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Notes of Clarification 4 On to the more fundamental problem 6 Packinghouse operations 10 General operations 12 Dumping 15 Washing 16 Waxing 18 Sorting 21 Sizing

23 Fruit packing line 28 Section 4: Packing and packaging materials 29 Packing practices 31 Packing containers 34 Packaging practices 46 Labeling 49 Modularization of containers 50 Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) 52 Unit loads 54 Section 5: Decay and insect control 56 Chemical controls 57 Controlled/modified atmosphere treatments 60 Heat treatments 61 Section 5: Decay and insect control 62 Chemical controls 63 Controlled/modified atmosphere treatments 67 Heat treatments 68 Section 5: Decay and insect control 69 Chemical controls 70 Controlled/modified atmosphere treatments 74 Heat treatments 75 Section 6: Temperature and relative humidity control 76 Room cooling 77 Forced-air cooling 79 Hydro-cooling 82 Evaporative cooling 83 Night air ventilation 88 Chilling injury 90 Use of ice 91 Alternative methods of cooling 96 Increasing relative humidity 96 Section 6: Temperature and relative humidity control 98 Room cooling 99 Forced-air cooling 101 Hydro-cooling 104 Evaporative cooling 105 Night air ventilation 110 Chilling injury 112 Use of ice 113 Alternative methods of cooling 118 Increasing relative humidity 118 Section 7: Storage of horticultural crops 120 Recommended storage temperatures 121 Compatibility groups for storage of fruits, vegetables and floral crops 126 Storage practices 130 Storage structures 136 Dried and bulb crops 158 Root and tuber crops 159 Potatoes 160 Controlled atmosphere (C.A.) storage 164 Relative perishability and storage life of fresh horticultural crops 168

Section 8: Transportation of horticultural crops Open vehicles 169 Refrigerated trailers 172 Stacking patterns/handstacked 173 Stacking patterns/pallet and slip sheet loads 178 Bracing the load 179 Section 8: Transportation of horticultural crops Open vehicles 182 Refrigerated trailers 184 Stacking patterns/handstacked 185 Stacking patterns/pallet and slip sheet loads 190 Bracing the load 191 Section 9: Handling at destination 193 Unloading 194 Storage temperatures 196 Sorting/repacking 198 Ripening 199 Display 204 Section 10: Processing of horticultural crops 206 Processing equipment 206 Preparation for processing 208 Solar drying 210 Forced-air dehydrators 215 Oil-burning dehydrators 216 Electric dehydrators 217 Oven drying 218 Drying flowers 219 Extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants Canning 222 Juicing 225 Other methods of processing 226 Section 10: Processing of horticultural crops 227 Processing equipment 228 Preparation for processing 230 Solar drying 231 Forced-air dehydrators 236 Oil-burning dehydrators 237 Electric dehydrators 238 Oven drying 239 Drying flowers 240 Extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants Canning 243 Juicing 246 Other methods of processing 247 General references 248 Section 2: Curing root, tuber and bulb crops 250 Field curing 251 Curing with heated air 252 Bulk systems for curing onions 253 Emergency curing 254 Q & As about Fresh Produce 256 How to Dry Fruits and Vegetables 263 Advantages of solar drying 263 Methods of drying 264 Sun drying 264 Disadvantages 264 Solar drying 264 Advantages of solar dryers 264 The drying process 264 Precautions 265

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Predrying treatments 265 Washing 265 Blanching 266 Procedure 266 Peeling 266 Cutting and slicing 267 Dryers 267 Dryer loading 268 It is important to keep flies and other insects from entering the cabinet and of f the fruit because of the risk of contamination. 268 Unloading the dryer 269 Packaging and storing 269 Specific products 270 Fruit 270 Mangoes 270 Pineapples 270 Bananas 271 271 Apples 271 Choose Which Drying Method is Right For You 272 The Drying Process 273 Vegetable Drying Guide 273 Fruit Leathers 274 Making Jerky 275 Ipomoea aquatica (Water Spinach) 276 Cultivation and culinary uses 276 Cultural references 278 Common Names 278

On to the more fundamental problem. It is my belief that one should look at religion and the political parties in th eir relationships with the state from a social and anthological perspective, the role interactions and negotiations between them play in forming and shaping a g iven civilization at a specifically given historic stage. The resulting shared “im age, sense of statehood and peoplehood” created as a result of the interaction and negotiations between the three aforementioned entities and its relationship to reality (How big are the lies?). It is on this basis , I believe that an approac h to social engineering could be developed. As for myself, when I look at the society in which I live, I examine it from a M aslowian perspective. Where are we as a society on the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs ? I believe that Jamaica is fighting to achieve at home the first three needs in the hierarchy, survival needs, security needs and love need. What is strange is that from an international perspective, Jamaica could be seen as fighting to ac hieve the upper three needs starting from the love need (the need for associatio n). The challenge is how to pull up the real Jamaica to the same level as its in ternational image. Surely this is by no means a challenge for me to solve, it is for those who were elected by the people to do. Equally I do not think that it is an easy objective to attain because the international image of the country ke

fairness. It is in this regard. equally so is the Mohammad of the affluent Musli m is very much different from the Mohammad of the poor Muslim. who lives in a socially and eco nomically deprived conditions and serves the spiritual needs of a socially and e conomically deprived congregation. debates and negotiation which are on going withi n all levels of leadership within society and their potential impact in enabling or disabling the society in its strive to attain its Maslowian objectives. one belong to a group to which the concept of “injustice” i s alien and the other belong to a group to which “injustice” is a real existing real ity within which they fight to survive. tolerance. who live in afflue nt circumstances and serves the spiritual needs of the affluent to share an iden tical position on social justice and fairness with a religious leader who is fro m a social and economically deprived background. etc. the political parties and the state are at odds with each other. then it has to take into account points of agreements. It is my view that if social engineering is to succeed. Here I have taken the liberty to call all organized religious expression the “Chu rch”. Thus even within the Chur ch there are ongoing debates and negotiation about the real meaning of justice. The Jesus of the affluent is much differ ent from the Jesus of the poor. To the extent that the ideals of the Church. Jews. those differences are based on th e social. justice. One should also seek to analyze the extent that the pure and best de sires of the Church for a fair and just society is also identical to or similar to those expressed in the views and outlooks of the political parties and in the approach of the state in solving both tactical and strategic problems. political and or economic position of the orator. not only because it means that a very large segment of the Jamaican people are being led by people who do not k now what they want or where they want to go but it weakens the entire process of government and grossly distorts the development of the Jamaican people and soci ety as a whole. the idea. Are those zones of agreement based on a search and desire to share politic al and economic power with the citizenry of the country or are those zones of ag reement based on a desire to retain undivided political and economic power over the people. the political parties and the state. that leading me mbers of the Jamaica Labour Party are unable to clearly state who is a Labourite as different from a member or supporter of the Peoples National Party apart fro m voting patterns. be they those emanating from with the ranks of Christians. where major differences in basic values arise. Hindus or any other such grouping.eps moving far ahead of the real Jamaica with each step taken forward. Of greater importance is the identification of those zones of agreement between the three lead entities:-the Church. Muslims. Indeed it is very ha rd for a religious leader who is from affluent circumstances. in my view. so is it with the Messiah of an affluent Jew different from the Messiah of an impoverished Jew (t here are Jew who live in poverty only a minority of Jews in any country where th ere is a significant Jewish population that are rich). because in my own view they do share at their core very similar views on morality. and to question in a very real way if these zones of agreement are based on a desire t o reduce the participation of the citizenry of the country from the process of g overnment. the more intense the process of discourse and nego tiations would be at all levels of the society and the more complex the antholog ical and sociological processes. . and the type of Jamaica in which they would want to share s pace and exist in a relatively harmonious manner. or to enunciate clearly the political and social ideals of th e Jamaica Labour Party is profoundly disturbing. Rastas. fairness. or are these zones of agreement based on a genuine commitment to deep en democracy and in doing so deliberately seek to expand the role of the citizen ry in the formulation and implementation of the policies of government at all le vels. One belongs to a group with a vested interest in maintaining things as they are and the other belongs to a group which has a desire to change things.

tons of common m angoes go to waste each year because of the lack of processing. For the small producer. The attachment on the water spinach maybe given to those in St. Mary . The attachments o n this note. there are a very wide range of choices. As will be seen from the relevant attachment. the Roman Catholics or the Muslims shared the appro ach of your Church. packaging would be the major challenge. Locally there i s a very large and active market for dried fruits around Christmas (for the baki ng of Christmas Cakes and puddings) and around Easter ( for the baking of Easter buns) and for the gift basket trade (once attractively packaged) and for sweet jars as are found on the desks of receptionists and secretaries. Thomas. I send it to your Chu rch. encouragement. the p olitical parties and the State.. What can you Adventists in the United States and or Canada do to assist in the f inding of markets for this plant (the water spinach) and or solar dried fruits? How should it be packaged in order to meet the requirements of the market? Or ma . The basis challenges would be that of harvestin g and packaging. but also to the extent possible assist the Churc h (at least this segment) in helping some very ordinary people to satisfy their “s urvival and love needs”. In St. I short my attitude and approach to the Church is totall y instrumentalist. packaging and ma rketing. the same situation holds true for sections of Portland. encouragement. In St. by making my small and at times useless contributions. they seem more ready to explore new ideas. but rather because of the outlook of your Church members. training and organizational support and still rema in in its core and in its daily functions a religious institution? Would the tak ing on of these burdens (crosses) detract from the main mission of the Adventist movement or would it facilitate and compliment the pursuit of the main mission? These are questions which only Adventists can answer and I am 1000% sure that I am not an Adventist. is intended for the Adventists in St. I am trying not only to encourage wider and deeper debates between the Church.I have two or so more compilations to send to your Church. Catherine and Clarendon also. bulk packaging as in the case of raisins to the Chinese approach which uses paper wrappers for the packaging of dried plums. Thomas or where ever provide th at leadership. if to me. As is k nown dried fruits can be sold and consumed both as substitutes to confectionarie s and also be used in baking and in the cooking of Asian dishes. Elizabet h one speaks of tons of pine apples and unsold tomatoes going to waste because o f the very same reasons. prunes etc. The food is enough for all to eat. Thomas. I would be glad if it was forwarded to them also. There is also good market potential for sun dried fruits and vegetables. I would have dealt with them in the same and equal manner. here the childr en birthday party market is not to be forgotten. h ere I have no intention of attacking any religious grouping but rather stating m y opinion. and there might be a ve ry good export market for it in both sections of the United States (especially i n California where there is a strong Vietnamese population and in those areas in which there is a strong Chinese and Filipino population and in Canada where the re is a strong Asian community. Could the Seven Day Adventist Church in St. In this light please to expect a few more attachments from me. What is needed in the main are leaders hip. Portland and St. The water spinach grows wild in Jamaica. the equipment requirement for the carrying out of solar drying is relatively inexpensive. ranging from packaging in transparent glass or plastic bottles . not because I am seeking friendship or I am seeking to establish a relation ship nor because I hold your Church in a more positive light than any other reli gious institution. In my view. To the extent that your Church has contact with members of the Rasta community. training in small business operation and organizational supp ort. to embrace technology and fo r me most important.

While he lamented and bewailed his sores and bruis es. Filipino or Vietnamese restaurant outside of Jamaica”. it is better for them to starve and I keep the “Sabbath Holy”. Would the canteen of the Northern Caribbean University. why. Cuff and the Tent City Adventist Church THE ASTRONOMER AN ASTRONOMER used to go out at night to observe the stars. river beds and gullies to harvest the water spinach if it not only could provide them with part of a meal but also with assistance be exported and thus earning themse lves an income? At this moment they would not even have to spend a single cent t o collect the plant. Thomas or Portland collecting ripe mangoes to be solar dri ed? Would he or she be deemed mad and lacking in ambition. What w ill your answer be? The question facing both poor but ambitious Adventists and Rastas alike would th at of pride. and learning what had happened said: “Hark ye. one has to be most careful about their contacts with mad peop le (I should of course know). meals with the water spinach is offered once a week? To w hat extent is hunger among Adventists or Rasta where it exists. a Lion fell upon him and killed him. Secondly would an Adventist Church in Portland or St. as he w andered through the suburbs with his whole attention fixed on the sky.c Phillip Cuff for Mrs. if they said they wan ted to approach National Bakery or Captain Bakery to get an order for the prepar ation of three hundred pounds of solar dried ripe mango chips? Madness is a very catching illness. a Wolf saw his own shadow become greatly extended and magnified. would an Adventist be deemed mad by his or her congregation.” “The only day I have free is on a Saturday. do you not manage to see what is on earth?’ THE WOLF AND THE LION ROAMING BY the mountainside at sundown. manure nor use hydroponics techn ology in the growing of crops? Still yet dirt might be cleaner than dirty water . “Why should I. Pride is a funny thing. a manifestation of a lack of information and or an abundance of pride? Similarly. a neighbor ran to the well. and cried loudly for help. “Wretched me! this overestimation of myself is the cau . when I get home from work I am too tired to even op en my own door. Would pride prevent them from climbing down into the canals. being of such an i mmense size and extending nearly an acre in length. I do not go near them.” “Of course I have never been into a Chinese. be deemed to be operat ed by mad people if in order to ensure that both affluent and poor students are able to afford to eat.ybe helping the Jamaican Adventists to earn an independent living would reduce t heir need for your remittances and hence reduce your status? It is hard to part with power and status. and he said to himself. Basil Fletscher c. One evening. and I am sure that no A dventist in his or her right mind could ever expect me to do this type of thing on a Saturday. “I am just too bu sy to do this type of thing. Maybe the answers will be:-“I do not go into the supermarkets and the shop s which sell Asian foods. old fellow. Thomas or even the Tent City Adventist Church in Portmore be bold enough to collect and prepare a meal with the water spinach? Or is the coll ection of offerings and tithes more than enough to prevent them from dealing wit h the food of paupers and social rejects? Maybe the water in which they grow is not clean and Adventists do not use fertilizer. in striving to pry into what is in heav en. why should I want to reduce my own influence and high st atus? Am I mad! Have I joined the company of nerds and super nerds? What would b e the North American based Adventist answers to these questions (including your answers Miss Clark)? I guess we all here in Jamaica will in due time know the a nswers. be afraid of the Lion? Ought I not to be acknowledged as King of all the collected beasts?’ While he was indul ging in these proud thoughts. He exclaimed with a too late repentance. if he o r she was seen in St. he fell a ccidentally into a deep well.

that you may not spoil your beauty by evil conduct. they happened by chance to look together into a mirror that was placed on their mother’s chair. adequate space for vehicles to ent er and leave the packinghouse and ease of access to labor will all be considerat ions (Proctor. size and pack the produce directly into appropriate transport containers. the girl grew angry. produce is delivered in picking containers. chlorinated (100-150 p pm) water to carry delicate produce. The provision of sha de during the packing operations is extremely important. the former remarkable for his good looks. more operations and wo rkers trained in specific tasks might be added. While they were playing one day as c hildren. In this ca se. and could not bear the self-praises of her Brother. interpreting al l he said (and how could she do otherwise?) into reflection on herself. When using dry dumping. as a boy. He crie d out to his captors. access to the field and market point. 1985). while you do not fight yourself.se of my destruction. or may include a variety of handling practices. to be avenged on her Brother. sizing. I have no arms. Wet dum ping can decrease bruising and abrasions by using moving. and spitefully accused him of h aving. The packers then sort. each worker must be knowledgeable regarding produce defects. I have not slain a single man of your troop. Dumping Produce must somehow be removed from the field bin or harvesting container and m oved through the packinghouse.” “That is the very reason for which you sho uld be put to death.    . “for. The boy congratulated himself on his good looks. bravely leading on the soldiers.” Aesop THE BROTHER AND THE SISTER A FATHER had one son and one daughter. or via a permanent roofed structure. the latter for her extraordinary ugliness.” they said. and you. She ran off to her father. When deciding upon where to locate a packin ghouse. and bestowing his kisses and affection impartially on each. was captured by the enemy. and packing methods. Shade can be created us ing palm leaf fronds. This first step is known as dumping". “Pray spare me. a plastic mesh or canvas sheet hung from temporary poles. The father embra ced them both. directly to the packers. grade. and do not take my life without cause or wit hout inquiry. made use of that which belonged only to girls. “I wish you both would look into the mirror every day: you. sloped ramp s or moving conveyor belts can decrease injuries to produce. whether using water assisted methods or dry dumping. that you may make u p for your lack of beauty by your virtues. waxing. grade and size requirements. and quality grading to color sorting. my son. my daughter. padded.” Aesop THE TRUMPETER TAKEN PRISONER A TRUMPETER. and c arry nothing but this one brass trumpet. As the size and complexity of the packinghouse increases. In the simplest packinghouse. Dumping m ust be done gently. said. from clea ning.” Aesop _------------------------------------------_________-------------------------------------------- Packinghouse operations Packinghouse operations can be as simple as moving produce from a field lug into a shipping container. your trumpet stirs all the others to battle. immedi ately after harvest.

Pre-sorting wil l save energy in that culls will not be handled. but a rule of thumb is to use 1 to 2 mls of chlorine bleach per liter (1 to 2 ounces of chlorine bleach per 8 gallons of clean water). Sanitation is essential. Sizing Sizing produce is optional but may be worthwhile if certain size grades receive a higher price than others. Other commodities. the wax coating must be allowed to dry thoroughly before further handling. separates the product into p rocessing and fresh market categories.Pre-sorting Pre-sorting produce is usually done to eliminate injured. floors and packing equ ipment can also be cleaned using quarternary ammonium compounds labelled as safe for food processing equipment (Kupferman. peppers and tomatoes. and to limit spore buildup in wash water or in the packinghouse air. can be by washing with chlorinate d water or dry brushing alone. Other sizers are designed as conveyors fitted with chain o r plastic belts with various sized openings. 1984). Dumpin g can be done using either dry or water-assisted methods. Food grade waxes are used to replace some of the natur al waxes removed in washing and cleaning operations. and are useful for sizing most comm odities. . Examples of the smal lest and largest acceptable sizes for each product can be placed within view of the operator for easy reference. Grading. wit h the smallest size going to the local market or to processing. One type is composed of a long slanted tray with a series of openings which converg e (largest at the top. as well. Ch lorine treatments (100 to 150 ppm Cl) can be used in wash water to help control pathogen buildup during packing operations (Moline. both to control the spread of disease from one item to another. depending upon the sor t of produce being handled. Sizing can be done su bjectively (visually) with the use of standard size guages. such as bananas and car rots. where the smallest sized produce falls t hrough the rollers first to a sorting belt or bin. Waxing Waxing of immature fruit vegetables such as cucumbers and summer squash. manual sizing is st ill commonly practiced. Waxing. Hand held sizers are used for a variety of prod ucts. and can help reduce water l oss during handling and marketing. mature fruit vegetables such as eggplant. Several types of mechanical sizers are available for small scale operations. such as kiwifruits and avocadoes. the b est quality produce is packaged and marketed at the regional or national level. Sizing further separates the product. Operators should be trained in selecting the size desire d and to either directly pack the items into containers or place the selected pr oduce gently into a bin for packing further down the line. Typically. decayed. Removing decaying produce items will limit the spread of infection to other units. dry brushing may be suff icient to clean the produce. Walls. however. The choice of brushing and/or washing will depend upon bo th the type of commodity and the type of contamination. In most low-input packinghouses. or otherwise defective produce (culls) before cooling or additional handling. If produce is waxed. 1990). if practiced. and larger sized produce fall s between successively more divergent rollers. Diverging bar rollers sizer: General operations The typical series of operations in a packinghouse are illustrated below. This type of sizer works best wi th round commodities. Another simple method for mechanical sizing is to use a set of divergin g bar rollers (see illustration below). as illustrated. Cleaning For some commodities. occurs after washing and re moval of surface moisture. and fruits such as appl es and peaches is common. Cleaning. require washing. smallest at the bottom). There is some variati on in the strength of bleach available commercially in different countries. especially if postharvest pe sticides are not being used.

Prevention of Postharvest Food Losses: Fruits Vegetables and Root Cro ps. Source: Kader. If the spec ific density of the produce. In: Preece. . or by immersion and floatation. either by dumping int o water rather than onto a dry ramp. Postharvest Handling Manual. The Biology of Horticulture .A. care should be taken to reduce mechanical damage to the commodity. 353-377 Dumping Any time produce is dumped from one container into another. dry or wet dumping can be practiced. The drums are then set into a sloped wooden table. 914 . and P. 1993. The number and size of packing lines will depend on the kinds and quantities of produce that are han dled each day. Postharvest Handling. No date.E. Fresh water is added under pressure through a per forated pipe. Evaporation of wax from the felt is reduced by covering the felt with a layer o f heavy polyethylene sheeting.E. The drums are cut in hal t fitted with drain holes and all the metal edges are covered with split rubber or plastic hose. is lower than that of water the pro duce will float. Commercialization of Alt ernative Crops Project. which helps move floating produce toward the drain end of the tank for removal after cleaning. Bangkok: UNFAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Source: Grierson. Dry dumping Wet dumping is sometimes used to reduce mechanical damage. When dumping produce from field b ins or from transport vehicles into the packinghouse. Belize Agribusiness Company/USAID/Chemonics Internationa l Consulting Division. Improvement of Post-Harvest Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Handling .FAO. Rome: UNFAO. 1989. USDA Marketing Report No. pp. such as pears.An Introductory Textbook. Washing Steel drums can be used to make a simple washing stand. Inc. A. This tank for washing produce is made from galvanized sheet metal. sodium silicate or sodium sulfate) must be added to the water to incre ase its specific density and assure fruit floatation. Read. Waxing The waxing device illustrated here is designed to be used after a series of dry brushes on a conveyor line. Source: USDA. The table to p is constructed from wooden slats and is used as a drying rack before packing. A Training Manual. 1986. The following is a flow diagram of packinghouse operations. New York: John Wiley & S ons. J. the y should be thoroughly cleaned before being used as a washing stand. Improvements to the design shown below might include a removable trash screen in front of the baffle. a conveyor belt then carries the dry dumped produce into the packinghouse. FAO. W.A Manual. Modernising Handling Systems for Florida Citrus from Pick ing to Packing Line Agricultural Research Service. Because steel drums are often used to store petroleum and chemical products. 157 pp. When using dry dumping practices. 1987. Industrial wool felt is used to distribute the liqui d wax to the fruits or vegetables from a trough made the same width as the belt. For some produce. such as apples. and/or a recirculating system for the wash water (with the addition of chlorine). A baffle made of perforated sheet metal is positioned near the drain pipe and helps to circul ate water through the produce. salts (such as sodium lignin s ulfonate. In the illustration b elow. The canvas curtain illustrated below is used to break the fall of fruit moving f rom a conveyor into a bulk bin. the filed container should be empti ed slowly and gently onto a tilted ramp with padded edges.

Incoming produce is placed in the sorting bin. University of the Philippines at Los Banos. Improvement of Post-Harvest Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Handl ing. (Post-Harvest Training and Research Center. 356 pp. Single size hand held sizing ring: Multiple size rings: Source: FAO. S. San Diego: Academic Press Inc. Postharvest Handling: A Systems Ap proach. 356 pp.L. 1989.L. 1993.E. A portable sorting table. A wipe-on device for the application of materials to butts. 1984. and Prussia. The rotational speed of push-bar or roller conveyors should be adjusted to rotate the product twice within the immediate field of view of t he worker. Good lighting will enhance the ability of the sorter to spot defects. Locations of the table and the sorting bins should be chosen to m inimize hand movements. If workers must stand to sort produce. 1964.Source: Martin. Hobart.5 meter to reduce stretching. Prevention of Postharvest Food Losses: Fruits. When sorting for rejects. Bangkok: UNFAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. can be provided to r educe fatigue. and finally packed by a second worker. Rings can be fashioned from wood or purchased ready-made in a wide variety of sizes. Appropriate Postharvest Technolog y 1(1):1-3. It is recommended that the workers arms create a 45 degree angle when s/he reac hes toward the table.O. San Diego: Academic Press Inc.) Sorting The following illustrations represent three types of conveyors used to aid sorti ng of produce. 1 CSIRO Tasmanian Regio nal Laboratory. Produce can be dum ped onto the table from a harvesting container. the height of the sorting table should be set at a level comfortable f or sorters. Sizing Round produce units can be graded by using sizing rings. Up to 4 sorters/packers c an work comfortably side by side. The surface of the portable sorting table illustrated below is constructed from canvas and has a radius of about 1 meter (about 3 feet). If a conveyor system is in use. E. R. and the slope from the center toward the sorter is set at 10 degrees. or a firm rubber pad on which to stand. Department of Horticultu re. and that the width of the table be less than 0. Sorting/Packing The table illustrated below is a combination sorting and packing stand. D and Miezitis. and packed directly into shipping containers. Tasmania. Source: PHTRC. 1993. dull belts or table tops can reduce eye strain. Vegetables and   . Source: Shewfelt R. color and/o r grade. S. and dark. sorted by one worker into the packing bin . where the sorter must handle the produce manually in order to see all sides and inspect for damage. Field Station Record Volume 3 No. and removing any product that is too small. 1986. A roller conveyor rotates the product backwards as it moves past the sorter. then sorted by size. The edges are lined wit h a thin layer of foam to protect produce from bruising during sorting.A Manual. the product must not flow too fast for the sorte rs to do their work. A push-bar c onveyor causes the produce to rotate forward as it is pushed past the sorters. Source: FAO. decayed or damaged. Belt conveyor: Push-bar conveyor Roller conveyor: Source: Shewfelt. a firm rubber pad for the floor can help reduce fatigue. Postharvest Handling: A Systems A pproach. and Prussia. Stools.E. The simplest is a belt conveyor.

A Training Manual. College of Agriculture. and roll into the containers as shown. tomatoes and on ions. Oversized fruits are accumulated at the end of the line. medium in the second. When fruits fall through. College of Agriculture. The uppermost table has the largest size holes. Each table is made of plywood. (Ed. The onion s that do not pass through are classified as "large". available from TEW M anufacturing Corporation at a cost of less than US$ 5000. M. a wide variety of sizing chain s and belts are available for sorting produce. Undersized fruit passes out the end of the chute directly into a container. and has been perforated wit h holes of a specific size. This particular model includes a receiving belt. University of Los Baños. Th e first cylinder has the smallest diameter holes. Philippin es. Laguna. Large fruits are caught in the first constrictio n. Ne w York 14526 USA Fruit packing line Small scale equipment for packing produce is available from several manufacturer s and suppliers. Design Concept and Operation of ASEAN Packingho use Equipment for Fruits and Vegetables. Laguna. Square: Rectangular: Hexagonal: Source: 1994 Catalog of TEW Manufacturing Corporation. Sizing chains can be purchased in many widths and in any size opening. Postharvest Horticulture Training and Re search Center. U. one by one. If a conveyor system is used in the packinghouse. A layer of onions is dumped onto the up permost table. down to ward a series of constrictions. College of Agriculture. and so on. Those that do not pass through are classified as "extra-large i n size. (Ed. Rome: UNFAO. The fruit is dumped into the octag onal platform at the top of the chute. Source: Reyes. Postharvest Horticulture Training and R esearch Center. Hexagonal ope nings are often used for potatoes and onions. Philippin es. Philippine s.Root Crops. Workers must manually remove each fr uit and place it into the appropriate size container before the next fruit can p ass through the chute. then allowed to roll. The sizing is fastest when five workers are stationed at the sizer. Those that pass through fall into a mesh bag and roll into a large conta iner. (Ed. Design Concept and Operation of ASEAN Packingho use Equipment for Fruits and Vegetables. Square openings are usually used for commodities such as apples. University of Los Baños.) 1988 Design Concept and Operation of ASEAN Packinghou se Equipment for Fruits and Vegetables. Penfield. with holes large enough to let fruits drop through. while rectangular openings are used for peaches and peppers.) 1988. Box 87. The pommelo sizer illustrated below is composed of a rectangular chute made of p lywood. University of Los Baños. and the lowest table has the smallest holes. padded with foam to prevent bruising. The onion sizing table illustrated below is one of three (or more) tables used i n a stairway fashion.O. U.) 1988. and the fifth has the largest holes. Eac h cylinder is perforated. U. Source: Reyes. Illustrated below is a fruit packing line. Take care that the distance of the drop i s as short as possible to prevent bruising. and small in the last. Laguna. they are caught on a slanted tray (the chute). This equipment works best with round commodities. 157 pp. M.    . The rotary cylinder sizer illustrated below is composed of five hollow cylinders which rotate in a counterclockwise motion when driven by an electric motor. washer and sorting table. This container of onions is dumped onto the second sizing table. M. Postharvest Horticulture Training and R esearch Center. P. Source: Reyes.

are reusable and can stand up to the high relative humidity found in the storage environment. Packages need to be vented ye t be sturdy enough to prevent collapse. but temperature management can be made more difficult if packing mate rials block ventilation holes. MAP can be used within a shipping container and within consumer units. In addition to p rotection.Source: 1994 Catalog of TEW Manufacturing Corporation. 199 0). 1989).O. and ha ndlers may find it economically sensible to include these operations in their po stharvest system. then vibration settled. Loose products may vibrate against others and cause bru ising. NY 14526 USA ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Section 4: Packing and packaging materials ________________________________________ Packing practices Packing containers Packaging practices Labeling Modularization of containers Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) Unit loads ________________________________________ If produce is packed for ease of handling. wraps. For small-scale handlers interested in constructing their own cartons from corru gated fibreboard. requiring the commodity inside to support all of the weight of the o verhead load. Packaging in plastic films can modify the atmosphere surrounding the produce (mo dified atmosphere packaging or MAP). 1992). allow ing the product s normal respiration processes to reduce oxygen content and incr ease carbon dioxide content of the air inside the package. heavily waxed cartons. packaging allows quick handling throughout distribution and marketing and can minimize impacts of rough handling. packaging can be both an aid and a hindra nce to obtaining maximum storage life and quality. Packaging materials such as trays. and then replacing the p ackage atmosphere with the desired gas mixture. lin ers and pads may be added to help immobilize the produce. often using a fixed cou nt of uniformly sized units. Most volume-fillers are designed to use weight as an estimate of volume. Produce can be hand-packed to create an attractive pack. Collapsed packages provide tattle or no protection. Waxed cartons. Throughout the entire handling system. and final adjustments are d one by hand (Mitchell in Kader. cups. Shredded newspaper is an inexpensive and lightweight filler for shipping containers (Harvey et al. since bags a nd baskets provide no protection to the produce when stacked. wooden crates or rigid plastic containers are preferable to bags or open baskets. while more expe nsive. Containers should not be filled either too loosely or too t ightly for best results. P. In general. Box 87. Simple mechanical pack ing systems often use the volume-fill method or tight-fill method. Broustead and New (1986) provide detailed information. in which sort ed produce is delivered into boxes. Many ty pes of agricultural fibres are suitable for paper making (Hunsigi. while overpacking results in compression bruising. MAP generally restricts air movement. An additional major b enefit to the use of plastic films is the reduction of water loss. wooden crates and plastic containers. Packing materials can act as vapor barriers and c an help maintain higher relative humidities within the package. Atmospher ic modification can be actively generated by creating a slight vacuum in a vapor sealed package (such as an unvented polyethylene bag). Sometimes locally constructed containers can be strengthened or lined to provide added protection to produce. Penfield. lowering oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide concentrations will be beneficial for most commodities   . Packing is meant to protect the commodity by immobilizing and cush ioning it.

