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University Of Karachi Fuel and Combustion


Syed Saad Ahmed B-0933040 B.E 3rd Year Chemical Engineering

Submitted To: Sir Saqib

Fuel and Combustion 2012


In industries there are many processes in which heat is being released by the several units and that heat is going to be wasted, for saving that heat we use different types of heat recovery systems. Heat recovery systems increase efficiency of our processes in the industries by reclaiming waste heat and putting it to good use. Heat recovery systems not only increase efficiency but also reduce operating costs of the industrial processes. An existing system can be modified with a heat transfer system that will accommodate very high temperatures.

Types of heat recovery systems:

Three types of heat transfer units are commonly used: 1. Regenerators 2. Recuperators Selecting the right unit will depend on the industrial process and its output, as well as the type of gas or fluid to be heated. Important considerations include the maximum pressure to be sustained, the temperature range for normal operation, and the amount of space available for the equipment.

Regenerators employ a cyclical heat transfer process. Air or fluid is cycled through the heat exchanger, often reaching very high temperatures. The air or fluid may go through external processing before it flows back through the regenerator. In a regenerator, heat from the primary medium is first stored in a thermal mass and later (in the next cycle) regenerated from that mass by the secondary medium. The thermal mass can be the wall material of the flow ducts or a porous medium, through which alternating the primary and the secondary flow is led. They are commonly used in industrial applications where humidity control is vital.Regenerators use both metallic and ceramic surfaces.

Metallic surfaces offer high conductivity and heat transfer, are resistant to physical and
thermal damage, weigh less, and are priced lower than ceramic surfaces. Metallic rotary regenerators can accommodate flue gases of up to 1,000F

Ceramic surfaces are more resistant to damage from high temperatures and corrosion,
and expand less than metal. Ceramic units can handle temperatures up to 1,500F.

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

Fuel and Combustion 2012

The units have high operating efficiency (65% or more) relative to operating costs, and thermal efficiencies can be over 90%.

The regenerator has a serious disadvantage as the heat has to diffuse in and out of the intermediate storage material. It will lose energy here and not all heat can be regenerated. Need for some maintenance, pressure limitations, and leakage between air and fluid flows.

Recuperators are continuous gas-to-gas heat exchangers that transfer heat from exhaust to the incoming combustion air without mixing the streams. Gas streams typically pass over opposite sides of the same surface, and these heat recovery systems can handle a wide range of operating pressures. The limits of the heating surface size and material constrict the maximum preheat temperature. Light metal usually limits the temperature to about 480F, whereas the use of alloys or ceramics permits temperatures up to 1,800F.

Radiation type design is based on the use of thermal radiation from high temperature flue
gases to preheat combustion air. In this case flue gases pass through a metallic stack that is surrounded by the flowing combustion air. 3

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

Fuel and Combustion 2012

Convective or tube type uses thermal convection as a primary mode of heat transfer on
the flue gas side as well as the combustion air side. A typical convection recuperator design includes a number of tubes. Combustion air or flue gases pass through the tubes and other gases flow over the tubes. Where operating pressures are a concern, conventional recuperators are adaptable to a wide range of conditions, and many designs can be modified to accommodate pressures up to several hundred psi.

Radiation type recuperators have a efficiency rating (30%) and Convective type recuperators have a much higher efficiency (50% to 60%)

Some drawbacks may include the need for investment in higher-temperature burners, larger and more flexible air lines that allow for expansion, cold air lines for cooling burners and combustion, and other controls.

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

Fuel and Combustion 2012


Heat recovery systems are applied in:

Fuel cell system Furnaces Ammonia water absorption refrigeration cycles Gas turbine engine

Heating Ventilation Air-conditioning systems Dryers Kilns Incinerators Thermal oxidizers

Ovens Printing machinery

Following are the major industries where the regenerators and recuperators are widely used: Steel industry Food industry Textiles Paper industry Aluminum industry

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering