modular sheets in each. Hence it is important to ensure correct fitting of modular shield in each card. In the Universal Axle Counter System manufactured by Central Electronics Limited , relevant card number has been number punched for easy identification to ensure correct fitting of modular shields. A brief description of each P.C. assembly is given below.

(a)

Attenuator/Amplifier & Rectifier Card (Card no. 1) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). It contains four identical channels , each comprising of a 5 kHz high pass filter , a line matching transformer, attenuator pads, a two stage amplifier and a full wave rectifier. The output of each channel can be set precisely by means of a lockable shaft potentiometer

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mounted at the front end of the PCB module. Typical output is 300 mv (P-P) or 105-mv rms.

(b) Attenuator/Amplifier & Rectifier Card (Card no. 2) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). It contains four identical channels , each comprising of a 5 kHz high pass filter , a line matching transformer, attenuator pads, a two stage amplifier and a full wave rectifier. The output of each channel can be set precisely by means of a lockable shaft potentiometer mounted at the front end of the PCB module. Typical output is 300 mv (P-P) or 105-mv rms.

For 1D and 2D Systems, there will be one such card (Card no. 1) while for 3D and 4D Systems, the evaluator will have two nos. of such cards (Card nos. 1 & 2).

(c) Pulse Shaper Card (Card no. 3) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). It contains four


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identical channels, each consisting of a low pass filter, a Schmitt trigger, an impulse time filter and a 10 V to 5 V level converter. The outputs of these channels are TTL compatible. In addition to above, each channel comprises of a Trolley Suppression Circuit.

(d) Pulse Shaper Card (Card no. 4) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). It contains four identical channels, each consisting of a low pass filter, a Schmitt trigger, an impulse time filter and a 10 V to 5 V level converter. The outputs of these channels are TTL compatible. In addition to above, each channel comprises of a Trolley Suppression Circuit.

For 1D and 2D Systems, there will be one such card (Card no. 3) while for 3D and 4D Systems, the evaluator will have two nos. of such cards (Card nos. 3 & 4).

(e) Logic I (Card no. 5) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). This card generates IN COUNTS and OUT COUNTS, depending upon the direction of the train movement, due to the dips caused form the track transducers E, F, G, H. In addition to main count pulses, duplicate incount and outcount pulses are also generated here for supervision purpose. The IN COUNT, OUT COUNT, Duplicate In count and Duplicate Out count pulses are fed separately to different combiner gates housed
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in card 6 (Logic II) and thereafter fed to the counter card (Card 7) for further processing.

As E, F, G, H channel inputs are used only in case of 3D or 4D Systems, card 5 will be used only with the 3D and 4D Evaluators.

(f) Logic II (Card no. 6) :

This is also a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). This card houses the logic circuitry to generate IN COUNTS, OUT COUNTS, DUPLICATE IN COUNTS and DUPLICATE OUT COUNTS due to the dips caused from channel inputs from the track detection points A, B, C and D. It also has combiner gates, which combine the count pulses generated from all the detection points AB, CD, EF and GH. The outputs of these gates are fed to the counter card (Card no. 7) for counting and counts supervision.

Card 6 also has an INTERROGATOR circuit. This generates four clock pulse trains. All these four pulse trains are staggered in phase, with each of these pulse trains having a phase difference of 25 secs. As compared to the subsequent one.

The interrogator ensures that even if more than one incount or more than one outcount are fed simultaneously from different detection point, the final count pulses fed to the counter card get staggered and thus counts are not missed.

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In addition to above, this PCB also houses the IN/OUT supervision circuits, both counter checking each other. In case of any malfunction the system latches to failure condition. This card also houses the 1st outcount inhibit circuit which ensures latching up of the system in the event of 1st count getting registered being an OUT COUNT instead of an IN COUNT.

(g) Counter Comparator (Card no.7) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). This card houses two 10 stage digital counters. One for counting the IN COUNTS and the other for OUT COUNTS. It also has count super- vision circuits, both for in counts as well as the out counts, to check the integrity of the counters. In addition, there are two comparators; one being a duplicate of the other, to compare the counts from the two counters the IN COUNTER and the OUT COUNTER.

The outputs of the comparators are further compared with EX-OR chain to ensure integrity of the comparators.