1989. Field Vegetable Department. The front rail should be smooth and rounded. carbon dioxide and/or ethylene can be used within packages or containers to help maint ain the desired atmospheric composition. Bedford: NIAE Packing containers There are many types of packing containers. add a loose board. or two clusters with long fingers Source: FAO. Silsoe. The produce is fed in along a conveyor or if no conveyor is in use. wide hand on top. The differences between benefi cial and harmful concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide for each kind of pr oduce are relatively small. In the ill ustration below. Rome: UNFAO. Belize Agribusiness Co. 157 PP. 1987 Postharvest Handling Manual: Commercialization of Alte rnative Crops Project. Postharvest Handling Manual: Commercialization of Alt ernative Crops Project Belize Agribusiness Co. W.   . Thatch over the roof will provide shade and keep the station co ol. simply put onto the table. Preparing vegetabl es for supermarkets. Absorbers of oxygen. The three containers illustrated bel ow are constructed from corrugated cardboard. wide hand. a discard belt has been added below the supply belt. trimming as needed and check weighing carton s on occasion. 1979.(see the table of recommended gas mixtures for various crops. Selec tion of the best polymeric film for each commodity/package size combination depe nds upon film permeability and the respiration rate of the commodity under the e xpected time/temperature conditions during handling. Source: Grierson. are typically packed into cardboard containers lined with polye thylene. Source: Grierson. A circular rotating table can be used to pack a variety of crops. allowing e asy disposal of culls./Chemonics International Consultin g Division/USAID A simple field packing station can be constructed from wooden poles and a sheet of polyethylene. flat medium-to-small hand in middle of compartment (b) Medium-length. Prevention of Postharvest Food Losses: Fruits. so great care must be taken when using these technol ogies./ Chemonics International Consulti ng Division/USAID Hands of bananas. after undergoing washing to remove latex and perhaps spraying with fungicides. 1987. Each packer can work independently. The following illustrations depict one method of filling a container wi th the fruit in order to ensure less damage during transport. thick enough to reach above the height of the front rail. Note that the poly ethylene liner is folded up over the bananas before closing the box. A Training Manual. Modified atmosphere packaging should always be considered as a supplement to pro per temperature and relative humidity management. Source: National Institute of Agricultural Engineering. Packing practices The packing stand illustrated in the diagram below can be bolted to a second sta nd of the same construction if more space is required for packing produce. (a) Wide. crown not touching fruit below (d) One large hand. The structure should be oriented so that the roof overhang keeps out the maj ority of the sun s rays. where packers select the produce and fill cartons at their stations. The regular slotted container is f ully collapsible and the most economical. crown not touching fruit below (c) Medium-to-short length. Vegetables and Root Crops. W. Section 7). Telescopic containers (half or full) have the highest stacking strength and prot ect against bulging but are more costly. When trimming is necessary.

ca using loss of contents. Source: Peleg. Box compression strength Snagging. D. 120 pp. Odour retention. Some protection. loss of contents. and foil wrappings. Chatha m. The table below provides examples of some types of typical mechanical damage and their effect on packaging containers. Inc. opening of flaps causing los s of containment function. Good Consistent quality. loss of containment function. (Ed. C onnecticut: AVI Publishing Co. Metal thickness Source: Walker. Source: Walker. but is not collapsib le. bags. Type of damage Container Result Important factors Impact damage through dropping Sacks . Distortion of shape reducing stacking ability. also cause contamination by sack f ibres Bio-deterioration. K.woven and paper Splitting of sea ms and material causing leaking and spillage loss. Paper Poor Fair-Poor Good . collapse and sometimes splitting. World Food Programme Food Storage Manual. Chath am. Good print.The container known as a Bliss box has very strong corners..) 1992. World Food Programme Food Storage Manual. The following table provides some information regarding the ch aracteristics of different kinds of materials used to make sacks. UK: Natural Resources Institute . D.J. Closeness of wea ve Corrugated fibreboard cases Become compressed and lose their cushion ing qualities. tearing. Design. Plastic bottles Splitting or shattering causes loss of contents. Prevention of Post-Harvest Food Losses: A Training Manual. 1985. wall thickness Vibration Woven sacks Sifting out of contents. Tear strength Tins Punctured. Produce Handling Packaging and Distribution. 1985. Cotton Fair Fair None None Fair High re-use value. Contents more prone to impact damage. Difficult to stitch. rim damage. Fastenings Wood toughness Cans and drums Denting. since they tend to be inexpensive and r eadily available. better if treated.WFP multiwall sacks have plastic liners. hook damage Sacks .spillage (more severe with paper sacks). Woven plastics Fair-Good Good None Some protection (if closely wove n) Fair Badly affected by ultra-violet light. Box compression strength Plastic bottles Distortion. seam splitting causing loss of containment and splitting of inner c artons.J. Material grade Wall thickness Compression damage through high stacking Fibreboard boxes Distorti on of shape. Bursting strength Closure method Wooden cases Fracture of joints. Westport. (Ed) 1992. UK: Natural Resources Institute Paper or cloth sacks can be easily closed using a length of strong wire and twis ting tool.woven and paper Loss of containm ent function . material. Splitting of seams and closures cau sing loss of containment and spoilage of contents. Seam strength Fibreboard boxes Splitting of seams. Sacks are often used to package produce. Characteristics of sacks as packaging units Sack types Tearing and snagging Impact Protection against Contamin ation Notes Moisture absorption Insect invasion Jute Good Good None None Poor. Source: FAO. Ro me: UNFAO. Insect harbourage.

USDA.: AVI publishing Co. beans. Produce Handling Packaging and Distribution. K. 1985. Rockaway. Tropical Products Transport Handbook. B. C onn. Office of Transporation. Ends: Blank for body: Source: Peleg. eggplant. Full telescoping box: One-piece telescoping box: One-piece tuck-in cover box: Source: McGregor. 1985. Containers can be constructed from wood and wire. A special closing tool makes bending the wire loops on the crate s lid easier for packers to do. Taped joints: Glued Joints: Stapled joints: Source: Peleg. Shipping containers can be designed and made by the user from fibreboard in any size and shape desired. Self-locking tray: Interlocking box: Source: McGregor. Three types of joints are commonly used to construct stu rdy boxes. Tropical Products Transport Handbook. If a pad contai ning sulfur dioxide can be enclosed with the grapes within a plastic liner as a treatment to control decay. greens. B. 1987: Tropical Products Transport Handbook.   .. The diagrams below are for a variety of commonly used fibreboard containers. USDA. C onnecticut: AVI Publishing Co. Westport. K.The diagrams below are for a variety of commonly used fibreboard containers. Wirebound crates are used for many commodities inc luding melons. This container i s very sturdy and maintains its stacking strength over long periods of time at h igh relative humidity. B. Agricultural Handbook Number 668. The liner protects the produce from dust and water condensation. Often. New Jersey 07866) can provide a list of suppliers in your area. squash and citrus fruits. Office of Transporation. The diagrams below are for a variety of commonly used fibreboard containers. 1987. 1987. A wooden lug is the typical packing container for table grapes. Fin al dimensions can be altered to suit the needs of the handler. Agricultural Handbook Number 668. Inc. Packa ge Research Laboratory (41 Pine Street. USDA. peppers. Most commodities other than table grapes can be dama ged (bleached) by sulfur dioxide treatments.. Inc. Fin al dimensions can be altered to suit the needs of the handler. a paper liner is folded over the grapes before the top is nailed closed. Fin al dimensions can be altered to suit the needs of the handler. Produce Handling Packaging and Distribution. Westport. Rigid plastic containers are also widely used. One piece box: Two-piece box with cover: Bliss-style box: Source: McGregor. Agricultural Handbook Number 668. using the general diagrams pro vided below. Office of Transporation.

1979. 120pp Packaging practices Adding a fiberboard divider to a carton will increase stacking strength. Office of Transporation. Labels can be preprinted on fiberboard boxes. a packer is pulling a sleeve up over a bunch of flowers before packing the flowers into a v ented fibreboard carton. Et al. stamped or st enciled on to containers. Labeling Labeling packages helps handlers to keep track of the produce as it moves throug h the postharvest system. Some shippers also provide brochure s detailing storage methods or recipes for consumers. Fiberboard divider: Triangular corner supports: Source: McGregor. and assists wholesalers and retailers in using proper practices.   . Ro me: UNFAO. Division of Agriculture and Natural Reso urces. Thin paper or plastic sleeves are a useful material for protecting cut flowers f rom damage during handling and transport.A. USDA. The total vent area sh ould be 5% of the total box surface area. or fiberboard folded into triangles and placed in all four corners ca n be especially useful when a carton needs strengthening. Source: Rij. a tube of woven bamboo (about one meter long) is used to vent a large bag of chili peppers. When locally made containers have sharp edges or rough inner surfaces. University of California. 1985. Source: Reid. In the illustration below. or glued. AAT-W-5. Source: FAO. M. The use of dividers is common with heavy crops such as melons. R. Woode n inserts. A. In the illustration below. Davis. R. The trimmed spears are packed upright in containers that provide for a large amount of ventilation. Publication 3311. the use of a simple vent can help reduce the buildup of heat as the product re spires. Agricultural Handbook Number 668. The Agricultural Development Systems Project in Egypt (1979-83). precooling and temperature management of cut flower crops for truck transportation. packer and/or shippers. USAID/Ministry of Agriculture. Egypt/University of California. a simple. In: Kader. of full telescopic design with vents at both ends to facilitate forced-air cooling. USDA Science and Education Administra tion. Cardboard liner for a palm rib crate: Source: Blond.Rigid plastic or wooden containers are also used extensively for asparagus. inexpensive inner made from fiberboard can be used to protect produce from dama ge during handling. Leaflet 21058.) Postharvest Technology of Horticu ltural Crops. Handling. The sleeves both provide protection and help keep the b unches of flowers separate inside the box. Tropical Products Transport Handbook. 1987. If large bags or baskets must be used for bulk packaging of fruits or vegetables . A closable flap can help maintain cool temperatures if boxes are temporarily delayed in transport or storage in an unc ontrolled temperature environment. (Ed.S. 1992. Shipping labels can contain some or all of the following information: Common name of the product.D. B. A simple wooden tray with raised corners is stackable and allows plenty of venti lation for fragile crops such as ripe tomatoes. Containers for cut flowers are often long and narrow. The dividers also preven t melons from vibrating against one another during handling and transport. Prevention of Post-Harvest Food Losses: A Training Manual. Brand labeling packages can aid in advertising for the product s producer. 1984.

Labeling of consumer packages is mandatory under FDA regulations.68 x 15. D.81) 10 100 433 x 333 (17.75) 6 100 600 x 400 (23.75") Pallet utilization: 100% Outside dimensions: 600 x 400 mm (23. Special handling instructions. These containers are part of the MU M program (Modularization. Protecting Perishable Foods During Transport by Truck. Washington. Name and address of packer or shipper. packer or distributor. using box es in standard sizes can greatly ease future handling. count and/or volume.84) 10 99 400 x 300 (15. Office of Transportation. et al.11) 6 99 500 x 300 (19.69") Pallet utilization 100% Outside dimensions: 500 x 400 mm (19.68 x 13. MUM containers for horticultural crops: Outside Dimensions Number Per Layer Pallet Surface Area Util ized mm Inches Percentage 600 x 500 (23. Size and grade. Outside dimensions: 600 x 500 mm (23. yet still form a stable load on a single pallet of 1000 x 1200 mm (40 x 48 inches). Agricultural Handbook No. Using MUM containers ca n save space during transport and storage.11) 7 97 600 x 333 (23.70 x 9. Office of Transporation.74 x 9.84) 12 100 An example of a pallet load of MUM containers: Source: Ashby. Recommended container sizes are shown below.75) 5 100 500 x 333 (19.81) 8 100 475 x 250 (18. B. Unitization and Metrication) advocated by the USDA. net weight. and name and address of the producer. Country or region of origin. Agricultural Handbook Number 668.62 x 19.62 x 13.H. Source: McGregor. USDA. Names of approved waxes and/or pesticides used on the product. 1989.75 x 11.62 x 19.11) 8 96 400 x 250 (15. Brand name. Recommended storage temperature. The following illustrations show the arrangement of a variety of MUM containers on a standard pallet (1000 x 1200 mm or 40 x 48 inches). Tropical Products Transport Handbook.01 x 13.68 x 11. 1987.68 x 15. Modularization of containers When a variety of different sized cartons are packed at the same time. An unstable load is likely to fall over during transport or to collapse durin g storage.: USDA.62 x 15. T hey can all be stacked in a variety of patterns. stacks can be unstable or heavier cartons can crush lighter one s.69) 4 100 500 x 400 (19.75") Pallet utilization: 100% Outside dimensions: .Net weight. When handling boxes that are non-uniform. Labels must co ntain the name of the product.62 x 15. depending upon their size. since pallet utilization is close to 100%. B.C. 669.

SEALED PLASTIC BAG Within a shipping container: Polyethylene liners are added to shipping container s in cherry boxes.75 x 11.84") Pallet utilization: 99% Outside dimensions: 400 x 300 mm (15. Office of Transporation. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) Within a consumer package: If commodity and film permeability characteristics ar e properly matched. but very few have gas permeabili .01 x 13. Agricultural Handbook Number 668. an appropriate atmosphere can evolve passively through consu mption of O2 and production of CO2 during respiration (Kader. a gas mixture of 30 to 50% O2 and 4 to 6% CO2 is introduced into the bag.81") Pallet utilization: 100% Outside dimensions: 433 x 333 mm (17. which is then sealed. B. A slight vacuum can be introduced and 15% CO2 added to the air introduced via a small hose.68 x 11.62 x 9. After a partial vacuum is created. Some rigid plastic consumer packages are designed with a gas diffusion window.68 x 13. Many plastic films are available for packaging.75 x 13. Tropical Products Transport Handbook.500 x 333 mm (19.75 x 9.11") Pallet utilization: 97% Outside dimensions: 600 x 333 mm (23.99") Pallet utilization: 96% Outside dimensions: 400 x 250 mm (15. USDA.62 x 13. Lightly processed lettuce (shredded or chopped) can be packaged in 5-mil plastic bags. PLASTIC LINER Within a pallet: A single pallet load of produce such as strawberries can be sea led within a shroud of 5 mil polyethylene bag and a plastic sheet on the pallet base using wide tape. 1992).11") 435 x 330 mm (17. and polyethylene bags are used for bananas destined for dista nt markets.84") Pallet utilization: 100% Outside dimensions: 400 x 333 mm (15. 1989.11") Pallet utilization: 99% Outside dimensions: 500 x 300 mm (19.11") Pallet utilization: 99% Source: McGregor.12 x 12.81") Pallet utilization: 100% Outside dimensions: 475 x 250 mm (18.

1987. especially for r educing the microbial load for crops such as plums. healthy produce.248 3. peaches. Thirdly.900-13.300-6. moisture from the surrounding warm a ir condenses on the colder product s surfaces (Sommer. and allo ws faster loading/ unloading of transportation vehicles.138 620-2.6-6. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Section 5: Decay and insect control The first line of defense against insects and disease is good management during production. Strapping and cornerboards on a unit load: Sources: McGregor. 1992).H. 1986). USDA. The second is careful harvesting and preparation for market in the f ield.ties that make them suitable for MAP. Container s must have holes for ventilation which align when stacked squarely on top of on e another.000 2.9 Polypropylene 7.700-77. in Kader. When cold commodities are removed from stora ge and left at higher ambient temperatures. 1992). Using fiberboard. causes less damage to the containers and produce inside.700 3. The switch to unit loads has red uced handling.9 Polyvinyl chloride 4.0-3. Film type Permeabilities (cc/m2/mil/day at 1 atm) CO2:O2 Ratio CO2 O2 Polyethylene: low density 7. USDA.8-6. Low density polyethylene and polyvinyl chl oride are the main films used in packaging fresh fruits and vegetables. The following table provides the perme abilities of the films currently available for packaging fresh produce (Kader. On the other hand. sweetpotatoes and tomatoes. B. even when the greatest care is taken.5 Polyester 180-390 52-130 3. br ief hot water dips or forced-air heating can also be effective. If small scale handlers wish to use unit loads for shipping produce.. 1 992).9 Polystrene 10. Rhi zopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger (black mold) can be killed when germinati ng by 2 or more days at 0°C (32 F) (Sommer. Office of Transporatation. cantaloupe and stone fruits (Shewfelt. Using guides for al igning the boxes (such as placing the pallet to be loaded against the corner of a room.8 Saran 52-150 8-26 5. a nd infections can be reduced by treating produce with a few days of storage at t he coldest temperature the commodity can withstand without incurring damage.263-8. Saran an d polyester have such low gas permeabilities that they are suitable only for com modities with very low respiration rates. or building a set of "bounce boards" if the pallet is loaded outside) wi ll stabilize the load.400 3. Certain fungi and bacteria in their germination phase are susceptible to cold. 1989. et al. Tropical Products Transport Handbook.600-7. A tempor ary increase in ventilation rate (using a fan) or increasing exposure of the com     .3-5.000 3. Yet. Agricultural Handbook Number 668. in Kader. Office o f Transporation.700-21. plastic or metal help to provide for a stable unit load.5 Unit loads Many shippers and receivers prefer to handle unit loads of produce pallets rathe r than handling individual shipping containers. plastic or wooden containers with verti cal interlocking tabs can also help improve the unit load s stability.000-26. either wood en pallets or slip sheets can serve as the base of the load.0-5.000 1. free water on the surface of commodities can enhance germin ation and penetration by pathogens.000 2. and plastic netting or plastic or metal straps should be added to secure the load. Cornerboards made from fiberboard. so metimes produce must be treated to control insects or decay-causing organisms. B. papaya.4-3. Glue can be used between layers of containers to reduce slipping. Agricultural Handbook Number 669. Ashby.. Protecting Perishable Foods During Transport by Truck . sorting out damaged or decaying produce will limit contamination of the remaining. While high humidity in the storage environment is important for maintenance of h igh quality produce.

Fruit should not be handled immediate ly after heat treatment. Any "natural pes ticide" must be shown to be safe for humans before its approval by regulatory au thorities. Some plant materials are useful as natural pesticides. 1978).5% for 20 minutes for the initial treatment. Packaging in insect-proof con tainers is needed to prevent subsequent insect infestation. mol d and yeasts on the surface of produce.1 % active ingredient) to control crown rot fungi. Careful calculation of the amount of sulfur dioxide required to treat grapes can greatly reduce the need to vent or scrub the storage air after fumigation to re move excess S02. kiwifruit and persimmons (Mitchell & Kader in Kader. The effectiveness o f the treatment will be decreased if organic matter is allowed to build up in th e wash water. in: Moline. Control of storage insects in nuts and dried fruits and vegetables can be achiev ed by freezing. Alternatively . and are currently u sed for the control of fruit flies. 1992). and Ochroma logopur have been found to be very effectiv e when used as a dust against aphids attacking stored potatoes (CIP. Whenever heat is used with fresh produce. Sulfur: Sulfur is used on bananas as a paste (0. Cold treatments can also serve to control some insect pests. In mangoes. depending on size (Sommer & Arpaia in Kader. then 0.T.E. package vents should be screened t o prevent the spread of insects during handling. Cassava leaves are known to protect harvested cassava roots from pests when used as packing material in b oxes or bags during transport and short-term storage. neem acts as a powerful pesticide on food crops but appears to be completely n on-toxic to humans.7 C (35 F) or below. B. 1984. pears. The pesticidal properties of the seeds of the neem tree (as an oil or aqueous extrac t) are becoming more widely known and used throughout the world. Division of Agricultu re and Natural Resources. The ashes of th e leaves of Lantana spp. For produce packed before cold storage treatment. so treatment is only suited to commo dities capable of withstanding long-term low-temperature storage such as apples. Sodium or potassium bisulfite: . There are some chemicals that are generally recognized safe (GRAS) which are use d to control a variety of molds and fungi on fruit crops. It is thought that the lea ves release cyanogens. University of California. 1982). yeasts and mold s. The effectiveness of chlorine increases as pH is reduced from pH 1 1 to pH 8. 1992). For information on the "total utilization" fumigation technique that has been developed for treating grapes with sulfur dioxide. Native to India . Postharvest Pat hology of Fruits and Vegetables. grapes. and Manji. which are toxic to insects (Aiyer. Fruits and vegetables can be washed with hypochlorite solution (25 ppm available chlorine for two minutes) then rinsed to control bacterial decay. Chemical controls Washing produce with chlorinated water can prevent decay caused by bacteria. Hot water dips or heated air can be used for direct control of postharvest insec ts.2% for 20 minutes at 7 day intervals) on grap es to control Botrytis. these commodities can be dipped in hypochlorite solution (50 to 70 ppm availab le chlorine) then rinsed with tap water for control of bacteria. an effective treatment is 46. Source: Ogawa. cold storage (less than 5 C or 41 F)). or 14 days at 1. but at lower pH chlorine becomes unstable. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is used as a fumigant or a water spray (0. or the e xclusion of oxygen (0.4 C for 65 to 90 minutes. mammals and beneficial insects (NRC.modity to drier air can help to evaporate the condensed moisture and to reduce t he chances of infection. Calcium hypochlorite (powder) and sodium hypochlorite (liquid) are inexpensive and widely available.M. J. Treatment requires 10 days at 0 C (32 F) or below. see Luvisi (19 92). UC Bulletin 1914. cool water sh owers or forced cold air should be provided to help return the fruits to their o ptimum temperature as soon as possible after completion of the treatment. 1992). Rhizopus and Aspergillus fungi.5% or lower) using nitrogen. (Ed). heat treatments. H.

Controlled/modified atmosphere treatments For commodities that tolerate high CO2 levels. a simple tray with hole s punched in the bottom can be used hold the commodity while it is sprayed. Bedfordshire. The "cascade applicator" illustrated below was developed to apply fungic ide uniformly and effectively by using a liquid curtain to drench the fruit. England. Postharvest Pathology o f Fruits and Vegetables. The fruit passes under the curtain where it is drenched. Source: Delate.5% or lower O2 and/or 40% or higher CO2) have been s hown to be an effective substitute for methyl bromide fumigation to disinfest dr ied fruits. A Training Manual. and Ilag. 1990. Un iversity of California. et al. When fruit is packed for export. et al. H. D. L. Ogawa. then out of the applicator to drain on a tilted return tray. Journal of Economic Entomol   .L. storage in 2 to 4% oxygen an d 40 to 60% carbon dioxide results in mortality of adult weevils in 2 to 7 days. Sulfur Dioxide Fumigation of Table Grapes. 1992. Rome: UNFAO. nuts and vegetables The effectiveness of insecticidal atmospheres de pends upon the temperature. Fruit in a perforated plastic tray is introduced on a roller conveyor belt (not shown) into the applicator. fungicides are often applied to meet the requir ements of international quality standards and to reduce deterioration during tra nsport. a hand-operated knapsack sprayer is used to spray fungici des on bananas to the stage of run-off. 1984. Appropriate Postharvest Technology 1( 1):10-12. A filter is fitted on the top of the tank to remove foreign matter fr om the return flow of fungicide from the applicator box and the return tray. Fungicide Applicator: Source: Overseas Div. The tank holds up to 50 liters of fungicide solution. K. Vegetables and Root Crops. in: Moline. B. relative humidity.M.. AFRC. 157 pp. fresh fig and table grapes during transp ort. Bulletin No. and a pump is mounted at the level of the ta nk outlet. 15 to 20% CO2-enriched air can be used as a fungistat to control decay-causing pathogens. (Ed). Bulletin 1932. On occasions when fungicides must be applied to produce. such as Botrytis cinere a on strawberry. Prevention of Postharvest Food Losses: Fruits. Controlled atmosphere treatments for control of sweetpotato weevil in stored tropical sweetpotatoes. Bacterial soft rot (Erwinia) of cabbage can be controlled by using lime powder o r a 15% solution of alum (aluminum potassium sulfate) in water. blueberry. University of California. Silsoe. the produce should be allowed to dry for 2 0 to 30 minutes before packing. 1984. 1974. See page 77 for a description of the method for atmospheric modification wi thin a pallet cover. duration of exposure and life sta ge of the insect.S.T. Division of Agriculture and N atural Resources. Source: FAO. Alum and Lime Applications: Potentia l Postharvest Control of Cabbage Soft Rot. Sources: Luvisi. E.A. J. UC Bulletin 1914. 6. Nat l Institute of Agricultural Engineering. The bananas can then dry in the perforat ed tray before further handling. and Manji.Bisulfites are used in a sawdust mixture (usually contained within a pad that ca n be placed inside a carton) to release SO2 for control of molds on grapes (5 gr ams for a 24 to 28 lb box). 1989. At 25 C (76 F). Insecticidal atmospheres (0. Following are some examples: 1) Sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius elegantulus) has been controlled at amb ient temperature in stored tropical sweetpotatoes by treatment with low oxygen a nd high carbon dioxide atmospheres. After treatment of the butt-end of the cabbage heads.E. blackberry. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Inside a simple fan shaped deflector creates a curta in of liquid fungicide. Applying alum solution (spray or brush on): Applying lime powder (press butt-end into powder): Source: Borromeo. In t he illustration below.

L. 53 5 Poor degreening Phomopsis sp. et al. Phytophthora sp.5% oxygen and 10% carbon dioxide for 2 to 3 days (a dult or egg) or 6 to 12 days (pupa). br ief hot water dips or forced-air heating can also be effective. Yet.5 Orange Diplodia sp. Rhizopus sp. The second is careful harvesting and preparation for market in the f ield. Responses of codling moth life stages to h igh carbon dioxide or low oxygen atmospheres. Plant Disease (Nov): 1085-1089. 45 10 Reduced storage life Penicillium expansum Grapefruit Phytophthora citrophthora 48 3 Green beans Pythium butleri 52 0. 1990. 45 15 100 Deterioration Penicillium expansum Melon Fungi 30-60 35 low Marked breakdown Peach Monolinia fructicola 54 15 80 Rhizopus stolonifer Strawberry Alternaria sp. Rhi zopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger (black mold) can be killed when germinati ng by 2 or more days at 0°C (32 F) (Sommer. 2) Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in stone fruits can be controlled at 25 C (76 F) by using atmospheres of 0. Papaya Fungi 48 20 Peach Monolinia fructicola 52 2. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Section 5: Decay and insect control The first line of defense against insects and disease is good management during production. On the other hand. Source: Soderstrom. especially for r educing the microbial load for crops such as plums.5 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lemon Penicillium digitatum 52 5-10 Phytophthora sp. healthy produce. in Kader. Source: Barkai-Golan.ogy 83:461-465. Certain fungi and bacteria in their germination phase are susceptible to cold. a nd infections can be reduced by treating produce with a few days of storage at t he coldest temperature the commodity can withstand without incurring damage.5 Slight spotting HOT FORCED-AIR TREATMENTS: Commodity Pathogens Temperature (C) Time (min) RH(%) Possible injuries Apple Gloeosporium sp. Postharvest heat treatments of fresh fruits and vegetables for decay control.. 53 1. Heat treatments Postharvest heating using hot water or hot forced-air to kill or weaken pathogen s can be used as a method for decay control in fresh fruits and vegetables. 1991. Journal of Economic Entomology 83: 472-475. HOT WATER TREATMENTS: Commodity Pathogens Temperature (C) Time (min) Possible injuries Apple Gloeosporium sp. 43 30 98 Botrytis sp. Cladosporium sp. and Phillips. peaches. R. so metimes produce must be treated to control insects or decay-causing organisms.5 Motile skin Rhizopus stolonifer Pepper (bell) Erwinia sp. D. E. Normal color and firmness changes during ri pening are not affected by treatment. cantaloupe .J. 1992). sorting out damaged or decaying produce will limit contamination of the remaining. even when the greatest care is taken. Thirdly. Mango Collectotrichum gloeosporioides 52 5 No stem rot cont rol Melon Fungi 57-63 0. papaya.

For produce packed before cold storage treatment. Hot water dips or heated air can be used for direct control of postharvest insec ts. yeasts and mold s. While high humidity in the storage environment is important for maintenance of h igh quality produce. The ashes of th e leaves of Lantana spp. cool water sh owers or forced cold air should be provided to help return the fruits to their o ptimum temperature as soon as possible after completion of the treatment. free water on the surface of commodities can enhance germin ation and penetration by pathogens. Fruit should not be handled immediate ly after heat treatment. these commodities can be dipped in hypochlorite solution (50 to 70 ppm availab le chlorine) then rinsed with tap water for control of bacteria.T. in: Moline. and Manji. depending on size (Sommer & Arpaia in Kader.1 % active ingredient) to control crown rot fungi. Cassava leaves are known to protect harvested cassava roots from pests when used as packing material in b oxes or bags during transport and short-term storage. Packaging in insect-proof con tainers is needed to prevent subsequent insect infestation. Source: Ogawa. In mangoes. The effectiveness o f the treatment will be decreased if organic matter is allowed to build up in th e wash water. Whenever heat is used with fresh produce. pears. but at lower pH chlorine becomes unstable. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is used as a fumigant or a water spray (0. neem acts as a powerful pesticide on food crops but appears to be completely n on-toxic to humans. (Ed). Postharvest Pat hology of Fruits and Vegetables. Cold treatments can also serve to control some insect pests. an effective treatment is 46. cold storage (less than 5 C or 41 F)). mammals and beneficial insects (NRC. Calcium hypochlorite (powder) and sodium hypochlorite (liquid) are inexpensive and widely available. package vents should be screened t o prevent the spread of insects during handling. sweetpotatoes and tomatoes. UC Bulletin 1914. and Ochroma logopur have been found to be very effectiv e when used as a dust against aphids attacking stored potatoes (CIP. The pesticidal properties of the seeds of the neem tree (as an oil or aqueous extrac t) are becoming more widely known and used throughout the world. grapes. Native to India . 1992). 1992). Some plant materials are useful as natural pesticides. or 14 days at 1. Fruits and vegetables can be washed with hypochlorite solution (25 ppm available chlorine for two minutes) then rinsed to control bacterial decay. kiwifruit and persimmons (Mitchell & Kader in Kader.and stone fruits (Shewfelt. Sulfur: Sulfur is used on bananas as a paste (0. Control of storage insects in nuts and dried fruits and vegetables can be achiev ed by freezing.4 C for 65 to 90 minutes. 1986).E. in Kader. A tempor ary increase in ventilation rate (using a fan) or increasing exposure of the com modity to drier air can help to evaporate the condensed moisture and to reduce t he chances of infection. 1992).M. then 0. 1982). The effectiveness of chlorine increases as pH is reduced from pH 1 1 to pH 8. When cold commodities are removed from stora ge and left at higher ambient temperatures. which are toxic to insects (Aiyer. Division of Agricultu re and Natural Resources. H. 1978).5% for 20 minutes for the initial treatment. Any "natural pes ticide" must be shown to be safe for humans before its approval by regulatory au thorities. so treatment is only suited to commo dities capable of withstanding long-term low-temperature storage such as apples. or the e xclusion of oxygen (0.5% or lower) using nitrogen. mol d and yeasts on the surface of produce. Treatment requires 10 days at 0 C (32 F) or below. moisture from the surrounding warm a ir condenses on the colder product s surfaces (Sommer. J.7 C (35 F) or below. Chemical controls Washing produce with chlorinated water can prevent decay caused by bacteria. B. University of California. Alternatively . 1992). heat treatments. It is thought that the lea ves release cyanogens.2% for 20 minutes at 7 day intervals) on grap   . 1984. and are currently u sed for the control of fruit flies. There are some chemicals that are generally recognized safe (GRAS) which are use d to control a variety of molds and fungi on fruit crops.

1984.M. a simple tray with hole s punched in the bottom can be used hold the commodity while it is sprayed. Sources: Luvisi. The bananas can then dry in the perforat ed tray before further handling. Sulfur Dioxide Fumigation of Table Grapes. the produce should be allowed to dry for 2 0 to 30 minutes before packing. A filter is fitted on the top of the tank to remove foreign matter fr om the return flow of fungicide from the applicator box and the return tray. H. The "cascade applicator" illustrated below was developed to apply fungic ide uniformly and effectively by using a liquid curtain to drench the fruit. England. a hand-operated knapsack sprayer is used to spray fungici des on bananas to the stage of run-off. J. Careful calculation of the amount of sulfur dioxide required to treat grapes can greatly reduce the need to vent or scrub the storage air after fumigation to re move excess S02.T. On occasions when fungicides must be applied to produce. Vegetables and Root Crops. 15 to 20% CO2-enriched air can be used as a fungistat to control decay-causing pathogens. Bulletin No.es to control Botrytis. in: Moline. E. UC Bulletin 1914. relative humidity. Inside a simple fan shaped deflector creates a curta in of liquid fungicide. Rhizopus and Aspergillus fungi. Alum and Lime Applications: Potentia l Postharvest Control of Cabbage Soft Rot. L. blueberry. and a pump is mounted at the level of the ta nk outlet. Prevention of Postharvest Food Losses: Fruits. Rome: UNFAO. Nat l Institute of Agricultural Engineering. Fruit in a perforated plastic tray is introduced on a roller conveyor belt (not shown) into the applicator. and Manji. For information on the "total utilization" fumigation technique that has been developed for treating grapes with sulfur dioxide. 1974. 1992. In t he illustration below. Applying alum solution (spray or brush on): Applying lime powder (press butt-end into powder): Source: Borromeo.L. University of California. (Ed). blackberry. See page 77 for a description of the method for atmospheric modification wi thin a pallet cover. 1989. then out of the applicator to drain on a tilted return tray. Following are some examples:   . Sodium or potassium bisulfite: Bisulfites are used in a sawdust mixture (usually contained within a pad that ca n be placed inside a carton) to release SO2 for control of molds on grapes (5 gr ams for a 24 to 28 lb box). After treatment of the butt-end of the cabbage heads. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 6. Appropriate Postharvest Technology 1( 1):10-12. duration of exposure and life sta ge of the insect. Insecticidal atmospheres (0. Bulletin 1932. D. fresh fig and table grapes during transp ort. When fruit is packed for export.E. 157 pp. see Luvisi (19 92). 1984. A Training Manual. B. such as Botrytis cinere a on strawberry. nuts and vegetables The effectiveness of insecticidal atmospheres de pends upon the temperature.. The fruit passes under the curtain where it is drenched. Un iversity of California. Source: FAO. AFRC. The tank holds up to 50 liters of fungicide solution. and Ilag. et al. Ogawa.5% or lower O2 and/or 40% or higher CO2) have been s hown to be an effective substitute for methyl bromide fumigation to disinfest dr ied fruits. Silsoe. Bedfordshire. Bacterial soft rot (Erwinia) of cabbage can be controlled by using lime powder o r a 15% solution of alum (aluminum potassium sulfate) in water.A.S. Postharvest Pathology o f Fruits and Vegetables. Controlled/modified atmosphere treatments For commodities that tolerate high CO2 levels. Fungicide Applicator: Source: Overseas Div. Division of Agriculture and N atural Resources. fungicides are often applied to meet the requir ements of international quality standards and to reduce deterioration during tra nsport.

