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Hollow Earth

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The Hollow Earth hypothesis proposes that the planet Earth is either entirely hollow or otherwise contains a substantial interior space. The hypothesis has been shown to be wrong by observationalevidence, as well as by the modern understanding of planet formation; the scientific community has dismissed the notion since at least the late 18th century. The concept of a hollow Earth still recurs in folklore and as the premise for subterranean fiction, a subgenre of adventure fiction. It is also featured in some present-day scientific, pseudoscientific andconspiracy theories.
Contents
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1 Hypotheses

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1.1 Ancient history 1.2 17th and 18th century 1.3 19th century 1.4 20th century 1.5 21st Century 1.6 Concave hollow Earths

2 Contrary evidence

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2.1 Gravity 2.2 Visual evidence

3 In fiction 4 See also 5 Bibliography 6 References 7 External links

[edit]Hypotheses [edit]Ancient

history

In ancient times, the idea of subterranean realms seemed arguable, and became intertwined with the concept of "places" such as the Greek Hades, the Nordic svartalfheim, the Christian Hell, and the Jewish Sheol (with details describing inner Earth in Kabalistic literature, such as the Zohar and Hesed

entered a subterranean garden.[1][2] The concept of a subterranean land inside the earth is popular in mythology. after traveling through the darkness of a tunnel in the mountain of "Mashu". and then went back underground. The bell tower stands on a mound that is the site of the original cave which according to various myths is an entrance which leads inside the earth to a place of purgatory. folklore and legends in ancient times. a group of people who are believed to have introduced Druidism to Ireland.[4] InMesopotamian religion there is a story of a man who.[10] .[7] There is an Irish myth which says tunnels in County Down. a legendary and ancient cave from which according to legend say that strange creatures would emerge in ancient times.[6] There are also stories of medieval knights andsaints who went on pilgrimages to a cave located in Station Island. where they made journeys inside the earth into a place ofpurgatory. at Ephya in Thesprotia. at Herakleia in Pontos.[5] Chapel. The cave has been closed since October 25. lead to the land of the subterranean Tuatha de Danaan. Northern Ireland.[3] In Thracians and Dacians legend it is said that there are underground chambers occupied by an ancient God called Zalmoxis. bell tower and penitential beds onStation Island. In Celtic mythology there is a legend of a cave called "Cruachan" also known as "Ireland's gate to Hell". some of which were the caverns at Tainaron in Lakonia. 1632. The idea of a subterranean realm is also mentioned in the Vedic texts such as thePuranas.L'Avraham).[8] An ancient legend of the Angami Naga tribes of India claim that their ancestors emerged in ancient times from a subterranean land inside the earth. the belief in Shamballa as a city inside the earth is also found in Tibetan Buddhism.[9] There are legends from the Taíno people that their ancestors emerged in ancient times from two caves in a mountain underground. according to one story in the Puranas there is an ancient city called Shamballa which is located inside the earth. County Donegal in Ireland. and in Ermioni. According to the Ancient Greeks there were caverns under the surface which were entrances leading to the underworld. at Trozien in Argolis. and be seen on the surface of the earth.

[17][18] According to South American mythology the belief of the Brazilian Indians. two inner concentric shells and an innermost core. There are also legends that say the ancestors of the Inca Empire came from underground caves which are located east of Cuzco. Mars.[13] In Native American mythology. holds a portal to the inner earth. is possessed by devilish creatures who came from inside the earth. Mexico. about the diameters of the planets Venus. claim that their forefathers emerged in ancient times from an underground land. Halley proposed this scheme in order to explain anomalous compass .Peru. [15] ] which is said to lead inside the earth to a land inhabited by a mysterious It is also the belief of the tribes of Iroquoisthat their ancient ancestors emerged from a subterranean world inside the earth.[11] There is an ancient legend held in Mexican folklore that a cave in a mountain five miles south of Ojinaga. and Mercury. There is an old Russian legend that says the Samoyeds. Edmond Halley in 1692[20] put forth the idea of Earth consisting of a hollow shell about 800 km (500 mi) thick.[16] The elders of the Hopi people believe that a Sipapu entrance in the Grand Canyon exists which leads to theunderworld. who live alongside the Parima River in Brazil. and each shell has its own magnetic poles.It is the belief of the natives of the Malinowski's Trobriand Islands that their ancestors had come from a subterranean land through a cavern hole called "Obukula". Atmospheres separate these shells. an ancient Siberian tribe traveled to an underground cavern city to live inside the earth.[12] There was an ancient myth held in the middle ages that some mountains located between Eisenach and Gotha in Germany. and that many of their ancestors still remained inside the earth.[19] [edit]17th and 18th century Edmond Halley's hypothesis. The spheres rotate at different speeds. it is said that the ancestors of the Mandan people in ancient times emerged from a subterranean land through a cave at the north side of the Missouri River.[14] There is also a tale about a tunnel in the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation in Arizona near Cedar Creek[disambiguation needed tribe.