(h) General Supervision Card (Card no. 8) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm). It houses the following evaluator circuits :

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(i) Comparator Supervision. (ii) A series of monoshots forming a chain for static supervision i.e. to prove the effectiveness of a number of DC levels of the system and a few ground points. (iii) Pulse Shaper (Card no. 3 and 4) supervision for all the eight channels. (iv) Failure Supervision.

(j)Relay Driver (Card no. 9) :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm) and it houses the following circuits :

(i) Level detector circuits for all the 8 channel inputs to ensure the presence of proper channel input levels.

(ii) The VOLTAGE MONITOR, which serves as, a WATCH DOG for the +5V power supply to the Evaluator.

(iii) Relay driver outputs for driving the EV relay and the supervisory relay.

(k) Counts Display Card :


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This is a double sided PCB (Size: 225mm X 275mm) containing four seven segment LEDs for IN COUNTS and four seven segment LEDs for OUT COUNTS and it can count upto 1023 counts in both the display. This card is mounted on front panel of evaluator and counts are recorded in decimal system.

(l)EV & SUP Relay Indication LEDs :

The output of the Evaluator is used to drive two 12 Volts DC, 4F/4B shelf type relays or 12 Volts DC, Q-style 4F/4B plug-in relays which are used to indicate the track clear or track occupied indications to control signal aspects. Two 10 mm dia. LEDs (Green and Red) have been provided in the front side of the Axle Counter Rack in a metallic strip for locally displaying the position of the above relays. These LEDs have to be suitably wired at the time of installation as per requirements from the terminal strip connections provided at the rear side of the Axle Counter Rack.

(m)

Mother Board :

This is a double sided PCB (Size: 420 mm X 260 mm) mounted at the back of the Evaluator. The PCB is mounted at right angles to the other 10 PC Cards and serves the purpose of providing various interconnections between them. The female parts of the Euro Connectors are mounted on this PCB and corresponding male parts which are mounted on the
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PCBs (Cards 1 to 10) mate with them when the card modules are inserted in the unit. The mother board also provides access, through MS Couplers, to feed various inputs like channel inputs from the tracks, power supply and trolley protection and to feed outputs to the EV and the Supervisory Relays kept in the rack.

(n) Reset Relay :

This is mounted at the back of the Evaluator on the motherboard. A 67DP-24-4C3 OEN Relay is mounted on this PCB with a mounting socket. This Relay resets the System whenever required to do so.

2.

ELECTRONIC JUNCTION BOX (EJB) :

The Electronic Junction Box houses PCB modules which are inter- connected through motherboard. All the incoming / outgoing signals

are terminated on the MS Couplers (7 pin) mounted at the back of the junction box. Two types of outputs are available from the EJB. The output of the EJB is sent to the Evaluator either through a 4 wire or a 2-wire system.

(a) 4-Wire System :


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In a 4-Wire System, two pairs of under ground cable are required to send transition signal to evaluator for counting the dips. In this system there are three PCBs consisting of common oscillator feeding to two transmitter coils in series and two number of receiver amplifiers, one for each receiver coil. The sequence of cards is, regulator and oscillator in first position, first amplifier in 2nd position and second amplifier in the 3rd position from left to right.

Detail of individual cards :

CARD No. 1 : Regulator / Oscillator Card. (Size : 200 mm X 110 mm)

This is a single sided PCB (size : 200mm X 110 mm), which generates 5 KHz 20 Hz sinusoidal signal which is fed to the transmitter coils in series. The output voltage is 60 V 10% (rms) and current supplied is 420 mA 10% in the coils in series.

CARD No. 2 : Receiver Amplifier-1. (Size : 200 mm X 110 mm)

This is a single sided PCB of size same as that of card 1 and it rejects any noise over riding in the signal by means of a two stage tuned amplifier. The output of the receiver coil (1) is fed to the input of the amplifier. The

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output of the amplifier is connected to the Evaluator and voltage is more than 1.2 V (rms).

CARD No. 3 : Receiver Amplifier-2. (Size : 200 mm X 110 mm) This card is exactly similar to card no. 2 and is used for receiver coil(2).

(b)2-Wire System :

In 2-wire system, a 4th card is inserted in the EJB, which converts the frequency of the second receiver amplifier signal to 3.5 KHz with the use of converters. Thus, 2wire system is having output on 2-wire and consists of 4 cards, namely the regulator / oscillator card, the receiver amplifier card-1, the receiver amplifier card-2 and 4W / 2W card. This is used in block working at Advance starters only.

The sequence of cards is :

(i) (ii)

Regulator / Oscillator Card. Receiver Amplifier Card-1.

(iii) Receiver Amplifier Card-2. (iv) 4W / 2W Converter Card.

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3.

RESET BOX :

This box houses one 12 way PIRI terminal strip for terminating IN / OUT signals. The indication LEDs of the reset box are fitted in LED holders and projected to the front for indication. Green and Red indications are given for track clear and track occupied conditions. The Yellow LED indicates co-operative permission for resetting the Axle Counter.

4.

TRACK DEVICE ASSEMBLY :

The Single Rail Track Device Assembly consists of two transmitter and two receiver coils assembly, which are fitted with suitable mounting arrangements on the rail camp, which in turn is fitted to the rails. The two transmitter coils at each of the detection point are fed in series by a 5 KHz sinusoidal signal from the junction box, which forms an electromagnetic field across the receiver coils. The receiver coil in turn generates induced voltage. The induced voltage drops to a minimum whenever there is an axle between the transmitter and the receiver coils.

(a) Track Device Transmitter :

The transmitter coil is placed in a FRP housing and it is potted in place by m-seal compound. It is fixed on the rail clamp on the outer side of the rail. Each

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transmitter coil will be provided with a 10 meter, 24 / 0.2 PVC cable.

(b)

Track Device Receiver :

The receiver coil is housed in a composite aluminium fiber glass housing and is potted in place by the means of an m-seal compound. The receiver housing is fixed on the base clamp on the inner side of the rail. Each receiver coil will be powered with a 10 meter, 24 / 0.2 PVC cable.

5.

POWER SUPPLY :

The Power Supply, to the Evaluator is fed by a DCDC Convertor. The various output voltage of the DCDC Convertor are as follows :

+ 5 V@ 5Amp. with 0.1% line & load regulation.

+ 5 V@ 5Amp. with 0.1% line & load regulation.

+ 10 V isolated @500 mA.

The DC-DC Convertor in turn derives its power from a + 24 V dc source i.e. a battery bank.

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The Junction Box (JB - 531) and the Reset Box (RB 257B) are also powered from + 24 V dc battery bank.

All the supplies have over current protection while 5V supply has additional crow bar protection at 6.2 volts.

PRODUCTION TESTING & TEST PROCEDURE :

The semi conductor devices like diodes and transistors used are of high reliability type. The other vital components like ICs mostly are the commercial grade ICs which will undergo burn in at 60C with dc power ON for 72 hours.

This will eliminate the failure of critical components after the assembly of the PCB.

WAVE SOLDERING :
All the PCBs assembly will be wave soldered for good reliability and also coated with lacquer to withstand climatic conditions.

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INSPECTION :

Each unit will be examined for proper workmanship, fitness, finish and proper markings. Also each unit will be tested thoroughly as per the test schedules mentioned in the test report before the final shipment.

SPECIAL FEATURES

The Universal Axle Counter has the following special features :

PCB LAYOUT :
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Better PCB layouts to have supply feeding and decoupling for better noise immunity.

MOTHER BOARD :

The use of mother board gives extra noise immunity as compared to back panel wiring.

RACK :

The Evaluator is housed in a rack fabricated out of M.S. sheet. This gives good noise immunity against electromagnetic interference.

SHIELDING :

The Rack is well shielded for better noise immunity. All the metallic frames of the rack are interconnected to the main frame by means of 34 / 0.3 wire. Shielded cables will be used in system, shield of which is connected to the back panel of the Evaluator.

CARD INSERTION :

Each Card alongwith a module is guided separately.

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CARD MODULES :

Each Card is provided with a module alongwith the identification label.

CARD POLARISATION : Polarizing holes on the card modules and guiding pins from the Mother Board side are used to provide card polarization to ensure correct card slotting.

MODULE TIGHTENING HANDLES :

SCREWS

AND

CARD

Module tightening screws are provided to fix the cards along with the module in the unit smoothly. By loosening, the cards can be removed from the unit. Two card handles are provided on each module. The modules can be taken out with the help of these handles.

