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Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat S.R.

Crown Hall, Illinois Institute of Technology 3360 South State Street Chicago, IL 60616, USA CTBUH Contact: Nathaniel Hollister nhollister@ctbuh.org P: 1 (312) 567-3429

Chicago December 8, 2011

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall
CTBUH announces the projected world’s tallest 20 skyscrapers in the year 20201
Within this decade we will likely witness not only the world’s first kilometer-tall building, but also the completion of a significant number of buildings over 600 meters (around 2,000 feet) – that’s twice the height of the Eiffel Tower. Two years ago, prior to the completion of the Burj Khalifa, this building type did not exist. And yet, by 2020, we can expect at least eight such buildings to exist internationally. The term “supertall” (which refers to a building over 300 meters) is thus no longer adequate to describe these buildings: we are entering the era of the “megatall.” This term is now officially being used by the Council to describe buildings over 600 meters in height, or double the height of a supertall (see Figure 1).
1. Kingdom Tower, Jeddah 1,000+ m/3,280+ ft 2. Burj Khalifa, Dubai 828 m/2,717 ft 3. Ping An Finance Center, Shenzhen 660 m/2,165 ft 4. Seoul Light DMC Tower 640 m/2,101 ft 5. Signature Tower Jakarta 638 m/2,093 ft 6. Shanghai Tower 632 m/2,073 ft 7. Wuhan Greenland Center 606 m/1,988 ft 8. Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel 601 m/1,972 ft 9. Goldin Finance 117, Tianjin 597 m/1,957 ft 10. Lotte World Tower, Seoul 555 m/1,819 ft 11. Doha Convention Center and Tower 551 m/1,808 ft 12. One World Trade Center, New York City 541 m/1,776 ft 13. Chow Tai Fook Guangzhou 530 m/1,739 ft 14. Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Binhai Center 530 m/1,739 ft 15. Dalian Greenland Center 518 m/1,699 ft 16. Pentominium, Dubai 516 m/1,693 ft 17. Busan Lotte Town Tower 510 m/1,674 ft

“Megatall” 600m

18. Taipei 101 508 m/1,667 ft 19. Kaisa Feng Long Centre 500 m/1,640 ft 20. Shanghai WFC 492 m/1,614 ft

“Supertall” 300m

Figure 1. The projected 20 tallest buildings in 2020, all of which are over 500 meters and eight can be classified as “megatall” (600 meters) © Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
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“Future Tallest” Criteria: Buildings included in this study are either built, under construction or considered real proposals. Projects that have commenced construction, but with works currently halted, are also included if there is a strong possibility of the project progressing to final completion. A real proposal can be considered such if it has: a specific site with ownership interests within the building development team; a full professional design team progressing the design beyond the conceptual stage; formal planning consent/legal permission for construction (or is in the process of obtaining such permission); and a full intention to progress the building to construction and completion. Furthermore, this research only considers projects that are within the public domain and have the consent for inclusion from the respective client-consultant teams. Because of this multi-faceted inclusion criteria, a number of prominent projects were not included in the study, including: India Tower, Mumbai; Triple One, Seoul; Hyundai Global Business Center, Seoul; and Zhongguo Zun, Beijing.

