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You are on page 1of 56

Daniel C. Bastos

dbastos@math.utoledo.edu

Jan 10, 2006

Abstract

These are my notes on abstract algebra; if you see something

wrong, let me know, please. If you found this document with the

help of search engines and you’re studying about algebra, I suggest

you look for a book on the subject.

1 Groups

Deﬁnition 1.1 (binary operation). A binary operation * on a set S

is a function of S S →S. That is, for each pair (a, b) ∈ S S, there

is a single element s ∈ S such that a ∗ b = s. This implies S closed

under *.

Deﬁnition 1.2 (group). A group G is a nonempty set with a binary

operation * satisfying: (i) * is associative, (ii) G has an identity e, (iii)

for each g ∈ G, there is a g

−1

such that gg

−1

= g

−1

g = e.

Exercise 1.1. Are the even positive integers closed under addition?

Yes. Proof. Because 2n + 2n = 4n is even and positive. Are they

closed under multiplication? Yes. Proof. Because 2n ∗ 2n = 4n

2

is

even and positive.

Exercise 1.2. For rectangles, there corresponds to each pair (length

measurement, width measurement), an area measurement. Still, com-

puting the areas is not, strictly speaking, a binary operation. Why?

Because area is something diﬀerent than length.

1

Exercise 1.3. Are the odd positive integers closed under addition?

Yes. Proof. Because 2n+1+2n+1 = 4n+1 is odd and positive. Under

multiplication? Yes. Proof. Because (2n + 1)(2n + 1) = 4n

2

+ 4n + 1

is odd and positive.

Theorem 1.1. Let r be a nonzero integer. Let D be the set of all

divisors of r. The system of all fractions, in lowest terms, with the

property that their denominators is d

i

∈ D, is closed under addition.

Proof. Let 0 ,= r ∈ Z. Let D be the set of divisors of r. Let d

1

=

ar, d

2

= br. Then,

p

d

1

+

q

d

2

=

ap +bq

lcd(d

1

, d

2

)

,

where lcd(d

1

, d

2

) ∈ D and p, q ∈ Z.

Exercise 1.4. Show that the system of fractions having denominators

of 1, 2, or 4 when written in lowest terms is closed under addition.

Proof. By Theorem 1.1, it is closed. Here, r = 4 and D = ¦1, 2, 4¦

which are all divisors of 4.

Theorem 1.2. The identity of a group is unique.

Proof. Let e and e

be identities. So, ee

= e

because e is an identity.

Also, ee

= e because e

**is an identity as well. Since the binary
**

operation of a group is a function, and assigns the operation to a

single element in the group, there can only be one identity and so,

e = e

.

Exercise 1.5. Consider Z with the binary operation of subtraction.

Is Z a group? If so, what is the identity? If not, what axioms do not

hold? At ﬁrst I thought that 0 could be the identity, because z−0 = z,

but for 0 to be an identity, it must be true that z − 0 = 0 − z = z.

That is not true because z − 0 = z ,= 0 − z = −z. Also, notice that

subtraction is not associative: (a −b) −c ,= a −(b −c).

Theorem 1.3. Let G be ﬁnite with order 2n, n ∈ N. Then, there’s

g ∈ G such that g

2

= e.

Proof. Let S = ¦g

1

, ..., g

2n

¦. Step one: remove from S all pairs

(g

−1

i

, g

i

) such that g

i

g

−1

i

= g

−1

i

g

i

= e with g

i

,= g

−1

i

. This removes an

even number of elements. We’re left with an even number of elements

in S. After step one, e ∈ S because e

−1

= e. Step two: remove e

2

from S. We’re left with an odd number of elements in S. So at least

one of these left will have to be its own inverse — since they come in

pairs.

Theorem 1.4. Let G = ¦1, 2, ..., p − 1¦, p prime. Let θ be multipli-

cation mod p on G. Then (G, θ) is a group.

Proof. Unfortunately, I haven’t proved this entirely; but here’s what

I can say: because p is prime, we have no g

1

g

2

∈ G such that g

1

g

2

divides p, so it never happens that g

i

θg

j

= 0 mod p. Multiplication

is a binary operation, but we would need to show closure with mod

p. The identity is always present by hypothesis. Multiplication is

associative, but we would need an argument for inverses.

Theorem 1.5. The multiplication table of a group is a latin square;

that is, each group element occurs once and only once in each row of

the body of the table and in each column of the body of the table.

Proof. Consider the elements of the ith row. They are g

i

g

1

, ..., g

i

g

j

.