COUNTS DISPLAY :

The Counts display is given on a PCB and mounted on the front panel inside and is viewed through display viewing plate at the front panel of the Evaluator.

EVALUATOR MARKINGS :

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In each unit input /output labels, the supply, channel markings and trolley protection A / B, C / D are marked.

OTHER PRODUCTS OF CEL


SOLAR WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS :

A Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System essentially consists of an SPV panel or array directly powering a water pump. Water pumped during the day can be stored in the storage tanks for use during the night.

CEL offers SPV Water Pumping Systems for both shallow as well as deep well conditions. Such systems have been deployed all over the country. The system has also been exported to many developing countries.

The generated electricity from the SPV array is fed to the pump through a switch. Normally low storage batteries are provided, as the water can be stored in the storage tanks if required.

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS :

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CELs Solar Photovoltaic Lighting Systems are ideal sources for providing indoor/outdoor illumination in remote and unelectrified settlements/ villages. The SPV Lighting System essentially consists of an SPV panel battery, a charge controller and lights. The SPV panel converts the sunlight incident on it directly to DC electricity that can be stored in the battery and used to energize the lights when required. The charge controller prevents the overcharging and deep discharge of the battery.

SPV INDOOR LIGHTING SYSTEMS :

Two types of indoor lighting systems are available (DLS-02 and DLS-04) depending on the lighting requirements. DLS02 has two numbers of 9W luminous efficiency lamps with wall mounting fittings. DLS-04 has four such lamps. Each lamp can give the output of 60-watt incandescent lamp.

SPV OUTDOORS LIGHTING SYSTEMS :

These systems use a weather proof 18-watt or 20-watt fluorescent tube light fittings. Two models SLS-03 and SLS-06 are available depending on hours of operation in day. Switching ON at dusk and OFF after specified hours of operation is automatic. The SPV panel, battery and the tube-light fittings are mounted on a 4M long pole.

SOLAR LANTERNS :
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CEL Solar Lantern is a versatile and a reliable source of lighting. It consists of a lantern, a SPV module and a connecting cable. The SPV module when exposed to light charges the battery in the lantern. This stored energy in the battery is used to operate the lamp when required.

SPV MODULE :-

A number of high-grade crystalline silicon solar cells, interconnected in series combination and hermetically sealed with a toughened glass cover, form a SPV module.

SALIENT FEATURES :-

ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY PORTABLE RUGGED AND DEPENDABLE SILENT OPERATION

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APPLICATIONS :-

EMERGENCY LIGHTING SOURCE LIGHTING SOURCE IN REMOTE VILLAGES LIGHTING AT PICNIC SPOTS AND FARM HOUSES GARDEN LIGHTING LIGHTING AT MILITARY OUTPOSTS

MILESTONES OF SPV SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT AT CEL

SPV operated Radio set in Jammu & Kashmir - 1978 SPV Irrigation Water Pumping System installed at Kalyani, West Bengal 1979 SPV Pumping System for drinking water near Jaipur 1980 SPV Community Lighting Systems installed at SOS childrens village, Leh, Ladakh, J&K 1980 SPV Community Television Systems installed at Kalyani, West Bengal 1980 Special SPV Power Pack for the first Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica 1981

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First SPV Power System for unmanned off-shore oil well platform of ONGC 1982 SPV operated Diesel Dispensing Pump 1982 Export of SPV Water Pumping and other System 1983 First SPV powered stand-alone Street Lighting System in Salojipali, Andhra Pradesh 1983 SPV foldable modules for Everest-84 Expedition 1984 SPV systems for Direct Reception community TV sets of Doordarshan 1985 SPV Systems for Cathodic Protection of oil pipelines 1985 SPV systems for Vaccine Refrigeration in village Health Centers 1985 Design and supply of first SPV Systems for very low powered unmanned TV transmitter (VLPT) & TV Receiver Only (from INSAT) (TVRO) terminals of Doordarshan - 1986 Supply of SPV Power System for weather monitoring, lighting and entertainment at an Avalanche Study Station at Rohtang Pass (ALT : 3600 mtrs/12000 ft.) in the Himalayas 1986 SPV powered Lighting and Television System for army at Siachin (ALT : 3600 5500 mtrs / 12000 ft.) in the Himalayas 1987 Supply of first 2 KW power SPV Village Power Pack 1987

