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MINISTERUL EDUCAȚIEI ȘI TINERETULUI AL REPUBLICII MOLDOVA

INSTITUTUL DE RELAȚII INTERNAȚIONALE DIN MOLDOVA

Facultatea Economie Mondială și Relații Economice Internaționale

Catedra Limbi Moderne

Report on theme: Culture of Canada

Raport efectuat de studenta anului III, gr. 3Tur1 Gonța Ana Conducător științific Rusu Dina

Chișinău 2011 1

Contents Introduction Canadian traditions Canadian Symbols Literature Canadian Music Cinema Cuisine Religion Sport Conclusion 2 .

M.everyculture. Toronto:McClelland and Stewart. 4th. Roy. Church and State in Canada.  Marchand.  http://www. Toronto: Oxford University Press. 2000. Editor. Elspeth.advantagecanada.everyculture. Edition.  Stewart. Toronto: Key Porter Books. J.html  http://www. Philip.  Dryden.html#b#ixzz1mxV9IcW6  http://www.htm 3 . Canadian Culture: An Introductory Reader. Albert. Home Game: Hockey and Life in Canada. Ken and MacGregor.wildcanada. Elizabeth. 2003. 1997.123independenceday. 1998. Erin. Great Canadian Cuisine.  Brown. Anita and Baird.  Cameron.html  http://www. The Illustrated History of Canada.buzzle. Toronto: Prometheus Books.com/Canada_Traditions.net/culture-and-religion-in-canada.html#b  http://www.Bibliograpfhy  Menendez. Ontario:The Porcupine’s Quill. 1996.com/articles/canadian-culture-and-traditions. 1996. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. Vancouver: Douglas and McIntyre. Ripostes: Reflections on Canadian Literature.com/canada/art-and-culture. A History of Canadian Peoples.com/Bo-Co/Canada. 1990.html  http://www. Craig.  Bumsted.com/Bo-Co/Canada.

due to the proximity and the migration of people. During their colonization of Canada. and carved sculptures of animals. There were and are many distinct First Nations across Canada. a more robust and distinct Canadian culture has developed in recent years. language and history.Introduction Due to its colonial past. and also due to a focus by the federal government on programs to support culture arts. In many respects. Their culture was transmitted largely through oral means and stories were passed down through the elders to the younger generations. each with its own culture. Various tribes created unique styles of artifacts such as weaved baskets. and the 4 . partially because of the civic nationalism that pervaded Canada in the years prior to and following the Canadian Centennial in 1967. From as early the 1500s. and capital. and fishermen from England. Ireland and France helped form the basis of Canadian culture. Canadian culture has historically been heavily influenced by British and French cultures and traditions. ideas. The tales of Paul Bunyan are a product of French-Canadian folklore and the style of jigs from Newfoundland found their origins in Ireland. Much of this artistic legacy remains celebrated in Canada to this day. European explorers. Canadian culture has developed unique characteristics. In more modern times. Canadian culture is now greatly influenced by American culture. Amidst this. painted pictures. The emblem of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics is the inukshuk. a stack of rocks in human form that is a part of Inuit culture. settlers created a folklore about the land around them. traders.

Bonfire night on November 5 is still held in some parts of the country to celebrate Guy Fawke’s Night. They visit homes and put off a sort of mini-concert by singing and dancing. One of the traditions that Canada shares with the US is the celebration of Thanksgiving. This tradition continues today. you always remove your footwear inside the entrance. This makes it very difficult to determine one or several customs that are practiced in the same way all across the country. This is so you won’t track any mud or gravel onto the clean floors of the house. Both children and adults dress up in old mismatched clothing and cover their faces. 5 . mummering is a tradition in Newfoundland. The early settlers were so pleased with their first harvests in the new land that they had a celebration to give thanks. November 11 and July 1 are two days in which the Armed Forces are honored. When you visit someone’s home. children dress up in all kinds of costumes and go from house to house in their neighborhood receiving treats of candy. The first long weekend of the year takes place in May – on or near May 24 in honor of Queen Victoria’s Birthday. This is a holiday in the country that is held on the first Monday in October. Each area of the country and each ethnic group have their own tradition and custom. During the Christmas season.Canadian traditions The local customs and traditions in Canada were brought to the country by the millions of immigrants and were part of the native culture when these people arrived. On Halloween.