The theorem claims that each element occurs once; so, suppose one

does not show up once; that is, two elements of the row must be

equal. In other words, suppose g

i

g

1

= g

i

g

2

, but notice that g

1

,= g

2

.

Then, since we’re dealing with a group, g

−1

i

is present; so, g

−1

i

(g

i

g

1

) =

g

−1

i

(g

i

g

2

) =⇒ (g

−1

i

g

i

)g

1

= (g

−1

i

g

i

)g

2

=⇒ eg

1

= eg

2

=⇒ g

1

= g

2

.

So, each element occurs once.

If the group is ﬁnite, we’re done. If the group is not ﬁnite, we must still

show that each element still occurs on a row. To prove for columns,

we can repeat the proof replacing the appropriate subscripts.

Deﬁnition 1.3 (permutation). A permutation P of a set S is a one-

to-one mapping of S into itself. In other words, P implies the existence

of a function f : S →S such that f is one-to-one and onto.

Exercise 1.6. Write the 4! = 24 possible arrangements of all four

letters A, E, P, T. Check which permutations are English words. What

is the probability of making an English word from these four letters by

chance arrangement? I’m not going to write them all here, but I will

tell the algorithm I’d use. Fix A and permute EPT; then ﬁx E and

permute APT, then ﬁx P and permute AET; then ﬁx T and permute

APT. This will generate 3! + 3! + 3! + 3! = 24 permutations, and it’s

easy to do it this way. To permute EPT, the same can be done: ﬁx

E, permute PT, ﬁx P permute ET, ﬁx T permute EP.

3

It turns out, we ﬁnd the English words PATE, PETA, PEAT, TAPE,

TEPA. They mean, respectively: the human head, 10

15

, carbonized

vegetable matter, tape, a chemical compound: C

6

H

12

N

2

OP. So, we

have 5 chances out of 24 of making a word by chance arrangement;

that’s a probability of 5/24 = 0.208 which is aproximatelly 20% of

chances of making a word out of random permutation; a pretty good

chance, if you will.

Exercise 1.7. Let Mr. 1, Mrs 2, Mr. 3 and Mrs 4 be seated on a table.

How many seating arrangements are possible? 4! = 24. Write down all

seating arrangements in which men and women are alternated. There

are 8 possibilities because once you ﬁx 1, there are two possibilities

to follow: 2 and 4. Fix 2, there are two possiblities: 1 and 3. Fix 3,

there are two possibilities; ﬁx 4, there are two possibilities. What’s

the probabilitity that a random permutation of the four people will

alternate men and women? That’d be 8/24 = 1/3 which means 33%.

Theorem 1.6. The permutations of a set S form a group under com-

position.

Proof. Let P and Q be two permutations; then, for any s ∈ S, there

is a unique Q(s) ∈ S because for any s

1

, s

2

∈ S, if Q(s

1

) = Q(s

2

),

then s

1

= s

2

. The fact that Q(s) ∈ S comes from the fact that Q is a

function from S into S. Also, because P is one-to-one and because Q

is onto, for all s ∈ S, there is a unique P(Q(s)) ∈ S.

Last paragraph implies P(Q(s)) is one-to-one. Now, to show compo-

sition is a binary operation, we need to show that the composition of

P and Q is onto; because that would be showing that it is closed in

S.

For all s ∈ S, there is q ∈ S such that q = Q(s). For all q ∈ S, there

is p ∈ S such that p = P(q). Then, for all s ∈ S, there is a q ∈ S such

that q = P(Q(s)) = (P ◦ Q)(s).

To show it forms a group, we state that composition is associative by

some theorem — which we haven’t proved yet. The identity would

be the permutation which maps each s ∈ S into itself. The inverses

of each permutation is the same permutation with domain and range

swaped.

Deﬁnition 1.4. If S is ﬁnite with n elements, then the set of all

permutations on S is called the symmetric group S

n

on n elements.

S

n

has n! members.

4

Exercise 1.8. Let

P =

1 2 3 4 5

2 3 1 4 5

**What is the image of 3 under the permutation? It’s 1. Which elements
**

are ﬁxed under the permutation? 4 and 5. Which are moved? 1, 2, 3.

Write the inverse permutation with respect to composition.

P

−1

=

2 3 1 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

.

Exercise 1.9. Let

Q =

1 2 3 4 5

1 4 3 5 2

.

Find P ◦ Q and Q◦ P. Find Q

−1

.

P ◦ Q =

1 2 3 4 5

2 4 1 5 3

Q◦ P =

1 2 3 4 5

4 3 1 5 3

Q

−1

=

1 4 3 5 2

1 2 3 4 5

.