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SPV systems for warning signals at Unmanned Railway Level Crossings 1988 SPV Rural Deep well Water Pumping Systems for National Drinking Water Mission - 1989 SPV Power System for Rural Telecommunication transmission and switching equipments 1989 Supply and installation of SPV Systems in village Hitam-ulu, Sumatra, Indonesia 1990 SPV Lighting Systems for Adult Education under National Literacy Mission 1990 Supply and installation of 6 KW Power Plant at Kariawali village in U.P. 1990 Supply and installation of Asias first 100 KW SPV Power Plant at Kalyanpur village near Aligarh, U.P. 1992 10 KW Power Generator for M.S. Swaminathan Foundation at Taramani, Madras 1993 Supply of Foldable Lightweight SPV modules for powering Man pack Communication 199. Equipments for the defense services to operate in the temperature range from 30C to +55C.

CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM


INTRODUCTION :
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M/s Indian Oil Corporation Limited is presently laying 18 dia., 437 Km. long pipe line in 2 segments for augmenting the capacity of existing OD 498 Km. long Haldia-Barauni Crude Oil pipeline from Haldia to Barauni.

Owner intends to provide permanent cathodic protection system consisting of 13 nos. of impressed current cathodic protection station to cathodically protect the underground coated pipeline for a design life of 35 years.

BASIS IN BRIEF :

Permanent CP System has been designed for CTE coating having coating resistance of 7000 ohm / m factor of safety as 1.3. Designed life of anode bed is 35 years and that of the CP system is 20 years.

SUMMARY OF PERMANENT CP SYSTEMS :


Designed current density considered for design microA/sq. mts. Total no. of CP stations Nos. Total designed current for entire span A Max. design current of CP station Total no. of 22 Kg high silicone chrome anode
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: 125 : 13 : 103.8 : 10 A : 250

PROJECT INFORMATION :
The Haldia Barauni Augmentation pipeline is starting from Haldia and it terminates approximately 473 Km. away at HBPCL near Barauni.

Coating Details :

The pipelines shall have yard coated coal for tar coating with fiberglass reinforcement. The coating resistance in normal soil shall be 7000 /m.

Depth of pipeline :

Generally the HBPCL has proposed the pipeline to be laid at minimum depth of 1 mt. from the ground level. Depth may increase to 9 mts. or more depending on the soil.

High silicon-chrome anode and anode beds :

The anodes shall be High Silicon Chromium cast iron, cylindrical type. Anodes shall be provided with encapsulated heads and heat sink caps connected at top.

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The technical data of the shall be as under. ANODE TYPE Anode DIMENSIONS 1 mt. long WEIGHT COMPOSITION: -

Hi-Si-Cr-Fe

anodes assembly : Hi-Si-Cr-Fe

: 65 mm. Dia. & : 22 Kg.

Si Mn C Cr Fe

: 4 % to 15.5 % : 0.8 % : 1.4 % : 4.5 % : remaining

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PROFESSIONAL FERRITES

INTRODUCTION TO FERRITES :Ferrites are dense homogeneous ceramic structures having a general molecular formula MFe2O4 where M is an oxide of a divalent metal. When M has more than one metal than it is called Mixed Ferrite.

Ferrite has a process flexibility, which permits easy and economic moulding into much different geometry. Besides there, Ferrites are advantageous because they have high electrical resistivity resulting in some eddy current loses over a wide frequency range, high permeability and time and temperature stability as compared to other metallic magnetic materials such as silicon steels.

The ferrites are Telecommunications, TV Equipments, etc.

used in Transformers, industry, Antennas, Defense

Application cores :-

of

different

types

of

Ferrite

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The ferrite cores that are produced in CEL are available in different sizes and their uses are as follows :

a) Pot cores & RM cores :

These are used in stable low loss Filters, Inductors requiring high Q, Chokes, Proximity switches, R.F. Transformers, low power Converters & Inverters etc. for Telecommunications, Axle Counter System for Railways and other Professional electronic applications.

b)

Toroids :

They are used in Pulse Transformers, Delay lines, Chokes, Converter / Inverter Transformers, Wide Band Transformers, Impedance matching Transformers, etc.

c)

Blocks : They are used for Transmitter and Receiver application of Axle Counters. They can also be used as building blocks for making high power transmitters.

