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Veleučilište u Šibeniku

Ivan Stojanovski / Branimir Maretić HOVERCRAFT Seminarski rad

Šibenik, travanj, 2012.

Veleučilište u Šibeniku HOVERCRAFT Seminarski rad Kolegij: Engleski jezik II Mentor: prof. 2012. travanj. . Željka Periša Perkov Studenti: Ivan Stojanovski / Branimir Maretić Matični broj: 13083 1131/ 13057 1131 Šibenik.

...................................... CONCLUSION.........2 2.........6 3...........6 1............... Thrust Propellers ... HOVERCRAFT...............................................4 2.......................................................CONTENT: 1..................................................www...........................................................................................................................4 4......................4 3............................................... INTRODUCTION.....6 ................. LITERATURE..........................................2.................................... Hovercraft Skirt ............................................................................................................................................................. Creation of Hovercrafts ........................................................................................................................ Lifting Fan ...........................3...2..........................................rescuehovercraft.2.....wikipedia................................................................................2........4..........2.................. Air box .....................................................2..............3 2....................................1 2............3 2.....................................................org/wiki/Hovercraft.................1 History...com........................................................2 2....http://en..................................2 2................................1.....................................................................

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They operate by creating a cushion of high-pressure air between the hull of the vessel and the surface below. soldiers and large equipment in hostile environments and terrain. They are now used throughout the world as specialised transports in disaster relief. Hovercraft are hybrid vessels operated by a pilot as an aircraft rather than a captain as a marine vessel.1. ACV) is a craft capable of traveling over land. coastguard.wikimedia. They typically hover at heights between 200mm and 600mm above any surface and operate above 20 knots and can clear gradients up to 20 degrees.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d3/Hovercraft-MVPP10. mud or ice and other surfaces both at speed and when stationary. Picture 1: Passenger-carrying hovercraft1 1 http://upload. military and survey applications as well as for sport or passenger service. Typically this cushion is contained within a flexible "skirt". Very large versions have been used to transport hundreds of people and vehicles across the English Channel whilst others have military applications used to transport tanks. water. The first practical design for hovercraft derived from a British invention in the 1950s to 1960s. INTRODUCTION A hovercraft (air-cushion vehicle.jpg 1 .

HOVERCRAFT 2. the rudders must be well weighed out in order to avoid weighing down your hovercraft and also well shaped in order to move air as efficiently as possible. although the technology required to implement the concept did not yet exist. nor a wheeled land craft. Swedenborg realized that to operate such a machine required a source of energy far greater than any available at that time. Care must be taken in selecting a motor and propeller for the proper function and stability of the hovercraft and to meet your needs for thrust and lift. A good skirt design is essential for stability and of course. and in 1959 a commercially built one-person Hovercraft crossed the English Channel. 2 . a Swedish designer and philosopher.2. Ease of use. availability and safety are all significant considerations when building a hovercraft." He had a boat builder produce a twofoot prototype. Finally.2. the British engineer Sir John Thornycroft built a number of model craft to check the air-cushion effects and even filed patents involving airlubricated hulls. From this time both American and European engineers continued work on the problems of designing a practical craft.1 History The first recorded design for a hovercraft was in 1716 put forward by Emmanual Swedenborg. An elementary knowledge of physics is required. and in 1955 he obtained a patent for a vehicle that was "neither an airplane. which he demonstrated to the military in 1956 without arousing interest. Creation of Hovercrafts When building a hovercraft it is imperative that you are sure you have a firm grasp of the important concepts and principles involved. The project was short-lived and a craft was never built. cost. body designs must be well thought-out in order to meet your needs for speed and stability. nor a boat. In the early 1950s the British inventor Christopher Cockerell began to experiment with such vehicles. 2. Cockerell persevered. In the mid-1870s. In 1962 a British vehicle became the first to go into active service on a 19-mi (31-km) ferry run.

