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Design and Implementation of Maximum Power Tracking System by Automatic control of Solar Panel Direction according to the Sun

Direction (Model Sun Flower) With Mobile charger Application

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The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System

Index
Technical Specifications IEEE Reference Citation Project Abstract Project Block Diagram Introduction Solar Cell Description Flowchart Explanation of each block AT89S52 Microcontroller LCD Interfacing Regulated Power Supply DC Motor Interfacing Mobile Charger Software Tools Keil Compiler Proload Flash Source Code Advantages Applications Conclusion Reference ------------------------------------------4 5 7 9 11 13 16 18 23 34 39 45 52 53 54 55 58 67 69 71 73

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The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System

Tables & Diagrams
Block Diagram Flowchart Block Diagram of 89S52 MCU Flash Circuit Modes of flash programming 16X2 LCD Pin Diagram LCD Pin Discretion Block Diagram of Power Supply ----------------10 17 24 32 31 36 37 41

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The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System

WineYardProjects. www. Energy System Embedded C. 750mA Regulated Power Supply +12V. Notice boards Developed By Phone : : M/S Wine Yard Technologies 040-6464 6363. Keil. Proload AT89S52 controller +5V. Embedded Design. 2-line (16X2) 11. Lead Acid Rechargeable Battery Display Crystal Solar Mobile charger Applications : : : : : LCD HD44780 16-character. Home Appliances Automation.Technical Specifications Title of the project Domain Software Microcontroller Power Supply : : : : : Improved Structure of Solar Tracker With Mobile charger Renewable Energy Management.com 4 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .0592 MHz 12V 1 Industries. Organizations.

IEEE Reference 5 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

As the plane of the panel is always kept normal to the direction of the sun. The status of the limit switches is read by the microprocessor and indicates that the maximum angular position in either direction has been reached and the panel should not be driven any further.. This unit controls the movement of a solar panel that rotates and follows the motion of the sun. B. IEEE Transactions on Volume 37.106958 Summary: A microprocessor-based automatic sun-tracking system is proposed. maximum thermal energy is obtained from the solar panels 6 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . Balasubramanian. Nov 1991 Page(s):913 . Issue 4. There are two limit switches attached to the panel to mark its maximum angular positions in the east and west. K.917 Digital Object Identifier 10. Consumer Electronics.1109/30.Design and Implementation of Maximum Power Tracking System by Automatic control of Solar Panel Direction according to the Sun Direction (Model Sun Flower) IEEE Reference: A microprocessor controlled automatic sun tracker Koyuncu.

Abstract 7 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

In Aden city (Yemen). 8 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System www. We can power our house by using solar panels by placing them on the roof and then connected to the battery and the battery is connected to the mobile charger . 888 5555 212 .Abstract Solar energy systems have emerged as a viable source of renewable energy over the past two or three decades. With this direction the solar plates which are fixed to the stand will also rotates to gain the maximum sun rays. This project is designed with AT89S52 MCU. Such systems are based on a solar collector.com Ph: 040-6464 6363. In general. Moreover. and are now widely used for a variety of industrial and domestic applications.WineYardProjects. designed to collect the 4sun’s energy and to convert it into either electrical power or thermal energy. Solar panels are good for houses and buildings without access to power lines. it was shown that the amount of solar energy captured by a tilted collector could be increased by more than 40% by adjusting the tilt angle on a seasonal basis. An alternative charger circuit is also provided to charge the mobile by tracker . Depending upon the light falls on LDR the data will be read by the Microcontroller and the direction of the motor will be changed. the power developed in such applications depends fundamentally upon the amount of solar energy captured by the collector. the improvement in the performance of a solar cooker during summer was found to be as much as 40% for higher elevation angle and 70% for lower elevation angle. and thus the problem of developing tracking schemes capable of following the trajectory of the sun throughout the course of the day on a year-round basis has received significant coverage in this project. based on the developed tracking algorithms. 6625 6695.

7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation.This project uses regulated 12V. Block Diagram 9 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . 500mA power supply. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.

Contrast Control 16 X 2 LCD High Sensitive LDR Transistor Switching Circuit H Bridge Driver AT89S52 High Sensitive LDR Transistor Switching Circuit DC Motor Crystal Reset Mechanical Coupling to Solar Panel Step down T/F Bridge Rectifier Filter Circuit Regulator Power supply to all sections 10 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

Introduction 11 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

etc [1. solar cells have been hooked with fixed elevating angles. 2]. So far the majority of solar cell panels worldwide are hooked with fixed angles. light intensity sensors. morning and evening tides. They do not track the sun and therefore. it is clear that the method of tracking the sun is a technique worthy of being developed. water power. In the past. terrestrial heat. the elevating angle of a solar cell for the largest volume of illumination in daytime is 23. Since the fixed-type solar panel can not obtain the optimal solar energy. much like solar energy. the transformation efficiency of solar energy is limited. Among these. So far the efficiency of generating power from solar energy is relatively low. the efficiency of power generation is low. For example. temperature difference of sea. the proposed tracking system is verified more efficiently in generating energy than the fixed system. In this paper. 12 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . increasing the efficiency of generating power of solar energy is very important. the main goal is to design and implement a solar tracking control system using field programmable gate array (FPGA). sea waves. intelligent vision techniques. Many scholars have proposed different methods for tracking the sun [3-9]. biomass energy. Green energy can be recycled. Thus. Many different light source sensors. From the experimental results. The CdS light sensitive resistors are used.5°in southern Taiwan. solar energy is the most powerful resource that can be used to generate power. and CCD equipments were applied to compute the absorbed time of the sun radiation in everyday for measuring the volume of solar energy. Thus. has gained much attention nowadays.Introduction The green energy also called the regeneration energy. wind power.