Exercise 1.10. Find Q

−1

◦ P

−1

. Find (P ◦ Q) ◦ (Q

−1

◦ P

−1

).

Q

−1

◦ P

−1

=

2 3 1 4 5

1 5 3 2 4

(P ◦ Q) ◦ (Q

−1

◦ P

−1

) =

2 3 1 4 5

2 3 1 4 5

5

Permutations can be written in cycle notation, which is easier to write.

For the permutation P above, we would write (123)(4)(5) meaning 1

goes to 2, 2 goes to 3, 3 goes to one and we close. We close because it

has cycled. The same happens to 4 and 5 because they didn’t move

at all; we may as well omit the ones which don’t move.

In general, start the ﬁrst cycle with the ﬁrst element of the permuta-

tion; go on writing which follows which until the ﬁrst element appears;

then we close the cycle. If the ﬁrst cycle has not exhausted all ele-

ments, start a new cycle with an element that has been used. Repeat

until all elements have been used.

If we omit the 1-cycles, then someone who only sees the permutation in

cycle notation would not know possible elements which were omited.

But usually this is not a problem.

Cycle multiplication is cycle composition. You apply the right side

ﬁrst, then the left. For example,

(1234)(2465) =

2 4 6 5 3 1

1 6 5 3 4 2

,

because 2 goes to 4 which goes to 1, 4 goes to 6 which goes to 6 (since

it does not appear), 6 goes to 5 which goes to 5 (since it does not

appear), 5 goes to 2 which goes to 3, 1 goes to 1 which does to 2, 3

goes to 3 which goes to 4.

Exercise 1.11. Q used previously in cycle notation is (245).

Exercise 1.12. Write the permutations of S

3

as cycles. S

3

is the sym-

metric group of all permutations on n = 3 elements. Then, S

3

has 3! =

6 elements; they are: e, (12), (13), (23), (123), (132). It’s a bit tough

to be sure that this is correct; but I built the table and it does work.

For example, (12)

−1

= (12), (13)

−1

= (13), (23)

−1

, (23), (123)

−1

=

(132), (132)

−1

= (123). It’s not commutative, though: (12)(13) =

(132) ,= (123) = (13)(12).

Exercise 1.13. Write the following cycles in permutation form.

(134) =

1 3 4 2

3 4 1 2

,

(12)(34) =

3 4 1 2

4 3 2 1

,

6

(1423) =

1 4 2 3

4 2 3 1

,

(13)(12) =

1 2 3 4

2 3 1 4

,

(14)(13)(12) =

1 2 3 4

2 3 4 1

,

Deﬁnition 1.5. A transposition is a 2-cycle.

Theorem 1.7. Let G be a group in which every element g ∈ G has

the property that g

2

= e. Then G is abelian.

Proof. Let a, b ∈ G. Then: (ab)

2

= e =⇒ a

2

b(ab) = a =⇒ b(ab) =

a =⇒ b

2

(ab) = ba =⇒ ab = ba.

Deﬁnition 1.6 (group isomorphism). Let (G, !) and (H, ∗) be groups.

We say G is isomorphic to H if and only if there exists a bijective

function f : G →H such that for all u, v ∈ G, it’s true that f(u!v) =

f(u) ∗ f(v). We write H

∼

= G.

Theorem 1.8. If m ≤ n, there is a subgroup of S

n

isomorphic to S

m

.

Proof. Since m ≤ n, the set of all permutations of S

m

is a subset

of S

n

, and S

m

is closed because it is a group, so it is a subgroup of

S

n

; then, one isomorphism exists between S

m

and S

m

: the identity

map.

Theorem 1.9. The identity of a subgroup H of G is necessarily the

identity of the group G.

Proof. Let H be a subgroup G; for all h ∈ H, e

H

h = he

H

= h. Since

every element of H is also in G, we have e

G

h = he

G

= h, for all h ∈ H.

So, e

G

h = e

H

h =⇒ e

G

= e

H

by cancellation law.

Theorem 1.10. Inverses are unique.

Proof. Let h ∈ G. Now h

−1

1

h = e and h

−1

2

h = e =⇒ h

−1

1

= h

−1

2

.

7

Exercise 1.14. Find a collection of eight permutations in S

4

that is

a subgroup isomorphic to the dihedral group D

4

= ¦e, r, r

2

, r

3

, s, sr,

sr

2

, sr

3

¦. Give an explicit isomorphism from D

4

to the subgroup of

S

4

.

Let P

4

= ¦e, (1234), (13)(24), (1432), (12)(34), (14)(23), (13), (24)¦.