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000+ meter Kingdom Tower (see Figure 2). The tremendous change that the tall building industry has seen in two decades is clearly shown by a juxtaposition of three skylines: the tallest 20 buildings in the year 2000. just 11 short years ago. Use of the “Tallest 20 in 2020” © Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Residential Office Hotel Mixed Use As we started the 21st century.Figure 3. Taipei 101 took the title in 2004. see Figure 3). and 2020 (see Figure 6). we can expect that in a mere two decades (2000 – 2020) the height of the “World’s Tallest Building” will have more than doubled.Then.483 feet) in height. Now.717 feet) – over half a mile high. Status of the “Tallest 20 in 2020” © Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Complete Under Construction Proposed Construction Stopped Figure 4. one can predict that. all of the tallest 20 buildings in the year 2020 are not yet built (though a number are already under construction. at 508 meters (1. 2010. and 2020 © Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat 2 . the Burj Khalifa set new standards at 828 meters (2. the Petronas Towers held the title of “The World’s Tallest” at 452 meters (1.667 feet). at the end of the decade. with work set to start on-site in January 2012 for Jeddah’s 1. The world’s tallest is set to change yet again in 2018 with the completion of Jeddah’s Kingdom Tower © Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture Figure 5. Location of the “Tallest 20 in 2020” © Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat China Other Asia Middle East United States Figure 2. In just two decades Petronas will have gone from 1st to 27th tallest in the world. with the exception of the Burj Khalifa and Makkah Royal Clock Tower. and Taipei 101 just scrapes into the study in 18th place. When we take into account that new projects not included in this study will surely be announced and built throughout the next decade. Figure 6. Skyline comparison of the tallest 20 buildings in 2000. What is perhaps the most interesting aspect of the study is that the previous world’s tallest mentioned above now barely make the list at all. 2010.

Guangzhou (1). Shanghai Tower will complete a trio of skyscrapers in the Pudong district © Gensler For the purpose of this study. the number of megatalls set to complete in the upcoming decade is similar to the number of supertalls completed in the 90s (see Figure 7). The Middle East counts for 25% (5). 3 . Asia (not including the Middle East) accounts for 70% of the buildings (14). If we analyze via a larger geographic region. Dalian (1). Although the average height of these twenty buildings is predicted to be 598 meters (1.962 feet). The projects are scattered across 15 cities in 7 countries. Taipei has been considered a Chinese city. © Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat It is also useful to understand the tallest 20 in 2020 in the context of global tall building trends. with 1995 being the last year when no supertalls were completed. where New York’s One World Trade Center is the only tower in the western hemisphere to make the study. The Shanghai Tower’s unique dual-skin design provides atrium space containing “gardens in the sky” between the skins every 12 – 15 stories. clearly stands out as the country most rapidly pursuing the supertall. the number of supertalls completed annually has entered double digits. and the UAE (2). the “Tallest 20 in 2020” also demonstrate a diversity in project location not previously seen in the world’s tallest 20.000 m2 of office space and become the country’s tallest building and the world’s tallest office building. the picture becomes even more pronounced. China. The tallest of these. and Taipei2 (1). 1930) and 1995. The only other region to be represented in the study is North America. Figure 8. Meanwhile. The project began construction in 2009 and is scheduled to complete in 2014. Once complete. Wuhan (1). and is set to continue to rise. certainly adding impetus to the upcoming CTBUH 9th World Congress which will take place in Shanghai in September 2012 on the theme of “Asia Ascending: Age of the Sustainable Skyscraper City. Until recently. spread across seven cities: Shenzhen (2). less than two decades later. however. followed by Korea (3).073 feet) mixed-use Shanghai Tower (see Figure 9) will complete a supertall cluster in the city’s Pudong area. Tianjin (2). Now. the project will provide over 300. The Ping An Finance Center will become China’s tallest building © Kohn Pedersen Fox 2 2016 Figure 9. the completion of a supertall was rather a rare occurrence.3 billion citizens and a rapidly urbanizing population. in fact. In terms of height. as we stand at the end of 2011 there are still only 61 buildings currently in existence over 300 meters (the threshold for “supertall”). Not only increasing in height. Saudi Arabia (2).200 198 20 100 116 18 17 16 16 52 15 15 14 13 26 15 31 1 5 13 12 10 9 0 10 Total number of buildings 4 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 3 2 3 3 2 1 2012 2013 2 1 1 2017 0 1 2014 2015 1 2018 2019 2020 Number of buildings completed each year Number of supertalls (300m+) Projected number of supertalls (300m+) Number of megatalls (600m+) Projected number of megatalls (600m+) Figure 7. the 632-meter (2.” With over 1. 600 m seems to be the new 300 m. If we consider the Middle East as part of continental Asia. with only 15 supertalls completing in the 65 years between the world’s first such building (New York’s Chrysler Building. Also in China. Shenzhen’s Ping An Finance Center (see Figure 8). The ten Chinese projects show great diversity in location. therefore. Shanghai (2). China is perhaps the country with the most obvious reason for building tall. It was only in the mid 1990s that it became common for more than one supertall to be added to the lists annually. as it sits alongside the Shanghai World Financial Center and the Jin Mao Building. is now under construction and scheduled to complete in 2015. with 10 of the 20 projects. Supertall and megatall building completion showing a significant projected increase. then Asia contains 19 of the 20 projects.