The air box takes about 10% of the air being pushed backward by the propeller and forces it downward. A Hovercraft having more than one lift fan and propeller generally has a separate engine for each fan-and propeller unit.wikimedia. which the propellers provide. Thrust Propellers The propeller used to drive the hovercraft along is usually an aircraft type with variable pitch blades. On smaller craft. while the third duct leads directly underneath the hovercraft. are used for direction control. There are three small ducts cut into the base of the hovercraft. Flexible skirt)2 2. 3. the boxlike structure is called an air box. Its speed of rotation must remain fixed to that of the engine and the lift fan.2.org/wikipedia/commons/3/31/Hovercraft_-_scheme. must be obtained by varying the propeller pitch and not its rate of rotation. 2. The propellers used on hovercraft can vary from four-bladed versions and about nine feet in diameter on the smaller craft to the four propellers on the SRN4 cross-Channel hovercraft. Air box The box-like structure at the rear of the hovercraft. 2 http://upload. This is because the amount of lift air required dictates the engine speed to drives the lift fan.2.1. 2.Picture 2: Design (1. These are four-bladed and nineteen feet in diameter! On the SRN 4 the pylons on which they are mounted can be rotated to change the direction of thrust. underneath the air box. underneath the hovercraft.svg 3 . Air. Fan. This system is termed 'integrated lift/propulsion'. Propellers. In turn the amount of propulsion. 4. rudders like on aircraft. which is basically a bag that goes all the way around the perimeter of the craft. Two of these ducts lead into the skirt. right behind the propeller.2.

When the assembly is rotated at high-speed air is sucked into the center hole in the fan and the slats force it out at the edges. 3. ridges and gullies.3. Hovercraft Skirt Despite the momentum curtain being very effective the hover height was still too low unless great. flexible strip fitted below the bottom edges of the plenum chamber slot. Propellers again are not efficient in applications when an air backpressure will be applied to the propeller blades as they rotate. The skirt of a hovercraft is one of its most design sensitive parts. the skirt extends below it to retain a much deeper cushion of air.2. CONCLUSION Hovercrafts are generally simple mechanisms in theory. or tideformed ridges of shingle on a beach. The engine also drives the propeller on the craft. These problems led to the development of the 'skirt'. Also the fan needs to force air into the chamber below the craft so creating a specific pressure under the craft. Lifting Fan Firstly the volume of air needed is very large and a propeller is designed to be most efficient in open air like on an aircraft. Also. The skirt material has to be light flexible and durable all at the same time. Because of this the lifting fan on most Hovercraft uses what is known as a centrifugal fan. Yet the process from theory to manifestation is not as easy as it may seem. which provides thrust for forward motion of the Hovercraft. The advantages of the fan are two fold. Simple obstacles such as small waves. The lifting fan is coupled via a gearbox to the engine. The design must be just right or an uncomfortable ride for passengers or damage to the craft and the skirts results.2. This is a fan in which two discs and fitted together and looks rather like a doughnut with angled slats at their edges. As the hovercraft lifts. The development of the skirt enables a hovercraft to maintain its normal operating speed through large waves and also allows it to pass over rocks. excessive wear of the skirt can occur if its edges are flapping up and down on the surface of the water. They operate efficiently in an environment when backpressure is high and they will move larger volumes of air for a given rotation speed than a propeller with the same speed and power input. could prove to be too much for the hover height of the craft. and uneconomical.4. The skirt is a shaped. power was used. 2.2. A plethora of problems exist and must be faced in 4 .

This is a marvelous machine which greatly cuts down the friction which in turn helps it to attain greater speed and more stability. The cost involved in the developing of a hovercraft is also another impediment to the widespread use of this machine.anything-rc. The difficulties involved in maintaining stability and functional competency has limited the application to only transportation or for military purpose. One must take under consideration the weight and the shape of each component in order to avoid problems such as instability and dysfunction. Hovercraft3 3 http://www. Picture 3.order to attain a well functioning hovercraft. The plans and designs must be flawless.jpg 5 .com/images/hovercraft. Varieties of problems and factors have to be taken into account in designing and constructing a hovercraft.

org/wiki/Hovercraft 2.4.hovertechnics. www.com 3.com 6 .rescuehovercraft. www. http://en.wikipedia. LITERATURE 1.