SOLAR CELL DESCRIPTION 13 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

Rsh is large. Therefore in order to simplify the process of analysis. respectively. T is the temperature of the solar cell (absolute temperature °K ). q represents the contained electricity in an electro (1. The current supply I ph represents the electric current generated from the sun beaming on the solar cell. and the value of Rs is small.38×10−23 J / °K ). It can convert light into electric energy. 1. The equivalent circuit of the solar cell is shown in Fig. Usually in general analysis. Rsh and Rs represent the equivalent lineup with the interior of the materials and connecting resistances in series. and based on the characteristics of the P-N junction. sat I can be determined by using the following formula: MCU The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System 14 . Dj is a P-N junction diode. The symbol Ro represents the external load.6×10−19 Columbic). k is the Boltzmann constant (1. The current sat I in (1) represents the reversion saturation current of the solar power. From the equivalent circuit.The solar cell is composed of the semiconductors of the P-N junctions [10-11]. Further. one can ignore Rsh and Rs . Rj is the non-linear impedance of the P-N junction. and A is the ideal factor of the solar cell ( A = 1 ~ 5 ). (1) presents the connection between the output current I and the output voltage V : Where np represents the parallel integer of the solar cell. ns represents the series connected integer of the solar cell. Therefore we can assume that electricity produced using sunlight shining on the solar cell can be used like common electricity. I and V represent the output current and the voltage of the solar cell.

Where Tr represents the reference temperature of the solar cell. the stronger the sunlight is. From the study we are able to know that when the temperature is fixed. 15 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .1eV ). Irr is the reversion saturation current at the time when the solar cell reaches its temperature Tr . Here we can see the obvious effects of illumination on the short-circuit current. and the higher the open-circuit voltage and shortcircuit current are. rather than the open-circuit current. i. and EGap is the energy needed for crossing the energy band gap for the semiconductor materials. solar cell facing the sun.e. Therefore the solar cell can provide higher output rate as the sunlight becomes stronger. (the crystalline EGap ≅ 1.

Flow Chart 16 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

MCU sends a stop signal to motor 17 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

Explanation of Each Block 18 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

It sends and receives control and data signals to LCD. This sends a logic HIGH or LOW signal to microcontroller. High Sensitivity LDR This is a light dependent resistor. The transistor is driven into saturation and cut off region based on the output voltage of the LDR. Voltage Sampling Circuit: The output voltage of the solar panel is given to voltage sampling circuit. Solar Panel: This is a photo voltaic cell. This comes into 8051 family microcontroller. This is a voltage divide network. The output voltage of the solar panel depends on the amount of light falling on the panel. The sample voltage is given to Analog to Digital converter circuit. This is the heart of the project. Transistor Switching Circuit In this section a NPN transistor is used as a switch. This is used to detect the day – night mode.AT89S52 MCU: AT89S52 is 8-bit microcontroller from Atmel Semiconductors. The complete control logic program is stored in this microcontroller. Stepper motor and to the other Devices based on the program logic. 19 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . The resistance of the device is inversely proportional to the amount of light falling on its surface. This converts light energy into electrical energy.

It can be configured to drive a dot-matrix liquid crystal display under the control of a 4. 16X2 LCD: 16 X 2 LCD is used to display the operating instructions and status of the output. character generator. Since all the functions such as display RAM. and liquid crystal driver. a minimal system can be interfaced with this controller/driver. A 20 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .or 8bit microprocessor. H-bridges are available as integrated circuits. The DC motor makes actual and exact number of turns or degrees of rotation instructed by the microcontroller. Japanese kana characters. or can be built from discrete components. and symbols. DC Motor The DC motor is used to rotate the solar panel. These circuits are often used in robotics. required for driving a dot-matrix liquid crystal display are internally provided on one chip. HD44780U is used in the project. The HD44780U dot-matrix liquid crystal display controller and driver LSI displays alphanumeric.H-BRIDGE: An H-bridge is an electronic circuit which enables DC electric motors to be run forwards or backwards.

The HD44780U character generator ROM is extended to generate 208 5X8 dot character fonts and 32 5X10 dot character fonts for a total of 240 different character fonts. Contrast Control: It is a simple variable resistor (preset) with linear characteristics. This is used to adjust the contrast of the display. The HD44780U has pin function compatibility with the HD44780S which allows the user to easily replace an LCD-II with an HD44780U.single HD44780U can display up to one 8-character line or two 8-character lines. 21 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

Despite the "oddball" value.C Output Step down transformer Bridge Rectifier Filter Regulator Fig13: Power supply 22 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . This circuit is connected to 9th pin of microcontroller. 230V AC 50Hz D. 19200). This power supply is built with a full wave bridge rectifier. C. An LED is provided for visual identification of the power supply. these crystals Power Supply Section: This project needs 5V regulated DC power supply. the UART. especially for the higher speeds (9600. the microcontroller restarts and the function will start from the begin.Reset: Reset control circuit is used to reset the microcontroller at any stage of work. If the reset switch is pressed. Crystal: A crystal is used to supply clock frequency to the microcontroller.filter and a three terminal voltage regulator. The clock frequency is 11.0592MHz. This section also comprises of auto power on reset.0592 MHz crystals are often used because it can be divided to give you exact clock rates for most of the common baud rates for are readily available and commonly used. 230V / 18V step down transformer is used to step down the AC 230 V to 18V AC. 11.

AT89S52 Microcontroller 23 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

three 16-bit timer/counters.Description The AT89S52 is a low-power. a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture. The AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of Flash. two data pointers. timer/counters. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable Flash on a monolithic chip. the AT89S52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. and clock circuitry. on-chip oscillator. Watchdog timer. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory pro-grammer. and interrupt system to continue functioning. serial port. The Power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator. 24 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . 32 I/O lines. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the indus-trystandard 89S52 instruction set and pinout. 256 bytes of RAM. the Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. disabling all other chip functions until the next interrupt or hardware reset. a full duplex serial port. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable Flash memory. In addition.

Pin Configuration 25 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

Block Diagram 26 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

When 1s are written to Port 1 pins. 27 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . As an output port. As inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins. Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. In addition.Pin Description Port 0 : Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs.0 and P1. P1. respectively. the pins can be used as highimpedance inputs. External pull-ups are required during program verification. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes dur-ing program verification. Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification. each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. In this mode. P0 has internal pull-ups. Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2 trigger input (P1.1/T2EX).1 can be configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. as shown in the follow-ing table.

As inputs. they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI). they are pulled high by the inter-nal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. As inputs. The Port 2 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. Port 3: Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups.Port 2 Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification. Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. In this application. Port 3 pins that are 28 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). When 1s are written to Port 2 pins.

Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52. PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle. Port 3 receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled. except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to exter-nal data memory. PSEN: Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. In the default state of bit DISRTO. ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. ALE/PROG: Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. the pin is weakly pulled high. however. With the bit set. When the AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. RST: Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. that one ALE pulse is skipped dur-ing each access to external data memory. Otherwise.externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. EA/VPP: 29 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . Note. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation. If desired. as shown in the fol-lowing table.

that if lock bit 1 is programmed. XTAL1: Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.External Access Enable. however. Note. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. 30 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . This pin also receives the 12volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming. EA will be internally latched on reset. XTAL2 : Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH.

The programming interface accepts either a high-voltage (12-volt) or a low-voltage (VCC) program enable signal. 2. The AT89S52 is shipped with either the high-voltage or low-voltage programming mode enabled. 31 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . To program any nonblank byte in the on-chip Flash Memory.PROGRAMMING THE FLASH: The AT89S52 is normally shipped with the on-chip Flash memory array in the erased state (that is. The respective top-side marking and device signature codes are listed in the following table. Input the desired memory location on the address lines. The AT89S52 code memory array is programmed byte-byte in either programming mode. data and control signals should be set up according to the Flash programming mode table. contents = FFH) and ready to be programmed. Input the appropriate data byte on the data lines. while the high-voltage programming mode is compatible with conventional third party Flash or EPROM programmers. the following steps should be considered: 1. the address. To program the AT89S52. The low-voltage programming mode provides a convenient way to program the AT89S52 inside the user’s system. Programming Algorithm: Before programming the AT89S52. the entire memory must be erased using the Chip Erase Mode.

Pulse ALE/PROG once to program a byte in the Flash array or the lock bits. Data Polling may begin any time after a write cycle has been initiated. Activate the correct combination of control signals. Raise EA/VPP to 12V for the high-voltage programming mode.5 ms. Reading the Signature Bytes: The signature bytes are read by the same procedure as a normal verification of locations 030H. The values returned are as follows. and the next cycle may begin. except that P3. 031H.7 must be pulled to a logic low.3. P3. changing the address and data for the entire array or until the end of the object file is reached. 4.6 and P3. The bytewrite cycle is self-timed and typically takes no more than 1. Chip Erase: The entire Flash array is erased electrically by using the proper combination of control signals and by holding ALE/PROG low for 10 ms. 32 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . During a write cycle.4 is pulled high again when programming is done to indicate READY. P3. Data Polling: The AT89S52 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a write cycle. 5. Once the write cycle has been completed.4 is pulled low after ALE goes high during programming to indicate BUSY.7. Repeat steps 1 through 5. true data are valid on all outputs. and 032H. an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the written datum on PO. Ready/Busy: The progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal. The chip erase operation must be executed before the code memory can be reprogrammed. The code array is written with all “1”s.

will automatically time itself to completion. The write operation cycle is self timed and once initiated. All major programming vendors offer worldwide support for the Atmel microcontroller series. Tables: Flash Programming Modes 33 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .(030H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel (031H) = 51H indicates 89S52 (032H) = FFH indicates 12V programming (032H) = 05H indicates 5V programming Programming Interface: Every code byte in the Flash array can be written and the entire array can be erased by using the appropriate combination of control signals.