Signature Tower is therefore seen to herald the coming of the supertall to these countries. two of which are located in Seoul. Seoul Light DMC Tower will become a landmark for the city’s skyline © SOM | Giroud Pichot Figure 11. contains a somewhat surprising three of the 20 projects. the presence of these two possible megatall projects point to the dramatic potential of this area. Perhaps the foremost reason is a general feeling that Korean cities lack the “iconic” or “landmark” buildings that many world-class cities contain. the three countries listed above represent nearly a quarter of the world’s population and yet contain no supertall buildings and a total of only four buildings over 250 meters. Together. Seoul is also home to the now-under-construction Lotte World Tower. and final completion is therefore not predictable. There are many reasons for this dramatic increase in supertall construction in Korea. Much of South and Southeast Asia in fact. and thus not included in the 2020 study (the 620-meter Triple One and the 540-meter Hyundai Global Business Center). Besides these two significant buildings. However.819 feet) supertall scheduled to complete in 2015. completed in 1996 at a height of 262 meters – less than half the height of the proposed Signature Tower. and Vietnam seem ready to become one of the next centers of skyscraper construction. a 555-meter (1. Seoul’s tallest planned building is the 640-meter (2.Figure 10. The tower will implement power generation strategies to reduce the building’s energy usage by around 65%. India. Mumbai’s planned 700-meter India Tower.101 feet) Seoul Light DMC Tower (see Figure 10). located at the western edge of the city overlooking the Han River. including Indonesia. the city has two additional projects in the works which have not yet received planning permission. a country that has never had a single building within the world’s tallest 20 and is now on the verge of having several. Excavation for the project is set to begin during the first quarter of 2012. Indonesia’s current tallest building is Wisma 46. was not included in this study as construction has stopped. This means that Seoul could potentially contain as many as four of the tallest 20 buildings in 2020. 4 . the 638-meter Signature Tower Jakarta © Smallwood Reynolds Stewart Stewart Korea. Jakarta is set to contain the world’s 5th tallest building. Another significant project in this area. a country with a population about 1/25th that of China but twice as dense by area. Where can we expect the next nucleus of tall building construction globally? The Signature Tower Jakarta (see Figure 11) perhaps predicts the answer to this question.

is set to become the tallest building in the western hemisphere in 2013. Thus. 2010. security concerns. The next decade of supertall building construction will. Having discussed four regions/countries in the eastern hemisphere where 19 of the projects are located. the designers faced tremendous challenges in terms of space constraints. fill in the gaps between the recordbreaking Burj Khalifa and Taipei 101. the world’s tallest building until January 4. the project comes in as the world’s 12th tallest building. there were strong economic motivations to build tall. 15 of the Tallest 20 in 2020 fit into this 320-meter gap. Located near the site of the old WTC buildings. and Qatar. One World Trade Center Tower is the only building in the western hemisphere included in the “Tallest 20 in 2020” © Skidmore. as well as strong emotional motivation. In the case of One World Trade Center. see Figure 12). These projects include the current world’s tallest (Burj Khalifa). and birth as a country. a motivating factor in all of these projects has been to push the boundaries of technology and accomplish feats never before imagined.776 feet (541 meters) points to the United State’s declaration of independence. with only the Kingdom Tower exceeding the height of the Burj Khalifa. The building’s final height of 1.Five of the Tallest 20 in 2020 projects are located in three countries in the Middle East: the United Arab Emirates. in New York. we turn to the opposite side of the world for the remaining project. Owings & Merrill | dbox studio 5 . and what is soon to become the world’s second tallest (Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel. One World Trade Center Tower (see Figure 13). Saudi Arabia. in one sense. to provide valued office space in one of the economic centers of the world. In the 2020 study. as well as millions of concerned citizens. The Burj Khalifa exemplifies this fact. Quite obviously. to overcome the tragic events of 9/11. Figure 12. The nearly complete Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel will be world’s second megatall © Saudi Binladin Group / CTBUH Figure 13. the future world’s tallest (Kingdom Tower).