Heat treatments Postharvest heating using hot water or hot forced-air to kill or weaken pathogen s can be used as a method for decay control in fresh fruits and vegetables. 2) Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in stone fruits can be controlled at 25 C (76 F) by using atmospheres of 0. Mango Collectotrichum gloeosporioides 52 5 No stem rot cont rol Melon Fungi 57-63 0. Journal of Economic Entomology 83: 472-475. . 1990.J. so metimes produce must be treated to control insects or decay-causing organisms. R.1) Sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius elegantulus) has been controlled at amb ient temperature in stored tropical sweetpotatoes by treatment with low oxygen a nd high carbon dioxide atmospheres.5 Slight spotting HOT FORCED-AIR TREATMENTS: Commodity Pathogens Temperature (C) Time (min) RH(%) Possible injuries Apple Gloeosporium sp. D. Journal of Economic Entomol ogy 83:461-465. Papaya Fungi 48 20 Peach Monolinia fructicola 52 2. Responses of codling moth life stages to h igh carbon dioxide or low oxygen atmospheres.L. Postharvest heat treatments of fresh fruits and vegetables for decay control. Controlled atmosphere treatments for control of sweetpotato weevil in stored tropical sweetpotatoes. K.5 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lemon Penicillium digitatum 52 5-10 Phytophthora sp.5% oxygen and 10% carbon dioxide for 2 to 3 days (a dult or egg) or 6 to 12 days (pupa). storage in 2 to 4% oxygen an d 40 to 60% carbon dioxide results in mortality of adult weevils in 2 to 7 days. 45 15 100 Deterioration Penicillium expansum Melon Fungi 30-60 35 low Marked breakdown Peach Monolinia fructicola 54 15 80 Rhizopus stolonifer Strawberry Alternaria sp. Source: Delate. and Phillips. 43 30 98 Botrytis sp. even when the greatest care is taken. 45 10 Reduced storage life Penicillium expansum Grapefruit Phytophthora citrophthora 48 3 Green beans Pythium butleri 52 0. Thirdly. healthy produce. 53 5 Poor degreening Phomopsis sp. 1990. At 25 C (76 F).. et al.5 Motile skin Rhizopus stolonifer Pepper (bell) Erwinia sp.5 Orange Diplodia sp. sorting out damaged or decaying produce will limit contamination of the remaining. Phytophthora sp. et al. Cladosporium sp. Normal color and firmness changes during ri pening are not affected by treatment. E. Rhizopus sp. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Section 5: Decay and insect control The first line of defense against insects and disease is good management during production. Source: Soderstrom. Yet. 1991. Source: Barkai-Golan. The second is careful harvesting and preparation for market in the f ield. 53 1. HOT WATER TREATMENTS: Commodity Pathogens Temperature (C) Time (min) Possible injuries Apple Gloeosporium sp. Plant Disease (Nov): 1085-1089.

depending on size (Sommer & Arpaia in Kader.   . 1992). The pesticidal properties of the seeds of the neem tree (as an oil or aqueous extrac t) are becoming more widely known and used throughout the world. Alternatively . or 14 days at 1. free water on the surface of commodities can enhance germin ation and penetration by pathogens. an effective treatment is 46. J. Fruit should not be handled immediate ly after heat treatment. neem acts as a powerful pesticide on food crops but appears to be completely n on-toxic to humans. moisture from the surrounding warm a ir condenses on the colder product s surfaces (Sommer. A tempor ary increase in ventilation rate (using a fan) or increasing exposure of the com modity to drier air can help to evaporate the condensed moisture and to reduce t he chances of infection. Cold treatments can also serve to control some insect pests. The effectiveness o f the treatment will be decreased if organic matter is allowed to build up in th e wash water. Division of Agricultu re and Natural Resources. in Kader. br ief hot water dips or forced-air heating can also be effective.T. Treatment requires 10 days at 0 C (32 F) or below. grapes. Chemical controls Washing produce with chlorinated water can prevent decay caused by bacteria. Cassava leaves are known to protect harvested cassava roots from pests when used as packing material in b oxes or bags during transport and short-term storage. 1992). 1978). and Ochroma logopur have been found to be very effectiv e when used as a dust against aphids attacking stored potatoes (CIP. peaches. sweetpotatoes and tomatoes. cold storage (less than 5 C or 41 F)). cantaloupe and stone fruits (Shewfelt.E. 1982). 1992). University of California. Whenever heat is used with fresh produce. but at lower pH chlorine becomes unstable. a nd infections can be reduced by treating produce with a few days of storage at t he coldest temperature the commodity can withstand without incurring damage. or the e xclusion of oxygen (0. H. For produce packed before cold storage treatment. which are toxic to insects (Aiyer. Any "natural pes ticide" must be shown to be safe for humans before its approval by regulatory au thorities. Hot water dips or heated air can be used for direct control of postharvest insec ts. cool water sh owers or forced cold air should be provided to help return the fruits to their o ptimum temperature as soon as possible after completion of the treatment. 1992). so treatment is only suited to commo dities capable of withstanding long-term low-temperature storage such as apples. 1984. pears.Certain fungi and bacteria in their germination phase are susceptible to cold. When cold commodities are removed from stora ge and left at higher ambient temperatures. The ashes of th e leaves of Lantana spp.M. Source: Ogawa. package vents should be screened t o prevent the spread of insects during handling. Control of storage insects in nuts and dried fruits and vegetables can be achiev ed by freezing. Postharvest Pat hology of Fruits and Vegetables. (Ed). 1986).5% or lower) using nitrogen. Rhi zopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger (black mold) can be killed when germinati ng by 2 or more days at 0°C (32 F) (Sommer. The effectiveness of chlorine increases as pH is reduced from pH 1 1 to pH 8. In mangoes. While high humidity in the storage environment is important for maintenance of h igh quality produce. UC Bulletin 1914.7 C (35 F) or below. Native to India . On the other hand. kiwifruit and persimmons (Mitchell & Kader in Kader. especially for r educing the microbial load for crops such as plums.4 C for 65 to 90 minutes. B. papaya. yeasts and mold s. and are currently u sed for the control of fruit flies. and Manji. Fruits and vegetables can be washed with hypochlorite solution (25 ppm available chlorine for two minutes) then rinsed to control bacterial decay. mammals and beneficial insects (NRC. in Kader. 1992). Packaging in insect-proof con tainers is needed to prevent subsequent insect infestation. in: Moline. Some plant materials are useful as natural pesticides. It is thought that the lea ves release cyanogens. mol d and yeasts on the surface of produce. heat treatments. these commodities can be dipped in hypochlorite solution (50 to 70 ppm availab le chlorine) then rinsed with tap water for control of bacteria. Calcium hypochlorite (powder) and sodium hypochlorite (liquid) are inexpensive and widely available.

England. a simple tray with hole s punched in the bottom can be used hold the commodity while it is sprayed. and Manji.E. L. H. University of California. 15 to 20% CO2-enriched air can be used as a fungistat to control decay-causing pathogens. Source: FAO. Prevention of Postharvest Food Losses: Fruits.T. AFRC.. Nat l Institute of Agricultural Engineering. Fruit in a perforated plastic tray is introduced on a roller conveyor belt (not shown) into the applicator. 1984. blueberry. In t he illustration below. and a pump is mounted at the level of the ta nk outlet. fresh fig and table grapes during transp   .A. On occasions when fungicides must be applied to produce. Rhizopus and Aspergillus fungi. The tank holds up to 50 liters of fungicide solution. When fruit is packed for export. then 0. A filter is fitted on the top of the tank to remove foreign matter fr om the return flow of fungicide from the applicator box and the return tray. 6. Bulletin 1932. The fruit passes under the curtain where it is drenched. Division of Agriculture and N atural Resources. fungicides are often applied to meet the requir ements of international quality standards and to reduce deterioration during tra nsport.M. 1974. Fungicide Applicator: Source: Overseas Div.L. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is used as a fumigant or a water spray (0. Sulfur Dioxide Fumigation of Table Grapes. Rome: UNFAO. Inside a simple fan shaped deflector creates a curta in of liquid fungicide. Sources: Luvisi. and Ilag. Alum and Lime Applications: Potentia l Postharvest Control of Cabbage Soft Rot. After treatment of the butt-end of the cabbage heads. Bulletin No. B. D. J.S. 1984. Ogawa.There are some chemicals that are generally recognized safe (GRAS) which are use d to control a variety of molds and fungi on fruit crops. The bananas can then dry in the perforat ed tray before further handling. For information on the "total utilization" fumigation technique that has been developed for treating grapes with sulfur dioxide. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Applying alum solution (spray or brush on): Applying lime powder (press butt-end into powder): Source: Borromeo. in: Moline. Bacterial soft rot (Erwinia) of cabbage can be controlled by using lime powder o r a 15% solution of alum (aluminum potassium sulfate) in water. blackberry. et al. Sodium or potassium bisulfite: Bisulfites are used in a sawdust mixture (usually contained within a pad that ca n be placed inside a carton) to release SO2 for control of molds on grapes (5 gr ams for a 24 to 28 lb box).5% for 20 minutes for the initial treatment. E. Careful calculation of the amount of sulfur dioxide required to treat grapes can greatly reduce the need to vent or scrub the storage air after fumigation to re move excess S02. (Ed). A Training Manual. Appropriate Postharvest Technology 1( 1):10-12. the produce should be allowed to dry for 2 0 to 30 minutes before packing. 1992. 1989.2% for 20 minutes at 7 day intervals) on grap es to control Botrytis.1 % active ingredient) to control crown rot fungi. 157 pp. see Luvisi (19 92). UC Bulletin 1914. Postharvest Pathology o f Fruits and Vegetables. Controlled/modified atmosphere treatments For commodities that tolerate high CO2 levels. a hand-operated knapsack sprayer is used to spray fungici des on bananas to the stage of run-off. The "cascade applicator" illustrated below was developed to apply fungic ide uniformly and effectively by using a liquid curtain to drench the fruit. then out of the applicator to drain on a tilted return tray. Bedfordshire. Vegetables and Root Crops. Silsoe. such as Botrytis cinere a on strawberry. Un iversity of California. Sulfur: Sulfur is used on bananas as a paste (0.

45 15 100 Deterioration Penicillium expansum Melon Fungi 30-60 35 low Marked breakdown Peach Monolinia fructicola 54 15 80 Rhizopus stolonifer Strawberry Alternaria sp. Cladosporium sp. 1990.. Papaya Fungi 48 20 Peach Monolinia fructicola 52 2. Responses of codling moth life stages to h igh carbon dioxide or low oxygen atmospheres.5 Orange Diplodia sp. Heat treatments Postharvest heating using hot water or hot forced-air to kill or weaken pathogen s can be used as a method for decay control in fresh fruits and vegetables. E. 53 5 Poor degreening Phomopsis sp.5% or lower O2 and/or 40% or higher CO2) have been s hown to be an effective substitute for methyl bromide fumigation to disinfest dr ied fruits. K. R. Source: Soderstrom. et al. Postharvest heat treatments of fresh fruits and vegetables for decay control. duration of exposure and life sta ge of the insect. Plant Disease (Nov): 1085-1089. Controlled atmosphere treatments for control of sweetpotato weevil in stored tropical sweetpotatoes. ________________________________________ .5 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lemon Penicillium digitatum 52 5-10 Phytophthora sp. 1991. 43 30 98 Botrytis sp. D. See page 77 for a description of the method for atmospheric modification wi thin a pallet cover. Journal of Economic Entomol ogy 83:461-465. 53 1. Journal of Economic Entomology 83: 472-475.5 Slight spotting HOT FORCED-AIR TREATMENTS: Commodity Pathogens Temperature (C) Time (min) RH(%) Possible injuries Apple Gloeosporium sp. Mango Collectotrichum gloeosporioides 52 5 No stem rot cont rol Melon Fungi 57-63 0. relative humidity. Source: Barkai-Golan. nuts and vegetables The effectiveness of insecticidal atmospheres de pends upon the temperature. 2) Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in stone fruits can be controlled at 25 C (76 F) by using atmospheres of 0. Source: Delate. HOT WATER TREATMENTS: Commodity Pathogens Temperature (C) Time (min) Possible injuries Apple Gloeosporium sp.5% oxygen and 10% carbon dioxide for 2 to 3 days (a dult or egg) or 6 to 12 days (pupa).J. Following are some examples: 1) Sweetpotato weevil (Cylas formicarius elegantulus) has been controlled at amb ient temperature in stored tropical sweetpotatoes by treatment with low oxygen a nd high carbon dioxide atmospheres.5 Motile skin Rhizopus stolonifer Pepper (bell) Erwinia sp. et al. storage in 2 to 4% oxygen an d 40 to 60% carbon dioxide results in mortality of adult weevils in 2 to 7 days. 1990. Phytophthora sp. Rhizopus sp.ort. and Phillips. 45 10 Reduced storage life Penicillium expansum Grapefruit Phytophthora citrophthora 48 3 Green beans Pythium butleri 52 0. At 25 C (76 F).L. Insecticidal atmospheres (0. Normal color and firmness changes during ri pening are not affected by treatment.

as visual changes such as wilting or shrivelling and textural changes can take place. cherimoyas. Shade should be provided over harvested produce.Section 6: Temperature and relative humidity control ________________________________________ Throughout the period between harvest and consumption. Using shade wherever possible will help to reduce the temperatures of incom ing produce. It pays however. forced-a ir cooling and evaporative cooling. vegetables and cut flowers are living. 1990). where en ergy savings may be critical. 1993. and development of off-flavors (tomatoes) (Shewfelt. Another way is to use vapor barriers such as waxes. 1974). caves) or high altitude storage. p acking areas. High pressure sodium lights produce les s heat and use less energy than incandescent bulbs. development of pits or sunken areas (oranges. Vented liners will decrease VPD without seriously interfering with oxygen. Loss of water from produce is often associat ed with a loss of quality. respiring tissues separated from the pa rent plant. as when purchasing lighting equipment. to remember that water loss may n ot always be undesirable. Room cooling Room cooling is a relatively low cost but slow method of cooling when electricit . Another method is to add moisture to the air around the commodity as mists. temperature control has b een found to be the most important factor in maintaining product quality. field clamps. coated boxes or a variety of inexpensive a nd recyclable packaging materials. Cooling involves heat transfer from produce to a cooling medium such as a source of refrigeration. at last resor t. If a ready supply of electricity is available. the higher the relative humidity in the cold room will remain. Sometimes spending money will save money . Parsons-and Kasmire. by wetting the store room floor. A variety of portable forced-air coolers hav e been designed for use by small-scale growers and handlers (Talbot and Fletcher . The liner vents must line up with the package ve nts to facilitate cooling of the produce inside. For fresh market produce. and especially in developing countries. Keeping products at their lowest safe temperature (0 C or 32 F for t emperate crops or 1012 C or 50-54 F for chilling sensitive crops) will increase storage life by lowering respiration rate. Heat transfer processes include conduction. Fruits . any method of increasing the relative humidity of the storage environment (or decreasing the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the commodity and its environment) will slow the rate of water loss. Several simple practices are useful for cooling and enhancing storage system eff iciency wherever they are used. convection. the larger the area of the refrigerator coils. a variety of simpl e methods exist for cooling produce where electricity is unavailable or too expe nsive. melons and cucumbers). mechanical refrigeration systems provide the most reliable source of cold. polyethylene liners in boxes. since symptoms include failure to ripen (bananas and tomatoes). Rij et al. brown disc oloration (avocados. 1992) inclu de night air ventilation. Methods include room cooling. 1979. It is important to avoid chilling injury. Light colors on buildings will reflect light (and heat) and reduce heat load. radia tion and evaporation. increased susceptibility to decay (c ucumbers and beans). carbon dioxide and ethylene movement . decreasing sensitivity to ethylene an d reducing water loss. for buildings used for cooling and storage and for transport vehic les. evaporative cooling. so vented liners (about 5% of the total area of the liner) are recommended. The best method of increasing relative humidity is to reduce temperature. sprays. for example if produce is destined for dehydration or canning. Any added packaging materials will increase t he difficulty of efficient cooling. causes of serious postharvest losses. However. Trees are a fine source of shade and can reduce ambient temperature s around packinghouses and storage areas. eggplant). radiant cooling. or. the use of ice a nd underground (root cellars. Some examples of alternative systems (from Thompson in Kader. Another aspect to consider when handling fruits and vegetables is the relative h umidity of the storage environment. Reducing the rate of water loss slows the rate of shrivel ing and wilting. If using mechanical refrigeration for cooling.

Stacks should be nar row.G. uniform cooling for some commodities. Low cost cold rooms can be constructed using concrete for floors and polyurethan e foam as an insulator. Source: Mitchell.75. 1979. et al. USDA Science and Education Administrat ion.F. Each is equipped w ith a fan to pull air from the cold room through the boxed produce. 1992 for more i nformation).5 inch wide or more) are better than ma ny small vents. 1977. Building the storeroom in the shape of a cube will reduc e the surface area per unit volume of storage space. Special Bulle tin 11. chlorine (used to   . South Australia. Source: Kasmire. The ex ample provided below is a fixed unit. (See Mitchell in Kader. OS A #272.5 cm (2 to 3 inches) away from t he corners. 17. R. AAT-W-5. R. The greater the refrigerator s evap orator coil area. No date. USDA Science and Education Administra tion. Manual 43. The illustrations below show two types of forced-air coolers. It is important to leave adequate space between the stacks of boxes inside the r efrigerated room in order for produce to cool more quickly. Hydro-cooling Hydro-cooling provides fast. R.y for mechanical refrigeration is available. Precooling and Temperature Management of Cut Flower Crops for Truck Transportation. B. University of California Cooperative Extension.F. Forced-air cooling Forced-air cooling pulls or pushes air through the storage containers themselves . California Tomatorama. Many types of forced -air coolers can be designed to move cold moist air over the commodities. Handling Precooling and Temperature Management of C ut Flower Crops for Truck Transportation. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries. et al. Coolroom construction for the fruit and vegetable grower. The sheet is rolled over the top and down the back of the boxes to the flo or. UC Leaflet 21058. The commodity as well its packaging materials must be tolerant of wetting.L. Fresh Market Tomato Advisory Board Information Bulletin No. greatly speeding the cooling rate of any type of produce.3 cm =0. Commercial cooling of fruits and vegetables. R. Handling. The illustration below shows the recommended pattern of vents for cartons used t o hold produce that is to be forced-air cooled. Vents should make up 5% of the t otal surface area. Forced-air unit to rapidly cool sm all lots of packaged produce. where a fan is housed inside the wall of a cold room Cold wall forced-air cooler: Source: Rij. the less moisture will be lost from the product as it cools. 1979. UC Leaflet 21058. Source: Tugwell. All joints should be calked and the door should have a rubber seal. A few large vents (1. sealing off the unit and forcing air to be pulled through the vents (vent ar ea should be at least 5% of the surface area of the carton) of the cartons stack ed against the cooler. and Kasmire.A. This unit is designed to be used inside a refrigerated st orage room. and should be located 5 to 7. Source: Rij. A portable forced-air cooler can be constructed using a canvas or polyethylene s heet. about one pallet width in depth. California Agricultural Experiment Station Extension Service. 1972. thereby reducing constructi on and refrigeration costs. et al. 1974. so cooling from the outside to the cente r of the stacks is mostly by conduction. Air circulating through the room passes ov er surfaces and through any open space. R. A portable forced-air cooler: Source: Parsons. F.

The air can be cooled to within a few degre es of the wet bulb temperature of ambient air. 1977. 296 pp. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. R. Improvement of Post-Harvest Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Handl ing. The evaporative cooler shown below is equipped with a vortex wind machine. cool air through the load of produce inside the cooler. An evaporative cooler for vegeta ble crops. O. Air is cooled by passing through the wet pad before it passes through the packages and around the produce.F. 1981. J. California Tomatorama. F. 1(1): 25-28. 1986. Evaporative cooling These packinghouses are made from natural materials that can be moistened with w ater. 1992. Evaporative forced-air cooler: Source: Thompson. Wetting the walls and roof first thing in the morning creates conditions f or evaporative cooling of a packinghouse that is made from straw. Temperature and relative humidity in two type s of evaporative coolers. An evaporative cooler can be combined with a forced air cooler for small lots of produce. 17. Water is dripped onto the charcoal or st raw. The simplest version of a hydro-cooler is a tank of cold water in which produce is immersed. A batch-type hydro-cooler can be constructed to hold entire palletloads of produce (Thompson in Kader. the structure will be evaporatively cooled during the day. R. University of California.sanitize the hydro-cooling water) and water beating damage (Mitchell in Kader. temperatures are reduced to 3 to 5 C (6 to 10 F) below ambient air temperature. California Agriculture. Source: Redulla. Bangkok: UNFAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. since the degree of cooling is limited to 1 to 2 C (2 to 4 F ) above the wet-bulb temperature. and the wind turns the turbine. such as burlap and bamboo.A Manual. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. When using this cooler.F. Straw packinghouse: The packinghouse illustrated below is made with walls of wire mesh that hold cha rcoal. Postharvest Research Notes. 1992). 1984. sucking moist. without the use of a fan. Cooling will be enhanced if the unit is kept shaded and used in a well ventilated area. The "drip cooler" shown here operates solely through the process of eva poration. Publica tion 3311. A cooling pad of wood fiber or straw is moiste ned and air is pulled through the pad using a small fan. 1 992).A. Evaporative coolers can be constructed from simple materials. C. et al. Fresh Market Tomato Advisory Board Information Bulletin No. The type shown below showers a batch of produce with icy water as t he produce moves along a conveyor. while relative humidity is a bout 85 %. Conveyors can b e added to help control the time produce stays in contact with the cold water. and Kasmire. Straw packinghouse: Source: FAO. These coolers are best suited to lowe r humidity regions. Chick en wire was used to construct two thin boxes on opposite sides of the cooler tha t hold wet chunks of charcoal or straw. By moistening the charcoal with water each morning. March-April: 20-21. Source: Mitchell in Kader. Hydro-cooling: Batch-type hydro-cooler: Source: Kasmire. Evaporative coolers can be constructed to cool the air in an entire storage stru cture or just a few containers of produce. 5 gallon of water per minute is dripped onto an 8 square foot pad. Drip cooler: . In the example provided here. Wate r is collected in a tray at the base of the unit and recirculated. pro viding enough moist air to cool up to 18 crates of produce in 1 to 2 hours.

blackening of see ds Guavas ²4. The low cost cooling chamber illustrated below is constructed from bricks.5 34-40 Rusty brown specks. C. alternaria rot. water-soaked spots.5-13 40-55 Grayish-brown discoloration of flesh Bananas. which is also kept moist. red flesh Cucumbers 7 45 Pitting.A. discoloration Lemons ²11-13 52-55 Pitting. The storage facil ity should be well insulated and vents should be located at ground level. uneven ripening Melons Cantaloups 22-5 Honey Dew 7-10 ace decay. watery breakdown Jicama 13-18 55-65 Surface decay. Keeping perishables without refrigeration: us e of a drip cooler. and fans can be used to pull cool air through the storer oom The structure will best maintain cool temperatures during the heat of the da y if it is well insulated and vents are closed early in the morning. pitting.5 40 Pulp injury. et al. Chilling injury reduces the quality of the product and shortens shelf life. 1989. Symptoms often appear only after the commodity is returned to warmer temperatures. Vents open: Vents closed: Chilling injury Fruit and vegetable crops often are susceptible to chilling injury when cooled b elow 13 to 16 C (55 to 60 F). Postharvest technology of vegetable crops in India.Source: Redulla. Fruits and vegetables are loaded inside. Jan-June: 7678. India n Horticulture. s oggy breakdown. brown core. failure to ripen 36-41 45-50 Pitting. Since a relatively larg e amount of materials are required to construct this cold storage chamber. The c avity between the walls is filled with sand and the bricks and sand are kept sat urated with water. 1984.K. red blotch Limes 7-9 45-48 Pitting. and the entire chamb er is covered with a rush mat. gray-green. Fruits and vegetables susceptible to chilling injury when stored at moderately l ow but nonfreezing temperatures Commodity Approximate lowest safe temperature Character of injury when stored between 0°C and safe temperature1 °C °F Apples-certain cultivars 22-3 36-38 Internal browning. surf . Improved Zero-Energy Cool Chamber: Source: Roy S. as when marketed. Vents can be opened at night. Night air ventilation Storage structures can be cooled using night air if the difference in day and ni ght temperature is relatively large (Thompson in Kader. soft scald Asparagus 0-2 32-36 Dull. it ma y be useful only when handling high value products. green or ripe ²11. decay Grapefruit 210 50 Scald. During the hot summer months in India. and limp tips Avocados 24. Appropriate Postharvest Technology 1(2): 13-15. The table below provides some examples of the symptoms of chilling injury in a variety of crops. or areas Beans (snap) ²7 45 Pitting and russeting Cranberries 2 36 Rubbery texture. spots. pitting. turning tan with time Mangos ²10-13 50-55 Grayish scaldlike discoloration of skin. membranous staining. this chamber is reported to maintain an i nside temperature between 15 and 18 C (59 and 65 F) and a relative humidity of a bout 95%. surface decay Reddish-tan discoloration. decay Eggplants 7 45 Surface scald. 1992).5-13 53-56 Dull color when ripened Beans (lima) 1-4.

Watada. Use of ice Ice can be used as a bunker source of refrigeration (used by passing air through a bank of ice and then through the commodity) or as top ice (laid directly in c ontact with the product). water-soaked areas./Chenomics Inter national/USAID.E. and with water tolerant packages (waxe d fiberboard. green onions).an electric fan motor is commonly mounted inside the cold room. so good ven tilation is necessary for effective cooling.. spinach. Top-ice on loads should be applied in rows rather than a solid mass. The Belize Agribusiness Company. E. alternaria rot on pods and calyxe s. failure to ripen. Top ice is used for certain products during transport to help maintain a high re lative humidity. off flavor. Package ice can be used only with water tolerant. sweeten ing² Pumpkins and hardshell squashes 10 50 Decay. sweet corn.vanes over the sub-ceiling greatly improve air distribution and hence cooling Source: Grierson.e. radishes. non-chilling sens itive products (such as: carrots. 12x8x8=768 cu ft. A. Crushed or flaked ice for package icing can be applied directly or as a slurry i n water. Agricultural Hand book No. objectionable flavor Okra 7 45 Discoloration. and with water tolerant p ackages (waxed fiberboard. alternaria rot 1 Symptoms often apparent only after removal to warm temperatures. Ice can cool a commodity only if it melts. sweet 7 45 Sheet pitting. sweet corn. more is better. decay Peppers.Casaba 7-10 45-50 Crenshaw and Persian on Same as above but no discoloration 7-10 45-50 Same as above but no discolorati Watermelons 4. pitting. USDA. pitting. f an capacity (CFM= cubic feet/min) should at least equal the empty volume of-the room (i. Postharvest Handling Manual Commercialization of Alte rnative Handling Crops Project. escarole . escarole.a gasoline or diesel engine MUST be mounted outside Back of Room . green onions). darkening of seed Pineapples 27-10 45-50 Dull green when ripened Pomegranates 4. broccoli. sp inach. decay Mature-green 13 55 Poor color when ripe. decay Olives. brown stain Papayas 7 45 Pitting. Top ice can be used only with water tolerant. 1987. plastic or wood). Longisection . It is impor . radishes. Source: Harderburg. discoloration Tomatoes Ripe 27-10 45-50 Watersoaking and softening.. hardcore when cooked Tamarillos 3-4 37-40 Surface pitting. cantaloupes. lettuce. nonchilling sensitive products (such as: carrots. external and internal browning Potatoes 3 38 Mahogany browning (Chippewa and Sebago). W.5 40 Pitting. cantaloupes. California and Arizona ²3 38 Pitting. Wang 1986. especially altern aria rot Sweetpotatoes 13 55 Decay. R. or wood). and C-Y. The use of ice to cool produce provides a high relative humidity enviro nment around the product. so. broccoli. for this r oom) Front elevation Top view . The Commercial Stora ge of Fruits Vegetables. 768 CFM in minimal. internal discoloration. as In marketi ng. lettuce. fresh 7 45 Internal browning Oranges. and Florist and Nursery Stocks. 66.5 40 Pitting.

The moist air is then pulled into the store-room through a perforated wall (P). globe broccoli beet greens carrots with tops beets topped corn sweet brussels sprouts endive cantaloupes escarole carrots. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. banana s and herbs.78. of California. of California. 1992. Publication 3311. USDA. kiwifruits. Wet moss as a moisture source inside a refrigerated storeroom: Source: Lopez.F. of Ag riculture and Natural Resources.tant not to block air circulation inside the transport vehicle. The water temperature of a deep well tends to be in the same range as the ave rage air temperature of the same locality. 1992. air temperatures decrease by 10 C (18 F) for every one kilom eter increase in altitude. J. heat will be lost to the environment. Tropical Products Transport Handbook. Univ.78.G. Use of Well Water Well water is often much cooler than air temperature in most regions of the worl d. J. For a more permanent system of high relative humidity in the storage environment . 1983. Conservación de la Producción Agrícola. 69 . Storage Systems. pp. In: Kader. Well water can be used for hydro-cool ing and as a spray or mist to maintain high relative humidity in the storage env ironment. In: Kader. Storage Systems. Sources: Thompson. A. If handlers have an option to pack and/or store commo dities at higher altitude. (ed) .F. of Ag riculture and Natural Resources. High Altitude Storage As a rule of thumb.   . The simplest method of increasing relative h umidity of the storage air is to wet the floor of the room or mist the storage c ontainers with cold water and allow the water to evaporate. E. 1989. B. nectarines.A. By using the solar collector at night. Div. Barcelona Editorial Aedos. (ed) . Office of Trans portation. Agricultural Handbook Number 668. Temper atures inside the structure of 4 C (about 8 F) less than night temperature can b e achieved.A. pp. 69 . Should be Top-iced: Can be Top-iced: beets with tops artichokes. 188 pp. topped green onions celeriac parsley chard radishes with tops kohlrabi turnips with tops leeks watercress mustard greens radish greens parsnips spinach radishes turnip greens rutabagas turnips Sources: Thompson. Using a polyethylene liner in a fiberboard carton can help protect produce and r educe water loss in commodities such as cherries. A. Publication 3311. moisture can be added to the refrigerated air. A fan draws air past the refrig erator s evaporator coils (R) then past wet moss or straw (M). Univ. Water vapor given off by the product is contained within the inner. Div. Increasing relative humidity Refrigerated air tends to be lower in relative humidity than is beneficial for s torage of most horticultural crops. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. Cooling and storage facilitie s operated at high altitude would require less energy than those at sea level fo r the same results.M. Alternative methods of cooling Radiant Cooling Radiant cooling can be used to lower the air temperature in a storage structure if a solar collector is connected to the ventilation system of the building. costs could be reduced. McGregor.