Map e

P

with e, (1234) with r, (13)(24) with r

2

, (1432) with r

3

,

(12)(34) with s, (13) with sr, (14)(23) with sr

2

, (24) with sr

3

.

Theorem 1.11. GL(n, R) denotes the group of invertible nn matri-

ces with real entries. The collection H of matrices with determinants

¦±1¦ forms a subgroup of GL

n

(R).

Proof. We only need to show that H is closed; that is, det(AB) =

±1 = det(A)det(B), for any A, B ∈ H. Let E be an elementary

matrix; det(E) = −1 whenever E comes from I by interchanging two

rows; det(E) = 1 whenever E comes from I by adding a row to a

multiple of another row of I; every invertible matrix can be expressed

as a product of elementary matrices.

Let P ∈ H; express P as E

k

...E

1

. For any E

i

, with 1 ≤ i ≤ k,

det(E

i

) = ±1, then det(P) = det(E

k

...E

1

) = det(E

k

)...det(E

1

) =

±1. So, for two matrices P, Q ∈ H, det(PQ) = det(E

k

...E

1

Q) =

det(E

k

)...det(E

1

)det(Q) = det(P)det(Q) = ±1. Then H is a subgroup

of GL(n, R).

Okay, this proof is not correct because we must also show that the

group is closed under inverses; the group is inﬁnite. Also, det(AB) =

det(A) det(B) for any square matrices A and B, so we need not use

elementary matrices here.

On this next example, there’s a new notation there. When we write

σ(1) = 2, we mean that it’s a cycle in which 1 always goes to 2. So

the set described includes all permutations of S

6

in which 1 goes to 2.

Examples: (12), (123), (1234), (12345), and so on.

Exercise 1.15. Let C = ¦σ ∈ S

6

: σ(1) = 2¦. Is C ≤ S

6

? No,

because (1256)(1256) = (15...) ,= σ(1) = 2.

Deﬁnition 1.7. Let H ≤ G. Deﬁne as left cosets of H in G the sets

gH = ¦gh

1

, gh

2

, ..., gh

k

, ...¦ where g ∈ G and h

i

∈ H.

As you pick diﬀerent elements g ∈ G, you create [G[/[H[ cosets. This

is called the index of H in G.

8

Deﬁnition 1.8. Let H ≤ G. Generate all left cosets of H in G.

Count the number of left cosets; call this number the index of H in

G.

These cosets are mutually exclusive and exhaustive, like equivalence

classes; in fact, each coset is an equivalence class. Cosets, however,

can have many names; but since they’re equivalence classes, one way

to know if two names are actually the same coset is to check if their

g’s are left equivalent modulo H. See the next example.

Exercise 1.16. Let V = ¦e, (12)(34),(13)(24), (14)(23)¦. Left cosets:

(12)V = ¦(12), (34), (1324), (1423)¦, (13)V = ¦(13), (1234), (24),

(1432)¦, (14)V = ¦(14), (1243), (1342), (23)¦, (123)V = ¦(123), (134),

(243), (142)¦, (124)V = ¦(124), (143), (132), (234)¦, (12)(34)V =

¦(12)(34), e, (14)(23), (13)(24)¦. What are the right cosets?.

Let W = ¦e, (12), (34), (12)(34)¦. Left cosets: (12)W = ¦(12), e,

(34)(12), (34)¦, (13)W = ¦(13), (123), (134), (1234)¦, (14)W = ¦(14),

(124), (143), (1243)¦, (23)W = ¦(23), (132), (1342), (234)¦, (24)W =

¦(24), (142), (1432), (243)¦, (1324)W = ¦(1324), (14)(23), (13)(24),

(1423)¦. What are the right cosets?

Take a look at the ﬁrst coset of V — (12)V . Now, notice that the

coset (1423)V is the same coset, though with a diﬀerent name, as

(12)V . Why? Because (1423) is left congruent to (12) modulo H.

Why? Recal the deﬁnition of the left congruence. Two elements, i

and j, of a group P are left congruent (mod Q ≤ P) to each other if

there’s q ∈ Q such that i = jq. So notice that the multiplication by q

happens on the right. In the example above, the subgroup is V , and

(12) is left congruent to (1423) because (12) = (1423)[(14)(23)] and

(14)(23) ∈ V .

Deﬁnition 1.9. Let H ≤ G. Deﬁne g

i

≡

L

g

j

(mod H) if and only

if there is a h

k

∈ H such that g

i

= g

j

h

k

. Call this relation “left

congruence.”

Theorem 1.12. Left congruence is an equivalence relation.