For. Seoul’s Lotte World Tower. Now. a megatall would have been considered possible only within a dream. Shortly after 9/11. their effect on our cities – visually. construction. Additionally. as structural members and service cores increase to service the increased height of the building. Chicago’s Monadnock Building demonstrated the maximum height achievable with a masonry structure while still providing an economically feasible space efficiency. building height was primarily restricted by structural limitations. urbanistically. we must now continue to push the boundaries of environmental engineering in order to progress the tall typology. Half a century ago. as skyscrapers continue to multiply. there are energy implications in the construction. In the late 1800s. and environmentally – continues to increase exponentially. 6 . many advances in the fields of structure. Over the 19th century. many predicted the death of the tall building. but as the study shows. Not long ago. The ever-increasing and rapidly urbanizing global population will continue to drive cities higher. At what point are the significant benefits of increased density provided by building tall overtaken by the energy repercussions of height? This elusive figure is most certainly affected by the technologies of the day. and occupation of a building. Is it not possible that we could soon see the emergence of a zero-energy megatall? Just as we pushed the structural boundaries of height. The question for humanity is thus no longer “how high can we build?” but “how high should we build?” With every increase in height. skyscrapers are increasing in number. It is now a reality. maintenance. and transportation (to name a few) allowed for a steady increase in building height. with added height comes less space efficiency. and diversity. set to complete in 2015 © Kohn Pedersen Fox Figure 15. The 500-meter Kaisa Feng Long Centre will be located in Shenzhen © RTKL Figure 16. the tremendous heights being achieved globally demonstrate that many of the physical constraints that once restricted height have been broken. height. the Wuhan Greenland Center © Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture The Tallest 20 in 2020 study ultimately underlines a now well-known fact: the skyscraper is here to stay.Figure 14. Wuhan’s first megatall.