Using shade wherever possible will help to reduce the temperatures of incom ing produce. so vented liners (about 5% of the total area of the liner) are recommended. Loss of water from produce is often associat ed with a loss of quality. polyethylene liners in boxes. Some examples of alternative systems (from Thompson in Kader. where en ergy savings may be critical. radiant cooling. Several simple practices are useful for cooling and enhancing storage system eff iciency wherever they are used. 1979. Sometimes spending money will save money . p acking areas. Another aspect to consider when handling fruits and vegetables is the relative h umidity of the storage environment. The liner can also reduce abrasion damage that results from fruit rubbing against the inside of the box.increasing the RH around the product. for buildings used for cooling and storage and for transport vehic les. coated boxes or a variety of inexpensive a nd recyclable packaging materials. If using mechanical refrigeration for cooling. Shade should be provided over harvested produce. Vented liners will decrease VPD . causes of serious postharvest losses. convection. evaporative cooling. It pays however. Rij et al. The best method of increasing relative humidity is to reduce temperature. melons and cucumbers). Another way is to use vapor barriers such as waxes. Keeping products at their lowest safe temperature (0 C or 32 F for t emperate crops or 1012 C or 50-54 F for chilling sensitive crops) will increase storage life by lowering respiration rate. the use of ice a nd underground (root cellars. Parsons-and Kasmire. eggplant). Cooling involves heat transfer from produce to a cooling medium such as a source of refrigeration. 1992) inclu de night air ventilation. cherimoyas. development of pits or sunken areas (oranges. A variety of portable forced-air coolers hav e been designed for use by small-scale growers and handlers (Talbot and Fletcher . 1974). ________________________________________ Section 6: Temperature and relative humidity control ________________________________________ Throughout the period between harvest and consumption. respiring tissues separated from the pa rent plant. vegetables and cut flowers are living. or. radia tion and evaporation. forced-a ir cooling and evaporative cooling. for example if produce is destined for dehydration or canning. increased susceptibility to decay (c ucumbers and beans). a variety of simpl e methods exist for cooling produce where electricity is unavailable or too expe nsive. brown disc oloration (avocados. Reducing the rate of water loss slows the rate of shrivel ing and wilting. and especially in developing countries. decreasing sensitivity to ethylene an d reducing water loss. Heat transfer processes include conduction. sprays. field clamps. as visual changes such as wilting or shrivelling and textural changes can take place. at last resor t. Methods include room cooling. For fresh market produce. Another method is to add moisture to the air around the commodity as mists. Fruits . The liner vents must line up with the package ve nts to facilitate cooling of the produce inside. the higher the relative humidity in the cold room will remain. However. High pressure sodium lights produce les s heat and use less energy than incandescent bulbs. Any added packaging materials will increase t he difficulty of efficient cooling. by wetting the store room floor. and development of off-flavors (tomatoes) (Shewfelt. Light colors on buildings will reflect light (and heat) and reduce heat load. the larger the area of the refrigerator coils. 1990). mechanical refrigeration systems provide the most reliable source of cold. caves) or high altitude storage. 1993. as when purchasing lighting equipment. since symptoms include failure to ripen (bananas and tomatoes). Trees are a fine source of shade and can reduce ambient temperature s around packinghouses and storage areas. any method of increasing the relative humidity of the storage environment (or decreasing the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the commodity and its environment) will slow the rate of water loss. It is important to avoid chilling injury. If a ready supply of electricity is available. temperature control has b een found to be the most important factor in maintaining product quality. to remember that water loss may n ot always be undesirable.

Precooling and Temperature Management of Cut Flower Crops for Truck Transportation. Low cost cold rooms can be constructed using concrete for floors and polyurethan e foam as an insulator. et al. R. Source: Rij. 1979.A. R. 1992 for more i nformation). USDA Science and Education Administra tion.5 inch wide or more) are better than ma ny small vents. 1972. The greater the refrigerator s evap orator coil area. et al. A portable forced-air cooler can be constructed using a canvas or polyethylene s heet. R. sealing off the unit and forcing air to be pulled through the vents (vent ar ea should be at least 5% of the surface area of the carton) of the cartons stack ed against the cooler. Many types of forced -air coolers can be designed to move cold moist air over the commodities. Forced-air cooling Forced-air cooling pulls or pushes air through the storage containers themselves . Handling Precooling and Temperature Management of C ut Flower Crops for Truck Transportation. Vents should make up 5% of the t otal surface area.5 cm (2 to 3 inches) away from t he corners. Source: Tugwell. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries.   . et al. Coolroom construction for the fruit and vegetable grower. F. No date. R. Room cooling Room cooling is a relatively low cost but slow method of cooling when electricit y for mechanical refrigeration is available. greatly speeding the cooling rate of any type of produce. The sheet is rolled over the top and down the back of the boxes to the flo or. OS A #272. Forced-air unit to rapidly cool sm all lots of packaged produce. carbon dioxide and ethylene movement . It is important to leave adequate space between the stacks of boxes inside the r efrigerated room in order for produce to cool more quickly.F. 1974.3 cm =0. 1979. Commercial cooling of fruits and vegetables. University of California Cooperative Extension. the less moisture will be lost from the product as it cools. The illustration below shows the recommended pattern of vents for cartons used t o hold produce that is to be forced-air cooled. USDA Science and Education Administrat ion. Handling. where a fan is housed inside the wall of a cold room Cold wall forced-air cooler: Source: Rij. and Kasmire. The ex ample provided below is a fixed unit. All joints should be calked and the door should have a rubber seal. AAT-W-5. This unit is designed to be used inside a refrigerated st orage room.without seriously interfering with oxygen. California Tomatorama. Fresh Market Tomato Advisory Board Information Bulletin No. Source: Kasmire. and should be located 5 to 7. B. 17. Source: Mitchell. The illustrations below show two types of forced-air coolers. (See Mitchell in Kader. 1977.75.F. about one pallet width in depth. A few large vents (1. A portable forced-air cooler: Source: Parsons. South Australia. Building the storeroom in the shape of a cube will reduc e the surface area per unit volume of storage space. Special Bulle tin 11. R.L. Stacks should be nar row. Air circulating through the room passes ov er surfaces and through any open space. so cooling from the outside to the cente r of the stacks is mostly by conduction. UC Leaflet 21058. Each is equipped w ith a fan to pull air from the cold room through the boxed produce. UC Leaflet 21058.G. thereby reducing constructi on and refrigeration costs.

Water is dripped onto the charcoal or st raw. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. The air can be cooled to within a few degre es of the wet bulb temperature of ambient air. A cooling pad of wood fiber or straw is moiste ned and air is pulled through the pad using a small fan. Manual 43. When using this cooler. J. O. 17. 1977. Wetting the walls and roof first thing in the morning creates conditions f or evaporative cooling of a packinghouse that is made from straw. An evaporative cooler can be combined with a forced air cooler for small lots of produce. 296 pp. Publica tion 3311. temperatures are reduced to 3 to 5 C (6 to 10 F) below ambient air temperature. and the wind turns the turbine. Temperature and relative humidity in two type s of evaporative coolers. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops. sucking moist. 1 992). A batch-type hydro-cooler can be constructed to hold entire palletloads of produce (Thompson in Kader. 1(1): 25-28. An evaporative cooler for vegeta ble crops. The type shown below showers a batch of produce with icy water as t he produce moves along a conveyor. The evaporative cooler shown below is equipped with a vortex wind machine. California Agriculture. These coolers are best suited to lowe r humidity regions. Bangkok: UNFAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. pro viding enough moist air to cool up to 18 crates of produce in 1 to 2 hours.A Manual. F. Evaporative forced-air cooler: Source: Thompson. Evaporative coolers can be constructed from simple materials. California Tomatorama.A. R. By moistening the charcoal with water each morning. March-April: 20-21. 1984. Source: Redulla. Source: Mitchell in Kader. In the example provided here. C.F. since the degree of cooling is limited to 1 to 2 C (2 to 4 F ) above the wet-bulb temperature. Chick en wire was used to construct two thin boxes on opposite sides of the cooler tha t hold wet chunks of charcoal or straw. chlorine (used to sanitize the hydro-cooling water) and water beating damage (Mitchell in Kader. Straw packinghouse: Source: FAO. The simplest version of a hydro-cooler is a tank of cold water in which produce is immersed. The commodity as well its packaging materials must be tolerant of wetting. such as burlap and . Wate r is collected in a tray at the base of the unit and recirculated. uniform cooling for some commodities.F. Hydro-cooling Hydro-cooling provides fast. 1986. Postharvest Research Notes. and Kasmire. Conveyors can b e added to help control the time produce stays in contact with the cold water. Straw packinghouse: The packinghouse illustrated below is made with walls of wire mesh that hold cha rcoal. 1981. R. while relative humidity is a bout 85 %. Improvement of Post-Harvest Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Handl ing. et al. Air is cooled by passing through the wet pad before it passes through the packages and around the produce. 1992).California Agricultural Experiment Station Extension Service. 5 gallon of water per minute is dripped onto an 8 square foot pad. cool air through the load of produce inside the cooler. the structure will be evaporatively cooled during the day. Evaporative coolers can be constructed to cool the air in an entire storage stru cture or just a few containers of produce. Evaporative cooling These packinghouses are made from natural materials that can be moistened with w ater. Hydro-cooling: Batch-type hydro-cooler: Source: Kasmire. 1992. University of California. Fresh Market Tomato Advisory Board Information Bulletin No.

discoloration Lemons ²11-13 52-55 Pitting. The c avity between the walls is filled with sand and the bricks and sand are kept sat urated with water. Symptoms often appear only after the commodity is returned to warmer temperatures. Postharvest technology of vegetable crops in India. Chilling injury reduces the quality of the product and shortens shelf life. decay Grapefruit 210 50 Scald. pitting. watery breakdown Jicama 13-18 55-65 Surface decay. which is also kept moist. The low cost cooling chamber illustrated below is constructed from bricks. Improved Zero-Energy Cool Chamber: Source: Roy S. 1992). Keeping perishables without refrigeration: us e of a drip cooler.5-13 53-56 Dull color when ripened Beans (lima) 1-4. Vents can be opened at night.5 40 Pulp injury. India n Horticulture. Cooling will be enhanced if the unit is kept shaded and used in a well ventilated area. 1984. and the entire chamb er is covered with a rush mat.K. alternaria rot. green or ripe ²11. spots.A. The storage facil ity should be well insulated and vents should be located at ground level. Jan-June: 7678. water-soaked spots. or areas Beans (snap) ²7 45 Pitting and russeting Cranberries 2 36 Rubbery texture. 1989. et al. this chamber is reported to maintain an i nside temperature between 15 and 18 C (59 and 65 F) and a relative humidity of a bout 95%. it ma y be useful only when handling high value products. without the use of a fan. red blotch Limes 7-9 45-48 Pitting.5 34-40 Rusty brown specks. The table below provides some examples of the symptoms of chilling injury in a variety of crops. Since a relatively larg e amount of materials are required to construct this cold storage chamber. Fruits and vegetables susceptible to chilling injury when stored at moderately l ow but nonfreezing temperatures Commodity Approximate lowest safe temperature Character of injury when stored between 0°C and safe temperature1 °C °F Apples-certain cultivars 22-3 36-38 Internal browning. as when marketed. membranous staining. C. Appropriate Postharvest Technology 1(2): 13-15. s oggy breakdown. Fruits and vegetables are loaded inside. uneven ripening . The "drip cooler" shown here operates solely through the process of eva poration. and limp tips Avocados 24. red flesh Cucumbers 7 45 Pitting. Night air ventilation Storage structures can be cooled using night air if the difference in day and ni ght temperature is relatively large (Thompson in Kader. brown core. blackening of see ds Guavas ²4. decay Eggplants 7 45 Surface scald. During the hot summer months in India. gray-green. soft scald Asparagus 0-2 32-36 Dull. Drip cooler: Source: Redulla.5-13 40-55 Grayish-brown discoloration of flesh Bananas. turning tan with time Mangos ²10-13 50-55 Grayish scaldlike discoloration of skin. and fans can be used to pull cool air through the storer oom The structure will best maintain cool temperatures during the heat of the da y if it is well insulated and vents are closed early in the morning.bamboo. Vents open: Vents closed: Chilling injury Fruit and vegetable crops often are susceptible to chilling injury when cooled b elow 13 to 16 C (55 to 60 F).

Postharvest Handling Manual Commercialization of Alte rnative Handling Crops Project.Melons Cantaloups 22-5 36-41 Pitting. sweet 7 45 Sheet pitting. The Belize Agribusiness Company.e. hardcore when cooked Tamarillos 3-4 37-40 Surface pitting.vanes over the sub-ceiling greatly improve air distribution and hence cooling Source: Grierson. especially altern aria rot Sweetpotatoes 13 55 Decay. Use of ice Ice can be used as a bunker source of refrigeration (used by passing air through a bank of ice and then through the commodity) or as top ice (laid directly in c ontact with the product). 1987. plastic or wood). non-chilling sens . f an capacity (CFM= cubic feet/min) should at least equal the empty volume of-the room (i. Agricultural Hand book No. broccoli. USDA. brown stain Papayas 7 45 Pitting. water-soaked areas. darkening of seed Pineapples 27-10 45-50 Dull green when ripened Pomegranates 4. so. for this r oom) Front elevation Top view . off flavor. Top ice can be used only with water tolerant. Longisection . objectionable flavor Okra 7 45 Discoloration. internal discoloration.. A. as In marketi ng. sweeten ing² Pumpkins and hardshell squashes 10 50 Decay. Source: Harderburg.5 40 Pitting. and C-Y. R. Watada.5 40 Pitting.an electric fan motor is commonly mounted inside the cold room. pitting. decay Peppers. green onions). nonchilling sensitive products (such as: carrots. W. Crushed or flaked ice for package icing can be applied directly or as a slurry i n water. Ice can cool a commodity only if it melts. cantaloupes. decay Olives. Package ice can be used only with water tolerant. fresh 7 45 Internal browning Oranges. spinach. surf ace decay. alternaria rot 1 Symptoms often apparent only after removal to warm temperatures. E. radishes. and with water tolerant p ackages (waxed fiberboard.E. escarole . more is better. 66. sweet corn. failure to ripen Casaba 7-10 45-50 Same as above but no discoloration Crenshaw and Persian 7-10 45-50 Same as above but no discolorati on Watermelons 4. alternaria rot on pods and calyxe s. Wang 1986. pitting./Chenomics Inter national/USAID. The Commercial Stora ge of Fruits Vegetables. external and internal browning Potatoes 3 38 Mahogany browning (Chippewa and Sebago). and Florist and Nursery Stocks. surface decay Honey Dew 7-10 45-50 Reddish-tan discoloration. pitting. 768 CFM in minimal. decay Mature-green 13 55 Poor color when ripe. 12x8x8=768 cu ft. The use of ice to cool produce provides a high relative humidity enviro nment around the product. discoloration Tomatoes Ripe 27-10 45-50 Watersoaking and softening. Top ice is used for certain products during transport to help maintain a high re lative humidity.. lettuce. so good ven tilation is necessary for effective cooling. failure to ripen.a gasoline or diesel engine MUST be mounted outside Back of Room . California and Arizona ²3 38 Pitting.

It is impor tant not to block air circulation inside the transport vehicle.78. or wood). In: Kader. A. By using the solar collector at night. and with water tolerant packages (waxe d fiberboard. Publication 3311. globe broccoli beet greens carrots with tops beets topped corn sweet brussels sprouts endive cantaloupes escarole carrots. Tropical Products Transport Handbook. of California. Cooling and storage facilitie s operated at high altitude would require less energy than those at sea level fo r the same results.G. Office of Trans portation. Storage Systems. 1983. Sources: Thompson. A fan draws air past the refrig erator s evaporator coils (R) then past wet moss or straw (M). A. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops.A. Univ. cantaloupes. USDA.F. sp inach. lettuce.itive products (such as: carrots. of California. Increasing relative humidity Refrigerated air tends to be lower in relative humidity than is beneficial for s torage of most horticultural crops. (ed) . J. air temperatures decrease by 10 C (18 F) for every one kilom eter increase in altitude. pp. escarole. heat will be lost to the environment. costs could be reduced. of Ag riculture and Natural Resources. 69 . pp. Should be Top-iced: Can be Top-iced: beets with tops artichokes. 1992. If handlers have an option to pack and/or store commo dities at higher altitude. radishes. Top-ice on loads should be applied in rows rather than a solid mass. broccoli. The moist air is then pulled into the store-room through a perforated wall (P). Agricultural Handbook Number 668. (ed) . For a more permanent system of high relative humidity in the storage environment .78. E. 1989. J. 69 . Univ. In: Kader. The simplest method of increasing relative h umidity of the storage air is to wet the floor of the room or mist the storage c ontainers with cold water and allow the water to evaporate. Barcelona Editorial   . topped green onions celeriac parsley chard radishes with tops kohlrabi turnips with tops leeks watercress mustard greens radish greens parsnips spinach radishes turnip greens rutabagas turnips Sources: Thompson. High Altitude Storage As a rule of thumb. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops.F. Storage Systems. sweet corn. 1992.A. Div. Alternative methods of cooling Radiant Cooling Radiant cooling can be used to lower the air temperature in a storage structure if a solar collector is connected to the ventilation system of the building. Publication 3311. The water temperature of a deep well tends to be in the same range as the ave rage air temperature of the same locality. of Ag riculture and Natural Resources. Div. B.M. Well water can be used for hydro-cool ing and as a spray or mist to maintain high relative humidity in the storage env ironment. Wet moss as a moisture source inside a refrigerated storeroom: Source: Lopez. Conservación de la Producción Agrícola. McGregor. Temper atures inside the structure of 4 C (about 8 F) less than night temperature can b e achieved. Use of Well Water Well water is often much cooler than air temperature in most regions of the worl d. green onions). moisture can be added to the refrigerated air.

night cooling and radiant cooling more feasible. Using a polyethylene liner in a fiberboard carton can help protect produce and r educe water loss in commodities such as cherries. Certain commodities. Increased al titude therefore can make evaporative cooling. cucumbers. Temperature management during storage can be aided by constructing square rather than rectangular buildings. 188 pp. The liner can also reduce abrasion damage that results from fruit rubbing against the inside of the box. 1988). Rectangular buildings have more wall area per squar e feet of storage space. cantaloupe) can stimulate physiolog ical changes in ethylene sensitive commodities (such as lettuce. increasing the RH around the product. In general prop er storage practices include temperature control. The air composition in the storage environment can be manipulated by increasing or decreasing the rate of ventilation (introduction of fresh air) or by using ga s absorbers such as potassium permanganate or activated charcoal. apples are stored in caves (Liu. Underground storage for citrus crops is common in Southern China . relative humidity control. banana s and herbs. with thick walls to provide insulation. sweet potatoes) leading to often undesirable color. Recommended storage temperatures     . Temperature management can also be aided by shading bui ldings. potatoes. Th e United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommends the use of ferrocement for the construction of storage structures in tropical regions. vegetables and floral crops Storage practices Storage structures Dried and bulb crops Root and tuber crops Potatoes Controlled atmosphere (C. relative humidity and level of ethylene in the storage environment. carr ots. Water vapor given off by the product is contained within the inner. such as onions and garlic. painting storehouses white or silver to help reflect the sun s rays. so more heat is conducted across the walls. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Section 7: Storage of horticultural crops ________________________________________ Recommended storage temperatures Compatibility groups for storage of fruits. and avoiding incompatible product mixes.Aedos. or by using sprinkler systems on the roof of a building for evaporative cooling.S. some simple methods are available for handling small volumes of produce. Commodities stored together should be capable of tolerating the same temperature .A. Curing these crops and allowing the external layers of tis sue to dry out prior to handling and storage helps to protect them from further water loss. Large-scale co ntrolled or modified atmosphere storage requires complex technology and manageme nt skills. flavor and te xture changes.) storage Relative perishability and storage life of fresh horticultural crops ________________________________________ If produce is to be stored. while in Northwest China. nectarines. High ethyl ene producers (such as ripe bananas. making them more expensive to cool. apples. kiwifruits. air circulation and maintenance of space between containers for adequate ventilatio n. it is important to begin with a high quality product . during the early pert of this century. however. The lot of produce must not contain damaged or diseased units. Facilities located at higher altitudes can b e effective. and containers must be well ventilated and strong enough to withstand stacking. since air temperature decreases as altitude increases. This system was widely used in the U. store better in lower relative h umidity environments.

mature 0 32 98-100 7-9 months Carrots. bunched 0 32 98-100 10-14 days Beets. lima.5-0 31-32 90-95 1-3 weeks Artichokes. Booth-1 4 40 90-95 4-8 weeks Avocados. Product Temperature Relative Humidity (percent) Approximate stor age life °C °F Amaranth 0-2 32-36 95-100 10-14 days Anise 0-2 32-36 90-95 2-3 weeks Apples -1-4 30-40 90-95 1-12 months Apricots -0. in pods 5-6 4143 95 5 days Beets.5-0 31-32 90-95 2-3 days Blood orange 4-7 4044 90-95 3-8 weeks Blueberries -0. Lula. sour 0 32 90-95 3-7 days Cherries. bunched 0 32 95-100 2 weeks Carrots. globe 0 32 95-100 2-3 weeks Asian pear 1 34 90-95 5-6 months Asparagus 0-2 32-35 95-100 2-3 weeks Atemoya 13 55 85-90 4-6 weeks Avocados.5-0 31-32 90-95 2 weeks Bok choy 0 32 95-100 3 weeks Boniato 13-15 55-60 85-90 4-5 months Breadfruit 13-15 55-60 85-90 2-6 weeks Broccoli 0 32 95-100 10-14 days Brussels sprouts 0 32 95-100 3-5 weeks Cabbage. Fuchs. 1986 for more comp lete information on individual crops). immature 0 32 98-100 4-6 weeks Cashew apple 0-2 32-36 85-90 5 weeks Cauliflower 0 32 95-98 34 weeks Celeriac 0 32 97-99 6-8 months Celery 0 32 98-100 2-3 months Chard 0 32 95-100 10-14 days Chayote squash 7 45 85-90 4-6 weeks Cherimoya 13 55 90-95 2-4 weeks Cherries. early 0 32 98-100 3-6 weeks Cabbage. Pollock 13 55 85-90 2 weeks Babaco 7 45 85-90 1-3 weeks Bananas. dry 4-10 40-50 40-50 6-10 months Beans. late 0 32 98-100 5-6 months Cactus Leaves 24 3640 90-95 3 weeks Cactus Pear 24 36-40 90-95 3 weeks Caimito 3 38 90 3 weeks Calabaza 10-13 50-55 50-70 2-3 months Calamondin 9-10 48-50 90 2 weeks Canistel 13-15 55-60 85-90 3 weeks Cantaloups (3/4-slip) 2-5 36-41 95 15 days Cantaloups (full-slip) 0-2 32-36 95 5-14 days Carambola 9-10 48-50 85-90 3-4 weeks Carrots. green 13-14 56-58 90-95 14 weeks Barbados cherry 0 32 85-90 7-8 weeks Bean sprouts 0 32 95-100 7-9 days Beans. Fuerte.5 30-31 90-95 2-3 weeks . topped 0 32 98-100 4-6 months Belgian endive 2-3 36-38 95-98 24 weeks Bitter melon 12-13 53-55 85-90 2-3 weeks Black sapote 13-15 55-60 85-90 2-3 weeks Blackberries -0.Recommended Temperature and Relative Humidity. and Approximate Transit and Stora ge Life for Fruits and Vegetable Crops (see Hardenburg et al. Hass 7 45 85-90 2 weeks Avocados. sweet -1 to -0. green or snap 4-7 4045 95 7-10 days Beans.

5 35 90-95 3-5 weeks Loquats 0 32 90 3 weeks Lychees 1.5-0 31-32 90-95 1-2 weeks Endive and escarole 0 32 95-100 2-3 weeks Feijoa 5-10 41-50 90 2-3 weeks Figs fresh -0. Fla.5 30-31 90-95 1-6 months Grapes.5-0 31-32 90-95 1-4 weeks Custard apples 5-7 41-45 85-90 4-6 weeks Daikon 0-1 32-34 95-100 4 months Dates -18 or 0 0 or 32 75 6-12 months Dewberries -0.5-0 31-32 85-90 7-10 days Garlic 0 32 65-70 6-7 months Ginger root 13 55 65 6 months Gooseberries -0. Calif.Chinese broccoli 0 32 95-100 10-14 days Chinese cabbage 0 32 95-100 2-3 months Chinese long bean 4-7 40-45 90-95 7-10 days Clementine 4 40 90-95 24 weeks Coconuts 0-1. Vinifera -1 to -0.5 32-35 80-85 1-2 months Collards 0 32 95-100 10-14 days Corn.5-0 31-32 90-95 2-3 days Longan 1. leafy 0 32 95-100 10-14 days Guavas 5-10 41-50 90 2-3 weeks Haricot vert 4-7 4045 95 7-10 days Horseradish -1-0 30-32 98-100 10-12 months Jaboticaba 13-15 55-60 90-95 2-3 days Jackfruit 13 55 85-90 2-6 weeks Jaffa orange 8-10 46-50 85-90 8-12 weeks Japanese eggplant 8-12 46-54 90-95 1 week Jerusalem Artichoke -0. & Texas 10-15 50-60 85-90 6-8 weeks Grapes.5-0 31-32 90-95 2-3 days Durian 4-6 39-42 85-90 6-8 weeks Eggplants 12 54 90-95 1 week Elderberries -0.5-0 31-32 90-95 34 weeks Granadilla 10 50 85-90 3-4 weeks Grapefruit. 14-15 58-60 85-90 6-8 weeks Grapefruit.5-0 31-32 85 2-8 weeks Greens. sweet 0 32 95-98 5-8 days Cranberries 2-4 36-40 90-95 24 months Cucumbers 10-13 50-55 95 10-14 days Currants -0.5-0 31-32 90-95 +5 months Jicama 13-18 55-65 65-70 1-2 months Kale 0 32 95-100 2-3 weeks Kiwano 10-15 50-60 90 6 months Kiwifruit 0 32 90-95 3-5 months Kohlrabi 0 32 98-100 2-3 months Kumquats 4 40 90-95 2-4 weeks Langsat 11-14 52-58 85-90 2 weeks Leeks 0 32 95-100 2-3 months Lemons 10-13 50-55 85-90 1-6 months Lettuce 0 32 98-100 2-3 weeks Limes 9-10 48-50 85-90 6-8 weeks Lo bok 0-1. American -0.5 32-35 95-100 24 months Loganberries -0. & Ariz.5 35 90-95 3-5 weeks Malanga 7 45 70-80 3 months Mamey 13-15 55-60 90-95 2-6 weeks Mangoes 13 55 85-90 2-3 weeks Mangosteen 13 55 85-90 2-4 weeks Melons: Casaba 10 50 90-95 3 weeks Crenshaw 7 45 90-95 2 weeks .

Calif. Fla.5 29-31 90-95 2-7 months Peas.5-0 31-32 90 2-3 months Raddichio 0-1 32-34 95-100 2-3 weeks Radishes.5-0 31-32 90-95 2-3 days Rhubarb 0 32 95-100 24 weeks Rutabagas 0 32 98-100 +6 months Salsify 0 32 95-98 2-4 months Santol 7-9 45-48 85-90 3 weeks Sapodilla 16-20 60-68 85-90 2-3 weeks Scorzonera 0-1 32-34 95-98 6 months Seedless cucumbers 10-13 50-55 85-90 10-14 days Snow peas 0-1 32-34 90-95 1-2 weeks Soursop 13 55 85-90 1-2 weeks Spinach 0 32 95-100 10-14 days Squashes. Chili (dry) 0-10 32-50 60-70 6 months Peppers. late crop 4. southern +5 4041 95 6-8 days Pepino 4 40 85-90 1 month Peppers. early crop 10-16 50-60 90-95 10-14 days Potatoes. mature-green 18-22 65-72 90-95 1-3 weeks Tomatoes. sweet 7-13 45-55 90-95 2-3 weeks Persimmons. and related citrus fruits 4 40 24 weeks Taro root 7-10 45-50 85-90 4-5 months Tomatillos 13-15 55-60 85-90 3 weeks Tomatoes. mandarins.5 months Parsnips 0 32 95-100 +6 months Peaches -0. spring 0 32 95-100 34 weeks Radishes. firm-ripe 13-15 55-60 90-95 4-7 days 90-95 . green 0 32 95-100 34 weeks Onions. dry 0 32 65-70 1-8 months Onion sets 0 32 65-70 6-8 months Oranges. & Ariz. fresh 5-10 41-50 85-90 +6 weeks Onions. Japanese -1 30 90 34 months Pineapples 7-13 45-55 85-90 24 weeks Plantain 13-14 55-58 90-95 1-5 weeks Plums and prunes -0. winter 10 50 50-70 2-3 months Strawberries 0 32 90-95 5-7 days Sugar apples 7 45 85-90 4 weeks Sweetpotatoes 13-15 55-60 85-90 4-7 months Tamarillos 3-4 37-40 85-95 10 weeks Tamarinds 7 45 90-95 3-4 weeks Tangerines. green 0 32 95-98 1-2 weeks Peas. summer 5-10 41-50 95 1-2 weeks Squashes. winter 0 32 95-100 24 months Rambutan 12 54 90-95 1-3 weeks Raspberries -0. & Texas 0-1 32-34 85-90 8-12 weeks Papayas 7-13 45-55 85-90 1-3 weeks Passionfruit 7-10 45-50 85-90 3-5 weeks Parsley 0 32 95-100 2-2.5-13 40-55 90-95 5-10 months Pummelo 7-9 4548 85-90 12 weeks Pumpkins 10-13 50-55 50-70 2-3 months Quinces -0.5 to -0.5-0 31-32 90-95 2-5 weeks Pomegranates 5 41 90-95 2-3 months Potatoes. 3-9 3848 85-90 3-8 weeks Oranges.5-0 31-32 90-95 2-4 weeks Okra 7-10 45-50 90-95 7-10 days Olives.Honeydew 7 45 90-95 3 weeks Persian 7 45 90-95 2 weeks Mushrooms 0 32 95 34 days Nectarines -0.5-0 31-32 90-95 2-4 weeks Pears -1.

sweet* parsley* anise daikon* parsnips* artichokes* endive* peas* asparagus escarole* pomegranate bean sprouts grapes (without sulfur dioxide) raddichio beets* radishes* Belgian endive horseradish rhubarb berries (except cranberries) Jerusalem artichoke rutabagas* kiwifruit salsify bok choy kohlrabi* scorzonera broccoli* leafy greens snow peas spinach* brussels sprouts* leeks (not with figs or grapes) cabbage* turnips* carrots* lettuce waterchestnut cauliflower lo bok watercress* celeriac* mushrooms celery* onions. 90-95% relative humidity. Tropical Products Transport Handbook. vegetables and floral crops Group 1: Fruits and vegetables. topped leeks plums berries (except longan pomegranates cranberries) loquat prunes cashew apple lychee quinces cherries mushrooms radishes coconuts nectarines rutabagas figs (not with apples) oranges* (Florida and Texas) turnips *Citrus treated with biphenyl may give odors to other products Group 2: Fruits and vegetables. 90-95% relative humidity. Agricultural Handbook 668. 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). cactus leaves lemons* tamarillo cactus pears lychees tangelos* caimito kumquat tangerines* cantaloupes** mandarin* ugli fruit* clementine oranges (Calif. rhubarb. 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). green* (not with figs. B. Garlic onions. Ma ny products in this group are sensitive to ethylene. 4. grapes.5°C (40°F). Compatibility groups for storage of fruits.M. 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). Man y products in this group produce ethylene. Moi sture will damage these products. USDA Office o f Transportation. 1989. dry Group 4: Fruits and vegetables.Turnips 0 32 95 4-5 months Turnip greens 0 32 95-100 10-14 days Ugli fruit 4 40 90-95 2-3 weeks Waterchestnuts 0-2 32-36 98-100 1-2 months Watercress 0 32 95-100 2-3 weeks Watermelons 10-15 50-60 90 2-3 weeks White sapote 19-21 67-70 85-90 2-3 weeks White asparagus 0-2 32-36 95-100 2-3 weeks Winged bean 10 50 90 4 weeks Yams 16 61 70-80 6-7 months Yucca root 0-5 32-41 85-90 1-2 months Source: McGregor. Amaranth* corn. mushrooms. 65-75% relative humidity. or corn) cherries * these products can be top-iced Group 3: Fruits and vegetables. 95-100% relative humidity. apples grapes (without parsnips apricots sulfur dioxide) peaches Asian pears horseradish pears Barbados cherry kohlrabi persimmons beets. and Arizona) yucca root cranberries pepino * citrus treated with biphenyl may give odors to other products.   .

bulbous rose chrysanthemum lily squill crocus lily-of-the-valley sweet pea cymbidium orchid narcissus tulip adiantum (maidenhair) ground pine rhododendren cedar flex (holly) salal (lemon leaf) dagger and wood juniper ferns mistletoe vaccinium galax mountain-laurel (huckleberry) woodwardia fern Source: McGregor. B. 10°C (50°F). ripe *citrus treated with biphenyl may give odors to other products Group 7: Fruits and vegetables. storage Group 6: Fruits and vegetables. 13 to 15°C (55 to 60°F). 90-95% relative humidity . 85-90% relative humidity. beans kiwano pummelo calamondin malanga squash. Many of these products are sensitive to ethylene. acacia delphinium orchid. 90-95% relative humidity. China gardenia buds bouvardia hyacinth ranunculus carnation iris. These products also are sensitive to chilli ng injury.M. USDA Office o f Transportation. China foxglove poppy buddleia gaillardia phlox calendula gerbera primrose calla gladiolus protect . M any of these products produce ethylene. 18 to 21°C (65 to 70°F). 4. 1989. allium freesia peony. 85-90% relative humidity.M. These products also are sensitive to chi lling injury. Group 5: Fruits and vegetables. Tropical Products Transport Handbook. tight aster. white sapote (for ripening) mature green yams* *separate from pears and tomatoes due to ethylene sensivity. atemoya granadilla papayas avocados grapefruit passionfruit babaco guava pineapple bananas jaboticaba plantain bitter melon jackfruit potatoes. jicama sweetpotatoes* watermelon* pears tomatoes. 1989. USDA Office o f Transportation. Source: McGregor. new black sapote langsat pumpkin boniato lemons* rambutan breadfruit limes* santol canister mamey soursop carambola mangoes sugar apple cherimoya mangosteen squash.5°C (40°F). Group 9: Flowers and florist greens. 0 to 2°C (32 to 36°F). Group 8: Flowers and florist greens. winter coconuts melons (except cantaloupes) (hard shell) feijoa tomatillos ginger root tomatoes. Tropical Products Transport Handbook. summer chayote okra (sot shell) cucumber olive tamarind eggplant peppers taro root haricot vert potatoes. alstromeria feverfew cymbidium anemone forget-me-not ornithogalum aster. 85-90% relative humidity.** can be top-iced. Agricultural Handbook 668. B. Agricultural Handbook 668.