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Fig: Programming and Verifying the Flash LCD Interfacing 35 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

Japanese kana characters. In this tutorial. character generator. The low power supply (2. required for driving a dot-matrix liquid crystal display are internally provided on one chip. Most LCD’s with 1 controller has 14 Pins and LCD’s with 2 controller has 16 Pins (two pins are extra in both for back-light LED connections). It can be configured to drive a dotmatrix liquid crystal display under the control of a 4. a minimal system can be interfaced with this controller/driver. various interfaces (8-bit/4-bit). programming. their interfacing with various microcontrollers. 36 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .Description: The HD44780U dot-matrix liquid crystal display controller and driver LSI displays alphanumerics. 2 Line or 4 Line LCD’s which have only 1 controller and support at most of 80 charachers. The HD44780U has pin function compatibility with the HD44780S which allows the user to easily replace an LCD-II with an HD44780U. we will discuss about character based LCD’s. and symbols.or 8-bit microprocessor.7V to 5. A single HD44780U can display up to one 8-character line or two 8-character lines. The HD44780U character generator ROM is extended to generate 208 5 X 8 dot character fonts and 32 5 X 10 dot character fonts for a total of 240 different character fonts. Since all the functions such as display RAM. Pin Description: The most commonly used LCD’s found in the market today are 1 Line. special stuff and tricks you can do with these simple looking LCD’s which can give a new look to your application. and liquid crystal driver.5V) of the HD44780U is suitable for any portable battery-driven product requiring low power dissipation. The most commonly used Character based LCD’s are based on Hitachi's HD44780 controller or other which are compatible with HD44580. Pin description is shown in the table below. where as LCD’s supporting more than 80 characters make use of 2 HD44780 controllers.

Fig10: LCD Pin Diagram Pin no. 7 Pin no. 14 VSS Power supply (GND) VCC Power supply (+5V) VEE Contrast adjust 0 = Instruction input RS 1 = Data input 0 = Write to LCD module R/W 1 = Read from LCD module EN Enable signal D0 Data bus line 0 (LSB) D1 Data bus line 1 D2 Data bus line 2 D3 Data bus line 3 D4 Data bus line 4 D5 Data bus line 5 D6 Data bus line 6 D7 Data bus line 7 (MSB) 37 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . 13 Pin no. 10 Pin no. 6 Pin no. 2 Pin no. 12 Pin no. 11 Pin no. 8 Pin no. 9 Pin no. 5 Pin no. 4 Pin no. 1 Pin no. 3 Pin no.

Table 1: Character LCD pins with 1 Controller Pin No. 16 Name D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 EN1 R/W RS VEE VSS VCC EN2 NC Description Data bus line 7 (MSB) Data bus line 6 Data bus line 5 Data bus line 4 Data bus line 3 Data bus line 2 Data bus line 1 Data bus line 0 (LSB) Enable signal for row 0 and 1 (1stcontroller) 0 = Write to LCD module 1 = Read from LCD module 0 = Instruction input 1 = Data input Contrast adjust Power supply (GND) Power supply (+5V) Enable signal for row 2 and 3 (2ndcontroller) Not Connected Table 2: Character LCD pins with 2 Controller Sending Commands to LCD To send commands we simply need to select the command register. //Selected command register 38 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . 6 Pin no. 2 Pin no. Following are the steps: • • • • • Move data to LCD port select command register select write operation send enable signal wait for LCD to process the command CODE: void LCD_command(unsigned char var) { LCD_data = var. 7 Pin no. 1 Pin no. 14 Pin no. Pin no. 8-bit. 5 Pin no. 3 Pin no. 13 Pin no. 10 Pin no. But we will summarize the common steps and put them in a single subroutine. 12 Pin no. Everything is same as we have done in the initialization routine. 9 Pin no. 4 Pin no. 15 Pin no. //Function set: 2 Line. 11 Pin no. 8 Pin no. 5x7 dots LCD_rs = 0.

//Wait for LCD to process the command } // Using the above function is really simple // we will pass the character to display as argument to function // e. // // LCD_senddata('A').//Wait for LCD to process the command } // Using the above function is really simple // var will carry the command for LCD // e. //We are writing LCD_en = 1. //Enable H->L LCD_en = 0.g. Sending Data to LCD To send data we simply need to select the data register. 8-bit. Everything is same as the command routine. //Selected data register LCD_rw = 0. LCD_en = 0. 39 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . LCD_busy().g. // // LCD_command(0x01). LCD_busy(). //Function set: 2 Line. CODE: void LCD_senddata(unsigned char var) { LCD_data = var. //We are writing in instruction register //Enable H->L Move data to LCD port select data register select write operation send enable signal wait for LCD to process the data Keeping these steps in mind we can write LCD command routine as. Following are the steps: • • • • • LCD_rw = 0. 5x7 dots LCD_rs = 1. LCD_en = 1.

Power Supply Design 40 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

Now. The output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d.c. 230V from the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier. The a. the output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a. input i.c voltage.e.POWER SUPPLY: The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power supply..C Output Step down transformer Bridge Rectifier Filter Regulator Fig: Power supply 41 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .c components present even after rectification. this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage. 230V AC 50Hz D.c voltage. So in order to get a pure d.

. This is done by a transformer. In this project. Thus. The Bridge rectifier is a circuit. The Bridge rectifier circuit is shown in the figure.e.C. a step down transformer is employed to decrease the voltage to a required level. 9V or 12V.Transformer: Usually.C. which converts an ac voltage to dc voltage using both half cycles of the input ac voltage. 42 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. Thus the a. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. It converts A. into pulsating D. DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these voltages are 5V. a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. 230V is to be brought down to the required voltage level.c input available at the mains supply i. Fig11: Transformer Rectifier: The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier.

The conducting diodes will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the load current flows through RL.The circuit has four diodes connected to form a bridge. The ac input voltage is applied to the diagonally opposite ends of the bridge. Thus a bi-directional wave is converted into a unidirectional wave. D1 and D3 remain OFF. diodes D1 and D3 conduct. whereas diodes D2 and D4 remain in the OFF state. 43 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . Fig 12: Rectifier Circuit For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage. For the negative half cycle of the input ac voltage. diodes D2 and D4 conduct whereas. The conducting diodes D2 and D4 will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the current flows through RL in the same direction as in the previous half cycle. The load resistance is connected between the other two ends of the bridge.