2011.Canadian Symbols Official symbols of Canada include the maple leaf. The designation 'Royal' remains for institutions as varied as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Royal Winnipeg Ballet. for example. a renaming of the branches took place. resulting in the "royal designations" of the navy and air force being abandoned. beaver. and the Canadian Horse. Royal Canadian Air Force. loon and more recently. the Government of Canada announced that the name "Air Command" was re-assuming the air force's original historic name. Many official symbols of the country such as the Flag of Canada have been changed or modified over the past few decades in order to 'Canadianize' them and de-emphasise or remove references to the United Kingdom. 6 . the Arms of Canada and armed forces Her Majesty's Canadian Ship. Other prominent symbols include the Canada goose. "Land Command" was re-assuming the name Canadian Army. and "Maritime Command" was re-assuming the nameRoyal Canadian Navy. The change was made to better reflect Canada's military heritage and align Canada with other key Commonwealth of Nations whose militaries use the royal designation. the totem pole and Inuksuk. On August 16. Symbols of the monarchy in Canada continue to be featured in. During unification of the forces in the 1960s.

Robertson Davies. In the field of popular music. Montreal's world-renowned annual jazz festival is a much awaited musical event in Canada. The world's most celebrated jazz artists include Oscar Peterson. P ianist Glenn Gould is a national icon and is renowned worldwide. Margaret Atwood. Canada has also made a mark in the realms of theatre.Literature There is a whole host of playwrights. Sarah McLachlan. 7 . poets and essayist in Canada. Céline Dion. these writers narrate the story of Canada and its people. Gabrielle Roy. Lawrence Quartet have won many prizes and holds a special place of import in Canada. and Shania Twain are only some of the popular international sensations with a fan following worldwide. dance and other performing arts all over the world. Avril Lavigne. Hubert Aquin. Canadian musicians specialize in every genre of music. Gaston Miron and Northrop Frye among several others. Oliver Jones. Canadian Music Music in Canada has a special place of importance owing to its historical significance. Diana Krall and Lorraine Desmarais among several others. Artists like Bryan Adams. Chamber music like Tafelmusik or the St. Through literature. The Montreal and Toronto symphony orchestras specialize in classical music and have widely toured the world. novelist. Some of the popular names in Canadian literature are Jacques Ferron. there is a pool of talented singers. Leonard Cohen. their deepest feelings and thoughts.

many unique dishes (or versions of certain dishes) are found and available only in the country. but a smorgasbord. Cuisine Canadian cuisine varies widely depending on the regions of the nation." There are considerable overlaps between Canadian food and the rest of the cuisine in North America.Cinema Canadian cinema is gaining much popularity with several veteran filmmakers who produce and direct a variety of films ranging from documentary to animation. Not a stew pot. Denys Arcand. Filmmakers and directors like Atom Egoyan. while the traditional cuisine of French Canada has evolved from French cuisine and the winter provisions of fur traders. The three earliest cuisines of Canada have First Nations. Common contenders as the Canadian national food include Poutine and Butter tarts. With 8 . A noteworthy fact is that Canada is the world's largest producer of Maple syrup. David Cronenberg and Denis Villeneuve are among others who have contributed greatly to the field of cinema. Several awards have also been won by Canadian filmmakers like Alanis Obomsawin who won for “Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resista” and Peter Raymont for “Shake Hands with the Devil: The Journey of Roméo Dallaire”. The former Canadian prime minister Joe Clark has been paraphrased to have noted: "Canada has a cuisine of cuisines. with the traditional cuisine of English Canada closely related to British and American cuisine. and French roots. English.

There is another special meal worth mentioning. Ceremonial food does not generally differ greatly in content from everyday foods. In general. a special occasion of many West Coast First Nations peoples. They express the 9 . regional were subsequently augmented. The potluck involves each guest preparing and bringing a dish to the event. on the table as a whole. Africa and Caribbean. such as those marking important religious holidays such as Christmas. Southern. potluck meals are meals shared by friends or coworkers. and portions consumed are more often than not greater than what one would consume under other circumstances. is not the type of food but the amount of food served and the complexity of its presentation and consumption. "Potluck" is derived from the word potlatch. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. cuisines from Asia. The Jewish immigrants to Canada during the late 1800s also play a significant role to foods in Canada. the preparation of each is often specialized and involved. The Montreal-style bagel andMontreal-style smoked meat are both food items developed by Jewish communities living in Montreal. These more private special occasion meals often involve entire extended families sharing in both preparing and eating the meal. to be shared by all the diners.subsequent waves of immigration and Eastern the in the 18th and 19th and century then from Central. The key component of this particular kind of meal is food sharing among friends as opposed to food making for family. Europe. eaten with utensils specified for each portion. The same general consideration applies to meals for more private special occasions. or in the particular portions placed on each diner's plate. and presented in often elaborate arrangement either generally. the potluck. The number of discrete dishes is usually quite large. such as state dinners. Ceremonial dinners are often made up of a long list of dishes served in a rigid sequence. What distinguishes food in ceremonial settings.