7 to 10°C (45 to 50°F). 90-95% relative humidi ty. drooping smilax. southern dracaena magnolia woodwardia fern Group 10: Flowers and florist greens. . Tropical Products Transport Handbook. forced stephanotis cosmos lupine stevia dahlia marigolds stock daisies mignonette strawflower violet zinnia adiantum (maidenhair) eucalyptus myrtus (myrtle) asparagus (plumosa.M. more elaborate technologies can be used. If desired. vents and drains. Storage practices Inspecting stored produce and cleaning storage structures on a regular basis wil l help reduce losses by minimizing the buildup of pests and discouraging the spr ead of diseases. as will screens on windows. B. Ro me: UNFAO. any spoiled or infected produce should be remove d and destroyed. In some cases. 13 to 15°C (55 to 60°F). vanda diffenbachia stag horn fern Source: McGregor. Ro me: UNFAO. anemone eucharis orchid. Prevention of Post-Harvest Food Losses: A Training Manual. Inspect produce and clean the storage structure: Clean and maintain the storage structure: Source: FAO. Prevention of Post-Harvest Food Losses: A Training Manual. When inspecting stored produce. Agricultural Handbook 668. 1989. Reusable containers and sacks should be dis infected in chlorinated or boiling water before reuse. 1985. produce may still be fit for consumption if used immediately perhaps as animal feed. 120pp. Rat guards can be made from simple materials such as old tin cans or pieces of sheet metal fashioned to fit the extended leg s of storage structures. USDA Office o f Transportation. 90-95% relative humid ity. sprenger) hedera philodendren flex (holly) pittosporum buxus (boxwood) leatherleaf (baker fern) pothos camellia scotch-broomern croton leucothoe. Remove trash and weeds: Rat guards: Screens: Cement floors: Source: FAO. 120 pp. free from trash and weeds. Storage facilities should be protected from rodents by keeping the immediate are a clean. 1985. Co ncrete floors will help prevent rodent entry. cattleya bird-of-paradise gloriosa sweet william camellia godetia chamaedora cordyline (ti) palm podocarpus Group 11: Flowers and florist greens.candytuft gloriosa ranunculus clarkia gypsophilla snapdragon columbine heather snowdrop coreopsis laceflower statice cornflower lilac. anthurium heliconia poinsetta ginger orchid.

120 pp. A simple. Part 2. London. No date.Disinfect used sacks: Source: FAO.50 Fill-Type Insulation Cellulose 3. Insulation R-values are listed below for some common building materials. Centrifugal: Axial flow: Propeller/expeller: Source: Potato Marketing Board. Placing materials on the floor beneath sacks or cartons of produce prevents damp ness from reaching produce suited to dry conditions in storage. and f orm the framework of the barn as well as provide shade. 1985. Part 2. No date. Ro me: UNFAO. Inside of barn showing tying of yams Source: Wilson. Storage facilities require adequate ventilation in order to help extend shelf li fe and maintain produce quality. the higher the material s resistanc e to heat conduction and the better the insulating property of the material. Source: Potato Marketing Board. while air outlets are at the top. Outside view of barn with live shade Trunk of fast growing tree-planted in situ. a well insulated building will hold the cooled air longer. Storage structures A yam barn is a traditional structure used in West Africa to store yams after cu ring. No date. Control of Environment. London: Sutton Bridge Experiment Station. Report No. R . London: Sutton Bridge Experiment Station. live trees are used to create a rectangular structure. 1985. The following are three types of fans found in common use. Careful Storage of Yams: Some Basic Principles to Re duce Losses. If the structure is to be coo led by evaporative or night air ventilation.Value Material 1 inch thick Batt and Blanket Insulation Glass wool. or fiberglass 3. 6 Any type of building or facility used for storage of horticultural crops should be insulated for maximum effectiveness. while also improving ventilation and/or san itation in the storeroom. Some examples of useful materials follow: Waterproof sheets: Poles: Wooden pallets: Source: FAO. J. A well insulated refrigerated building w ill require less electricity to keep produce cool. Ro me: UNFAO. 6 Ventilation in storage structures is improved if air inlets are located at the b ottom of the store. mineral wool. Prevention of Post-Harvest Food Losses: A Training Manual. England: Commonwealth Secretariat/International Institute o f Tropical Agriculture. Fast-growing. Prevention of Post-Harvest Food Losses: A Training Manual. 120pp. This helps to re duce the chance of fungal infection.50       . Control of Environment. and the higher the R-value. R refer s to resistance. light-proof exha ust vent is a pressure-relief flap. Report No.

Source: Thompson.81 Source: Boyette. M. No date. The entire building is set below ground level taking advantage of the cooling pr operties of soil.00 8-inch concrete block with vermiculite in core 5.25 Building Materials Full thickness of material Solid concrete 0. and Scheuerman. Source: Seung Koo Lee.. refer to the source below. Korea. Source: Thompson. For more detailed informa tion about determining the cold room size best suited to your operation.F.25 .W. Departme nt of Horticulture.00 Expanded rubber 4.08 8-inch concrete block.06 25/32-inch insulated sheathing 2. Merced County Cooperative Extension. R. Curing and Storing California Sweetpotatoes.. Suwon 441-744.50 Foamed-in-Place Insulation Sprayed expanded urethane 6.57 Aged expanded polyurethane 6.00 Vermiculite 2. 1994. Note that air inlets are at the ba se of the building.01 3/8-inch plywood 1. a simple recirculation system can be d esigned by adding a fan below floor level and providing a free space at one end of the storeroom for cool air to return to the inlet vents. allowing free movement of air. Design of Room Cooling Facilities: Structu ral and Energy Requirements. . University of Californi a. Commercially constructed cold rooms can be quite expensive. Davis.45 1/2-inch wood lapsiding 0. This sys tem was officially approved as the standard model for farm-level storehouses by the Ministry of Construction (Korea) in 1983. California 95340 Illustrated below is a cross-sectional view of a storehouse for fruits.00 Wood or cane fiber board 2. Prof. Cold rooms can be self-constructed.00 Polyisocyranuate 8.20 Wood shavings or sawdust 2. For these systems. An evaporative cooler located in the peak of a storage structure can cool an ent ire room of stored produce such as sweetpotatoes or other chilling sensitive cro ps. Family Farm Series. Assoc. Small Farm Center. or made from refrigerated transportat ion equipment such as railway cars.03 Lumber. Merced.06 1/2-inch Sheetrock 0. and Spinoglio.D.25 . M. and the floor is perforated. 1994.0. fir or pine 1.F.47 1/2-inch plywood 1. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service.22 Rigid Insulation Plain expanded extruded polystyrene 5. The vents for outside air should be located at the base of the building so t hat cool air is circulated throughout the room before it can exit. using outside air for ventilation is wasteful of energy. but fortunately the small-scale operator has many choices. J. For storage facilities that are refrigerated. Seoul National University.62 Masonite particleboard 1. evaluat ing choices when purchasing or building a cold room. 1993.11 8-inch lightweight concrete block open core 2. J.50-3.25 Glass fiber 4. highway vans or marine containers.0.Glass or mineral wool 2.55 Expanded polystyrene molded beads 3. purch ased as prefabricated units (new or used).25 Metal siding <0. open core 1. Small-scale cold rooms for perish able commodities. et al. Illustrat ed below is the basic plan for a self-built cold room. Postharvest Technology Lab.

Where electricity is not available. in a triangular. Portable vents can b e made from wooden slats. air vents should be located at the base of the storage stru cture. Part 2. London: Sutton Bridge Experiment Station. et al. Vents at the floor level are esp ecially useful for cooling via night air ventilation. using concre te blocks. Overhead distribution of air simplif ies the storehouse design. Control of Environment. plastic tubing or any suitabl e materials. 6 The proper arrangement of floor vents for air circulation will improve ventilati on in the storage house. square or rectangular design.J. No date. Storage Recommendations for Northern Onion Gro wers. An exhaust fan located at the top of the structure pulls the cool air thr ough the storeroom. Part 2. Overhead ventilation distribution system: Outdoor inlet versus indoor/outdoor inlet: Types of ducts for air inlet fans: Source: Davis. or permanent ducts can be constructed below ground. 6 In cooler regions. Longitudinal main duct: Central main duct: Source: Potato Marketing Board. Triangular wooden duct: Clay pipe duct: Sunken concrete duct: Source: Potato Marketing Board. 6 Lateral ducts can be constructed of a variety of materials. and in providing protectio n from rain. D. Source: Walker. Part 2. Control of Environment. London: Sutton Bridge Experiment Station. No date. 1992. London: Sutton Bridge Experiment Station. No date. Report No. The turbine illustrated below can be constructed of sheet metal that is twisted to catch the wind. Chatham. Warm air in the storage room rises. and remain closed during the heat of the day. Cornell University Extension Information Bulletin 148 Storage structures can be cooled by ventilating at night when outside air is coo l. Vents should be closed at sunrise. and attached to a central pole that acts as the axis of rotat ion. Report No. suitable storage temperatures can be maintained by bringing o utside air into the storage facility. Air How velocities from the main duct should be 10 to 13 me ters/second. A round tube of plastic or clay can be used if holes can be drilled without causing str uctural damage. No date. For best results. A indoor recirculation inlet can be added if refriger ation is in use. wind-powered turbines can help keep storeroo ms cool by pulling air up through the building. R. expellin g the air and initiating an upward flow of warm air. UK : Natural Resources Institute. Report No. The turbine should be place d on the peak of the roof of a storage structure. Typical fan installations for a pressurize d ventilation system are illustrated below. causing the turbine to rotate.Source: Potato Marketing Board. World Food Programme Food Storage Manual. Control of Environment. Ducts can be constructed of wood. Lateral ducts should be 2 meters apart when measured fr om center to center. Overhanging roof extensions on storage structures are very helpful in shading th e walls and ventilation openings from the sun s rays. An overhang of at least 1 meter (3 feet) is recommended.   .

Emmaus. PA: Rodale Press. 1979. 1992). Northest Regional Agricultural Engineering Service Publication No. No-Processing Way to Store Fruits and Vegetables. A root cellar can be constructed by digging out a pit to a depth of about 2 mete rs (7 to 8 feet) and framing the sides with wooden planks. and straw bales on top provide more in sulation. A wooden rack provides an air space for ventilation and straw provides insulation. 1979. N. The example provided here employs a wooden barrel and straw for insulation. with a 35 cm square (one foot square) wooden chute as a roof vent Source: Bubel. garlic and dried produce are best suited to low humidity in storage. stacks . M. Root Cellaring: The Simple No-Processing W ay to Store Fruits end Vegetables. 297 pp. The following table lists th e storage conditions recommended for these crops. Home Storage of Fruits and Vegetables. and create a cool environment for storage by burying the container using insulating materials and soil. and Bubel. 297 pp. No-Processing Way to Store Fruits and Vegetables. plastic sheeting or layers of compacted soil. Oni ons and garlic will sprout if stored at intermediate temperatures. Cone-shaped pit storage: Mound storage: Trench storage: Source: McKay. The examples illustrated below are especially good for storage when night temperatures are lower than that desired for proper storage. Root Cellaring: The Simple. PA: Rodale Press. Insulating material s such as straw can be used and protective covers can be constructed from wooden planks. PA: Rodale Press. Storage barrel: Source: Bubel. An outdoor storage bin can serve as a place to keep small quantities of potatoes in a region with a cool but not freezing climate. The example illustrat ed here is about 3 by 4 meters (12 by 15 feet) in size. M. Emmaus.Protected surface storage is a simple method for storing small quantities of pro duce. Pungent types of onions will store longer than mild onions. The wooden lid can be lifted for easy access to produce. 1979. 1979. ventilation systems should be designed to provide air into the store from the bottom of the room at a rate of 2 cubic feet per minute per cubic feet of produce. M. If produce is in cartons or bins. The best location for such a structure would be in a shady spot. Root Cellaring: The Simple. Emmaus. Storage bin: A root box. For bulk storage of onions or garlic. N. Dried and bulb crops Onions. buried to the top edge in soil will keep potatoes cool wile providing protection from freezing. N. lined with hardware cloth and straw. Emmaus. 7 One of the simplest methods for storing small quantities of produce is to use an y available container. N. 1992. S. 297 pp. and Bubel. Root Cellaring: The Simple No-Processing W ay to Store Fruits and Vegetables. and Bubel. M. Root box: Source: Bubel. which are rarely stored for more than one month (Kasmire & Cantwell in Kader. PA: Rodale Press. Temperature RH Potential storage duration C F % Onions 0-5 32-41 65-70 6-8 months 28-30 82-86 65-70 1 month Garlic 0 32 70 6-7 months 28-30 82-86 70 1 month Dried fruits and vegetables <10 <50 55-60 6-12 months Source: Bubel. and Bubel. 297 pp.

In hot regions. It has a large door on one side for loading and unloading. Temperature RH(%) Potential storage duration C F Potatoes Fresh market 4-7 39-45 95-98 10 months Processing 8-12 47-54 95-98 10 months Seed potatoes 0-2 32-36 95-98 10 months Cassava 5-8 41-47 80-90 2-4 weeks 0-5 32-41 85-95 6 months Sweetpotato 12-14 54-58 85-90 6 months Yam 13-15 55-59 near 100 6 months 27-30 80-86 60-70 3-5 weeks Ginger 12-14 54-58 65-75 6 months Jicama 12-15 54-59 65-75 3 months Taro 13-15 55-59 85-90 4 months Potatoes When storing potatoes. The second storage house is constructed from lath and plaster and mud bricks in a cylindrical form. Peru: International Potat o Center (CIP). which should not be highly compacted. . Root and tuber crops The recommended storage conditions for root and tuber crops are listed in the fo llowing table (from Kasmire & Cantwell in Kader. Simple storage houses for potatoes can be constructed for small quantities of pr oduce. The example illustrated here employs a wooden ventilator box and straw for insulati on. 1978. 1981). The entire pile of potatoes and straw is covered with a layer of soil. Bulk storage: Storage in cartons or bins: Source: Oregon State University. The chlorophyll and solanine that accumulate will aid to protect the seed potatoes from insect pests and decay organisms. 1981. Lima. Rows of containers should be stacked parallel t o the direction of the flow of air and be spaced six to seven inches apart. Onion Storage: Guidelines for Commercial Growers. since chilling injury can cause internal browning. It has two doors. Potatoes for processing are best kept at intermediate temperatures to limit the production of sugars whi ch darken when heated during processing. In very cold regions. the other at the b ottom for easy removal of potatoes for sale or consumption. one on top for loading. White-wash helps red uce heat accumulation and a thatch roof protects the potatoes from rain and sun. Field storage clamp: Source: CIP. 1992). 105 pp. a second layer of straw a nd soil can be added. Potatoes meant for consumption must als o be stored in the dark. but more ventilation can be added by constructing chimney type air outlets at the top of the clamp. Potatoes stored for use as "seed" are best stored in diffuse light (CIP.must allow free movement of air. and are used on farms and in mountain villages. The first is made from unfinished wooden planks painted white to reduce heat accumulation from the sun and covered with a large thatched roof for protection from sun and rain. Principles of Potato Storage. Extension Circular 948. less soil is needed. Oregon State Extension Service. The examples provided here can store 1 to 2 metric tons. since the tubers will produce chlorophyll (turning gree n) and develop the toxic alkaloid solanine if kept in the light. An a dequate air supply must be provided at the bottom of each row and containers mus t be properly vented. surfa ce pitting and increased susceptibility to decay. a field storage clamp is a low cost technology that can b e designed using locally available materials for ventilation and insulation. Tropical root and tuber crops must be stored at temperatures that will protect t he crops from chilling.

Conservación de la Producción Agrícola. Lima. Agricultural Experim ent Station. Controlled atmosphere (C.S. 1983.A. R. 1994. and Prange. Source: Lopez. 188 pp. Technical Bulletin 1993-18E. A pit is dug about 10 feet deep and wooden air ducts are placed along the earthen floor. Principles of Potato Storage. The following table is a summary of recommended conditions for controlled atmosp here storage (from Kader. E. The room can be of any size or shape since air ducts can be positioned to extend evenly throughout. Idaho Potato Storage. Peru: International Potat o Center (CIP). Agricultur e and Agri-Food Canada. Ethylene control: to DECREASE: potassium permanganate activated charcoal catalytic oxidation Source: Vigneault.. 1992). Bulletin 410. Principles of Potato Storage. Barcelona: Editorial Aedos. Ducts for ventilation of bulk storage rooms can be laid out vertically as well a s horizontally. Techniques for con trolled atmosphere storage of fruits and vegetables. then covere d with straw and soil. Even distribution of potatoes in the storeroom: Uneven distribution of potatoes in the storeroom: Source: CIP.Source: CIP. 1992). Oxygen gas control: to DECREASE: purging with nitrogen from liquid nitrogen through an evaporator from a membrane system nitrogen generator from a molecular sieve system nitrogen generator Carbon dioxide control: to INCREASE: dry ice pressurized gas cylinder to DECREASE: molecular sieve scrubber activated charcoal scrubber sodium hydroxide scrubber hydrated lime (use 0. Source: University of Idaho. Air coming into the storeroom or being r ecirculated within the room must pass through a monitoring and control system. The roof of the building is constructed of wood.G.G.) storage Controlled or modified atmosphere storage should be used as a supplement to. and not as a substitute for. No date. V. Uneven loads will inhibit air movement and result in storage losses due to inadequate ventilation. For large quantities of potatoes. 1981.6 kg of hydrated lime to treat the air used to ventilate 10 0 kg of fruit Air can be directed to pass through a box. Peru: International Potat o Center (CIP) 105 pp. storage are common have been included. Research Branch. a self-supporting A-frame storehouse can be co nstructed. proper temperature and relative humidity management.. S ome simple methods for modifying the composition of air in the storage environme nt are listed below (from Kader. even distribution of the produce is imp ortant for proper ventilation. Raghavan. located inside or outsi de the C.A.A. Lima. C. 1981. storeroom). Only fruits and vegetables for which commercial uses of C. The storeroom for potatoes shown below provides for plenty of ve ntilation using simple materials. . 105 pp. College of Agriculture. When loading potatoes into bulk storage.

tomato (ripe). A 7-mi l polyethylene sheet is put over the pallet load of produce. lime. pea. Typical layout of a C. Int l. pepper. summer squash. Source: Lougheed. The shelf life of bananas under these condition s is four to six weeks at ambient temperatures. For farther information on construction methods. A small fan serves to circulate the C. and costs. kiwifruit. minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Controlled atmosphere storage of pallet loads of produce is also possible using a more permanent set-up for creating a gas-seal. crenshaw. loquat. pumpkin. spinach.A. broccoli. nectarine. CSIRO Food Research Quarterly 47:61-63. blackberry. storage air (2% O2 and 5% CO2) through a chamber of potas sium permanganate on aluminum oxide (Purafil). cherry. banana. most cut fl owers and foliage. 1987. dry oni on. North Carolina State Univ. 126:235-247 . eggplant. green beans. Low 8-16 Apple and pear (some cultivars). 1985. blueberry. papaya.8 Apple and pear (some cultivars). Moderate 4. grape (without SO2 treatment). Relative perishability and storage life of fresh horticultural crops Classification of fresh horticultural crops according to their relative perishab ility and potential storage life in air at near optimum temperature and relative humidity. tomato (partially ripe). asparagus. et al. muskmelon.J. potato (immature). please refer to the source listed below. CA Conf. Small scale simulated commercial C. A. Storag e rooms. Brussels sprouts. mango. A small trough constructed of sheet metal is la id in a rectangular pattern into a concrete floor of a storage structure. okra. bulbs and other pro pagules of ornamental plants. grapefruit. pomegranate. persimmon. Any number of pallets can be ac comodated inside a plastic tent. taro. sweet corn. strawberry. bean sprouts. potato (mature).Temperature range %O2 range %CO2 range C F Strawberry 0-5 32-41 10 15-20 Apple 0-5 32-41 2-3 1-2 Kiwifruit 0-5 32-41 2 5 Nuts and dried fruits 0-25 32-77 0-1 0-100 Bananas 12-15 54-59 2-5 2-5 Cantaloupe 3-7 38-45 3-5 10-15 Lettuce 0-5 32-41 2-5 0 Tomatoes Mature green 12-20 54-68 3-5 0 Partially-ripe 8. 1982. mushroom. Source: Shorter. grape (SO2-treated). cabbage. Report No.A. lemon. green onion. fig. Very low >16 Tree nuts. cauliflower. winter squash. Ripening is delayed as ethylene i s scrubbed from the storage air. garlic. Persian). peach. r adish. carrot. leaf le ttuce. and the sheet is se aled by pushing a long piece of rubber tubing into the trough. m andarin. storage room.C. melons (honeydew. Each component is labelled. In ternational Institute of Refrigeration.12 47-54 3-5 0 Illustrated here is a model of a small-scale commercial C. E. guava. yam. Controlled atmosphere storage using plastic tents. plum. celery. raspberry. material s. head lettuce. Hort. tent: Layout of a seal in the trough on the storeroom floor: Source: McDonald. A low cost plastic tent fashioned from clear polyethylene sheeting can be used f or controlled atmosphere storage of bunches of green bananas. Controlled atmosphere storage of bananas in b unches at ambient temperatures. RELATIVE PERISHABILITY POTENTIAL STORAGE LIFE (WEEKS) COMMODITIES Very high <2 Apricot. table beet. sweet potato.A. B. High 2-4 Avocado. dried fruits and vegetables   . or ange.A. artichoke. et al.

flavor and texture in ethylene sensitive commoditi es (such as lettuce. A truck ventilating device ca n be constructed for an unrefrigerated open vehicle by covering the load loosely with canvas and fashioning a wind catcher from sheet metal.E. J. pp. R. before sunrise. Postharvest Handling. 353-377. apples. No date. potatoes. Transport vehicles should be well insulated to maintain cool environments for pre-cooled commodities and well ventilated to allow air movement through the produce. J. Other loads should not be pla ced on top of the bulk commodity.A. Best results are obtained when transport ing during the early morning hours. Careful Storage of Yams: Some Principles to Reduce L osses. Durin g transport. so loads must be stacked to enable proper air circulation to carry away heat from the produce itself as well as incoming heat from the atmosphere and off the road. Woven mats o r sacks can be used in the beds of small vehicles. 1993. and f or hauling bulk greens and green beans. New York: John Wiley & S ons. Source: Kasmire.E. FAO/UNEP Expert Consultation on Reduction of Foo d Losses in Perishable Products of Plant Origin.Source: Kader. carrots. P. High ethylene producers (such as ripe bananas. and Read. 1994. An open air vehicle can be loaded in such a way that air can pass through the load. (6-9 May. Personal Communication. Rome: FAO) Open vehicles/bulk loads This ventilating system was designed for hauling bulk loads of fresh fava beans in Iran. sweet potatoes). when transporting chilling sensitive fruits with commodities that require very low temperatures) or when ethylene producing commodities and ethyle ne sensitive commodities are transported together. Source: Wilson. then be brace d and secured. Cooling open loads is desirable whenever possible.F. cantaloupe) can induce physiological disorders and/or undesirable changes in color. . produce must be stacked in ways that minimize damage. After removing their end panels the crates were wired together into the pattern shown below. B 1980. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Section 8: Transportation of horticultural crops ________________________________________ Open vehicles Refrigerated trailers Stacking patterns/handstacked Stacking patterns/pallet and slip sheet loads Bracing the load ________________________________________ Temperature management is critical during long distance transport. The Biology of Horticulture.. Er. cucumbers.An Introductory Textbook. This system has also been used in pick-up trucks. Open vehicles Bulk loads of produce should be carefully loaded so as not to cause mechanical d amage. Air flows upward through the load during transport. Source: Pantastico. A. and provide some cooling of the produce as the vehicle moves. In: Preece. Working Document 2: Fruits and Vegetables. High transportation speeds and/or long distance transport run the risk of causing excess drying of the crop. Vehicles can be padded or lined with a thick layer of straw. The wind catcher and ducts were constructed using wooden crates. helping to keep the p roduce from overheating. The scoop should be mounted at the front of the bed and should reach somewhat higher the height of the cab. Mixed loads can be a serious concern when temperature optima are not compatible (for example. Traveling during the night and early morning can reduce the heat load on a vehi cle that is transporting produce. London: Commonwealth Secretariat/ International Institute of Tropical Agr iculture.

F. University of California P erishables Handling Transportation Supplement No. Washington. H. Maintaining Optimum Transit Tempera tures in Refrigerated Truck Shipments of Perishables. The diagram below illustrates cross-wise offs et loading of partial telescopic containers. and Hinsch. Illustrated below is pyramid stacking of bags inside a refrigerated trailer. heavier conta iners should be placed on the bottom of the load.: USDA. When cartons of various sizes must be loaded together. R. 1987.T. Source: Ashby. stacking patterns should reduce the amount of contact between the p roduce and the floor and walls of the vehicle. Office of Transportation. B. 1987. R. Agricultural Handbook No. et al. Office of Transportation. the larger. Stacking patterns/pallet and slip sheet loads Containers should be loaded so that they are away from the side walls and the fl . R. Maintaining Optimum Transit Tempera tures in Refrigerated Truck Shipments of Perishables. et al. refrigerated trailers need insulat ion. University of California P erishables Handling Transportation Supplement No. Protecting Perishable Foods During Transport b y Truck. Source: Nicholas. H. and an air delivery duct. D. where boxes are stacked in alternating solid an d open layers. AAT-W-5.Refrigerated trailers For optimum transport temperature management. and allows every box to be in direct contact with refrigerated air. R. Export Handbook for U. and Hinsch.: USDA. Produce transported in cartons should also be stacked so as to allow adequate ai r circulation throughout the load.F. D. et al. 1987.C. Parallel channels should be le ft for air to move through the length of the load. 669. On the floor of the truck. H. B. Refrigerated Trailers Need These Fea tures Source: Kasmire. Washington. 669.J. Agricultural Products. USDA Science and Education Administrat ion. This pattern provides channels for air circulation lengthwise through the load. Source: Ashby. and channels are left down both side walls. Handlers should inspect the trailer before loading. Office of Transportation.C. Source: Rij. Source: Ashby. a high capacity refrigeration unit and fan. Protecting Perishable Foods During Transport b y Truck. 1985. 2. The i llustration below shows these and other desired features in a top-air delivery t railer. pallets or other supports should be used to keep the cartons out of direct contact with the floor. Precooling and Temperature Management of C ut Flower Crops for Truck Transportation. For Optimum Transit Temperature Management. Handling. Office of Transportation. The condition of the inside of a refrigerated trailer affects its ability to mai ntain desired temperatures during transport. USD A.T. Bushels of produce can be loaded into a refrigerated trailer using a pattern of alternately inverted layers that leave plenty of space between rows for air circ ulation.: USDA. and check these features: Source: Kasmire. UC Leaflet 21058. 593 Often the large containers used for cut flower packaging must be handstacked whe n loaded into a transport vehicle. Agricultural Handbook No. 1987. 669. The best loading pattern for cut flowers is k nown as the pigeon hole pattern. Washington. Protecting Perishable Foods During Transport b y Truck. D.C. C. Agricultural Handbook No. Stacking patterns/handstacked In order to reduce the conduction of heat from outside the vehicle into the load of produce. 1987. 2.S. R et al. Agricultural Handbook No. 1979. B.

If the load shifts. The use of pallets keeps the cartons off the floor. potatoes. Source: Ashby. Vehicles can be padded or lined with a thick layer of straw. Source: Nicholas. Source: Wilson. and provide some cooling of the produce as the vehicle moves. then be brace d and secured. so loads must be stacked to enable proper air circulation to carry away heat from the produce itself as well as incoming heat from the atmosphere and off the road. Transport vehicles should be well insulated to maintain cool environments for pre-cooled commodities and well ventilated to allow air movement through the produce. No date. 669. Bracing the load There should always be a void between the last stack of produce and the back of the transport vehicle. In the diagrams below. Agricultural Products. Export Handbook for U. Woven mats o r sacks can be used in the beds of small vehicles.C. The load should be braced to prevent shifting against the rear door during transit. A simple wooden brace can be constructed and installed to prevent damage during transport.J. Open vehicles Bulk loads of produce should be carefully loaded so as not to cause mechanical d amage. H. cucumbers. Washington. Protecting Perishable Foods During Transport b y Truck. sweet potatoes). Agricultural Handbook No. London: Commonwealth Secretariat/ International Institute of Tropical Agr iculture. D. apples. Careful Storage of Yams: Some Principles to Reduce L osses.oor of the transport vehicle in order to minimize the conduction of heat from th e outside environment. the numbers of cartons refer to ho w many cartons would be in contact with the walls and floor of the truck when fu lly loaded. Durin g transport. when transporting chilling sensitive fruits with commodities that require very low temperatures) or when ethylene producing commodities and ethyle ne sensitive commodities are transported together. J. Mixed loads can be a serious concern when temperature optima are not compatible (for example. An open air vehicle can be loaded in such a way that air can pass through the load.S. flavor and texture in ethylene sensitive commoditi es (such as lettuce. and fallen cartons can present great danger to workers who open the door at a desti nation market. carrots. C. et al. USD A. Cooling open loads is desirable whenever possible.: USDA. A truck ventilating device ca . 1985. B. Traveling during the night and early morning can reduce the heat load on a vehi cle that is transporting produce. it can block air circulation. Agricultural Handbook No. produce must be stacked in ways that minimize damage. Only the load on the bottom right is fully protected from heat transfer. Other loads should not be pla ced on top of the bulk commodity. Office of Transportation. 1987. 593 ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Section 8: Transportation of horticultural crops ________________________________________ Open vehicles Refrigerated trailers Stacking patterns/handstacked Stacking patterns/pallet and slip sheet loads Bracing the load ________________________________________ Temperature management is critical during long distance transport. High ethylene producers (such as ripe bananas. Office of Transportation. cantaloupe) can induce physiological disorders and/or undesirable changes in color. while center-loading leaves an insu lating air space between the pallet loads and the outside walls.

and an air delivery duct. Protecting Perishable Foods During Transport b y Truck. High transportation speeds and/or long distance transport run the risk of causing excess drying of the crop. Office of Transportation. For Optimum Transit Temperature Management. On the floor of the truck. Agricultural Handbook No. et al. After removing their end panels the crates were wired together into the pattern shown below. 1987. Best results are obtained when transport ing during the early morning hours. This system has also been used in pick-up trucks.: USDA. FAO/UNEP Expert Consultation on Reduction of Foo d Losses in Perishable Products of Plant Origin. Stacking patterns/handstacked In order to reduce the conduction of heat from outside the vehicle into the load of produce. refrigerated trailers need insulat ion. (6-9 May.: USDA. The condition of the inside of a refrigerated trailer affects its ability to mai ntain desired temperatures during transport. Air flows upward through the load during transport. 1987. D. Protecting Perishable Foods During Transport b y Truck.F. a high capacity refrigeration unit and fan. Office of Transportation. 669. 669. 1987. The i llustration below shows these and other desired features in a top-air delivery t railer. Washington. and Hinsch.C. Source: Pantastico. B.T. B. and Hinsch. et al.: USDA. R. Working Document 2: Fruits and Vegetables. 2. Bushels of produce can be loaded into a refrigerated trailer using a pattern of alternately inverted layers that leave plenty of space between rows for air circ ulation. The wind catcher and ducts were constructed using wooden crates. Source: Ashby. R. 2. 1987. Source: Kasmire. Rome: FAO) Open vehicles/bulk loads This ventilating system was designed for hauling bulk loads of fresh fava beans in Iran. University of California P erishables Handling Transportation Supplement No.C. The diagram below illustrates cross-wise offs et loading of partial telescopic containers.F. D. Source: Ashby. pallets or other supports should be used to keep the cartons out of direct contact with the floor. R. stacking patterns should reduce the amount of contact between the p roduce and the floor and walls of the vehicle. Maintaining Optimum Transit Tempera tures in Refrigerated Truck Shipments of Perishables.T. Washington. R. et al. B 1980. Refrigerated Trailers Need These Fea tures Source: Kasmire. University of California P erishables Handling Transportation Supplement No. and check these features: Source: Kasmire. R. Maintaining Optimum Transit Tempera tures in Refrigerated Truck Shipments of Perishables. Agricultural Handbook . helping to keep the p roduce from overheating. H. Source: Ashby. Personal Communication. D. Office of Transportation. before sunrise. H. Er. Handlers should inspect the trailer before loading.F. and f or hauling bulk greens and green beans. The scoop should be mounted at the front of the bed and should reach somewhat higher the height of the cab. Illustrated below is pyramid stacking of bags inside a refrigerated trailer.n be constructed for an unrefrigerated open vehicle by covering the load loosely with canvas and fashioning a wind catcher from sheet metal. B. H. 1994. Refrigerated trailers For optimum transport temperature management.C. 1987. Produce transported in cartons should also be stacked so as to allow adequate ai r circulation throughout the load. Agricultural Handbook No. Washington. Protecting Perishable Foods During Transport b y Truck.

the larger. Bracing the load There should always be a void between the last stack of produce and the back of the transport vehicle. Agricultural Handbook No.J. it can block air circulation. where boxes are stacked in alternating solid an d open layers. C. If the load shifts. minimize the number of handling steps. 669. In the diagrams below. 669. R et al. Export Handbook for U. 593 Often the large containers used for cut flower packaging must be handstacked whe n loaded into a transport vehicle. Washington. Source: Ashby. H. The load should be braced to prevent shifting against the rear door during transit. D. C.J. Export Handbook for U. When cartons of various sizes must be loaded together. The use of pallets keeps the cartons off the floor. Stacking patterns/pallet and slip sheet loads Containers should be loaded so that they are away from the side walls and the fl oor of the transport vehicle in order to minimize the conduction of heat from th e outside environment. USDA Science and Education Administrat ion.C. AAT-W-5. Handling.: USDA. Source: Rij. Office of Transportation. well insulated storage rooms. and allows every box to be in direct contact with refrigerated air. 1985. Office of Transportation. B. Precooling and Temperature Management of C ut Flower Crops for Truck Transportation. Parallel channels should be le ft for air to move through the length of the load. Agricultural Products. Since a variety of commodities is usually being handled simultaneously at this point. Only the load on the bottom right is fully protected from heat transfer. Source: Nicholas. et al. USD A. If produce is to be stored before sale. Office of Transportation. Stacking of non-unifo rm containers should be done with care to prevent collapse of weaker packages. and channels are left down both side walls. while center-loading leaves an insu lating air space between the pallet loads and the outside walls. This pattern provides channels for air circulation lengthwise through the load. .S.S. 1985. UC Leaflet 21058.No. and maintain the lowest feasible temperature. the numbers of cartons refer to ho w many cartons would be in contact with the walls and floor of the truck when fu lly loaded. Agricultural Handbook No. heavier conta iners should be placed on the bottom of the load. 593 ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Section 9: Handling at destination ________________________________________ Unloading Storage temperatures Sorting/repacking Ripening Display ________________________________________ When handling produce at its destination. again it is important to avoid rough h andling. USD A. Source: Nicholas. and fallen cartons can present great danger to workers who open the door at a desti nation market. then wholesale and retail markets need clean. Protecting Perishable Foods During Transport b y Truck. 1987. The best loading pattern for cut flowers is k nown as the pigeon hole pattern. 1979. Agricultural Products. it is important to remem ber not to mix those with different temperature requirements or store ethylene s ensitive commodities near ethylene generating commodities. Agricultural Handbook No. A simple wooden brace can be constructed and installed to prevent damage during transport.