640 ft Shenzhen Shanghai World Financial Center 492 m/1. Because of this multi-faceted inclusion criteria.org/.808 ft Doha One World Trade Center 541 m/1.776 ft New York City “Future Tallest” Criteria: Buildings included in this study are either built.988 ft Current Status: Proposed Completion Date: 2015 Building Use: Hotel/Residential/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 118 Owner/Developer: Wuhan Greenland Bin Jiang Property Co. designed to facilitate exchanges among those involved in all aspects of the planning.org Busan. ECADI Structural Engineer: Leslie E. It is the arbiter of the criteria upon which tall building height is measured.699 ft Current Status: Under Construction Completion Date: 2016 Building Use: Hotel/Residential/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 88 Owner/Developer: Greenland Group Architect: HOK Associate Architect: ECADI Structural Engineers: ECADI MEP Engineer: ECADI Project Manager: Greenland Group Main Contractor: Shanghai Construction 15 Dalian Greenland Center Dubai. Saudi Arabia Height: 1. Inc. Project Manager: Turner Construction Main Contractors: Kumagai Gumi.000 + m/3. PT Hantaran Prima Mandiri Project Manager: PT Grahamas Adisentosa Shanghai. Ltd. Stewart. Owings & Merrill LLP MEP Engineer: Syska Hennessy Group Main Contractor: Lotte Construction Management 17 Busan Lotte Town Tower Taipei. Samsung E & C 18 Taipei 101 Shenzhen.739 ft Tianjin Dalian Greenland Center 518 m/1. Engineers & Consultants Structural Engineers: Leslie E. Robertson Associates MEP Engineer: Kenchiku Setubi Sekkei Kenkyusho Project Manager: Mori Building Main Contractors: China State Construction. under construction or considered real proposals.165 ft Current Status: Under Construction Completion Date: 2015 Building Use: Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 115 Owner/Developer: Ping An Life Insurance Company of China Architect: Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates Associate Architect: China Construction Design International Structural Engineers: Thornton Tomasetti MEP Engineer: J.693 ft Dubai Busan Lotte Town Tower 510 m/1.972 ft Current Status: Topped Out Completion Date: 2012 Building Use: Hotel Structural Material: Steel/Concrete Total Floors: 120 Owner/Developer: Saudi Bin Ladin Group Architect: Dar Al-Handasah Shair & Partners Structural Engineers: Dar Al-Handasah Shair & Partners MEP Engineer: Dar Al-Handasah Shair & Partners Project Manager: Dar Al-Handasah Shair & Partners Main Contractor: Saudi Bin Ladin Group 8 Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel Tianjin. PT Gistama Intisemesta MEP Engineer: Beca Group. Crown Hall Illinois Institute of Technology 3360 South State Street Chicago IL. Indonesia Height: 638 m/2. Arabtec. Owings & Merrill LLP Associate Architect: Heerim Architects & Planners Structural Engineers: Skidmore. Besix Group Shenzhen.957 ft Current Status: Under Construction Completion Date: 2015 Building Use: Hotel/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 128 Owner/Developer: Goldin Properties Holdings Ltd.280+ ft Jeddah Counc i l on Ta ll B ui ld i ng s a n d Urban Habitat Burj Khalifa 828 m/2. South Korea Height: 640 m/2. Stewart Associate Architect: PDW Architects Structural Engineers: Thornton Tomasetti. Lee & Partners Architects/Partners Structural Engineers: Thornton Tomasetti. engineering.000+ m/3. Projects that have commenced construction. but with works currently halted. China Height: 530 m/1. A real proposal can be considered such if it has: a specific site with ownership interests within the building development team.972 ft Mecca Goldin Finance 117 597 m/1. Owings & Merrill LLP Associate Architect: Hyder Consulting Structural Engineer: Skidmore. Owings & Merrill LLP MEP Engineer: Parson Brinckerhoff Consultants Pte Ltd 14 Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Binhai Center Dalian.819 ft Current Status: Under Construction Completion Date: 2015 Building Use: Hotel/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 123 Owner/Developer: The Lotte Group Architect: Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates Associate Architect: Baum Architects. formal planning consent/legal permission for construction (or is in the process of obtaining such permission).988 ft Wuhan Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel 601 m/1.614ft Current Status: Completed Completion Date: 2008 Building Use: Hotel/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 