Deﬁnition 1.10. Let H ≤ G. Deﬁne g

i

≡

R

g

j

(mod H) if and only

if there is a h

k

∈ H such that g

i

= h

k

g

j

. Call this relation “right

congruence.”

Theorem 1.13. Right congruence is an equivalence relation.

9

Proof. Let H be a subgroup of G. Suppose that for some g

1

, g

2

∈ G,

there is h ∈ H such that g

1

= hg

2

; that is, g

1

≡ g

2

(mod H). Then

g ≡ g because g = e

H

g (reﬂexive). Suppose g

1

= hg

2

; then g

2

=

h

−1

g

1

(symmetric). Suppose g

1

= h

1

g

2

and g

2

= h

2

g

3

. Then g

1

=

(h

1

h

2

)g

3

implying g

1

≡ g

3

(mod H) (transitive). It is an equivalence

relation.

Theorem 1.14. In a group G, g, g

−1

∈ G have the same order.

Proof. Let g

t

= e. Then (g

−1

)

t

g

t

= (g

−1

)

t

e which implies e = (g

−1

)

t

.

Now we must show that t is the smallest such number in which

(g

−1

)

t

= e. Suppose not; then, there is n < t such that (g

−1

)

n

= e. Then, write (g

−1

)

t

as g

−1

multiplied t times: (g

−1

)

1

...(g

−1

)

t

.

Since n < t, we have that (g

−1

)

1

...(g

−1

)

n

= e. So, (g

−1

)

1

...(g

−1

)

t

=

e(g

−1

)

n+1

...(g

−1

)

t

. Now what? Where is the contradiction?

Deﬁnition 1.11 (cyclic). Call a “cyclic group” the group generated

by some element g, and write ¸g). If ¸g) is ﬁnite, then call the “order

of g” the least positive element f for which g

f

= e, where e is the

identity of the group. Call an “inﬁnite cyclic group” the cyclic group

in which g

s

= g

t

if and only if s = t.

Notice that the distinct elements of ¸g) are g, g

2

, ..., g

f

= e. Also,

notice that the powers are not always positive. For example, 1 is a

generator for the integers under addition because 1

0

= 0, 1

1

= 1, 1

2

= 2, 1

3

= 3, and so on. But where are the inverses? Well, we do 1

−1

= −1, 1

−2

= −2, and so on.

Theorem 1.15. Let G be ﬁnite and cyclic. Then G is abelian.

Proof. Because G is ﬁnite, it has a ﬁnite order; call it n. Any element

of G is expressed g

k

, where 1 ≤ k ≤ n. Let g

i

, g

j

∈ ¸g). Now g

j

g

i

=

g

j+i

= g

i+j

= g

i

g

j

.

Exercise 1.17. Write, in cycle form, the members of the cyclic group

of order 8 and compare with the octic group. Are both groups abelian?

No; a cyclic group of order 8 is abelian, by the last theorem, but

D

4

is non-abelian. The cycles of the cyclic group of order 8 are e,

(12345678), (1357)(2468), (14725836), (15)(26)(37)(48), (16385274),

(1753)(2864), (18765432).

Theorem 1.16. Let G be ﬁnite with g ∈ G. Order of g divides [G[.

10

Proof. The “order of g” is the natural number n such that g

n

= e;

since G is ﬁnite, [G[ and n are natural numbers.

Suppose f is a natural number such that g

f

= e; since n is the smallest

such number, f ≥ n. By the division algorithm, f = nq +r, where q,

r ∈ Z with r < n. So g

f

= g

nq+r

= (g

n

)

q

g

r

= e

q

g

r

= eg

r

= g

r

= e.

But r < n by the division algorithm, and since n is the smallest natural

such that g

n

= e, r must be zero, so n divides f.

The distinct powers of g form a subgroup of G, because they’re closed

under the binary operation. Lagrange’s theorem states that, here in

particular, [G[ = [¸g)[ [G : ¸g)[, and [¸g)[ = n, so n divides [G[ with

[G : ¸g)[ as quotient.

Exercise 1.18. Write down all elements in D

4

, S

4

and S

5

which have

order 2. In D

4

, with order 2, we have: (13), (24), (13)(24), (14)(23),

(12)(34). In S

4

we have (12), (13), (14), (23), (24), (34), (12)(34),

(13)(24), (14)(23). In S

5

we have (12), (13), (14), (15), (23), (24),

(25), (34), (35), (45), (12)(34), (12)(35), (12)(45), (13)(24), (13)(25),

(13)(45), (14)(23), (14)(25), (14)(35), (15)(23), (15)(24), (15)(34),

(23)(45), (24)(35), (25)(34).