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d) E, EI, ETD & EC Cores :

These types of cores are used in the Inverter/Converter Filters, Chokes, Inverters for Fluorescent Lamps and Flash Light Inverters, Switch Mode Power Supply for Television and Computers, etc.

e) U & UI Cores :

These cores are used in Insulation Testers, DC-to-DC Converters, DC halogen lamp Inverters, Ultrasonic Cleaners and high voltage Inverters. By stacking of these cores, high power transformers in Kilowatt range can be manufactured.

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FERRITE PROCESS FLOW CHART

IRON

ZINC OXIDE

Batch Mixin g

CALCINATION (PREFIRING)

Mangane se

LUBRICANT

BINDER

GRANULATION

PRESSIN G

MILLING

LAPPING SINTERING

PRODUCTION TESTING

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PRINTIN G

AIR GAP ADJUSTMEN T

STORES

QUALITY ASSURANC E

AND DESPATCH

NEW PRODUCTS
SINGLE SECTION DIGITAL AXLE COUNTER

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A state-of-the-art Digital Axle Counter has been developed by CEL for track monitoring of single section in railways.

The system is designed with :

High frequency track coils. Track side electronic counting unit including vital relay drive.

The system has two detection points for monitoring either end of the section. When the train is entering the section the wheel counts are registered and stored in the 1st SSDAC unit. When the train is entering the section the wheel counts are registered and stored in the 2nd SSDAC unit. After exchange of counts stored in both SSDAC1 and SSDAC2 units, the section is declared as CLEAR in case the counts are equal. Otherwise the section is shown as OCCUPIED.

The health of SSDAC1 and SSDAC2 units are continuously monitored and proved in vital relay drive circuits.

The vital relay drive is available independently at either end of the section from SSDAC1 and SSDAC2 units.

SOLID STATE INTERLOCKING


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Solid State Interlocking (SSI) is Signaling System to select and operate the routes in station for guiding the movement of the trains. The system replaces the conventional Route Relay Interlocking. The system is designed with 2 out of 2 Microprocessor with hot standby. The system has software redundancy.

The operator panel is used to control and command and display the status of SSI.

FEATURES :
System capacity: 450 Input, 72 Output.

Dual Microprocessor Based (2 out of 2) Fail-safe design.

Hot standby for High System Availability.

On Line self-diagnostic facility.

Data Logging with Time Stamping of all SSI Inputs and Outputs for Off-line analysis.

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Opto Isolated Inputs and Outputs.

Modular design for easy maintenance and expansion.

SOLAR POWERED RAILWAY LEVEL CROSSING RADIO WARNING SYSTEM

(SOLARGUARD )

CEL has developed this system, in association with Research, Designs and Standards Organization (RDSO) for providing early warning of a train / locomotive

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approaching unmanned level crossing, to the people and road traffic crossing the Railway line.

SYSTEM OPERATION :

A track device actuated solar powered VHF transmitter located 3-4 Kms, from the level crossing (i.e. Far End) sends a coded radio signal towards the level crossing when an approaching train crosses the Far End. The radio signal is received by solar powered receiver located at the level crossing (Gate End) which after decoding the signal actuates an Audio- Visual Alarm for forewarning the traffic. The system is ideal for remote railway level crossings. The ruggedized system is under extensive field trials.

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MEDIA GALLERY
CEL has been in news headlines ever since it started its operations owing to various technological breakthroughs and achievements. Here are some of the clippings on what the media says about us..

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PHOTO GALLERY

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Former PM of India Narsimha Rao at CEL facility

His Excellency Dr. Sam Nujoma, President of Namibia walking on CEL's Photovoltaic module to check the strength of the module

Gen.Md. Nooruddin Khan. Min. Of Science & Technology Goverment Of Bangaldesh

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Hon' ble Members of Parliament (Rajya Sabha)

Dr. Ri Kwang Ho Minister Of Science Academy, DRP-Korea

SELF EVALUATION

This 30 days Industrial Training has led me to understand the various designing, assembling and the manufacturing processes of equipments in the industry, CEL.

It has also enhanced my knowledge about the functioning and management of an industry, which I am sure, will be beneficial to me in my career.

R egards, Mitil kumar


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0829021408 IVth - Year (Electrical & Electronics Engg.) ABES INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

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