101 Owner: Shanghai World Financial Center Co. is an international not-for-profit organization supported by architecture. Seoul. Mumbai. including: India Tower. China Height: 632 m/2.org http://www. Werner Sobek Engineering & Design. based at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago.819 ft Seoul Doha Convention Center and Tower 551 m/1. United Arab Emirates Height: 516 m/1. Hyder Consulting Project Manager: Turner Construction 11 Doha Convention Center and Tower New York City. China Height: 597 m/1. Doosan E&C Jakarta. Roger Preston Group Seoul.101 ft Seoul Signature Tower Jakarta 638 m/2.org P: 1 (312) 567-3429 7 . South Korea Height: 510 m/1. Developer: Mori Building Architect: Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates.717 ft Dubai Tallest 20 in 2020 Projected World’s Tallest 20 Buildings in the Year 2020 Ping An Finance Center 660 m/2.739 ft Current Status: Proposed Completion Date: 2015 Building Use: Residential/Hotel/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 97 Owner/Developer: New World China Land Architect: Skidmore. (Data as of December 2011) Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Binhai Center 530 m/1. Taiwan Kumagai. and thus the title of “The World’s Tallest Building” determined. China Height: 492m/1. Evergreen Engineering MEP Engineer: Continental Engineering Consultants.667 ft Taipei Kaisa Feng Long Centre 500 m/1.674 ft Current Status: Under Construction Completion Date: 2016 Building Use: Residential/Hotel/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 107 Owner/Developer: The Lotte Group Architect: Skidmore. see http://criteria. 60616.614 ft Shanghai The CTF Guangzhou 530 m/1.739 ft Current Status: Under Construction Completion Date: 2017 Building Use: Hotel/Residential/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 111 Owner: Chow Tai Fook Enterprises Developer: New World Project Management Architect: Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates Associate Architect: Dennis Lau & Ng Chun Man Architects & Eng. Triple One.093 ft Jakarta Shanghai Tower 632 m/2. and is available as a poster through the CTBUH webshop.776 ft Current Status: Under Construction Completion Date: 2013 Building Use: Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 104 Owner: 1 World Trade Center LLC Developer: Port Authority of New York & New Jersey Architect: Skidmore.ctbuh. Robertson Associates MEP Engineer: SYSKA Hennessy Group 10 Lotte World Tower Doha. South Korea Height: 555 m/1.093 ft Current Status: Proposed Completion Date: 2016 Building Use: Hotel/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 111 Owner/Developer: PT Grahamas Adisentosa Architect: Smallwood. Owings & Merrill LLP MEP Engineer: SYSKA Hennessy Group Main Contractor: Daewoo. For more on CTBUH height criteria. Owings & Merrill LLP MEP Engineer: Skidmore.699 ft Dalian Pentominium 516 m/1. USA Height: 541 m/1. China Height: 518 m/1. The CTBUH is the world’s leading body in the field of tall buildings and the recognized source of information on tall buildings internationally. Seoul. Irie Miyake Architects & Engineers Associate Architect: Shanghai Modern Architectural Design. China Height: 500m/1. Main Contractor: Saudi Bin Ladin Group 2 2 Burj Khalifa 3 4 5 3 Ping An Finance Center 6 7 4 Seoul Light DMC Tower 8 5 Signature Tower Jakarta 9 10 6 Shanghai Tower 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Building Status 18 Complete Under Construction 19 Proposed Construction Stopped 20 Above: Diagram of the World’s Tallest 20 Buildings as projected by 2020. and a full intention to progress the building to construction and completion.165 ft Shenzhen Seoul Light DMC Tower 640 m/2. design. according to the CTBUH Height Criteria “Height to Architectural Top. a full professional design team progressing the design beyond the conceptual stage. Taiwan.ctbuh. The “Tallest 20 in 2020” study (seen above) includes project information and details. USA Phone: +1 (312) 567 3487 Fax: +1 (312) 567 3820 Email: info@ctbuh.Kingdom Tower 1.org © Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat Note for Press: For image requests and additional information please contact: Nathaniel Hollister nhollister@ctbuh. Hyder Consulting MEP Engineer: Arup. Owings & Merrill LLP Associate Architect: ECADI Structural Engineers: Skidmore. Hyundai Global Business Center.R.280 + ft Current Status: Proposed Completion Date: 2018 Building Use: Hotel/Residential/Office Structural Material: Concrete Total Floors: 156 Owner/Developer: Jeddah Economic Company Architect: Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture Associate Architect: Dar Al-Handasah Shair & Partners Structural Engineers: Thornton Tomasetti MEP Engineer: Environmental Systems Design.073 ft Shanghai Wuhan Greenland Center 606 m/1. PRC Height: 508m/1.717 ft Current Status: Completed Completion Date: 2010 Building Use: Office/Residential/Hotel Structural Material: Steel/Concrete Total Floors: 163 Owner/Developer: Emaar Properties PJSC Architect: Skidmore.640ft Current Status: Proposed Completion Date: Unknown Building Use: Hotel/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 92 Owner/Developer: Kaisa Group Holdings Architect: RTKL Structural Engineers: RTKL MEP Engineer: RTKL 19 Kaisa Feng Long Centre Shanghai. Saudi Arabia Height: 601 m/1.667ft Current Status: Completed Completion Date: 2004 Building Use: Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 101 Owner/Developer: Taipei Financial Center Corporation Architect: C. Daelim. construction and operation of tall buildings. and Zhongguo Zun. at https://store. Owings & Merrill LLP Associate Architect: Samoo Structural Engineers: Skidmore. Shanghai Construction 20 Shanghai World Financial Center Building Use Residential Office Hotel Mixed Use Figure 17.674 ft Busan Taipei 101 508 m/1. Owings & Merrill LLP Structural Engineers: WSP Cantor Seinuk. Furthermore this research only considers projects that are within the public domain and have the consent for inclusion from the respective client-consultant teams. Ta-You-Wei Construction. Inc. RSEA Engineering. Architect: P & T Group Associate Architect: ECADI Structural Engineers: Arup MEP Engineer: Parsons Brinckerhoff Consultants Pte Ltd Project Manager: Goldin Properties Holdings Limited Main Contractor: Third Bureau of CSCEC 9 Goldin Finance 117 Seoul. China Height: 660 m/2. Qatar Height: 551 m/1.808 ft Current Status: Construction Stopped Completion Date: Unknown Building Use: Residential/Hotel Structural Material: Steel/Concrete Total Floors: 112 Owner/Developer: Qatari Diar Real Estate Investment Co. China Height: 530 m/1. are also included if there is a strong possibility of the project progressing to final completion. development and construction professionals.ctbuh.101 ft Current Status: Proposed Completion Date: 2017 Building Use: Hotel/Residential/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 130 Owner: Seoul Light AMC Developer: Millennium Builder Architect: Skidmore. Structural Engineers: Arup MEP Engineer: Parsons Brinckerhoff Consultants Pte Ltd Project Manager: New World Project Management Ltd 13 The CTF Guangzhou Tianjin. a number of prominent projects were not included in the study. Reynolds.739 ft Guangzhou 1 Jeddah. Beijing. China Height: 606 m/1.073 ft Current Status: Under Construction Completion Date: 2014 Building Use: Hotel/Office Structural Material: Composite Total Floors: 121 Owner/Developer: Shanghai Tower Construction & Development Architect: Gensler Associate Architect: Architectural Design & Research Institute of Tongji University Structural Engineers: Thornton Tomasetti MEP Engineer: Cosentini Main Contractor: Shanghai Construction Wuhan.” Estimated as of December 2011. UAE Height: 828 m/2.693 ft Current Status: Construction Stopped Completion Date: Unknown Building Use: Residential Structural Material: Steel/Concrete Total Floors: 122 Developer: Trident International Holdings Architect: AEDAS Structural Engineers: Hyder Consulting MEP Engineer: Hyder Consulting Project Manager: Precipio Consulting Main Contractor: Arabian Construction Company 16 Pentominium Building Location China Other Asia Middle East United States The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. planning. Architect: Murphy/Jahn Architects Structural Engineers: Magnusson Klemencic Associates. 1 Kingdom Tower Dubai. Schlaich Bergermann und Partner MEP Engineer: Jaros Baum & Bolles Main Contractor: Tishman Construction 12 One World Trade Center Guangzhou.Y. Architect: Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture Associate Architect: ECADI Structural Engineers: Thornton Tomasetti MEP Engineer: PositivEnergy Practice 7 Wuhan Greenland Center Mecca. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat S. Ltd. Owings & Merrill LLP Project Manager: Turner Construction Main Contractors: Samsung E & C.957 ft Tianjin Lotte World Tower 555 m/1.