suggesting two central suns named Pluto and Proserpine (this was unrelated to the dwarf planet Pluto. Exploring Expedition of 1838–1842.300 km (1. Lyons published The Hollow Globe which put forth a Symmes-like Hollow Earth hypothesis.20. a professor W.000 families. even though that venture was a result of his agitation.readings. suggested that the Earth consisted of a hollow shell about 1. Jr. getting rid of multiple shells and postulating an interior sun 1. Though Symmes himself never wrote a book about his ideas."[23][24] [edit]19th century In 1818. 449–453). according to Milfort the original Creek Indian ancestors are believed to have emerged out to the surface of the earth in ancient times from the caverns.400 mi) across at both poles with 4 inner shells each open at the poles. but failed to mention Symmes himself. Reynolds went on an expedition to Antarctica himself but missed joining the Great U. also claimed the caverns they saw "could easily contain 15. but there is a slightly related thought experiment. with openings about 2. . The new President of the United States. halted the attempt. thanks to efforts of one of his followers.[21] De Camp and Ley have claimed (in their Lands Beyond) that Leonhard Euler also proposed a hollowEarth idea.000 km (620 mi) across to provide light to advanced inner-Earth civilization but they provide no references. several authors published works discussing his ideas. Milfort.James McBride. Euler did not propose a hollow-Earth. In 1868. John Cleves Symmes.000 . He envisaged the atmosphere inside as luminous (and possibly inhabited) and speculated that escaping gas caused the Aurora Borealis. Andrew Jackson. He proposed making an expedition to the North Pole hole. Symmes became the most famous of the early Hollow Earth proponents. Jeremiah Reynolds also delivered lectures on the "Hollow Earth" and argued for an expedition.[22] De Camp and Ley also claim that Sir John Leslie expanded on Euler's idea. It is possible this is the source of the (untrue) legend that Jackson believed in a Flat Earth. and was consequently the only United States president to do so.F. Symmes's son Americus then published The Symmes' Theory of Concentric Spheres in 1878 to set the record straight. Leslie did propose a hollow Earth in his 1829 Elements of Natural Philosophy (pp. Le Clerc Milfort in 1781 led a journey with hundreds of Creek Indians. which was discovered and named some time later).S.300 km (810 mi) thick. United States president John Quincy Adams indicated he would approve of this but he left office before this could occur. indeed. McBride wrote Symmes' Theory of Concentric Spheres in 1826. but does not mention interior suns. It appears that Reynolds has an article that appeared as a separate booklet in 1827: Remarks of Symmes' Theory Which Appeared in the American Quarterly Review. to a series of caverns near the Red River above the junction of the Mississippi river.