Containers can be hung directly b y their handles or placed into a sling. a loading dock 117 to 122 cm high (46 to 48 inches) functions well. Source: Selders. while peppers and tomatoes look pleasing when displayed with lettuce. single or double layers of produce are most likely to protect the commodities from compression damage and overhandling by t he consumers. the handler at destination may want to ripen the produce before it is sold to the public. while for small trucks or pickups a height of 66 to 81 cm (26 to 32 inches ) is recommended. When displaying horticultural crops. which can lead to dessication of crops. Unloading A loading dock can ease the work associated with handling horticultural produce at destination. Sometimes commoditie s such as bananas are left at ambient temperatures and allowed to ripen naturall y. If the produce handled is a climacteric fruit crop that was harvested before it was ripe (bananas. or at least to discard any damaged or decayed produce in order to give the pro duct more market appeal. mangoes). Outdoor marketplaces suffer from a lack of temperature control and high air circ ulation. The stairs illustrated here can be folded and pushed back under the back of the truck when the vehicle is in motion. immaturity or overripeness allows the handle r to provide better quality feedback to produce suppliers. The ramp should be wide enough to prevent accidents and strong enough to carry the full weight o f the handler plus the package she/he is carrying. Using a ramp is a simple and safe method for unloading produce. which will be seen as shrivelin g and wilting. et al. Providing handtrucks or small . A. If ripeness or maturity is non-uniform. Er. depending upon size) is a more effective way to ensure uniform ripening. while lettuce is not. Source: Pantastico.W. 1992). 1984). decay/disease. Working Document 2: Fruits and Vegetables. For large trucks. One pulley can be mounted inside t he truck at the front of the bed. avocadoes. The introduction of et hylene gas or ethylene-releasing compounds into a special storage environment (k nown as a ripening room or cabinet. These marketplaces can often benefit by the increased use of shad ing and protection from prevailing winds. sorting at dest ination can provide the seller with a higher price for the better quality produc e. (6-9 May. tomatoes. green onions) with coot clean water can help main tain a high relative humidity around the product. 1992. For example. Placing a simple air vent (a pipe or a tube of some sort) into the center of the pile of ripening fruit can help reduce overhe ating during ripening and increase subsequent shelf life. broccoli. Covering the bananas with a plastic sheet will help ripening be more uniform throughout the lot (PHTRC. B. A simple device for easing the work of unloading transport vehicles can be const ructed using a two pulleys and a strong rope. 1980.Before produce is sold to the consumer. Temperatures of the display tables or refrigerated supermarket dis plays should be suited to the commodity on sale. Finally. Containers can be transfered more rapidly and with less bending and lifting. the handler may wish to sort for quality . the handler at destination can help reduce losses in the future by main taining good records of the sources of losses suffered at the wholesale or retai l level (Kasmire & Ahrens in Kader. Rome: FAO) A simple set of stairs can be constructed to ease the work of loading and unload ing produce. peppers and tomatoes are chi lling sensitive. Identifying whether losses were due t o mechanical damage. Facilities for Roadside Markets. FAO/UNEP Expert Consultation on Reduction of Fo od Losses in Perishable Products of Plant Origin. Misting commodities that can tolerate sur face water (lettuce. Northeast Re gional Agricultural Engineering Service/ Cornell University Cooperative Extensio n. the second outside on a portable post or on a stationary object like the side of a building. The steps can be made of wood or steel matting and steel bars can be used for supports.

r elative humidity is maintained between 85 and 95%. 1980. and Kader. ripe celeriac mint watercress* mature green celery* mushroom yam* chard* mustard greens* chicory* parsley* Fruits apple quince avocado. Source: Pantastico. and the ethylene level is kep t below 1 ppm ventilating or using a scrubber. unripe atemoya apricot raspberry cactus pear. snap. 16-18°C Vegetables and Melons anise collard* parsnip basil casaba melon artichoke cut vegetables raddichio beans. most commodities can be grouped i nto the following three categories. 32-36°F. summer. The layout of the work station used for handling produc . Univ. trimming. winter. Rome: FAO) Storage temperatures When produce is held at destination for a short time before marketing. of California. FAO/UNEP Expert Consultation on Reduction of Fo od Losses in Perishable Products of Plant Origin. 0-2°C 45-50°F. Er. bell. A. However.F. Sorting/repacking Some produce may require washing. Davis. bunching or sorting at the wholesale or retail market level. J. cassava arugula* daikon* radish cactus leaves crenshaw melon asparagus* endive* rutabaga cucumber* dry onions bean sprouts escarole* rhubarb eggplant* ginger beet garlic salsify Juan Canary honeydew melon Belgian endive* green onion* shallot melon jicama bok choy herbs(not basil) spinach* kiwano potato broccoli* horseradish snow pea* okra* Persian melon broccoflower* Jerusalem sweet corn pepper. tuna banana avocado. 1995. etc. Asian pineapple soursop European pomegranate persimmon* tamarillo plum tangelo prune tangerine * Products marked with an asterisk are sensitive to ethylene damage. Postharvest Outreach Program. B.carts can also ease the work associated with unloading. cabbage* kale Swiss chard squash. if the storage period is five days or less. (6-9 May. Source: Thompson.A. Working Document 2: Fruits and Vegetables. ripe strawberry carambola breadfruit blackberry chayote cherimoya blueberry cranberry coconut cherry feijoa grapefruit* currant guava lemon* cut fruits kumquat lime* date longan mango fig lychee mangosteen gooseberry mandarin papaya grape olive plantain kiwifruit* orange pummelo nectarine passion fruit rambutan peach pepino sapote pear. pumpkin brussel sprouts* artichoke sweet pea* chili squash. the handl er can help maintain quality and reduce losses by storing commodities at their m ost suitable temperature. hard rind cantaloupe kohlrabi turnip rind* sweet potato* carrot* leek* turnip greens* tomatillo taro cauliflower* lettuce* waterchestnut watermelon* tomato. 7-10°C 60-65°F.

81 (15-18) (4. No date. 1992. Source: Selders. For tomatoes. In the illustration below. °F (°C) Storage temp. 1981. Marketing Research Repor t No.81 (15-8) (13-14) honey dew melon 20-27 100-150 18-24 68-77 45-50 0. A small fan can be used to ensure a uniform continuous flow of ethylene into and t hrough the room.4-13) banana 25-110 100-150 24 59-65 56-58 0. a single operator could easily perform all the h andling steps or several handlers could work side by side. Transportation and Facilities Research Division. Source: Kays. and Beaudry. a dump table is located next to a sink for washing produce. USDA Marketing Se rvice.) Ripening temp. et al. Forced-air ripening is increasingly being used to provide more uniform temperatures and ethylene concentrations throughout the ripening room. Northeast Re gional Agricultural Engineering Service/ Cornell University Cooperative Extensio n.90 . Acta Horticulturae 201:77-115. Some produce may have to be repacked by the wholesaler or retailer due to change s in quality or uneven ripening. Ripening rooms are often used for tomatoes. citrus fruits and bananas.J. The u se of diluted ethylene gas mixtures is safer than using pure ethylene which is e xplosive and flammable at concentrations of 3% or higher. Ripening can also be initiated by using ethylene generated by passing ethanol ov er a bed of activated alumina. With this layout. R.90 (20-22) (5-9) stone fruit 12-81 10-100 12-72 55-77 31-32 0. the amount of ethylene released will increase as pH and/or relat ive humidity increase. 1987. Fresh Market Tomato Advisory Board Information Bulletin No.F. Facilities for Roadside Markets.25 cubic feet/hr of ethylene gas is required for each 1000 cubic feet of ripening room volume. R. Continuous flow ethylene gassing of tomatoes. The following table shows typical produce storage and ripening temperatures for some of the commodities that can be ripened.85 (20-22) (13-14) orange degreening 22-34 1-10 24-72 68-72 4148 0. 597 Ripening Some commodities may require ripening before sale at the wholesale or retail lev el.M. Techniques for inducing ethylene effe cts. S. Commodity Respiration(mg C02/ kg-hr)1 Ethylene cone. and the drain board is positioned directly next to the sink. When using ethep hon as a spray. Rejects (culls) are plac ed in pails under the table. Approximately 0.94 (20-25) (7-10) kiwifruit 16-22 10-100 12-24 32-68 32-33 0. pinks or breakers and allo w the green tomatoes to run off to the end of the line. Ethylene-releasing compounds such as ethephon {(2-chloroethyl) phosphoric acid } are sometimes used to ripen tomatoes destined for processing.86 (0-20) (0-0. technical grade ethylene gas is introduced into the room at a conc entration of about 100 ppm for about 48 hours. Once produce has d ried.e at destination should be organized to minimize non-productive movement. Califo rnia Tomatorama. cartons can be packed and placed onto a cart located right next to the rep acking table. Source: USDA. Continuous flow gassing: Source: Kasmire.W.5) mango 40-200 100-150 12-24 68-72 56-58 0. Tomato repacking methods and equipment. (ppm) Ethylene exposure time (hr. This method is safer than using pure ethylene gas . The tomato sorting table illustrated below has work stations for up to five who select either ripes. °F (°C) Specific heat Btu/lb-F avocado 62-157 10-100 12-48 59-65 40-55 0. temp. A. 29.

(13-253 (-0.5-0) tomato 2444 100-150 2448 68-77 50-55 0.95 (20-25) (10-13) 1Multiply by 220 to obtain heat to respiration (BTU/ton/24 hours) Source: Thompson, J.F. 1994. Ripening facilities. Perishables Handling Newslette r, Nov. 1994. Special Issue No. 80: 5-8. The following illustration is a degreening room designed for use with citrus in pallet boxes. The ceiling of the room is relatively high, allowing boxes to be s tacked at least four high. A false ceiling is added to provide for adequate air movement throughout the room. For more detailed information on room construction , temperature and relative humidity management and air circulation, refer to the article entitled "Ripening Facilities" (Thompson, 1994) in the reference sectio n of the manual. Source: USDA. No date. Modernizing Handling Systems for Florida Citrus from Pick ing to Packing Line. Agricultural Research Service, Marketing Research Report No . 914. Several small ripening rooms may be more useful than a single large room for sma ll scale handlers, since the amount of product handled at destination may vary f rom time to time. In this case, flow through systems can be designed to allow th e use of one or more rooms at the same time. Flowmeters can be located in one place for ease of monitoring, or can be strung out in a line. Locating all the flowmeters in one place requires the use of more tubing than if flowmeters are located in each ripening room. For more informati on and details on how to set up a flow through system for ripening fruit, see Sh erman and Gull (1981). Flowmeters in one location Flowmeters located in each ripening room Source: Sherman, M. and Gull, D.D. 1981. A flow through system for introducing e thylene in tomato ripening rooms. University of Florida/IFAS, Vegetable Crops Fa ct Sheet 30. Small-scale handlers can now lease portable ripening facilities from a variety o f companies in the United States. The self-contained, portable system illustrate d below features a 20 pallet capacity, high capacity air flow and is simple to o perate. All that is needed is a loading dock and a supply of 220V electricity. Source: Modular Ripening Company, Inc. 1994. Norfolk Virginia Small-scale wholesalers and retailers can ripen fruits in bins or large cartons by placing a small quantity of ethylene-generating produce such as ripe bananas in with the produce to be ripened. Cover the bin or carton with a plastic sheet for 24 hours, then remove the plastic cover. A simple way to ripen fruits at home in small amounts is to use a ripening bowl. Fruits that require ripening should be placed into the bowl with a ripe apple o r ripe banana (or any other high ethylene-generating product). The bowl shown be low is made of clear molded plastic and has ventilation holes around the top. Us ing this method, ripening will take from one to four days. Home ripening is also possible using another, extremely low-tech practice-- plac e fruits to be ripened into a paper bag with a ripe piece of fruit, close loosel y and check in a few days. Display This wooden display table is designed to be used for commodities such as crucife rous crops or leafy green vegetables that tolerate cooling with ice. The table c an be used in the horizontal position or as a tilted display. For more complete design specifications, contact the Cornell University Extension Service, 304 Ril ey-Robb Hall, Ithaca, New York, 14853. Four to five lbs of crushed ice per square foot of display space are required fo r cooling per day. A catch pail should be provided for melt water. To minimize i

ce needs, the display tray should be insulated and kept out of the direct sun. Source: Bartsch, J.A. et al. No date. Construction and management of an iced pro duce display. Cornell University, Agricultural Engineering Extension Bull. 438. High relative humidity can be maintained during display by misting leafy vegetab les and water tolerant crops with clean, cold water. A simple sprinkler device c an be constructed by perforating a pipe with tiny holes and connecting it to a h ose. If this display is used outdoors, shade should be provided. A simple semi-circular display table can be constructed from one four foot by ei ght foot sheet of plywood. Plans for the table illustrated below and for other m arket stands are available from Cornell University Extension, 304 Riley-Robb Hal l, Ithaca, New York 14853. Source: Agricultural and Biological Engineering. No date. Description and Price List of Plans for Storages and Market Stands for Fruit and Vegetables. Cornell U niversity Extension Bulletin 851-S. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Section 10: Processing of horticultural crops ________________________________________ Processing equipment Preparation for processing Solar drying Forced-air dehydrators Oil-burning dehydrators Electric dehydrators Oven drying Drying flowers Extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants Canning Juicing Other methods of processing ________________________________________ When conditions are not suitable for storage or immediate marketing of fresh pro duce, many horticultural crops can be processed using simple technologies. There are some processing methods that can be used by small-scale handlers, including drying, fermenting, canning, freezing, preserving and juicing. Fruits, vegetabl es and flowers can all be dried and stored for use or sale in the future. Fermen tation is popular throughout the world as a food preservation method, and over 3 ,500 individual fermented foods have been described by Campbell-Platt (1987). Fr uits and vegetables can be canned or frozen, and fruits are often preserved in s ugar or juiced. Intermediate Technology Publications* in association with CTA published a guide to appropriate equipment entitled Small-Scale Food Processing (1992) by Fellows and Hampton. We encourage you to use this directory to find more information on the processes introduced in this manual, or to locate specific equipment and loc al manufacturers. * Intermediate Technology Publications, 9 King Street, London WC2E 8HW, UK Processing equipment A catalog of postharvest processing equipment is available from Intermediate Tec hnology Publications. Included are driers, storage containers, cleaners, hand mi lls, power mills, shellers, decorticators (seed removers), oil processing equipm ent, fruit presses, and root crop cutters/graters. Some examples are shown below . Two-man cassava grater: Four-bladed root chopper:

Hand-operated fruit press: Source: Intermediate Technology Publications, 1987. Post-harvest Crop Processing : Some tools for agriculture. Intermediate Technology Publications. London, Engl and. 29 pp. Preparation for processing Some produce requires blanching before freezing or drying, and fruits such as ap ples, pears, peaches and apricots are sometimes treated with sulfur being dried. Blanching by boiling water bath or in steam ends certain enzymatic reactions in the product and helps retain color and flavor after processing. Sulfuring {burn one tablespoon of sulfur powder per pound (35 ml per kg) of fruit or dip fruit in a 1% potassium metabisulfite solution for one minute} helps prevent darkening , loss of flavor and loss of vitamin C. Blanching times for selected commodities {use one gallon of water per pound (8 l iters per kg) of produce}: Commodity Blanching time in boiling water (minutes) Brocolli 3 Green Beans 3 Cabbage (wedges) 5 Carrots 5 Cauliflower 3 (add 4 teaspoons of salt) Corn 7 Eggplant 4 (add 1/2 cup lemon juice) Leafy greens 2 Mushrooms 3 to 5 Peas 2 Potatoes (new) 4 to 10 Pumpkin until soft Zucchini/summer squash 3 Source: Chioffi, N. and Mead, S. 1991. Keeping the Harvest. Pownal, Vermont: Sto rey Publishing. Sulfuring times for selected fruits: Commodity Sulfuring Time Apples 45 minutes Apricots 2 hours Peaches 3 hours Pears 5 hours Source: Miller, M. et al. 1981. Drying Foods at Home. University of California, Division of Agricultural Science, Leaflet 2785. A low cost sulfuring box can be constructed from a large cardboard box that is s lashed in several places to allow adequate ventilation. Trays for drying be stac ked using bricks and wooden spools as spacers. The trays must be made completely of wood, since sulfur fumes will corrode metal The entire assembly must be loca ted out of doors, preferably on bare soil. Use one tablespoon of sulfur powder per pound (35 mls per kg) of fruit. Place th e sulfur in a container well away from the side of the box since it will become quite hot. Seal the bottom edges of the box with soil. Source: Miller, M. et al. 1981. Drying Foods at Home. University of California, Division of Agricultural Science, Leaflet 2785. Solar drying Horticultural produce can be dried using direct or indirect solar radiation. The simplest method for solar drying is to lay produce directly upon a Hat black su rface and allow the sun and wind to dry the crop. Nuts can be dried effectively in this way. Simple direct driers can be made from trays of screening material propped upon w ooden or concrete blocks to allow air to circulate under the produce. A layer of cheesecloth can be draped loosely over the produce, protecting it from insects and birds while drying.

In the illustration below. Central Africa. Direct solar drier: Indirect driers are constructed so the sun shines upon a solar collector (a shal low box. allowing for easy movement of air through the produce. Ottawa. Usually a direct drier. Low tunnel Direct drier similar to the above but built close to the ground. 1992. and drying bin. but usually indirect with forced convection air flow. L. Drier type Description Schematic view of typical example Direct cabinet Drying Chamber is glazed and no separate solar collector is used . using a layer of fine stones and two layers of concrete blocks. Woodland. L. all covered wit h polyethylene. The air heated within the collector is then forced through the perforated floor of the drying bin. and a separate solar collector is used. speeding drying and reducing losses due to overheating. 1993. STRAW MATS Source: Kitinoja. sliced fres h tomatoes are being dried in direct sunlight on straw mats. G. Source: Yaciuk. C. Air can pass over a nd below the produce. Solar Drying of Horticultural Produce: Present Practi ce and Future Prospects. 73 Antelope Street. 1983. Food Drying: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Edmonton . Indirect cabinet Solar collector is used which is separate from the dryin g chamber. providing some protection from insects while capturing more of t he heat of the sun. Tunnel Usually a hoop framed structure with one or two layers of film plastic g lazing. Alberta. topped with a pane of glass) heating air whi ch then moves upward through a stack of four to six trays loaded with produce. R. The development of a through ci . below the overhanging roof.J. Ontario: IDRC 104 pp. The solar collector is constructed on a concrete base. the insides painted black. Postharvest News and Information 4(5): 131N-136N. 6-9 July 1981. R. but can be indirect if black plastic film is use d for the inner layer of glazing. which has no transparent surfaces. and Velez. and usually able to hold only one layer of produce. Extension Systems International. * indicates glazed surface Source: Fuller. California 95695. Tent Direct drier with straight rather than curved frame members- Bin Any drier. Various types of solar driers have been developed and are illustrated below.A simple method for solar drying is to construct a raised platform from wood and cover the frame with loosely woven mats. which c an dry deep layers (typically 300 mm or more) of the produce. Consultancy for Africare/ USAID on food processing in the Ouadhai. The solar dryer: Detail of the solar collector: Source: Best. Alonso. some sort of structure must be use d to capture solar radiation. a fan. The walls at the top of the bin. 1982. Chad. The solar drier for cassava chips illustrated below consists of a solar collecto r. Mixed mode or Hybrid cabinet Drying chamber is partially or fully glazed. are made of screen.. In order to improve the efficiency of drying. More complex models of solar driers have glass or clear plastic windows that cov er the produce.

1985. 1991. 120 pp. International Society for Tropical Root Crops. Forced-air dehydrators Nut crops can be dried in bulk using a dehydrator that combines a steady stream of air with an external source of heat. Dr ying time can be reduced if ventilation is increased by using a small fan placed outside the oven. The fan and the sheet metal lin ing the bottom compartment help conduct heat upward through the box. University of California. 1984. Electric dehydrators A simple electric dehydrator can be constructed using plywood. Wagon Dehydrator: Pot-Hole Dehydrator: Source: Kader. Keeping the Harvest. London. A fan located be tween the furnace and the plenum chamber moves the hot air through the drying pr oduce. AA. Place the prepared produce on baking or metal screen trays. Cut the stems at a sh arp angle. Drying flowers Cut flowers can be air dried by hanging upside down or while supported by chicke n wire. statice.rculation polar heated air dryer for cassava chips 6th Symposium. sheet metal a sma ll fan. Peru. set t he oven temperature at 140 degrees F and leave the door ajar (2 to 4 inches). In all cases. (Ed). 1983). B. Certain flowers will look more natural if left standing in a vase while they dry. and contains racks for five trays. UK: Intermediate Technology Publications. and Mead. A stationary "pot-hole" dehydrator is desig ned to move heated air along a plenum under a fixed platform Individual bins of nuts are placed upon the platform and are dried as heat rises up through the per forated floor. larkspur. Georgia. five household lightbulbs with porcelain mounting fixtures and some scre ening material. 2126. J. Source: FAO.A. Oil-burning dehydrators The batch-dryer illustrated below is constructed of wood. Division of Agricultu re and Natural Resources. Vermont: Sto rey Publishing Oven drying Fruits and vegetables can be dried in a home oven if the oven can be run at a lo w temperature. Post-Harvest Crop Processing: Some Tools for Agricultur e. Flowers that dry best if left standing: strawflower. 1987. and place the flowers into a vase containing two inches of water. Source: Clarke. flowers should be left to air dry in a dark. The drier shown below is 32 inches long by 21 inches wide and 30 inches high. Univer sity of Georgia. Source: Chioffi. Ro me: UNFAO. N. G. Two types of dehydrators are commonly used for drying small volumes of nut crops . delphinium. In: Kader. Postharvest Te chnology of Horticultural Crops. Anthurium dries best if left to dry very slowly. has an axial type fan and burns kerosene or diesel oil. Pownal. A wagon with a perforated floor can be transported from the field and connecte d to a portable burner batch drying. okra pods Flowers that dry best while hanging upside down: chysanthemum. Prevention of Post-Harvest Food Losses: A Training Manual. The plenum chamber below the produce is covered with a floor of perforated sheet metal or wooden slats. Afric an daisy. and Thompson. Source: Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. A wide variety of dryers are available from ma nufacturers around the world. (Lima. Publication 3311. marigold African daisy supported on a screen of chicken wire: . A. well area. Athens. Feb. 1992. amaranthus.F. So Easy to Preserve.

Sand used for drying flowers should be clean? smooth and the finer the better. The Encyclopaedia of Everlastings. Ten pounds of pressure at 115 C (240 F) is recommended for canning vegetables. pickles and relishes. Drying flowers in sand: Silica gel is relatively expensive but reusable if heated to dry out the gel bet ween uses.H. 1984. as it extracts up to 100 ml (3. tomatoes. stainless steel vessel may be used by small scale process ors. cornflower. A portable steam distillation unit fo r essential oil crops. New York: Michael Friedman Publishing Group. Inc. roses. The steam extractor: The condenser: Source: Alkire. place the flower to be dried on the sand and ge ntly cover the entire flower with more sand. Hort Technology 2(4): 473-476. B. Extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants The steam extraction unit illustrated below was first constructed for experiment al extraction of essential oils from small quantities of aromatic plants. The first is a water bath canner. and moves through a layer of plant material which re sts upon a perforated stainless steel plate. jellies. then tightly seal the containe r. B. 191 pp. Source: Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. Steam. So Easy to Preserve. A pressure canner is a specially made heavy pot with a locking lid. tuli p and zinnia. Steam is introduced a t the bottom of the vessel. Univer sity of Georgia. Flowers that dry well in s and are shasta daisy. 191 pp.R. Athens. Acidic foods such as fruits. The vent can be adjusted using a weight. an inner rack and a steam vent in the kid. Inc. cosmos. water vapor and extracted vo latiles exit the tank at the top. 1992. freesia and narcissus. sweet william carnatio n.E. 1988. stock. This 5 00 liter (130 gallon). lily-of-the-valley.Source: Rogers. anemone. and Simon. The Encyclopaedia of Everlastings. depending on the type of canner. To use. dahlia.R. Georgia. The model shown below is portable if mounted on a trailer. value or screw. A pressure canner is recommended for processing low acid foods such as vegetable s. Starting with one inch of sand in a container. Canning Two types of canners are commonly used to process horticultural crops. The tank can be tilted for ease m emptying. which is a large pot with a loose cover and a rack to h old jars off the bottom The pot should be deep enough to cover the canning jars by one to two inches and still have another inch of space to allow brisk boiling . then pass thorough a water cooled aluminum con denser. Pressure Canners   . B. Source: Rogers. A pressure gauge registers the air p ressure inside the canner. cleaning. 1988. Flowers that dry best in silica gel are allium. Silica gel is especially useful for dr ying fragile plants and flowers with delicate colors. A dial gauge gives a reading of the actual pressure. and reloading. The diameter of the pot should be no more than four inches wider than the diam eter of the stove s burner to ensure even heating.5 fluid ounces) of essential oils per distil lation and can be operated by a single individual. Check for drying in two to three days. Cut flowers can be dried quickly and easily in sand or silica gel. The container should be left uncove red and flowers should be dried in about three weeks. New York: Michael Friedman Publishing Group. J. cover the flower as with sand. while weighted gauges will rock gently when the canner is at the proper pressure . and high sugar food s such as jams. syrups and marmalades can be safely processed using a b oiling water bath.

If a jar is filled too full. to taste. Athens. Georgia. Po ur into containers and seal with paraffin wax (jellies only). 1984. The juices must then be either frozen or canned for storage. L to R: ball type jar. The other preserve s should be processed in a boiling water bath for five minutes. Univer sity of Georgia. cook on medium heat until the mixture "sheets" from a spoon. fruits are simmered in water or their o wn juice in a stainless steel. 1984. To preserve fruits. Univer sity of Georgia. No matter which jar is used. Sauerkraut (cabbage) and wine (grapes) are t . and qu art jars for 85 minutes. So Easy to Preserve. and apple juice is a good source of natural pectin. jellies and other high sugar preserves requires a balance of fruit. lemon juice can be added to the mixture of fruit and sugar. food is preserved by the resulting low pH. Fermentation When lactic acid bacteria in foods convert carbohydrates to lactic acid. and frozen or canned. Currently the canning jar with a two-pieced lid is the most commonly used container. Source: Stoner. Canning vegetable juices requires processing at ten pounds of pressure in a pressure canner. when filling containers. zinc lid and two-piece Source: Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. (Ed). So Easy to Preserve.H. These can sometimes be difficult to obtain. Juices can be froze n in jars or freezer containers (leave 1/2 inch headspace). Underripe fruits contain more pectin t han ripe fruits.Dial Gauge Weighted Gauges Source: Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. Juicing Fruits To process tomatoes or fruits to juices. Athens. Sugar or lemon juice can be added. it may explode. the food may spoil. Other methods of processing Freezing Most vegetables should be blanched before freezing to prevent loss of flavor and color during storage. but apple and grape juices c an be processed in hot water (82 C or 180 F) for 30 minutes. If fruits a re low in acid. Cane or beet sugar is better for making preserves than honey or corn syrup. glass freezer jars and waxed freezer cartons all make good co ntainers. When tender. The ball type jar and the zinc capped jar both require rubber rings as seal s. glass or enamelware pot. since all the extra air may not be driven out during processing. Emmaus. Heavy plastic bags. The juice can then be pressed or strained from the vegetable pulp. Jams and Preserves Making jams. then simmered for 45 to 50 minutes unt il mushy. but if locally available. Canning jars and lids. Jellies. Pints should be processed for 55 minutes. Most fruit juices ca n be canned in a boiling water bath for 20 minutes. acid. Avoid overcooking since this will lower the jelling capacity of the mixture. Penn: Rodale Press. colander or several layers of cheesecloth. pectin and sugar for best results. it is important to leave a small amount of headspace to allow for expansion of the food while processing. If too much headspace is left. C. Stocking Up. Packages for freezing should be moisture proof and vapor proof and contain as li ttle air as possible to prevent oxidation during storage. make ex cellent containers. Vegetables Vegetables should be chopped or shredded. he avy aluminum foil. There are three types of glass canning jars used for processing horticultural cr ops. Freezing temperatures are best set between -21 to -18 C ( 0 to 5 F). the product is cut into pieces and pressed through a food mill. Georgia. 1977.