Exercise 1.19. We know that S

n

can be generated by transpositions;

that is, every σ ∈ S

n

can be written as a product of transpositions.

It is actually the case that S

n

can be generated by adjacent trans-

positions; that is, those of the form (i, i + 1). Prove this for n = 5

by expressing each (a,b) ∈ S

5

as a product of adjacent transpositions.

Proof. (12) = (12), (13) = (12)(23)(12), (14) = (12)(23)(34)(23)(12),

(15) = (12)(23)(34)(45)(34)(23)(12), (23) = (23), (24) = (23)(34)(23),

(25) = (23)(34)(45)(34)(23), (34) = (34), (35) = (34)(45)(34), (45) =

(45).

Exercise 1.20. Let H be a subgroup of a ﬁnite group G. If H is

abelian, then H is normal in G. Show this is not true with an example.

Consider the dihedral group with its subgroup V = ¦1, (12)(34)¦. Let

W = ¦e, (12), (34), (12)(34)¦ ≤ S

4

, which is abelian. Now the right

coset W (1234) = ¦(1234), (234), ...¦ ,= (1234) W = (1234), (134),

(123), (13...).

Exercise 1.21. Let K = ¦1, (12)(34), (14)(23), (13)(24)¦ ⊂ D

4

= G.

Show that V = ¦1, (12)(34)¦ is normal in K and that K is normal in

G, but V is not normal in G. We list the cosets; the left cosets are

eV = V and (14)(23)V = ¦(14)(23), (13)(24)¦ and the right cosets

11

are V e = V and V = ¦(14)(23), (13)(24)¦, so V normal in K. Now

the left cosets of K in G are eK = K and (1234)K = ¦(1234), (13),

(24), (1432)¦; the right cosets of K in G are Ke = K and K(1234)

= (1234)K because there are four elements left to be taken, so K is

normal in G. Now V is not normal in G because (1234)V = ¦(1234),

(13)¦ ,= V (1234) = ¦(1234), (24)¦.

Theorem 1.17. The intersection of two subgroups is a group.

Proof. Let H

1

, H

2

≤ G, then e ∈ H

1

∩ H

2

because e

1,2

∈ H

1,2

is the

e of G, so it’s the same identity. Let h ∈ H

1

∩ H

2

; because H

1,2

is

a group, h

−1

∈ H

1,2

. Associativity comes from the fact that G is

associative. Closure: let h, g ∈ H

1

∩ H

2

. Since h, g ∈ H

1

and H

1

is

a group, it is closed, then hg ∈ H

1

. Similarly, hg ∈ H

2

. Therefore,

hg ∈ H

1

∩ H

2

.

Exercise 1.22. Let N be a normal subgroup of a group G. Prove that

if n is an element of N, then g

−1

ng is an element of N for each element

g ∈ G. We start by letting n ∈ N. Since N is normal subgroup of

G, we have G/N as the group of cosets of N in G. So, gN ∈ G/H;

since n ∈ N, nN ∈ G/H and g

−1

N ∈ G/H. Since G/H is a group,

g

−1

NnNgN = g

−1

ngN. Since n ∈ N, it follows that nN = eN = N.

Then g

−1

NnNgN = g

−1

NeNgN = g

−1

egN = g

−1

gN = eN = N.

Therefore, g

−1

ngN = N which implies g

−1

ng ∈ N.

Exercise 1.23. Show that the converse of Lagrange’s Theorem is

false. For example, show that A

4

is a group with 12 elements that con-

tains no subgroup with 6 elements. We start by listing the twelve per-

mutations of A

4

: e, (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23), (123), (132), (124),

(142), (134), (143), (234), (243). There are 3 2-cycles, and 1 identity

which amounts to 4 elements, so to get to 6, we will need 3-cycles.

Theorem 1.18. A

4

has no subgroup with 6 elements.

Proof. Let H ≤ A

4

such that [H[ = 6. We want to show a contra-

diction. We know that H A

4

because the index is 2. H contains

a 3-cycle, for sure. Now, ghg

−1

∈ H for all g ∈ A

4

, for some h ∈ H.

Let’s say that (123) ∈ H. Then (124)(123)(142) ∈ H which implies

(243) ∈ H. Then (243) = g (123) g

−1

. Let’s say (234) ∈ H, then

(234)(123)(243) = (134). Then (134) = g

(123)g

−1

. If (123), (134),

(243) ∈ H, then we can square each of them because H is a subgroup.

We square the elements until we actually see that we don’t get only 6

elements, which we assumed we had.

12

Theorem 1.19. The intersection of two normal subgroups is normal.