Fig13: Rectifier output Waveforms 44 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

power supply of 5V and 12V are required. D. 45 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . Each type employs internal current limiting. TO-220FP. these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltage and currents. In this project. The L78xx series of three-terminal positive regulators is available in TO-220.C. voltage received at this point changes. TO-3. In order to obtain these voltage levels. thermal shut-down and safe area protection. if either of the two is varied. If adequate heat sinking is provided. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.Filter: Capacitive filter is used in this project. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. 7805 and 7812 voltage regulators are to be used. 12 represent the required output voltage levels.C. However. These regulators can provide local on-card regulation. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D. it regulates the input applied to it. eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point regulation. D2PAK and DPAK packages and several fixed output voltages. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers 05. making it essentially indestructible. making it useful in a wide range of applications. Voltage regulator: As the name itself implies. they can deliver over 1 A output current. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained constant.

DC Motor Interfacing 46 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

so if we reduce the supply voltage from 12 Volts to 6 Volts. It could do this by simply adjusting the voltage sent to the motor. When you watch a film in the cinema. When the switch is closed. and will run more slowly accordingly. or can be built from discrete components. the motor sees 12 Volts. When you open the switch it goes off (0 Watts). The graph below shows the speed of a motor that is being turned on and off H-BRIDGE: An H-bridge is an electronic circuit which enables DC electric motors to be run forwards or backwards. If the switch is open for the same amount of time as it is closed.movement. the filament won't have time to cool down and heat up. and you will just get an average glow of 50 Watts. Now if you close the switch for a fraction of a second.BASICS OF DC MOTOR The speed of a DC motor is directly proportional to the supply voltage. A better way is to switch the motor's supply on and off very quickly. 47 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . When you close the switch. and the same principle is used by speed controllers to drive a motor. it only notices the average effect. Now imagine a light bulb with a switch. but this is quite inefficient to do. Your brain fills in the gaps to give an average effect. then open it for the same amount of time. and when it is open it sees 0 Volts. These circuits are often used in robotics. If the switching is fast enough. the bulb goes on and is at full brightness. or the television. H-bridges are available as integrated circuits. This is how lamp dimmers work. How can this be achieved when the battery is fixed at 12 Volts? The speed controller works by varying the average voltage sent to the motor. the motor will run at half the speed. what you are actually seeing is a series of fixed pictures. the motor will see an average of 6 Volts. the motor doesn't notice it. say 100 Watts. which change rapidly enough that your eyes just see the average effect .

Using the nomenclature above. as the motor is effectively disconnected from the circuit.Fig14: H-Bridge Circuit The two basic states of an H-bridge. 48 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . this voltage is reversed. The following table summarizes operation. An H-bridge is built with four switches (solidstate or mechanical). where the motor comes to a sudden stop. but can also be used to 'brake' the motor. as the motors terminals are shorted. as this would cause a short circuit on the input voltage source. Operation The H-Bridge arrangement is generally used to reverse the polarity of the motor. The same applies to the switches S3 and S4.The term "H-bridge" is derived from the typical graphical representation of such a circuit. or to let the motor 'free run' to a stop. When the switches S1 and S4 (according to the first figure) are closed (and S2 and S3 are open) a positive voltage will be applied across the motor. allowing reverse operation of the motor. By opening S1 and S4 switches and closing S2 and S3 switches. This condition is known as shoot-through. the switches S1 and S2 should never be closed at the same time.

Here we are replacing this with an IC named L293D as the driver whose description is as given below. Features: • • • • • • • • • 600mA OUTPUT CURRENT CAPABILITY PER CHANNEL 1.5 V (HIGH NOISE IMMUNITY) INTERNAL CLAMP DIODES DESCRIPTION: 49 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .2A PEAK OUTPUT CURRENT (non repetitive) PER CHANNEL ENABLE FACILITY OVERTEMPERATURE PROTECTION LOGICAL "0" INPUT VOLTAGE UP TO 1.S1 1 0 0 0 S2 0 1 0 1 S3 0 1 0 0 S4 1 0 0 1 Result Motor moves right Motor moves left Motor free runs Motor brakes H-Bridge Driver: The switching property of this H-Bridge can be replaced by a Transistor or a Relay or a MOSFET or even by an IC.

The Device is a monolithic integrated high voltage. The L293D is assembled in a 16 lead plastic package which has 4 center pins connected together and used for heat sinking The L293DD is assembled in a 20 lead surface mount which has 8 center pins connected together and used for heat sinking. To simplify use as two bridges each pair of channels is equipped with an enable input. BLOCK DIAGRAM Fig: Block Diagram of H-Bridge ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS: 50 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . DC and stepping motors) and switching power transistors. allowing operation at a lower voltage and internal clamp diodes are included. high current four channel driver designed to accept standard DTL or TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads (such as relays solenoids. A separate supply input is provided for the logic. This device is suitable for use in switching applications at frequencies up to 5 kHz.