Freezing and Storing Garden Produce. or to locate specific equipment and loc al manufacturers. many horticultural crops can be processed using simple technologies. Acidification Pickling is a simple processing method that can be used with many types of fruit s and vegetables. hand mi lls. For more info rmation and recipes. canning. freezing. Two-man cassava grater: Four-bladed root chopper: Hand-operated fruit press: Source: Intermediate Technology Publications. Post-harvest Crop Processing : Some tools for agriculture. power mills. Fruits. 1987. while fresh pack pickles are processed in a boiling water bath for 10 minutes. storage containers. vegetabl es and flowers can all be dried and stored for use or sale in the future. Brine solution (9 parts cider or white vinegar. Source: USDA. see Chioffi and Mead (1991). 1977. decorticators (seed removers). shellers. 9 parts water. and over 3 . We encourage you to use this directory to find more information on the processes introduced in this manual. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Section 10: Processing of horticultural crops ________________________________________ Processing equipment Preparation for processing Solar drying Forced-air dehydrators Oil-burning dehydrators Electric dehydrators Oven drying Drying flowers Extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants Canning Juicing Other methods of processing ________________________________________ When conditions are not suitable for storage or immediate marketing of fresh pro duce. Brined pickles are sealed a nd left at ambient temperature for three or more weeks. preserving and juicing. and root crop cutters/graters. Intermediate Technology Publications. London. Preparation for processing . USDA Agricultu ral Information Bulletin 410.wo examples of thousands of fermented foods made around the world. plus flavorings and spices) is poured over the product into glass canning jars (leave 1/2 inch headspace). including drying. * Intermediate Technology Publications. Included are driers. London WC2E 8HW. 9 King Street. oil processing equipm ent. There are some processing methods that can be used by small-scale handlers. Some examples are shown below . fruit presses. Intermediate Technology Publications* in association with CTA published a guide to appropriate equipment entitled Small-Scale Food Processing (1992) by Fellows and Hampton. 1 part non-iod ized salt. Fermen tation is popular throughout the world as a food preservation method. fermenting. cleaners. Engl and. 29 pp. Fr uits and vegetables can be canned or frozen.500 individual fermented foods have been described by Campbell-Platt (1987). Canning. UK Processing equipment A catalog of postharvest processing equipment is available from Intermediate Tec hnology Publications. and fruits are often preserved in s ugar or juiced.

Division of Agricultural Science. Trays for drying be stac ked using bricks and wooden spools as spacers. S. Seal the bottom edges of the box with soil. Blanching times for selected commodities {use one gallon of water per pound (8 l iters per kg) of produce}: Commodity Blanching time in boiling water (minutes) Brocolli 3 Green Beans 3 Cabbage (wedges) 5 Carrots 5 Cauliflower 3 (add 4 teaspoons of salt) Corn 7 Eggplant 4 (add 1/2 cup lemon juice) Leafy greens 2 Mushrooms 3 to 5 Peas 2 Potatoes (new) 4 to 10 Pumpkin until soft Zucchini/summer squash 3 Source: Chioffi. University of California. et al. et al. 1991. In the illustration below. Place th e sulfur in a container well away from the side of the box since it will become quite hot. Leaflet 2785. N. The trays must be made completely of wood. A simple method for solar drying is to construct a raised platform from wood and cover the frame with loosely woven mats. Source: Miller. speeding drying and reducing losses due to overheating. 1981. Solar drying Horticultural produce can be dried using direct or indirect solar radiation. Pownal. and Mead. Division of Agricultural Science.Some produce requires blanching before freezing or drying. peaches and apricots are sometimes treated with sulfur being dried. and fruits such as ap ples. M. Leaflet 2785. STRAW MATS . Drying Foods at Home. University of California. Use one tablespoon of sulfur powder per pound (35 mls per kg) of fruit. Sulfuring {burn one tablespoon of sulfur powder per pound (35 ml per kg) of fruit or dip fruit in a 1% potassium metabisulfite solution for one minute} helps prevent darkening . Blanching by boiling water bath or in steam ends certain enzymatic reactions in the product and helps retain color and flavor after processing. M. sliced fres h tomatoes are being dried in direct sunlight on straw mats. pears. since sulfur fumes will corrode metal The entire assembly must be loca ted out of doors. protecting it from insects and birds while drying. Simple direct driers can be made from trays of screening material propped upon w ooden or concrete blocks to allow air to circulate under the produce. preferably on bare soil. A low cost sulfuring box can be constructed from a large cardboard box that is s lashed in several places to allow adequate ventilation. Drying Foods at Home. Vermont: Sto rey Publishing. Sulfuring times for selected fruits: Commodity Sulfuring Time Apples 45 minutes Apricots 2 hours Peaches 3 hours Pears 5 hours Source: Miller. Air can pass over a nd below the produce. Nuts can be dried effectively in this way. 1981. loss of flavor and loss of vitamin C. Keeping the Harvest. The simplest method for solar drying is to lay produce directly upon a Hat black su rface and allow the sun and wind to dry the crop. A layer of cheesecloth can be draped loosely over the produce.

International Society for Tropical Root Crops. Feb. Tent Direct drier with straight rather than curved frame members- Bin Any drier. The walls at the top of the bin. Chad. providing some protection from insects while capturing more of t he heat of the sun. 1982. The solar collector is constructed on a concrete base. Postharvest News and Information 4(5): 131N-136N. The plenum chamber below the produce is covered with a floor of perforated sheet metal or wooden slats. and usually able to hold only one layer of produce. 1992. Ontario: IDRC 104 pp. below the overhanging roof. which has no transparent surfaces. the insides painted black. Usually a direct drier. Drier type Description Schematic view of typical example Direct cabinet Drying Chamber is glazed and no separate solar collector is used . Peru. L. R. G. More complex models of solar driers have glass or clear plastic windows that cov er the produce. Alberta.J. Forced-air dehydrators Nut crops can be dried in bulk using a dehydrator that combines a steady stream of air with an external source of heat. Mixed mode or Hybrid cabinet Drying chamber is partially or fully glazed. 1983). 2126. Woodland. using a layer of fine stones and two layers of concrete blocks. Direct solar drier: Indirect driers are constructed so the sun shines upon a solar collector (a shal low box. Ottawa. and drying bin. Alonso. Tunnel Usually a hoop framed structure with one or two layers of film plastic g lazing. 1983. The solar dryer: Detail of the solar collector: Source: Best. Source: Yaciuk. Extension Systems International. 6-9 July 1981. which c an dry deep layers (typically 300 mm or more) of the produce. all covered wit h polyethylene. The development of a through ci rculation polar heated air dryer for cassava chips 6th Symposium. but usually indirect with forced convection air flow. are made of screen. 73 Antelope Street. R. (Lima. some sort of structure must be use d to capture solar radiation. and Velez. Indirect cabinet Solar collector is used which is separate from the dryin g chamber. 1993. * indicates glazed surface Source: Fuller. Solar Drying of Horticultural Produce: Present Practi ce and Future Prospects. but can be indirect if black plastic film is use d for the inner layer of glazing. Central Africa. Consultancy for Africare/ USAID on food processing in the Ouadhai.Source: Kitinoja. The air heated within the collector is then forced through the perforated floor of the drying bin. The solar drier for cassava chips illustrated below consists of a solar collecto r. C. L. and a separate solar collector is used. a fan. Food Drying: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Edmonton . California 95695. Various types of solar driers have been developed and are illustrated below. allowing for easy movement of air through the produce. A fan located be . topped with a pane of glass) heating air whi ch then moves upward through a stack of four to six trays loaded with produce. Low tunnel Direct drier similar to the above but built close to the ground. In order to improve the efficiency of drying..

Source: Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. Pownal. Starting with one inch of sand in a container. Drying flowers Cut flowers can be air dried by hanging upside down or while supported by chicke n wire. and place the flowers into a vase containing two inches of water. Electric dehydrators A simple electric dehydrator can be constructed using plywood. The drier shown below is 32 inches long by 21 inches wide and 30 inches high. 191 pp. Place the prepared produce on baking or metal screen trays. Two types of dehydrators are commonly used for drying small volumes of nut crops . Division of Agricultu re and Natural Resources. In all cases. (Ed). B. University of California. Oil-burning dehydrators The batch-dryer illustrated below is constructed of wood. Post-Harvest Crop Processing: Some Tools for Agricultur e. Athens. Certain flowers will look more natural if left standing in a vase while they dry. five household lightbulbs with porcelain mounting fixtures and some scre ening material. statice. 120 pp. 1991. Cut the stems at a sh arp angle. and Thompson. and contains racks for five trays. Afric an daisy. Prevention of Post-Harvest Food Losses: A Training Manual. G. N. Sand used for drying flowers should be clean? smooth and the finer the better. Source: Clarke. has an axial type fan and burns kerosene or diesel oil. Vermont: Sto rey Publishing Oven drying Fruits and vegetables can be dried in a home oven if the oven can be run at a lo w temperature. J. Univer sity of Georgia.tween the furnace and the plenum chamber moves the hot air through the drying pr oduce. New York: Michael Friedman Publishing Group. larkspur. A wagon with a perforated floor can be transported from the field and connecte d to a portable burner batch drying. Dr ying time can be reduced if ventilation is increased by using a small fan placed outside the oven.F. Keeping the Harvest. Source: FAO.R. set t he oven temperature at 140 degrees F and leave the door ajar (2 to 4 inches). place the flower to be dried on the sand and ge . okra pods Flowers that dry best while hanging upside down: chysanthemum. Postharvest Te chnology of Horticultural Crops. Wagon Dehydrator: Pot-Hole Dehydrator: Source: Kader.A. So Easy to Preserve. AA. A. amaranthus. 1985. Inc. sheet metal a sma ll fan. London. In: Kader. well area. A wide variety of dryers are available from ma nufacturers around the world. B. Georgia. The Encyclopaedia of Everlastings. marigold African daisy supported on a screen of chicken wire: Source: Rogers. Flowers that dry best if left standing: strawflower. Source: Chioffi. A stationary "pot-hole" dehydrator is desig ned to move heated air along a plenum under a fixed platform Individual bins of nuts are placed upon the platform and are dried as heat rises up through the per forated floor. Ro me: UNFAO. Publication 3311. 1984. flowers should be left to air dry in a dark. Cut flowers can be dried quickly and easily in sand or silica gel. The fan and the sheet metal lin ing the bottom compartment help conduct heat upward through the box. 1992. and Mead. 1987. delphinium. UK: Intermediate Technology Publications. 1988. Anthurium dries best if left to dry very slowly.

an inner rack and a steam vent in the kid. Athens. and reloading. then tightly seal the containe r. A pressure canner is a specially made heavy pot with a locking lid. sweet william carnatio n. This 5 00 liter (130 gallon). jellies. New York: Michael Friedman Publishing Group. A dial gauge gives a reading of the actual pressure. anemone. cleaning. Acidic foods such as fruits. pickles and relishes. stainless steel vessel may be used by small scale process ors. Hort Technology 2(4): 473-476. as it extracts up to 100 ml (3. Canning Two types of canners are commonly used to process horticultural crops. B. 191 pp. Univer sity of Georgia. 1984. Drying flowers in sand: Silica gel is relatively expensive but reusable if heated to dry out the gel bet ween uses. 1992. B. Inc. and moves through a layer of plant material which re sts upon a perforated stainless steel plate.   . depending on the type of canner. Extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants The steam extraction unit illustrated below was first constructed for experiment al extraction of essential oils from small quantities of aromatic plants. Pressure Canners Dial Gauge Weighted Gauges Source: Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. cornflower.5 fluid ounces) of essential oils per distil lation and can be operated by a single individual. Flowers that dry best in silica gel are allium. The tank can be tilted for ease m emptying. lily-of-the-valley. J. Flowers that dry well in s and are shasta daisy. while weighted gauges will rock gently when the canner is at the proper pressure . 1988. The model shown below is portable if mounted on a trailer.E. which is a large pot with a loose cover and a rack to h old jars off the bottom The pot should be deep enough to cover the canning jars by one to two inches and still have another inch of space to allow brisk boiling . So Easy to Preserve. Check for drying in two to three days.R. Georgia. To use. cover the flower as with sand. dahlia. stock.ntly cover the entire flower with more sand. tomatoes. and Simon. cosmos. A pressure gauge registers the air p ressure inside the canner. then pass thorough a water cooled aluminum con denser. Steam is introduced a t the bottom of the vessel. The container should be left uncove red and flowers should be dried in about three weeks. The Encyclopaedia of Everlastings. 1984. Univer sity of Georgia. water vapor and extracted vo latiles exit the tank at the top. The vent can be adjusted using a weight. Steam. tuli p and zinnia. Athens. A pressure canner is recommended for processing low acid foods such as vegetable s. The first is a water bath canner. Georgia. freesia and narcissus. Silica gel is especially useful for dr ying fragile plants and flowers with delicate colors. Source: Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. The steam extractor: The condenser: Source: Alkire. syrups and marmalades can be safely processed using a b oiling water bath. A portable steam distillation unit fo r essential oil crops. roses. value or screw.H. and high sugar food s such as jams. So Easy to Preserve. The diameter of the pot should be no more than four inches wider than the diam eter of the stove s burner to ensure even heating. Source: Rogers. Ten pounds of pressure at 115 C (240 F) is recommended for canning vegetables.

and apple juice is a good source of natural pectin. Sauerkraut (cabbage) and wine (grapes) are t wo examples of thousands of fermented foods made around the world. If a jar is filled too full. Jellies. (Ed). and frozen or canned. Source: Stoner. cook on medium heat until the mixture "sheets" from a spoon. Juices can be froze n in jars or freezer containers (leave 1/2 inch headspace). since all the extra air may not be driven out during processing. Brine solution (9 parts cider or white vinegar. Canning vegetable juices requires processing at ten pounds of pressure in a pressure canner. pectin and sugar for best results. Athens. So Easy to Preserve. If fruits a re low in acid. Heavy plastic bags. to taste. Jams and Preserves Making jams. Sugar or lemon juice can be added. C. The ball type jar and the zinc capped jar both require rubber rings as seal s. plus flavorings and spices) is poured over the product . glass or enamelware pot. when filling containers. 9 parts water. Currently the canning jar with a two-pieced lid is the most commonly used container. the food may spoil. If too much headspace is left. Acidification Pickling is a simple processing method that can be used with many types of fruit s and vegetables. Univer sity of Georgia. Georgia. To preserve fruits. Freezing temperatures are best set between -21 to -18 C ( 0 to 5 F). Stocking Up. then simmered for 45 to 50 minutes unt il mushy. but apple and grape juices c an be processed in hot water (82 C or 180 F) for 30 minutes. glass freezer jars and waxed freezer cartons all make good co ntainers. he avy aluminum foil. Fermentation When lactic acid bacteria in foods convert carbohydrates to lactic acid. 1 part non-iod ized salt. Packages for freezing should be moisture proof and vapor proof and contain as li ttle air as possible to prevent oxidation during storage. When tender. colander or several layers of cheesecloth. see Chioffi and Mead (1991). The juice can then be pressed or strained from the vegetable pulp.H. L to R: ball type jar. Juicing Fruits To process tomatoes or fruits to juices. make ex cellent containers. Pints should be processed for 55 minutes. Penn: Rodale Press. and qu art jars for 85 minutes. 1977. Emmaus. Vegetables Vegetables should be chopped or shredded. jellies and other high sugar preserves requires a balance of fruit. the product is cut into pieces and pressed through a food mill. 1984. lemon juice can be added to the mixture of fruit and sugar. The other preserve s should be processed in a boiling water bath for five minutes. Canning jars and lids. food is preserved by the resulting low pH. acid. it may explode. zinc lid and two-piece Source: Georgia Cooperative Extension Service. Most fruit juices ca n be canned in a boiling water bath for 20 minutes. Avoid overcooking since this will lower the jelling capacity of the mixture. Po ur into containers and seal with paraffin wax (jellies only). it is important to leave a small amount of headspace to allow for expansion of the food while processing. Cane or beet sugar is better for making preserves than honey or corn syrup.There are three types of glass canning jars used for processing horticultural cr ops. These can sometimes be difficult to obtain. The juices must then be either frozen or canned for storage. Other methods of processing Freezing Most vegetables should be blanched before freezing to prevent loss of flavor and color during storage. Underripe fruits contain more pectin t han ripe fruits. fruits are simmered in water or their o wn juice in a stainless steel. but if locally available. No matter which jar is used. For more info rmation and recipes.

CIP. Thailand. ASEAN-PHTRC. 1980. and Hampton. 1994. Annual Report. E. Vegetables and Root Cr ops.into glass canning jars (leave 1/2 inch headspace). Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources.A. 157 pp. 1990. Liu. Canning. University of California. Barbados: Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agric ulture (IICA). F. D. Commercialization of Alternative Crops Project. E. Agricultural Fibres for Paper Pulp. Extension Manual 43. NRC. Kupferman. Oakland. 1982. A 1992. Village Level Handling of Fruits and Vegetables: Traditional Practices and Technological Innovations. while fresh pack pickles are processed in a boiling water bath for 10 minutes.G. G. 1986. 2000 M Street. FAO/UNEP Expert Consultation on Reduction of Food Losse s in Perishable Products of Plant Origin.C. J. USDA Agricultu ral Information Bulletin 410. Developing practical methods and facilities for handling fruits in order to maintain quality and reduce losses. 54 pp. Rome). California 94608. P. 1984. Sto nam.. Guillon. Washington. ________________________________________ General references Aiyer.M. D. Phra Atit Road. Washing ton State University Tree Fruit Postharvest Journal 1(1): 13-15.. 1990. AA (ed). Mitchell. R. 1984. Commercial Cooling of Fruits a nd Vegetables. R.W. Bulletin 1914. London: Intermediate Technology Publications Grierson.. 1987. (6 May 1980. University of the Philippines at Los Baños. University of California. Taiwan. The Commercial Storage of Fruits. 1988. W. Small-Scale Food Processing A Guide to Appropri ate Equipment. and New. London: TDRI. et al. 1992. Postharvest Handling Manual. 20036. ME4 4TB. . Neem: A Tree for Solving Global Problems. Reg ional Office for Asia and the Pacific.: Bostid Pu blishing Co. Chatham Maritime . FAO. California 94608. 1972. B. Division of Agriculture and Na tural Resources. USDA Agriculture Handbook 66. P. Outlook on Agriculture 18 (3): 96-103. Postharvest Pathology of Fruits and Vegetables: Postharvest Lo sses in Perishable Crops. Suite 200. Prevention of Post-Harvest Food Losses: Fruit. 1989. Moline.C. Pantastico. 10200. 130 pp. G. 1986. United Kingdom). Natural Resources Institute. U. Harvey. Central Avenue.C. Maliwan Mansion. Cali.. Postharvest Horticulture and Training C enter. U. University of California. Fellows. Er. A Training Manual. Massachussetts: Butterworth Heineman. Lima. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops (2nd Edition ). Colombia: CIAT. Vegetables. Source: USDA.C. Hunsigi. 141 pp. Chatham. Life after benlate: an update on the alternatives. Oakland. 1989. Cassa va Newsletter 4: 8-9. UK: Natural Resources Institute. 1978. Rome: UNFAO. Kader. Freezing and Storing Garden Produce. Hardenburg. Improvement of Post-Harvest Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Handling. Washington.W.. No-cost method for preserving fresh cassava roots. Kent. Peru: International Potato Center.J. UC Publication 3311. 1992. Extensi on Bulletin No. N. Parsons. RS.E. Fermented Foods of the World: Dictionary and Guide. Taipei 10616.. FAO. et al. Manual for Horticultural Export Quality Assur ance. et al. Postharvest Handling of Tropica l and Subtropical Fruit Crops. Belize Agribusiness Company/USAID/Chemonics International Consul ting Division. Harvesting and postharvest handling of papayas in the Ca ribbean.H 1986. Oakland. Campbell-Platt. Brined pickles are sealed a nd left at ambient temperature for three or more weeks. 1987. Bridgetown. F. 1 Broustead. Packaging of fruit and vegetables: a study of models for the manufacture of corrugated fibreboard boxes in developing countri es. 1977.. Bangkok. Division of A gricultural Sciences. California 94608. (for information contact NRI. R. and Florist and Nursery Stocks. College of Agriculture. Food and Fertilizer Technical Center for the Asia n and Pacific Region. HE. FAO.

U. cassava and yarns i s an important practice if these crops are to be stored for any length of time. The dried layers of skin. 1993. 1986. Curing is accomplished by holding the produce at high temperature and high relat ive humidity for several days while harvesting wounds heal and a new. 358 pp. Post-harvest handling of tropical fruit for export. Illino is 60601. F. burlap or woven grass mats. Postharvest treatment for extending shelf life of fruits an d vegetables. protective layer of cells form. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Section 2: Curing root. 221 North LaSalle Street. The best conditions for curing vary among crops as shown in the following table: Commodity Temperature Relative Humidity Days C F (%) Potato 15-20 59-68 90-95 5-10 Sweetpotato 30-32 86-90 85-90 4-7 Yarns 32-40 90-104 90-100 1-4 Cassava 30-40 86-104 90-95 2-5 Curing. If local weather conditions permit . While curing can be initially costly. Shewfelt. and Fletcher. Perishables Handling Newsletter. Unive rsity of California. one day or less at 35 to 45 C (95 to 113 F) and 60 to 75% relative humidity is recom mended. J. Chicago. World Food Programme Food Storage Manual Chatham. Special Issue No. 80: 5-8. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 106:249-255 . Talbot.J. The Cour ier 92: 83-86. Reyes. D. The dried tops of the plants can be arranged to cover and shad e the bulbs during the curing process. Postharvest Training and Research Center. A Scientific Status Summa ry by the Institute of Food Technologists Expert Panel on Food Safety and Nutri tion. (eds). the long extension o f storage life makes the practice economically worthwhile. College of Agriculture.L. 89. Design and Development of a Portable Force d-Air Cooler. windrowed and left there to dry for five to ten days. protecting the produce from excess heat a nd sunburn. Thompson. 1990.E. If forced heated air is used for curing onions and other bulbs. Davis. UK: Natura l Resources Institute. Institute of Food Technologists. San Diego: Academic Press. 1992. these crops can be undercut in the field. Field curing Yams and other tropical root and tuber crops can be cured outdoors if piled in a partially shaded area.H 1993. Ripening facilities. J.L. 1988. University of the Philippines at Los Baños. potatoes. of allowing the external layers of skin and neck tis sue to dry out prior to handling and storage. J. Food Technology 40(5):7078. M. M. Cut grasses or straw can be used as insulating materials and the pile should be covered with canvas. R. Quality of Fruits and Vegetables. Postharvest Handling A Systems Appr oach.F. T.Proctor. and Prussia. Curing requires high temperature and high relative humidity. 1994. then protect the produce from further water l oss during storage. S.L. Shewfelt. R. and this covering will tra     . Walker. tuber and bulb crops ________________________________________ Field curing Curing with heated air Bulk systems for curing onions Emergency curing ________________________________________ Curing root and tuber crops such as sweetpotatoes. Shewfelt R. when used for onions. garlic and flowering bulbs refers to the practice directly following harvest. Laguna. 1985. Design Concept and Operation of ASEAN Packinghouse Equipment for Fruits and Vegetables.

If heaters are located near the ceiling. C uring may take up to ten days. & Scheuerman. When using heated air it is easy to overdry the bulbs. Ibadan. (No date). NY: Cornell University Extension. a temporary tent can be used for curing onions. The stack should be left for about four days . T he illustrations below shows how air can be brought in. R. et al. Produce in sacks can be stacked in the shade on canvas tarpaulins under one or more ceil ing fans. 1993. J. then checked daily until the outer skin and neck tissues are properly dried. or heat can be ducted in from outside the curing room. Several fans are used to circulate the warm air through the onion s while they are curing. (IITA. A high relative humidity can be obtained by wetting the floor or by using an evaporati ve cooler in the room without introducing outside air. When purchasing non-organic fruits and vegetables. H. depending on weather conditions.R. Curing assisted by shade and ventilation: Curing with heated air The most uniform distribution of heat is obtained when heat is introduced near t he floor level of a curing structure.R et al. Curing can be assisted by the use of ventilated sheds in regions where solar rad iation and/or relative humidity is high or natural air movement is low. Merced. Ithaca. ________________________________________ Wax Coating on Fruits and Vegetables Conventionally grown fruits and vegetables are often waxed to prevent moisture l oss. Bulk bins must be stacked to allow a gap of 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 inches) between rows for adequate air circul ation. Heaters can be placed on the floor near th e bins of produce. H.) Onions and garlic can be cured in the field in regions where harvest coincides w ith the dry season. a heating unit and a slatted floor. Merced County Cooperative Extension. Ithaca. No date. Source: Davis. and increase their shelf life.p self-generated heat and moisture. In the example illustrated below. Cut-away view of yam curing Source: Wilson. Careful Storage of Yams: Some Basic Principles to Re duce Losses. then ceiling fans can be used to help r edistribute the heat down into the room of produce. Information Bulletin 148. The produce can be left in the field for five days . Source: Thompson. Information Bulletin 148. heated and distributed t hrough a load of bulk onions in the curing room An exhaust opening near the ceil ing recirculates heated air. Curing onions should be checked regularly to avoid overdrying. leading to loss of extern al scales and exposure of the fleshy scales underneath. the tent is constructed from large tarps. protect them from bruising during shipping. J. Hea ted air is forced into a hollow area (known as a plenum) at the center of the bi ns of produce. Curing and Storing California Swee tpotatoes.W. Source: Davis. No date. New York Cornell University Extension . Nigeria. Storage Recommendations for Northern Grown Onions. Emergency curing If conditions such as rain or flooded fields do not permit field curing and curi ng facilities are not available. The crops can be cured either in windrows or after packing i nto large fiber or net sacks. Storage Recommendations for Northern Grown On ions. London: Commonwealth Secretariat/International Institute of Tropica l Agriculture. you should ask your grocer ab . California Bulk systems for curing onions Curing using a bulk system requires a fan.

ethyl alcohol or ethanol for consistency. the only way we know of to remove the wax from non-organic produce is to remove the skin. Coatings used on fruits and vegetables must meet FDA food additive regulations f or safety. milk casein (a protein linked to milk allergy) as "film formers" and soaps as flowing agents. Q What does the "use-by" date mean on a package of fresh produce? A "Best-If-Used-By." a government-approved certifier inspe cts the farm where the food is grown to make sure the farmer meets the U. Oftentimes. beeswax-. After harvest . or ionizing radiation. Q What is ethylene gas . at this point in time. Before a product can be labeled "organic. use a peeler th at takes only a thin layer of skin. fresh produce may be washed to clean off dirt and soil . Q Why are wax coatings used on fruits and vegetables? A Many vegetables and fruits make their own natural waxy coating. Yet. and enhance appearance. Wax coatings help retain moisture to maintain quality from farm to table includi ng: • when produce is shipped from farm to market • while it is in the stores and restaurants • once it is in the home Waxes also help inhibit mold growth.S. Unfortunately. as washing will not remove the w ax or any bacteria trapped beneath it. such fruits and vegetables are harvested in the unripe ned state to preserve firmness and for long shelf life. they are later exposed t o ethylene gas to induce ripening.naturally produce ethylene gas whe n they ripen. carn auba wax (from the carnauba palm tree). Companies that handle or process orga nic food before it reaches the supermarket or restaurant must be certified. Watch for signs that say: "Coate d with food-grade vegetable-.out the kind of wax used on their surface even if you are going to peel it. as many healthy vitamins and minerals lie ri ght below the skin. Organically grown fruits and vegetables do not contain wax coatings. petroleum-.like bananas .but such washing also removes the natural wax.(or Before)" date is the last date recommended for peak qual ity as determined by the manufacturer of the product. Q How are waxes applied? A Waxes are used only in tiny amounts to provide a microscopic coating surroundi ng the entire product. Produce shippers and supermarkets in the United States are required b y federal law to label fresh fruits and vegetables that have been waxed so you w ill know whether the produce you buy is coated. it is not just the wax itself that may be of concern but the oth er compounds often added to it . fertilize rs made with synthetic ingredients or sewage sludge. which contain solvent residues or wo od rosins. and shellac (from the lac beetl e) are preferable to petroleum-based waxes. prevent othe r physical damage and disease.based wax or res   . protect produce from bruising. Each piece of waxed produce has only a drop or two of wax . Depa rtment of Agriculture s organic standards. too. or shellac. bioengineering.and how does it affect produce? A Some fruits and vegetables . beeswax. allowing yo u to enjoy all of the nutritional benefits offered by the skin. waxes are applied to some produce to replac e the natural waxes that are lost. Non-organic fruits and vegetables that are commonly waxed include: Cucumbers Bell peppers Eggplant Potatoes Apples Lemons and Limes Oranges Q & As about Fresh Produce Q What is "organic produce"? A Organic produce is grown without using most conventional pesticides. If you choose to do this. Therefore.

Where do the waxes come from? What are they made of? Waxes are also used on candies. whic h means they go through the body without breaking down or being absorbed. Which foods have wax on them? Commodities that may have coatings applied include apples. This whitening is safe and is similar to that of a candy bar that has been in the freezer. bell pepper s. This is part icularly important for people following Kosher or vegetarian diets and who don t want any animal-based wax on their produce. but we are not aware of any such coatings being used on fruits and vegetables in this country. eggplants. waxes are applied to some produce items at the packing shed to replace t he natural ones that are lost. Food an d Drug Administration. but before the produce is packed and sent to the supermarket. lemons. it is repeatedly washed to c lean off dirt and soil. Waxes are indigestible." Waxes are used only in tiny amounts. • protect fruits and vegetables from bruising. beeswax-.S. • help inhibit mold growth. How do I get it off? Consumers do have choices. Any commodities that do have this t ype of coating must be labeled "Coated with animal-based wax. cantaloupes. wax coatings help fresh f ruits and vegetables maintain wholesomeness and freshness. Waxes by themselves do not control decay. orange     . Sometimes there is a white coating on the fresh fruits and vegetables I see? Wha t is that? Waxes may turn white on the surface of fruits or vegetables if they have been su bjected to excessive heat and/or moisture. What happens to the wax in your body? The government regulates wax coatings to ensure their safety. limes. By protecting against moisture loss and contamination. Coatings used on f ruits and vegetables must meet the food additive regulations of the U. Wax sources generally are plants. Waxes are applied in order to: • help retain moisture in fruits and vegetables during shipping and marketing. melons. • prevent other physical damage and disease. Waxing does not impro ve the quality of any inferior fruit or vegetables. In fact. The Food and Drug Administration and t he Environmental Protection Agency strictly regulate the safety and use of these substances.in. After harvest. Waxes may be mixed with water or other wetting agents to ensure they are applied thinly and evenly. to maintain freshness. The refore. cucumbers. rather. they may be combined with some chemicals to prevent the growth of mold. petroleum-." Why are wax coatings used on some fruits and vegetables? Are they safe? Many fruits and vegetables make their own natural waxy coating to help retain mo isture because most produce is 80 to 95 percent water. waxing – along with pr oper handling – contributes to maintaining a healthful product. How do we know if the food has wax on it? Produce shippers and supermarkets are required by federal law to label produce i tems that have been waxed so you will know whether the fruits and vegetables you buy are coated. grapefruits. pastries and gum and come from natural sources. Waxes generally cannot be removed by regular washing. to maintain freshness. avocados. rather. and/or shellac-based wax or resin. • enhance appearance. each piece of waxed fruit only has a drop or two of wax. food-grade petroleum products or insects (simi lar to honey from bees). I still don t want to eat the wax." None of these coatings are animal-based. Any consumers who have questions about wax coati ngs should talk to their grocers. and they all come from natural sources. thereby removing any c oating. Consumers will see signs in produce departments that say "Coate d with food-grade vegetable-. Some waxes can be made from dairy or animal sources. If consumers prefer not to consume waxes–even though the waxes are safe–they can bu y unwaxed commodities or can peel the fruit or vegetable. Such extensive washing also removes the natural wax. Extensive research by governmental and scientific authori ties has shown that approved waxes are safe to eat.

manufac turers may add stearic acid (a fat that may be derived from animal or vegetable sources) to carnuba wax. which may cause a problem. It is quite possible that th e carnuba wax in question is pure. Assuming the milk is from a tahor animal. and tropica l fruits and on a variety of vegetables. and in a variety of vegetables. Waxes have been used domestically for over 60 years. It is a product that is derived from the secretions of the tiny lac insect. At this stage the wax has a very bad taste. Pure carnuba was is unproblematic. animal fats. Th is would also apply to the less commonly used candelia wax. leaving a tasteless wax coating. etc. soy and casein. Emulsifiers are an important additive that allow oil and water to adequately mix . While most wax manufacturers use vegetable grade oleic acid. however. however. one must be certain before purchasing a product that contains carunuba wax. There are two types of proteins used in the wax industry. such as . pumpkins. Other ingredients added to finished wax coatings include oleic acid. animal. this is generally not an issue b eyond the fact. and polyethylene are inhe rently tahor. too. crushed. Petroleum based waxes including paraffin. it can be f ound not only in the produce aisle. However. Protei ns are used as a thickener in lac-resin waxes and are not necessary in the more viscous petroleum or carnuba waxes. Given that lac-resin. Carnuba wax is derived from palm trees and is used in waxes for stonefruits. pose the same potential problems as oleic acid. mineral oil. This ingredient can be derived from animal and/or vegetable derivatives and presents a problem similar to carnuba wax. therefore.s. tomatoes. present a problem. They are derived from a variety of sources and are a cross combination of natural and synthetic ingredients. For produce. apples and pears. is already tame’. there would be no issues presented by a wax t hat contained casein. Th e product is then shipped to local distributors who sell it to supermarkets and other retailers. pineapples. Shellac or lac resin is a product that is imported from India and is used in wax es for citrus fruits. in that they may b e animal based. as in America is always the case. and would. confectioners glaze. stone fruits. What are t hese waxes? Are they tahor? These and other questions are very important in und erstanding the kashrut of fruits and vegetables. Wax Due to a new Food and Drug Administration requirement. it is extremely difficult to know which company ha s manufactured the wax on a particular fruit or vegetable as it can pass through several hands before reaching the market. but often in the candy aisle as well. The lac insect secretes "lac-resin" from its glands onto a host tree. sieved. Here again. on a wide variety of fruits and vegetables (see list). lac-resin. parsnips. lac. emulsifiers . These waxes are commonly used on melons. and/or shella c-based wax or resin to maintain freshness" on fruits and vegetables. squash. petroleum. foodgrade resin. The resin is then gathered. However. Soy pro tein is a soybean derivative which is generally tahor. passion fruit. they are not always waxed. sw eet potatoes. one must be sure before consuming any product with a wax that contains oleic acid. A finished wax is applied to the foods either at a cooperative warehouse (for pr oduce) or at the manufacturers (for candy). or contains vegetable stearic acid. Proteins present different concerns. and beeswax. The most common primary wax ingredients are shellac. washed an d purified into food grade shellac. and proteins. and petroleum wax. may come from unknown animal sources. rutabagas. turnips and yucca. carnuba wax. Lac-resin is known by many names. but one must be sure and not simply rely upon a majority of c ases. Casein is a protein derived from milk. Oleic acid is almost always used in wax. Other proteins. peaches. a wax of plant origi n. most manufacturers use vegetable based emulsifiers ( such as lecithin). The bad tasting chemicals evaporate. These.. however. CONCLUSION . Less frequently used wax bases include beeswax and candelia wax. shellac. consumers will now see la bels such as "Coated with food grade vegetable.