called Hyperborea. William Reed. Patent 1. The spiritualist writer Walburga. Lady Paget in her book Colloquies with an unseen friend (1907) was an early writer to mention the hollow earth theory. and Mount Shastain California. this view influenced some of the early hollow earth theorists. Antarctica. He even built a working model of the hollow Earth and patented it (U.[26] William Fairfield Warren.S.[27] Marshall Gardner (distinct from Martin Gardner. Men and Gods in the book Ossendowski tells of a story which was imparted to him concerning a subterranean kingdom which exists inside the earth. based on a speech of Admiral Dönitz in front of a German submarine in 1944. in his book."[25] An early twentieth-century proponent of hollow Earth. she further claimed that an entrance will be discovered to this subterranean kingdom in the 21st century. He placed an interior sun in the hollow Earth. which is where the descendants of Atlantis moved to. According to Papashvily one man who entered the tunnel never returned to the surface.[28] George Papashvily in his book Anything Can Happen (1940). Peru. According to Marshall Gardner both the Eskimo and Mongolian peoples had come from the interior of the earth from an entrance located at the North pole. There is even a theory that Hitler ordered a research journey for such an opening in Antarctica. He supported the idea of a hollow Earth. The explorer Ferdynand Ossendowski wrote a book in 1922 titled Beasts. Paradise Found: The Cradle of the Human Race at the North Pole presented his belief that humanity had originated on a continent in the Arctic. anywhere in the world. in midst of the eternal ice. the North Pole.[edit]20th century The Nazi era Thule Society reported much about Tibetan myths of openings into the Earth. Dönitz spoke of "an invisible fortification.102).096. have all had their advocates as the locations of entrances to a subterranean . USA. where the hollow Earth's interior possessed one inner (central) sun and was inhabited by prehistoric species.[29] Other writers of the 20th century have proposed that "ascended masters" of esoteric wisdom inhabit subterranean caverns or a hollow Earth. In the same time Vladimir Obruchevwrote a fiction novel Plutonia. but without interior shells or inner sun. when he claimed "The German submarine fleet is proud of having built an invisible fortification for the Führer. but did take Symmes to task for his ideas. claimed that there was a discovery in the Caucasus mountains of a cavern containing giant human skeletons "with heads as big as bushel baskets" and also of an ancient tunnel nearby which leads down into the inside of the earth. she claimed that cities exist beneath a desert. Gardner made no mention of Reed." During the Nuremberg Trials. The interior was connected with the surface by a hole in theArctic. Tibet. mentioned below) wrote A Journey to the Earth's Interior in 1913 and an expanded edition in 1920. wrote Phantom of the Poles in 1906. This kingdom was known to the Buddhists as Agharti.

but not until the publishing of Walter KaftonMinkel's Subterranean Worlds: 100. Shaver described "voices" that purportedly came from no explainable source. dwarves. Thousands of readers wrote to affirm that they.[30] Michael Grumley a cryptozoologist has linked Bigfoot and other hominid cryptids to ancient tunnel systems underground. with some even advancing the hypothesis that UFOs have their homeland in these places. in 1989.[32] Other occult writers such as Guy Ballard and Alice Bailey have written that they have had Out Of Body Experiences and met mysterious beings inside of the earth.Walter Siegmeister used the pseudonym `Bernard'. and so some emerged in their flying saucers in an act of self-defense. Bernard also adds his own ideas: the Ring Nebula proves the existence of hollow worlds.[34] An article by Martin Gardner revealed that Dr.[34] It was Atlanteans who piloted the flying machines known in ancient India as vimanas and in the modern world as flying saucers. The writer Lobsang Rampa in his book The Cave of the Ancients wrote that an underground chamber system exists beneath the Himalayas of Tibet. too.[31] Douglas Baker wrote in one of his books that he had an astral journey to the inner earth where he observed a subterranean civilization. As one characteristic of this torment. Ray Palmer. and is filled with ancient machinery. did the full story of Bernard/Siegmeister become well known. Bernard claimed. The pages of the science fiction pulp magazine Amazing Stories promoted one such idea from 1945 to 1949 as "the Shaver Mystery".[34] After the US bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. According to the ancient astronaut writer Peter Kolosimo a robot was seen entering a subterranean tunnel below a Monastery in Mongolia. The magazine's editor. had heard the fiendish voices from inside the Earth. the Atlanteans became concerned that radioactive air might flow into the world's interior. as well as speculation on the fate of Atlantis and the origin of flying saucers. "Bernard" argued that the inhabitants of Atlantis took refuge in the Earth's interior before the city was destroyed in great calamity. known as "Dero". .000 years of dragons. A book allegedly by a "Dr.[33] Kolosimo and other ancient astronaut writers such as Robert Charroux linked these activities to UFOs. using the fantastic machines abandoned by the ancient races to torment those of us living on the surface. he also claimed lights were seen from underground inAzerbaijan. exemplifies the idea of UFOs coming from inside the earth. Raymond Bernard" which appeared in 1964. and that their degenerate descendants. lost races & UFOs from inside the Earth. live there still.realm referred to as Agartha. though presented in the context of fiction. The Hollow Earth. the dead. The book rehashes Reed and Gardner's ideas and ignores Symmes. records andtreasures. Shaver claimed that a superior pre-historic race had built a honeycomb of caves in the Earth. ran a series of stories byRichard Sharpe Shaver supposedly claimed as factual.