PIN CONNECTIONS: Fig: Pin Diagram of L293D H-Bridge LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR: 51 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

e. 52 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . LDR’s or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits. but when they are illuminated with light. LDR plays an important role in controlling the electrical appliances based on the intensity of light i. sometimes as high as 1. the resistance drops dramatically. Normally the resistance of an LDR is very high. if the intensity of light is more (during daytime) the loads will be in off condition. Thus in this project.. the loads will be switched on.000 ohms. And if the intensity of light is less (during nights).An LDR is an input transducer (sensor) which converts brightness (light) to resistance.000. It is made from cadmium sulphide (CdS) and the resistance decreases as the brightness of light falling on the LDR increases.

as the base voltage rises the base and collector current rise exponentially. it act as a closed switch.e.Fig: In the above circuit we are controlling the load with an LDR device which in turn depends on the transistor and a switch i. • • If the emitter-base and base-collector are in forward bias then it act as a switch. • • Transistor can be used as an electronic switch. and the collector voltage drops because of the collector load resistor. In electronics. nothing but the operation of the above circuit behaves like a transistor as a switch. a switch is an electrical component that can break an electrical circuit.. such as the light-switch circuit shown. 53 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . Transistors are commonly used as electronic switches. interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another. A transistor is a semi conductor device commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals. for both high power applications including switched mode power supply and low power applications such as logic gates. in grounded-emitter configuration. At that instant the collector to emitter is shorted. • In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit.

Chargers 54 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

which typically consists of a dynamo powered by a hand crank and extension cords. if the voltage is too high. Mobile phones can usually accept a relatively wide range of voltages as long as it is sufficiently above the phone battery's voltage. most of which are not compatible with other manufacturers' phones or even different models of phones from a single manufacturer. A database-driven system is one solution. only power adapters that provide a power source for the charging circuitry which is almost always contained within the mobile phone. 10 of the world's largest mobile phone manufacturers signed a Memorandum of Understanding to develop specifications for and support a micro USB-equipped common External Power Supply (EPS) for all data-enabled mobile phones 55 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . Users of publicly accessible charging kiosks must be able to cross-reference connectors with device brands/models and individual charge parameters and thus ensure delivery of the correct charge for their mobile device. but it can sometimes vary up to 12 volts when the power source is not loaded. and is being incorporated into some designs of charging kiosks. Mostly. There are also solar chargers. having a wide variety of DC connector-styles and voltages. the voltage is 5 volts or slightly higher.Most mobile phone chargers are not really chargers. it can damage the phone.[16] in June 2009. They are notoriously diverse. China and other countries are making a national standard on mobile phone chargers using the USB standard. There are also human-powered chargers sold on the market. However.

adjusting charging rates depending on the battery's level. such as an electric water heater. often in conjunction with solar or wind power generators. depending on the battery technology. The terms "charge controller" or "charge regulator" may refer to either a standalone device. and off-the-grid home battery storage systems. 56 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . which can reduce battery performance or lifespan. boat. charge controllers may also be called solar regulators. and data logging to track electric flow over time. Pulse width modulation (PWM) and maximum power point tracker (MPPT) technologies are more electronically sophisticated.sold in the EU. 2009. Charge controllers may also monitor battery temperature to prevent overheating. transmit data to remote displays. or perform controlled discharges. Simple charge controllers stop charging a battery when they exceed a set high voltage level. and may pose a safety risk. to protect battery life. or battery recharger. In solar applications. A series charge controller or series regulator disables further current flow into batteries when they are full. to allow charging closer to its maximum capacity. Charge controllers are sold to consumers as separate devices. A shunt charge controller or shunt regulator diverts excess electricity to an auxiliary or "shunt" load. A charge controller. Some charge controller systems also display data. when batteries are full. the International Telecommunication Union announced a standard for a universal charger for mobile handsets (Micro-USB). It may also prevent completely draining ("deep discharging") a battery. charge regulator or battery regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. or to control circuitry integrated within a battery pack. It prevents overcharging and may prevent against overvoltage. and re-enable charging when battery voltage drops back below that level. battery-powered device. On October 22. for uses such as RV.

exactly. More advaned and well designed phone chargers have semiconductor IC based regulators. Some models even allow you to simply stick the panels on a window to generate energy from the sunlight. A few models have panels that look like windmills. For instance. This voltage is used for charging the phone. solar cell phone chargers are available in the market. Others can be placed around your arm or even a bicycle. although most have more ergonomic designs for easy—and even chic—handling.Phones have rechargeable batteries inside which need to be charged with a DC voltage (slightly higher than the battery voltage). Very few people know about alternative ways of charging their mobile phones and other electronic gadgets. unknown to many. After that there is a filter circuit that cleans the voltage before giving out on the charger pins. These charger has a small solar panels that stores energy. Most of the chargers work as follows. These accept AC voltage from the house hold AC power supply which gets down converted to smaller AC voltage through a transformer and is followed an AC-DC convertor (rectifier). convertors for clean and efficient AC-DC conversion and have short circuit protection built-in. and how efficient are these environmentally-friendly products The design or appearance of these chargers often varies depending on the brand or model. a few of them are even small enough to fit inside your pocket. Simple phone chargers provide this DC voltage. it is possible to charge these gadgets without having to rely on electricity. But how do solar cell phone chargers work. However. 57 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . but they are generally lightweight.