Proof. Let subgroups H

1

, H

2

G. Then H

1

∩ H

2

is a subgroup by

Theorem 1.17; so must only show normality. Let g ∈ G; we must show

g(H

1

∩H

2

) = (H

1

∩H

2

)g, which is true if ghg

−1

∈ (H

1

∩H

2

) for some

h ∈ (H

1

∩H

2

) — see some example above. So, we have that gh = h

g

for some h

∈ (H

1

∩ H

2

). We multiply g

−1

on the right to get ghg

−1

= h

e = h

for some h

∈ (H

1

∩H

2

). So, ghg

−1

∈ (H

1

∩H

2

) and we’re

done.

Deﬁnition 1.12. The center Z(G) of a group is the set of all elements

of G which commute with every element of G. That is, Z(G) = ¦z ∈ G

such that zg = gz for all g ∈ G¦.

Deﬁnition 1.13. A subgroup H of G is a normal subgroup of G if

gH = Hg for all g ∈ G. We write H G.

Theorem 1.20. Z(G) G.

Proof. Associativity comes from the fact that G is a group. The iden-

tity is in Z(G) because eg = ge = g for all g ∈ G. Let z ∈ Z(G). Now,

since e ∈ Z(G) and e =zz

−1

, we have (zz

−1

)g = (z

−1

z)g =⇒ z(z

−1

g)

= (gz)z

−1

. Since z ∈ Z(G), it commutes, so z(z

−1

g) = (zg)z

−1

. By

cancellation law and associativity, z

−1

g = gz

−1

, so z

−1

∈ Z(G). Now,

normality comes from the fact that gz = zg for all g ∈ G, then gZ(G)

= Z(G)g.

To understand normality, we must understand cosets well. Let’s think

of cosets for a while. Consider a subgroup H ≤ G. What can we say

about the cosets of H? We can say that [gH[ = [H[; that is, the

group formed by the cosets of H has the same order as H. In fact,

such group has a name. Is it really a group? It is, as we prove on the

next theorem, and it also has a name.

Deﬁnition 1.14. The cosets of H in G is the quotient group G/H.

Theorem 1.21. The set of left cosets of H in G form a group under

the operation deﬁned as (g

1

H)(g

2

H) = g

1

g

2

H whenever gH = Hg for

all g ∈ G.

Proof. This theorem deﬁnes the binary operation in which the group

is formed upon. This operation can only be used whenever some

condition about the left and right cosets holds; that is, that the left

13

cosets match the right cosets exactly. In other words, H must be

normal in G.

The deﬁnition of the binary operation gives us the fact that (g

1

g

2

H) is

a coset. Do we have an identity? Yes, because g

1

HeH = g

1

eH = g

1

H.

So, H is the identity. Is it associative? Since (g

1

g

2

)g

3

H = g

1

(g

2

g

3

)H,

then (g

1

Hg

2

H)g

3

H = g

1

H(g

2

Hg

3

H). So yes, it is associative. Do

we have inverses? Yes, because (gH)

−1

= g

−1

H; the proof of that is

(gH)(gH)

−1

= gg

−1

H = eH = H. So we have inverses, and we have

a group.

Because cosets have many names, it would be nice to have theorems

that would tell us when they’re equal. For instance, if I show you

g

1

H and g

2

H, such that g

1

,= g

2

, does that mean that the cosets are

diﬀerent? Not necessarily. So, how can we tell?

One way, of course, is to take a look at the contents. Since cosets

are sets, if what they have as elements are all the same, in any order,

they’re equal.

Theorem 1.22. Let H ≤ G; now g

1

H =g

2

H if and only if g

−1

2

g

1

∈ H.

Proof. Because cosets are equivalence classes, g

1

H = g

2

H if g

1

≡

L

g

2

(mod H) — we’re dealing with left cosets here. If this holds, then it’s

because there is an h ∈ H such that g

1

= g

2

h. Now, because G is

a group, we have the inverse of g

2

available; multiply it on the left:

g

−1

2

g

1

= eh = h. Then, if g

1

H = g

2

H, then g

−1

2

g

1

∈ H.

Now we must show that once g

−1

2

g

1

∈ H, it follows that g

1

H = g

2

H.

Well, because g

−1

2

g

1

∈ H, we can write g

−1

2

g

1

= h, for some h ∈ H.

Then, multiply g

2

on the right, so eg

1

= g

2

h =⇒ g

1

= g

2

h. Now, this

means that there’s an h ∈ H, such that g

1

= g

2

h. Therefore, g

1

≡

L

g

2

(mod H). That is, g

1

H = g

2

H.