Purportedly verifiable hypotheses of a "concave hollow Earth" need to be distinguished from a thought experiment which defines a coordinate transformation such that the interior of the Earth becomes "exterior" and the exterior becomes "interior". making a case for a 100-mile wide canyon in the center of the physical North Pole.) The transformation entails corresponding changes to the forms of . into which north-flowing rivers drain into a hollow Earth.[38] and the Amazon Rainforest. with the universe in the center. [edit]21st Century In 2011. entrances in locations which have been cited include: Paris in France. (See also Hitler's supposed adherence to concave hollow-Earth ideas.[40] The maps were collected by Harry Hubbard. sometimes called a "convex" hollow-Earth hypothesis. some have claimed that our universe itself lies in the interior of a hollow world.[37] Hangchow in China. in spherical coordinates. below. [edit]Concave hollow Earths An example of a concave hollow Earth. Other than the South and North pole. (For example. The surface of the Earth. calling this a "concave" hollow-Earth hypothesis.) Some writers have proposed building megastructures that have some similarities to a hollow Earth – see Dyson sphere. let radius r go to R²/r where R is the Earth's radius. Horatio Valens and Paul Veneti presented a two-hour "Lazeria Map Collection" video on centuries-old maps of the Arctic region and the North Pole.[39] Fantastic stories (supposedly believed as factual within fringe circles) have also circulated that Adolf Hitler and some of his followers escaped to hollow lands within the Earth after World War II via an entrance in Antarctica.[35] Staffordshire in England[36] Montreal in Canada.Hollow earth theorists have claimed a number of different locations for the entrances which lead inside the earth. Humans live on the interior. Instead of saying that humans live on the outside surface of a hollow planet. might resemble the interior shell of a sphere. Globus Cassus. according to such a view.

calling his scheme "Cellular Cosmogony". Massive objects tend to clump together gravitationally. A drill. which he called Koreshanity. obviously unsuccessful. creating non-hollow spherical objects we call stars and planets. Florida. 1999). The main colony survives as a preserved Florida state historic site. through surveys of the Florida coastline making use of "rectilineator" equipment. with properly adjusted physical laws. is empirically irrefutable". a doctor from upstate New York. proposed such a concave hollow Earth in 1869. The solid sphere is the best way in which to minimize the gravitational potential energy of a . attempt to spy on the British fleet by pointing infrared cameras up at the sky[42] (Wagner. but all of Teed's followers have now died. This is not a hypothesis but an illustration of the fact that any description of the physical world can be equivalently expressed in more than one way. that Adolf Hitler was influenced by concave hollow-Earth ideas and sent an expedition in an. Martin Gardner discusses the hollow Earth model articulated by Abdelkader. and slow as they approach the center of the spherical star-filled cavern. and Fritz Braun. Teed founded a group called the Koreshan Unity based on this notion.[43] The Egyptian mathematician Mostafa Abdelkader wrote several scholarly papers working out a detailed mapping of the concave Earth model. Supposedly no experiment can distinguish between the two cosmologies. Teed's followers claimed to have experimentally verified the concavity of the Earth's curvature. Johannes Lang.[44][45] In one chapter of his book On the Wild Side (1992). published works advocating the hollow Earth hypothesis. Another set of scientific arguments against a hollow Earth or any hollow planet comes from gravity. Several twentieth-century German writers. Karl Neupert. which corresponds to no point a finite distance away from Earth in the widely accepted scientific cosmology. at Estero. although apparently without historical documentation. It has even been reported. Gardner notes that "most mathematicians believe that an inside-out universe. including Peter Bender. According to Gardner. Gardner says. or Hohlweltlehre. [edit]Contrary [edit]Gravity evidence The picture of the structure of the earth that has been arrived at through the study of seismic waves[46] is quite different from the hollow earth theory. No energy can reach the center of the cavern.[41] Cyrus Teed. this hypothesis posits that light rays travel in circular paths.physical laws. Gardner rejects the concave hollow Earth hypothesis on the basis of Occam's Razor. would lengthen as it traveled away from the cavern and eventually pass through the "point at infinity" corresponding to the center of the Earth in the widely accepted scientific cosmology.