give or take a few). this means you can bring the charger anywhere. although in average. Many mobile phone owners who have this charger keep it as an alternative means to charge a phone in case of a power outage or when there is no possible source of electricity within their vicinity. This kind of technology is no longer new. most chargers can handle practically all major brands. which agitate the light particles and turn them into electrons. considering you are using a free power source. Takes about 5-7 hours of direct sunlight to keep the iPod topped up. Most of the Solio chargers are handy and light (their chargers weight around five ounces.Obviously. more environmentfriendly way of charging your phone. It offers solar-powered chargers that work not only for phones but also for music players (iPods and others that have USB outlets) and PDAs. the manufacturer of Solio claims to take 10 hours of sunlight to fully charge the Solio. Nonetheless. although the actual number of compatible phones will still depend from brand to brand. 58 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . from Samsung to iPhones. An average time of 45 minutes of Sun can give enough power to make nearly a 20-minute cell phone call. Needless to say. Consider that most of it depends on the intensity of sunlight and the right positioning. from Nokia to Motorola. This is pretty efficient and sufficient. Many of these solar-powered chargers are compatible to most of the mobile phone units available today. One of the most popular solar chargers is Solio. The photons are converted into electric current by the solar panels or cells. As stated above. the solar-powered mobile phone charger is a cheaper. Portable mobile phone chargers using batteries provide the same amount of power (sometimes. The charging time varies. an hour charging time using the solarpowered charger can provide as much as 30 minutes of talk time using your mobile. even less)—but you will have to get AA batteries as your power source.

Software Tools 59 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

60 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

click on the option “project”. open project etc. After compilation. 7. Double click on this icon to start the keil compiler. output window in the bottom and an ash coloured space for the program to be written. A small window with the title bar “Create new project” opens. STEPS TO WRITE AN ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAM IN KEIL AND HOW TO COMPILE IT: 1. The project can be created in any of the drives available. Just drag this icon onto the desktop so that it becomes easy whenever you try to write programs in keil. Now to start using the keil. 5. Click on “New project”. You can create a new folder and then a new file or can create directly a new file. an icon will be created with the name “Keil uVision3”. 2. After installation. 61 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . 3. the machine source code is converted into hex code which is to be dumped into the microcontroller for further processing. 4. A small window opens showing the options like new project. import project. 6. The window asks the user to give the project name with which it should be created and the destination location. A page opens with different options in it showing the project workspace at the leftmost corner side. Install the Keil Software in the PC in any of the drives.KEIL SOFTWARE: Keil compiler is a software used where the machine language code is written and compiled. Keil compiler also supports C language code.

14. 17. You can notice that after you save the program. First click on “target”. 13. the predefined keywords will be highlighted in bold letters. 12. Now click on “File” and in that “New”. save it with any name but with the . You can select any one of the microcontrollers according to the requirement. The most widely used vendor is Atmel. A new page opens and you can start writing program in it. Right click on the target and select the first option “Options for target”. Click on this microcontroller and have a look at its features. Check for this file where you have saved and add it. 11. target. Now click on “OK” to select this microcontroller. After the program is completed. A small window opens asking whether to copy the startup code into the file you have created just now. Just click on “No” to proceed further. the features of that particular microcontroller will be displayed on the right side of the page. output etc. Now add this file to the target by giving a right click on the source group. So click on Atmel and now the family of microcontrollers manufactured by Atmel opens. 10. Now you can see the TARGET and SOURCE GROUP created in the project workspace. A window opens with different options like device. 9. The most appropriate microcontroller with which most of the projects can be implemented is the AT89S52.8. Save the program in the file you have created earlier.asm extension. A list of options open and in that select “Add files to the source group”. a window opens where a list of vendors will be displayed and you have to select the device for the target you have created. 15. 16. 62 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . After the file is saved in the given destination location. When you click on any one of the microcontrollers.

select the appropriate window to see the output by entering into debug mode. The hex file can be created in any of the drives. Since the set frequency of the microcontroller is 11. click on the icon exactly below the “Open file” icon which is nothing but Build Target icon. This is because the program what we write here in the keil will later be dumped into the microcontroller and will be stored in the inbuilt ROM in the microcontroller. Click on this icon and now click on the option “View” and select the appropriate window to check for the output. click the icon “debug” again to come out of the debug mode. 20.18. project window etc. 19. 25. The icon with the letter “d” indicates the debug mode. 24. 21. 63 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . To check for the output. The hex file created as shown earlier will be dumped into the microcontroller with the help of another software called Proload. 22. there are several windows like serial window. Now click the option “Output” and give any name to the hex file to be created in the “Name of executable” text area and put a tick to the “Create HEX file” option present in the same window. You can even use the shortcut key F7 to compile the program written.0592 MHz to interface with the PC. You can change the folder by clicking on “Select folder for Objects”. memory window. 23. Depending on the program you have written. Now to check whether the program you have written is errorless or not. just enter this frequency value in the Xtal (MHz) text area and put a tick on the Use on-chip ROM. After this is done.

6. This microcontroller has a program in it written in such a way that it accepts the hex file from the keil compiler and dumps this hex file into the microcontroller which is to be programmed. 64 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . Steps to work with Proload: 1. Flash size etc. com port.PROLOAD: Proload is a software which accepts only hex files. The status of the microcontroller can be seen in the small status window in the bottom of the page. As this programmer kit requires power supply to be operated. a source is required. Programmer kit contains a microcontroller on it other than the one which is to be programmed. device type. remove the microcontroller from the programmer kit and place it in your system board. this power supply is given from the power supply circuit designed above. Install the Proload Software in the PC. Power up the programmer kit from the ac supply through adapter. Now place the microcontroller in the GIF socket provided in the programmer kit. A window appears providing the information like Hardware model. that hex code has to be dumped into the microcontroller placed in the programmer kit and this is done by the Proload. It should be noted that this programmer kit contains a power supply section in the board itself but in order to switch on that power supply. 4. Click on the Proload icon in the PC. Thus this is accomplished from the power supply board with an output of 12volts or from an adapter connected to 230 V AC. Once the machine code is converted into hex code. Now connect the Programmer kit to the PC (CPU) through serial cable. 5. 3. After this process is completed. Now the system board behaves according to the program written in the microcontroller. Click on browse option to select the hex file to be dumped into the microcontroller and then click on “Auto program” to program the microcontroller with that particular hex file. 2. 7.