sweet potatoes. tomatoes.unless one is sure of the wax being used. eggplant. rather than external appearance. although the characteri stics of the internal quality of the fruit may be acceptable. the fruit will still be tame’. passion fruit Vegetables: avocados. bell peppers. may practise de-greening. the United Kingdom. in general. Several post-harvest techniques have been introduced and have found favour with large and small scale farmers countrywide. is to purchase only organic fru its and vegetables. there is an easy answer to this problem. squash. it is extremely difficult to know which company manufactured the wax and what raw materials were used. better to avoid waxed produce and other waxed items in general . GINA. organic produce is becoming more and more generally available. Common Fruits and Vegetables that are Waxed Citrus Fruits: grapefruits. Picha has also held workshops with farmers when he demonstrated various techniques not yet adopted by Guyanes e farmers. This pattern is continuing with a specific emphasis on the quality of the produc e being traded. rutabaga. However. limes. several new techniques have been introduced to farmers throughout the c ountry. Post-harvest Specialist from the Louisiana University in the United States of Am erica Dr. produce do es. Citrus fruits produced in Guyana is of ten mature and of acceptable eating quality when the rind is still green. Under Torah law. 2003 During the past few years Guyana has increased its exports of non-traditional cr ops to international markets including Barbados. therefore. this does not present a significant issue. Dr. which is a naturally produced plant growth hormone effective as a de-greening agent. * Even though the wax on a citrus fruit does not touch what is eaten. This treatment is solely cosmetic i . to improve the external skin colour for export market acceptance. The d emand in these markets is only for fully coloured citrus fruits. and turnips. peaches. cucumbers. Ethylene treatment breaks down the gre en chlorophyll pigment in the exterior part of the peel and allows the yellow or orange carotenoid pigments to be expressed. It is. To this end there have been many significant strides in the agricultural sector to enhance the product quality to boost demand and satisfaction. green peppers. Fortunately. tangerines. and. T he answer to the wax produce problem. Canada and the United States of America. pears Stone Fruits: nectarines. Organic produce is n ot waxed. tangerines* Melons: cantaloupe. Candies in general should be avoided due to the fact that most sugars are not ta hor . hot-pepp ers. any item that comes in contact with the pro duct of a dead tame’ animal. plums Tropical Fruits: mangos. honeydew Pome Fruits: apples. Citrus can be treated with ethylene. Guyanese consumers recognise citrus fruit with green peel colour as perfectly good to eat as domestic consumers tend to be more concerned about cit rus fruit flavour and juiciness.therefore. Regardless of the peel colour. lemons. papayas. many consumers in non-Caribbean export markets associate external skin colour with internal flavour and believe oranges. October 13. parsnips. High t emperatures and humidity interfere with peel coloration.When one purchases waxed produce or other waxed items. Improving quality for export of non-traditional crops A GINA Feature by Rekha Budhna Georgetown. and other Caribbean countries. David Picha prepared several documents on post harvest techniques that farmers can refer to for handling techniques. the Guyana Economic Opportu nities (GEO) Project and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). becomes tame’. oranges. De-Greening Citrus For farmers who plant citrus. Through the New Guyana Marketing Corporation (NGMC). However. grapefruit and lem ons with green-coloured peel to be immature and not ready for consumption.

and a longer sh elf life. Waxing is recommended only for good quality products because it does not improve the quality of inferior ones. The source of ethylene can be a high-p ressure gas cylinder or an ethylene generator. Submergence time is usually one second or less. Curing of ground provisions Ground provisions including sweet potatoes. After application. A soft absorbent cloth or fine bristle brush can be used to speed up the process. It is the first attribute that buyers notice. the high temperature of the melted wax converts the surface moisture on the product into steam and forms pockets or blisters under the wax coating. the lack of appro priate information on the technology of waxing. smearing the wax evenly over the pr oduct surface. ranging from manual rubbing of the product surface to automated roller brush application. visual appeal of the product is a powerful characteristic in determining market acceptance. The general procedure for de-greening citrus with ethylene gas involves exposing green-skinned fruit held at a high temperature and relative humidity to low con centrations of ethylene for several days. less moisture loss and shrivelling. however. The wax will then loosen and drop off. Although there may not alway s be a correlation between external appearance and edible quality. Waxing fruits and vegetables External appearance is an important attribute of overall fruit and vegetable qua lity.n effect and does not alter the flavour of the fruit. the lack of availability of food-grade waxes. It is very important that the product surface be completely dry before dipping. waxing fruits and vegetables is not yet done in Guyana. The products are ready for packing within a minute after submergence. Wounding and skin damage causes the product to have a high rat e of water loss. The fruit d oes not have to be dry. cassava and eddoes are undergr ound storage organs with a thin delicate skin that is easily damaged during harv est and handling. Manual rubbing Liquid waxes can be applied by manually rubbing the commodity and smearing the w ax evenly over the surface. This is done to supplement or replace the natural wax on the surface of a commodity. If not dry. and increases the susceptibil ity to post-harvest decay. the paraffin solidifies almost instantaneous ly. Waxes may be applied in several ways. The benefits obtained by the product from waxing include an improved appearance. Upo n removal from the melted solution. This may be att ributed to several factors. leads to an unsightly appearance. the products should be left to air dry for about 15 minutes before packing. reduced post-harvest decay. yams. The poorly ventilated bags are handled roughl y during transport and distribution to the market resulting in heavy losses. . Many consumers prefer produce with a shiny or glossy appearance. However. including the lack of awareness of the beneficial ef fects of waxing. Dipping/Submergence Paraffin wax is typically applied as a brief dip or submergence of the product i n a bath of melted paraffin. and the additional cost of appli cation. grapefruit will not de-green well if the peel i s moist. which rotate and spin the product. Various types o f waxes and edible surface coatings may be applied to fruits and vegetables to i mprove the cosmetic (shine and colour) of the product. Ethylene treatment should be administered immediately after harvest. O ften the uncured storage organs are bundled straight into large bags with damp s oil still attached to the surface. Roller brushing Liquid waxes can be applied automatically to the surface of the commodity by usi ng a series of roller brushes. The wax is dispensed from above and saturates the brushes. Waxing consists of applying a thin layer of edible wax to the outer surface of the product. which may have been removed during cleaning and packing. Ground provisions in Guyana are mostly traded without proper curing treatment.

Today we have the food dehydrator to help in the process of dryi ng. a loss of vitamin A and C in dried foods due to heat and air. • It improves the bargaining position of farmers. peop le used a lot of salt to preserve foods. Methods of drying Sun drying Drying in the sun is very economical. they should be moved to a longer-term storage facility. however. The new cork tissue acts as a second skin and seals the cut or bruised areas and helps t o prevent the entrance of decay organisms. which is the production of a waxy suberin material and its deposition in the cell wal ls. • For diabetics dried fruit prepared without adding sugar is a healthy choice inst ead of desserts. It can also be added to cereals for breakfast or used in making ice cream and baked products. There are several types of curing including: Field curing Ground provisions can be cured outdoors if piled in shaded area using cut grasse s or straw as insulating materials. Curing is a high temperature and relatively high humidity treatment immediately after harvest. How to Dry Fruits and Vegetables Food Dehydration is the oldest form of food preservation. Advantages of solar drying Food in the cupboard for later use increases household food security. Sometimes farmers sell at very l ow prices during the harvest season because they cannot store or preserve their surplus products. There are two steps in the curing process. • Dried products improve family nutrition because fruit and vegetables contain hig h quantities of vitamins. and make jerky and fruit leather. There is. You only have to spread the produce on a s uitable surface and let it dry in the sun. The ground provisions can be left in their field crates during curing providing that they are fully ventil ated and sufficiently strong enough to be stacked. and fruit 12-48 hours. Because water i s removed from the food. Uncured ground provisions will deteriorate faster and lose more weight than ad equately cured ones. One can dry fruit and vegetables. and they dried their food in the sun or on stove tops. In the beginning. It usually takes vegetables 6-16 hours to dry. The second step is the formation of a cork cambium and production of cork ti ssue several cell layers above the surface of the wounded flesh tissue. The duration of curing ranges from two to seven days depending on the crop and environmental conditions. • People are encouraged to establish their own gardens.thus it will not sp oil. The pile should be covered with canvas. soups and casseroles or enjoyed as snacks. Room curing Ground provisions are more effectively cured inside protected structures or insu lated buildings with rooms designed for this purpose.Proper curing of ground provisions immediately following harvest is an effective way to reduce the amount of post-harvest loss and increase product storage life . Food dehydration is safe because water is removed from the food. This will also help in marketing. • Dried fruit can be used in stews. . After the ground provisions have been adequately cured. mold and bacteria cannot grow on it. It creates employment opportunities and a sustainable income. Roots/tubers which have partially deteriorated f ollowing curing should be separated from the marketable ones before storing. burl ap or woven grass mats. The first step is suberization. Ade quately cured ground provisions will have a significantly longer potential stora ge life. by allowing for more consistent suppl ies of high quality product. minerals and fibre.

a box frame covered with plastic sheeting. • To minimise the possibility of contamination. Do not underblanch. Washing • Clean all working surfaces before handling fruit or vegetables. • One bucketful of the treated water (20 litre) is enough for cleaning 20 kg of fr uit. The drying process Precautions • Cleanliness and hygiene are very important in the processing of dried fruit and vegetables. pests. • Raw materials contaminated by moulds must not be used in processing. hygiene and colour. is ill with a gastric disorder or suffering from diarrho ea MUST BE EXCLUDED from the processing operations. • Use a fresh cleaning solution every day. Advantages of solar dryers • Drying is faster because inside the dryer it is warmer than outside. The structu re can be very basic.Disadvantages Somebody has to stay at home throughout the drying period to chase off domestic animals.Pour 50 parts of clean water in a clean bucket (e.Add one part of any household bleach (e. rain and dust. 400 ml) containing chlorine . to remove the produce when the weather becomes too windy and dusty. good-quality fruit and vegetables. Predrying treatments Selection • Use only ripe. all vegetables should be blanched in steam to halt the action of enzymes. (if the drying process is slow the fruit start to ferment and the product is spoilt). • Prepare the cleaning solution as follows: . • Water for cleaning must be treated with a household bleach solution. • Discard rotted. • The quality of the product is better in terms of nutrients. • Less risk of spoilage because of the speed of drying. • Selected fruit and vegetables should be washed and scrubbed individually in the treated water. • Washed fruit and vegetables should be placed into a clean basket or bucket and t aken to the peeling or blanching area. The product is often unhygienic as a result of microorganisms and insects such a s flies.For safety reasons plastic gloves should be worn when mixing the solution. . • Care must be taken to avoid breaking the skin of the fruit during cleaning and t hereby contaminating the flesh.g. • It is labour saving. because the enzymes will not be in . or when it rains.g. • Remember. • Select fruit and vegetables individually. The product can be left in the dryer overnight or during ra in. Steam blanching is recommended because it prevents the loss of some nutrients and the products being dried fro m adhering to each other. The dried product is often of poor quality as a result of grit and dirt. processing cannot improve poor-quality fruit or vegetables. Blanching Before drying. • The product is protected against flies. 20 litre). while plastic gloves should be worn. blanching of fruit is optional. However. Solar drying The technology and capital required to dry fruit and vegetables by solar dryers is basic and the entire operation can be completed in most kitchens. damaged or diseased fruit and vegetables.g. e. • All cuts have to be covered with waterproof dressing. any person who is unwell or has in fected wounds or sores.

activated totally and the dried vegetables will deteriorate during storage. Procedure Pour several centimetres of water into a large cooking pot that has a close-fitt ing lid. Heat the water to boiling and place over it, high enough to keep clear of the water, a wire rack or basket holding a layer of the vegetables (not more than 5 cm deep). Cover and let the vegetables steam for half the required time, then test to make sure all pieces are reached by the steam. A sample from the centre of the layer should be wilted and feel soft and heated through when it has been properly blanched. • Remove the vegetables and spread them on paper towelling or clean cloth to remov e excess moisture while you steam the next load. Cover with towelling while wait ing for further treatment or before taking them to the drying trays. Peeling • Hygiene is of utmost importance when peeling. • Peeling should not take place in the area where the raw materials are washed. • The area should be swept thoroughly and washed before handling the fruit. • Peeling knives and working surfaces should be cleaned in fresh bleach solution b efore use. • The operator should wash his/her hands and arms thoroughly with clean water and unperfumed soap. • Clean, sharp stainless steel knives must always be used. • Careful peeling with minimum removal of the flesh is important. • Peelings and seeds should be disposed of as soon as possible because they attrac t flies and other insects. • Peelings can be used as animal feed or as mulch, or be buried if there is no alt ernate use. Cutting and slicing • Thickness of fruit pieces depends upon the kind of fruit being dried. • Thicker slices will dry at a slower rate than thinner pieces. • Very thin pieces tend to stick to the drying trays and will be difficult to remo ve. • Thicker pieces may not dry fully and may subsequently deteriorate after packing. • Packages of dried pieces of varying thickness appear relatively unattractive. • Cutting knives and working surface have to be cleaned with a bleach solution bef ore use. • Slices should be placed in clean bowls which have been rinsed with clean water r eady for loading onto the drying trays. • Before loading the trays, these have to be brushed clean and washed.

Dryers A basic box-type low-cost solar dryer can be constructed at home or by village a rtisans. It is made of wire-mesh trays in a wooden framework surrounded by a cle ar plastic sheet. The solar cabinet dryer type has a surface of 10 m2 and is cap able of drying 20 to 35 kg of fresh produce (depending on commodity) over a peri od of 3 to 4 days. Smaller portable models of the dryer can be constructed depen ding on available funds for the dryer, construction and the purpose of drying (h ome consumption or marketing).

Tray loading • Trays should be washed and cleaned to remove any fragments of dried fruit or con

tamination. • Start to load during slicing rather than waiting until all the fruit has been sl iced or cut. (This reduces the problem of sticking together in the bowls and wil l allow drying to start as soon as possible.) • Lay the pieces of fruit on trays carefully and close to each other without overl apping to ensure the trays are loaded fully. • Keep flies away and load trays quickly and continuously. Dryer loading • The dryer should be positioned in a level area unobscured by trees or buildings so that it is fully exposed to the sun throughout the day. • If the wind blows predominantly in one direction for long periods the dryer shou ld be placed end-on to the wind. This will reduce the cooling effect of the wind blowing direct into the drying cabinet, lengthening drying times. It will also reduce the possibility of dust entering the cabinet. • Before loading, the inside of the drying cabinet should be swept clean and then wiped out with a clean, damp cloth. • The plastic covers outside should be brushed or washed clean of dust because dir ty plastic will reduce dryer performance and increase drying times. • The doors should be closed immediately after each tray has been loaded and not l eft open until the next tray is fetched. It is important to keep flies and other insects from entering the cabinet and off the fruit because of the risk of contamination. Drying • During the first few hours of drying, particularly during very hot and sunny wea ther, fruit may dry at such a rate that moisture condenses on the inside of the plastic covers. • This can be avoided by opening the loading doors slightly (20 mm) to improve air circulation. The gap should, however, be covered with mosquito mesh. • Doors should be kept open for a minimum period of time and closed again as soon as the weather becomes cloudy. • In poor weather drying will stop. Rain will rapidly cool the dryer and this will result in a moisture film on the cover because of condensation. It will be some time before the dryer functions again after the sun breaks through. Therefore, protect the dryer from rain. • Under fine and sunny conditions the fruit slices should be dry after 2 full days in the dryer. However, it is essential to test slices. If the slices are not su fficiently dry, they will become mouldly in a short time. A test for dryness is conducted for specific products. • If the slices are not sufficiently dry, the process should be allowed to continu e for 1 or 2 hours before checking again. • The final moisture content of dried fruit should be approximately 10 % (on a wet basis). Unloading the dryer • When the fruit is considered to be dry, the dryer should be unloaded as soon as possible. This must not be carried out in the early morning because dew and high humidity overnight may cause condensation of moisture onto the fruit. The best time to unload is in the afternoon on a sunny day. • Trays should be removed from the dryer and taken to a clean and covered area for removal of the dried product. • The operator must wash his/her hands and ideally wear clean gloves when handling the fruit. • The dried fruit should be stored temporarily in clean dry baskets before packagi ng so that the product can cool down. Packaging and storing Packaging should be carried out immediately after unloading and cooling because the dried slices will reabsorb moisture and be susceptible to attack by insects and other pests. Proper storage should take place in the absence of moisture, light and air.

• The use of brown paper bags folded tightly and then placed inside plastic bags i s recommended. • Store in small quantities to avoid large-scale contamination. • Pack carefully to avoid crushing the vegetables. • Glass containers are excellent, but these should be kept in a dark area. • Each bag or glass container should be marked clearly with labels containing the date of packaging. • The dried products must be stored in a cool, dry and clean area which is secure and protected against rodents and other pests. Specific products Fruit Mangoes Select firm, ripe mangoes Wash with clean water Peel Cut into slices (2 - 3 mm thick) Arrange on trays for loading into the dryer Test for dryness: slices should be pliable, without sticking together Pineapples Select firm, ripe fruit Wash Cut off the top and base Peel Cut into slices (2 - 3 mm thick) Arrange on trays ready for loading into dryers Test for dryness: slices should be pliable, without sticking together Bananas Select good-quality fruit Wash Peel and remove the 2 tips Slice into pieces (5 mm thick) Arrange on trays for loading into dryer Test for dryness: slices should be pliable, without sticking together Apples Select good-quality fruit Wash Peel Split Core Cut into regular slices (2 - 3 mm thick). As you cut, dip the slices into lemon juice to retain the colour temporarily Steam blanch for 5 minutes and remove excess moisture Arrange slices on trays ready for drying Test for dryness: leathery, no moisture when cut and squeezed Cactus pears (prickly pears) Select large ripe fruit Using a clean cloth remove the glochids, dust and dirt Wash and cut away both ends Peel as thinly as possible Remove the soft peel and keep to one side (It is easier to remove if the fruit is cut in half)

so the storage container must be airtight. • Oven Drying Oven drying is an acceptable method of drying food. dry place. and food that is overdried will lose its flavor and nutritive value. wrap in plastic wrap and st ore in a another airtight container. you need 750 g sugar. ________________________________________ The Drying Process When drying food. dark. You will know your food is dried when when you touch it. Cook for about 1 hour For 1 kg peel. but shouldn t snap apart. When storing your dried product. You can begin drying your food at higher temperatures.Juice the flesh and sieve (This can be done by using a blender or a mixer) Boil the juice Add the soft peel into the juice together with sugar. Food that is underdried will s poil. Some acceptable storage containers are jars and plastic freezer bags. use another method for food dehydration. • Electric Dehydrating This is the best method of dehydrating food. If you are testing fruit. Meat should be tough. Food should be dehydrated between 120 and 140 degrees Fahrenheit. An electric de hydrator is energy efficient and can be operated at low temperatures needed to m aintain nutritive values in the food. You must turn the food and rotate the trays while the food is dr ying. and it is leathery with no pockets of moisture. don t keep temperatures too low or too high. Dried food absorbs moisture from the air. Your electric food dehydrator should have some sort of heat control and a fan to maintain air circulation during the dryin g process. If storing fruit leather. 60 degrees Fahrenheit or below is best. but it isn t ver y energy efficient.. you can tear a piece in half. keep in mind that no moisture should be allowed to enter the container. The last hour or so of drying time should be turned down on a lower setting. but turn the temperature down after the first hour or so. lemon juice and salt. Vegetables should also be tough but can also be crisp. Vegetable Drying Guide         .. If your oven can not obtain temperatures below 200 degrees farenheit. it is not dry enough. Store your containers of dried food in a co ol.ever. Temperatures too low may result in the groth of bacteria on the food. and foods aren t very flavorful in the end. You will need to prop open the oven door to maintain air circulati on during the drying process. 65 ml lemon juice and a pinch of salt Pour onto a sieve and allow to drain Allow to cool Arrange the pieces on trays and load into the dryer Test for dryness: slightly sticky ________________________________________ Choose Which Drying Method is Right For You • Sun Drying This is rather difficult because you need three to four sunny days of at least 100 degrees in a row. Temperatures too high will result in the food being cooked instead of dried. If you see moisture beads along the tear.

and then 125 de grees for the remaining drying time. • Potatoes: Slice 1/8-inch thick. • Mushrooms: Brush off. Otherwise. liquid smoke • 1 t. raisins.Dry at 135 degrees Fahrenheit until pliab le and leathery. To make fruit leather. pepper • 1/2 t. • Onions: Slice 1/4-inch thick. Dry 3-10 hours until leath ery. wrap in plastic. they also rubbed the mea t with salt and spices (like garlic and pepper) before drying. you will hav e to store them in the freezer or refrigerator.and mushrooms should be washed. • Zucchini: Slice 1/8-inch thick and dry 5-10 hours until brittle. Jerky does not store as long as fruits and vegetables. To aid in the curing of jerky. Overripe fruits can also be used since these are easily pureed. If you add any type of garnish to your fruit leather however. Dry vegetables at 130-degrees Fahrenheit . sweet: Remove seeds and chop. Dry 6-12 hours until crisp. For an added flare. Dry 5-12 hours until leathery. sesame seeds. Applesauce w orks great for fruit leather since it is already in puree form. • Beets: Cook and peel beets. slice or shred. • Peppers.1 • 1/4 C. drying times make take longer. and store them altogether in an appropriate con tainer. puree your fruit. • Carrots: Peel. peel. Only pour the puree 1/8-inch deep towards the center. Dry 6-12 hours until crisp. Wipe fat off of the jerky while it is drying. Apples. Dry vegetables in single layers on trays. Jerky Marinade No. Since the center does not dry as quickly as the edges. The fruit leather is like a "fruit roll-up" and is made out of pureed fruit. Soy sauce • 2 T. Jerky should dry between 620 hours until pliable.slice or quarter.All vegetables except onions and peppers. Marinade the meat strips overn ight. Pour the fruit puree about 1/4-inch deep on sp ecial fruit leather drying sheets. ________________________________________ Fruit Leathers Fruit leather is easy to make if you have a blender of food processor. • Beans. don t wash. you can add coconut. It shoud not be brittle. Dry 4-10 hours until brittle. As an alternative to soaking. Dry 6-12 hours until crisp. Just roll up the fruit leather into a roll afte r it has dried. and blanched. Dry at 90 degrees for 3 hours. The center should also be dry and have no wet or sticky spots. • Tomatoes: Dip in boiling water to loosen skins. Cut into 1/4-inch pieces. Worcestershire sauce • 1/2 t. Depending of drying con ditions. salt ________________________________________   .Blanch. • Peas: Dry 5-14 hours until brittle. poppy seeds. you can store fruit l eather in an airtight container. or drying trays that have been lined with pla stic wrap. • Broccoli: Cut and dry 4-10 hours. meat must be marinaded in salt and spices. For long t erm storage longer than a month. peaches. • Cauliflower: Cut and dry 6-14 hours. garlic powder • 1 t. • Corn:Cut corn off cob after blanching and dry 6-12 hours until brittle. Dry 6-12 hours until almost brittle. and nectarines should be cooked before pureeing. green:Stem and break beans into 1-inch pieces. Dry 6-12 hours unti l brittle. or sunflower seeds to the fruit lea ther. sliced. pears. Making Jerky Meats should be dried at 145-150 degrees Fahrenheit. You may want to u se one of the following marinade recipes instead. store in the freezer or refrigerator. The pioneers us ed 1 1/2 cups pickling salt to 1 gallon of water and soaked the meat strips in t his for a couple of days.

brown sugar • 3 T. liquid smoke • 1/2 C. It is most commonly grown in East and Southeast Asia. and these root at the nodes. garlic powder • 1 t. salt • 1/2 t. allowing them to float. it is used extensively . salt • 1 t. Because it flourishes natu rally in waterways and does not require much if any care. Ipomoea aquatica is a semi-aquatic tropical plant grown as a leaf vegetable. with the species found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Its stems are 2-3 m or more lo ng.2 • 4 t. vinegar • 1/4 C. I. The leaves vary from sagittate (typical) to lanceolate. 5-15 cm long and 2-8 cm broad. The flow ers are trumpet-shaped. pepper • 1 t. Ipomoea aquatica grows in water or on moist soil.3 • 1 C. ketchup • 1/2 C. chili powder • 1 t. Its precise natural distribution is unknown due to extensive cultivation. 3-5 cm diameter.Jerky Marinade No. Worcestershire Sauce • 2 t. hollow. water ________________________________________ Jerky Marinade No. usually white in colour. aquatica Cultivation and culinary uses Ong choy water spinach. pepper Ipomoea aquatica (Water Spinach) Ipomoea aquatica Scientific classification Kingdom: (unranked): (unranked): (unranked): Plantae Angiosperms Eudicots Asterids Order: Solanales Family: Convolvulaceae Genus: Ipomoea Species: Binomial name Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. dry mustard • 1 t.

nhớ cà dầm tương. a parasite of humans and pigs. It is also a common le af vegetable in fish and meat stews like sinigang. It has been officially designated by the USDA as a "noxious weed. a popular variation adds preserved beancurd . there are numerous ways of preparation. dried shrimp paste (belacan/terasi) and other spices. Rau muống is one of the tastes that remind Vietnam ese people of their simple and peaceful rural hometown life. in this context. sometimes along with fried shallots. It c an be eaten raw with Lao green papaya salad. In Singapore. This belief probably d erived from ancient observations following attempts to replace consumption of ri ce with the relatively resilient Ipomoea aquatica during times of food shortages and war and noting loss of muscle strength. cornstarc h. which often grows in similar situations . onions. There s also a poem that says: “ Anh ñi anh nhớ quê nhà.in Malay and Chinese cuisine. the stems are julienned into thin strips and eaten with many kind s of noodles. probably due to the fact that Ipomo ea aquatica contains less food energy than rice. In Thailand it is frequently stir fried with oyster sauce and shrimp paste." Despite thi s ominous label. But the elderly. Over the course of time. and used as a garnish as well. salt and pepper then the leaves are coated with the batter. garlic. yellow bean paste is added. Penang Kangkung Blachan In Chinese cuisine. Despite this. Common Names       . it is mixed with eggs. There is also an appetizer in the Philippines called Crispy Kangkong. In Hakka cuisine. eaten raw. The vegetable is also extremely popular in Taiwan. especially in Florida and Texas . In fact. In the south. it once served as a staple vegetable of the poor (known as rau muống). especially in rural or kampung (village) areas. There is concern that. and soy sauce. for example. In Penang and Ipo h.[1] In Vietnam. it is usually sauteed in cooking oil. are discouraged from consuming it. The vegetable is a common ingredient in Southeast Asian dishes. garlic. and become a popular wartime crop. the vegetable grew remarkably well and easily in many areas. the plant is similar to spinach in its nutritional benefits. water. the plant is not in any way harmful when consumed ("noxious" is . Cultural references There is a belief in Chinese culture that discourages extensive consumption of I pomoea aquatica as a staple food crop (in contrast to rice) with the explanation that the hollow stem makes the person weak and hollow like the plant. a legal term denoting the plant s harmfulness to native plant s). This dish is called "adobong kangkong". During the Japanese Occupation of Singapore in World War II. the leaves are usually stir fried with chile pepper. In C antonese cuisine. It has also been introduced to United States of America where its high growth ra te caused it to become an environmental problem. it is cooked with cuttlefish and a sweet and spicy sauce. ginger. In donesia and Penang. although this belief does not advocate refraining from eating the plant entirely.a method known i n the Mandarin language as furu (The Chinese Cheeses).[2] It should be noted that kangkong di d not originate from the Philippines. I miss my hometown / Missing rau muống soup as well as eggplant with soy sauce. ” (Translation: "When I m away. it is a common ve getable in Asian cuisine. The leaves are fried until crispy and golden brown.") In the Philippines. where it grows well. vinega r. I t is not to be mistaken with watercress. flour. t he plant could transmit fasciolopsiasis. Nhớ canh rau muống. Ipomoea aq uatica has developed into being an ingredient for many daily vegetable dishes of Vietnamese cuisine as a whole. but a simple and qui ck stir-fry either plain or with minced garlic is probably the most common.

kang kung (Sinhalese). and river s of Hillsborough. to 17 cm (7 in) long. Mass. swamp cabbage.Common names include water spinach. UF/IFAS Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants. blades gene rally arrowhead shaped but variable. shading out native submersed plants and competing with native emergents. Stems hollow. trawkoon ( Khmer:). solitary or in few-flower ed clusters at leaf axils. Sarnali. It is native to th e East Indies but escaped cultivation (Wunderlin. Malay). SW Text from Invasive and Non-Native Plants You Should Know. 2003). pinyin: wéngcài). kangkung (Indonesian. literall low Hearted Vegetable").. rau muống (Vietnamese). with tips pointed. kongxincai (Chinese:. simple. water morn ing-glory. ong chai (Foochow). Ramey. ngônkcôi. Flowers: Showy.5 in) wide . and ong choy or tung choi (Cantonese pronunciation of 蕹菜. FLEPPC Category I Distribution: C. eng chhai (Hokkien) . Ganthian in Hindi . rooting at no des. by A. In Bangla Kolmi Shak or Kolmi Lota. No. hairy. Leaves: Alternate. Water Spinach Ipomoea aquatica Water Spinach growing in Dracut. Kalmisag. funnelform. blades held above water when stems floating. woody at maturity. Hong Sum Choy (Hakka). " " (Ken-Zun) in Burmese. glabrous or rarely pilose. Fruit: An oval or spherical capsule. SP 431. pak boong (in T hai: ผักบุ้ง) (Thai). (Photo by Frank Mangan) . tangkong (Cebuano). lakes. Appearance: Herbaceous trailing vine with milky sap. these often short. 2007. Ecological threat: Forms dense floating mats of intertwined stems over water sur faces. Pinellas. floating in aquatic situations. pinyin: kōngxīncài. kangkong (Tagalog). Thooti koora in Telugu. about 1 cm (0. In Assam ese it is called Kolmou. Richard and V. petals white or pink-lilac. water convolvulus. with glabrous petioles 3–14 cm (1–6 in) long. and Manatee counties of Florida. holding 1–4 grayish seeds. Ipomoea aquatica is rarely found in the shallow water in ponds. Recognition Cards. P ubl. like morning glory blooms.

you-sai (Japanese). Malaysian). Other names of water spinach include: water c onvolvulus. rau muong (Vietnamese). Almost all parts of the young plant tissue are edible. kang kung. has arrow-shaped leaves and pin k flowers and is grown in aquatic conditions.Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) is a member of the Convolvulaceae (Morning glor y) family and the same genus as the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). similar to rice. . also known as “white stem” water spinach. pak bung (Thai). kang kong (Filipino. has narrow leaves and white flowers and is usually grown in moist soils. Ching Quat. cancon (Portug uese). batata acquatica. toongsin tsai (Mandarin). ong tsoi. but the tender shoot tips and younger leaves are preferred. swamp cabbage (English). It has a creeping growth habit but may grow erect in water. weng cai (Cantonese). kankon. Pak Quat. There are two major cultivars of water spinach. also known as “green stem” water s pinach. Water spinac h is an herbaceous aquatic or semi-aquatic perennial plant of the tropics and su btropics.