visual knowledge of the Earth's structure extends that far. Someone on the inside of a hollow Earth would not experience a significant outward pull and could not easily stand on the inner surface. The centrifugal force from the Earth's rotation would pull a person (on the inner surface) outwards if the person was traveling at the same velocity as the Earth's interior and was in contact with the ground on the interior. whose shell theorem mathematically predicts a gravitational force (from the shell) of zero everywhere inside a spherically symmetric hollow shell of matter. rather. [edit]Visual evidence The deepest hole drilled to date is the SG-3 borehole which is 12. as well as forces from other bodies such as the Moon. part of the Soviet Kola Superdeep Borehole project. thus. Should the Earth be largely hollow. a planet-sized hollow shell with the known. In addition. A tiny gravitational force would arise from the fact that the Earth does not have a perfectly symmetrical spherical shape.3 km (7.6 mi)[47] deep. This was first shown by Newton. having hollowness is unfavorable in the energetic sense. . regardless of the shell's thickness. [edit]In fiction Main article: Subterranean fiction A map of the Interior World. would not be able to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium with its own mass and would collapse. observed thickness of the Earth's crust. the theory of gravity implies that a person on the inside would be nearly weightless. its mass would be much lower and thus its gravity on the outer surface would be much lower than it is. from The Goddess of Atvatabar (1892). but even the maximum centrifugal force at the equator is only 1/300 of ordinary Earth gravity. ordinary matter is not strong enough to support a hollow shape of planetary size against the force of gravity.physical object. The mass of the planet also indicates that the hollow Earth hypothesis is unfeasible.

in film. in comics. called Pellucidar. The DC Comics comic book The Warlord took place in the hollow Earth setting of Skartaris. . a race of multicolored.The idea of a hollow Earth is a very common element of fiction. in the seven-novel "Pellucidar" series. Jr. 500 miles below the surface. beginning with At the Earth's Core (1914). The idea has gradually become a staple of the science fiction and adventure genres. Using a mechanical drill. Other notable pre-20th century examples include Giacomo Casanova's 1788 Icosaméron. a 5-volume. Symzonia: A Voyage of Discovery by a "Captain Adam Seaborn" (1820) which reflected the ideas of John Cleves Symmes. which is lit by an inner sun.[48] The 1915 novel Plutonia by Vladimir Obruchev uses the concept of the hollow Earth to take the reader through various geological epochs. hermaphroditic dwarfs. and George Sand's 1884 novelLaura. Jules Verne's 1864 novel A Journey to the Center of the Earth. 1.. and the Dungeons & Dragons setting Hollow World is similarly inspired by hollow Earth tales. and in many animated works. Edgar Allan Poe's 1838 novel The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket. the creator of Tarzan. on television. in which Nicolai Klim falls through a cave while spelunking and spends several years living on both a smaller globe within and the inside of the outer shell. in role-playing games. appearing in print. appearing as early as Ludvig Holberg's 1741 novel Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum (Niels Klim's Underground Travels). The idea was used by Edgar Rice Burroughs.800-page story of a brother and sister who fall into the Earth and discover the subterranean utopia of the Mégamicres. The third season of the TV show Sanctuary also involves a hollow Earth civilization. which described a prehistoric subterranean world. his heroes discover a prehistoric world. Voyage dans le Cristal where unseen and giant crystals could be found in the interior of the Earth.