Source Code

65
The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System

/*******************Arranging the panel according to the sunlight*******************/

#include<reg52.h> #define ldata P1 sbit rs=P2^0; sbit rw=P2^1; sbit en=P2^2; sbit ldr1=P3^0; sbit ldr2=P3^1; sbit buzzer=P3^2; sbit moter1=P0^0; sbit moter2=P0^1; void lcdcmd(unsigned char); void lcd_int(void ); void lcddata(unsigned char); void msg(unsigned char d ); void msdelay(unsigned char); unsigned char msg1[]="MAX LIGHT ACHIVED"; unsigned char msg2[]=" TRACKING FOR "; unsigned char msg3[]="SUN LIGHT......"; unsigned char msg4[]="SYSTEM SHUTDOWN "; void main() { buzzer=1; 66
The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System

moter1=0; moter2=0; lcd_int(); lcdcmd(0x80); msg(" PROJECT "); lcdcmd(0xc0); msg(" SUN FLOWER "); msdelay(500); msdelay(500); lcdcmd(0x01); lcdcmd(0x80); msg("AUTOMATIC MAXIMU"); lcdcmd(0xc0); msg("POWER TRACKING "); msdelay(500); msdelay(500); msdelay(500); if(ldr2==1&&ldr1==1) { moter1=1; moter2=0; buzzer=0; msdelay(40); moter1=0; moter2=0; buzzer=1; lcdcmd(0x01); lcdcmd(0x80); msg(msg2); lcdcmd(0xC0); 67
The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System

moter2=0. buzzer=1. lcdcmd(0x80). } msdelay(500). moter1=0. msg(msg3). lcdcmd(0xC0). msdelay(500). buzzer=0. moter2=0. while((ldr1==0&&ldr2==0)==1). lcdcmd(0x01). msdelay(40). buzzer=1. } if(ldr1==0&&ldr2==1) { moter1=0. lcdcmd(0x80).msg(msg3). if(ldr1==1&&ldr2==1) { lcdcmd(0x01). buzzer=0. msg(msg2). moter1=0. msg(msg1). if(ldr1==1&&ldr2==1) { 68 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . moter2=1.

moter1=0. lcdcmd(0x80). lcdcmd(0x80). moter2=0. msg(msg1). } msdelay(500). moter2=0. buzzer=1. msdelay(100). lcdcmd(0x01). } if(ldr1==1&&ldr2==0) { moter1=1. lcdcmd(0x01). msg(msg3). buzzer=0. 69 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . buzzer=0. lcdcmd(0xC0). moter2=0. lcdcmd(0x80). msdelay(500). msg(msg4). moter1=0. msdelay(500).lcdcmd(0x01). buzzer=1. msg(msg2). while((ldr1==1&&ldr2==1)==0).

lcdcmd(0x06). msdelay(10). en=1. return. rs=0.j++) lcddata(d[j]). } } void lcd_int(void) { lcdcmd(0x38). } void lcdcmd(unsigned char value) { ldata=value. lcdcmd(0x0e).d[j]!='\0'. lcdcmd(0x80). for(j=0. rw=0. } 70 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .while((ldr1==1&&ldr2==1)==0). } void msg(unsigned char d ) { unsigned char j. lcdcmd(0xc0). en=0. lcdcmd(0x01).

for(i=0.void lcddata(unsigned char value) { ldata=value.i++) for(j=0. en=0.i<=value. return.j<=250. rw=0. rs=1. msdelay(10). en=1.j++).j. } void msdelay(unsigned char value) { unsigned char i. } 71 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

ADVANTAGES 72 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

Advantages: • • • • • • Highly sensitive Works according to the sun direction Fit and Forget system Night – Day mode sensing Low cost and reliable circuit Complete elimination of manpower 73 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

APPLICATIONS 74 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

hostels and house hold applications Offices Mobile charging Industries 75 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .Applications: • • • • • • • Street lights Garden Lights Solar water heater Hotels.

CONCLUSION 76 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

the light sensitivity resistors are used to determine the night – day vision. The proposed solar tracking power generation system can track the sun light automatically. Thus.CONCLUSION This project presents a solar tracking power generation system. The output of the solar tracker is used to drive the mobile charger. 77 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System . Set up on the solar tracking system. Experimental work has been carried out carefully. The proposed method is verified to be highly beneficial for the solar power generation. The result shows that higher generating power efficiency is indeed achieved using the solar tracking system. the efficiency of solar energy generation can be increased. The tracking controller based on the closed loop algorithm is designed and implemented with Atmel 89S52 MCU in embedded system domain.

REFERENCE 78 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .

com www.howstuffworks.WineYardProjects.answers.com www.com www.com Magazines: Electronics for you Electrikindia 79 The Design and Implementation of a Solar Tracking Generating Power System .REFERENCE Text Books: Website: www.radiotronix.