That is. Although of about seventy-five percent Canadian citizens claim to be practitioners of Christianity. and family solidarity. duty.symbolic importance of the meal as a part of the moral geography of social relations among nonkin. but distinguish this meal as an act of food sharing rather than an act of food preparation. religious pluralism is a valued part of Canada's culture. Africa. The stark increase in immigration from areas such as Asia. However. other religions still seem to be en vogue. Religion Canada is a country without an official religion. the potluck meal expresses a sense of community and kindness. while the family meal expresses a sense of service. many believe Canada has entered a depressing "post- religious"period. This is a fancy why of saying cynical and stopped openly that people their have become displaying Christianity. Unfortunately. and the Middle East has contributed to the expansive growth of 10 .

this did not help them gain good rights or immigration laws for the first half of the last century. Sikhism is another of the more popular religions in the Great White North. More exclusive religious cultures also call Canada home. With Canadian origins dating all the way back to the year of 1897.Muslim. Judaism. Buddhist. In fact. Sikh. Sikhs were one of the rare Asian cultures that were actually loyal to the Queen of England. the first Canadian census found thirteen Muslims already living in the country. the Sikh population has exploded. Since immigration laws were liberalized in the 1960s. First Nations religions. and Hindu communities within the country of Canada. However. Pagans. 11 . The Musli. The first mosque was built in Edmonton. These include the Bahá'í Faith. it is no wonder that Canada hosts such a large population of Muslim devotees. way back in the year 1936. Unitarian Universalists. After a large wave of Sikhs came to Canada at the beginning of the nineteenth century. a fashionable Canadian area. and they were denied the right to vote for quite some time. With a long history like that. immigration laws were soon tightened on them. Religion is very popular in Canada.

and the Canadian Football League's annual championship. 12 . the most common are Ice hockey. a sport with indigenous origins. Canadianfootball. curling and baseball. rodeo. is Canada's oldest and official summer sport. street hockey. cricket. Ultimate(sport). tennis.[117] Lacrosse. boxing. Ice hockey. Professional teams exist in many cities in Canada.snowboarding. Canadian footballis Canada's second most popular spectator sport. is the country's largest annual sports event. karate. and several forms of wrestling. horseraci ng. the Grey Cup. known in Canada as soccer in both English and French. its most popular spectator sport. Lacrosse. and its most successful sport in international competition. rugby and softball.Sport Sports in Canada consists of a variety of games. golf. All but curling and soccer are considered domestic sports as they were either invented by Canadians or trace their roots to Canada. soccer. hiking. has the most registered players of any team sport in Canada. skateboarding. track and field. iceskating. is Canada's most prevalent winter sport. triat hlon. swimming. association football. Although there are many contests that Canada value. It is Canada's official national winter sport. skiing. water sports. While other sports have a larger spectator base. Popular individual sports include auto racing. kickboxing. basketball. referred to as simply "hockey". Other popular team sports include curling. cycling.

It has subsequently been influenced by American culture because of its proximity and migration between the two countries. and multicultural". Canada's culture has historically been influenced by European culture and traditions. higher and more progressive taxation. Canada is often characterised as being "very progressive. especially British and French. Over time. musical.culinary. an emphasis on cultural diversity. It has also tried to protect Canadian culture by setting legal minimums on Canadian content in many media using bodies like the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission(CRTC) 13 . It has created crown corporations to promote Canadian culture through media. elements of the cultures of Canada's Aboriginal peoples and immigrant populations have become incorporated into mainstream Canadian culture. not only to its own population. Canadian Government policies such as. publicly-funded health care. diverse. such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) and the National Film Board of Canada (NFB).Conclusion Canadian culture is a term that explains that are the artistic.are social indicators of how Canada's political and cultural identities differ from that of the United States. and promotes many events which it considers to promote Canadian traditions. outlawing capital punishment. and most recently legalizing same-sex marriage . but people all over the world. political and social elements representative of Canada and Canadians. literary. strong efforts to eliminate poverty. laws and institutions. imposing stricter gun control. Canada's federal government has influenced Canadian culture with programs.