Theorem 1.23. Let H ≤ G; now g

1

H =g

2

H if and only if g

−1

1

g

2

∈ H.

Proof. Repeat last proof changing subscripts appropriately.

So, these two theorems give us a nice way to check if cosets are equal.

Next we prove a theorem about normal subgroups. It says that a nor-

mal subgroup of a group is normal only when an element of the group

times an element of the subgroup times the inverse of the element of

the group is in the subgroup. Verbal mathematics is very hard to

understand, but it’s a good exercise.

Theorem 1.24. A subgroup H of G is normal in G if and only if

ghg

−1

is in H, for all g in G.

14

Proof. Suppose H is normal in G. Let h in H and g in G be arbitrary

elements. Then, gh = h

g for some h

in H. Now multiply by g

−1

on

the right to get ghg

−1

= h

which is in H.

By hypothesis, ghg

−1

is in H, so let ghg

−1

= h

be in H. Multiply by

g on the right, so gh = h

**g, which means that gh is in Hg, and since
**

h is an arbitrary element of H, gH is a subset of Hg.

Now since g

−1

and g are inverses of each other, we can write the

hypothesis as g

−1

hg = h

**. Now multiply by g on the left to get hg =
**

gh

**which means that hg is in gH and since h is an arbitrary element
**

of H, Hg is a subset of gH. So, gH = Hg, for all g in G.

Now, if you read this theorem carefully, you may notice that it gives

you a nice message. The message is, if G is abelian, then any subgroup

H of G is normal. How does it say that? Well, suppose G is abelian

and that H ≤ G. Then for any g ∈ G, gg

−1

= e ∈ H, right? Now,

multiply h on the right to get gg

−1

h = eh. But, since every element

of G commutes with every element of G, including those of H because

H ≤ G, we can alter their order; so gg

−1

h = eh =⇒ ghg

−1

= eh =

h ∈ H and whenever this happens, H G.

Now, how do we actually build a quotient group? Let’s look at an

example. Let G = (Z, +), H = nZ. Because addition is the binary

operation for this group, mathematicians like to write the cosets in

the form g + H to make explicit that the operation is addition. If it

were any other operation, they’d probably write gH as we have been

so far.

Let’s try to build the quotient group Z/nZ, for n = 3, so we’ll build

Z/3Z. The elements of Z/3Z are ¦3Z, 1+3Z, 2+3Z¦. If you’re asking

why, consider the integers mod 3. By the division algorithm, z ÷3 =

nq + r, where r < 3. So r is either 0, 1 or 2. That explains why the

members are as they are. Now, we set up the Cayley table.

θ 3Z 1 + 3Z 2 + 3Z

3Z 3Z 1 + 3Z 2 + 3Z

1 + 3Z 1 + 3Z 2 + 3Z 3Z

2 + 3Z 2 + 3Z 3Z 1 + 3Z

You may quickly notice that this group is abelian. How would one

quickly notice such thing? Think of the group as a matrix A. Now,

write A

T

and notice that they are equal. The fact that this group is

abelian may get us a new theorem. Once a group G is abelian, is it

true that G/H is also abelian? Yes; if G is abelian, every subgroup is

normal, and so G/H is also abelian.

15

Theorem 1.25. Let H G, with G abelian; then G/H is abelian.

Proof. Let g

1

H, g

2

H ∈ G/H. Now (g

1

H)(g

2

H) = (g

1

g

2

)H, right?

That’s the deﬁnition for the multiplication (the binary operation) of

a quotient group. But, because G is abelian, every g commutes with

every element of G, so (g

1

g

2

)H = g

2

g

1

H = g

2

Hg

1

H and this shows

that G/H is abelian.

Once I say H G, does it automatically follow that G is abelian? It

can’t be, because let H = ¦e¦ which is normal in G and is a subgroup

of any G non-abelian. But what if H is a proper normal subgroup of

G? Does that make G abelian automatically? If so, can you prove? If

not, can you show an example?

But now, once G is abelian, every subgroup of G is normal, and every

subgroup of G is abelian; and once a subgroup is normal, a quotient

group with respect to the subgroup is also abelian. So, abelianism is

a pretty powerful and nice property that a group may have.

Since we’re talking about abelianism, notice that when G is cyclic,

then there’s no way that a subgroup won’t be abelian. Think about

it; there’s just no way because all elements are expressed as a factor

of the generator, so it doesn’t matter which order you multiply any of

them.

Exercise 1.24. Let H G. What is the order of gH ∈ G/H? Recall

that the order of gH is the smallest k such that (gH)

k

= H = g

k

H

which happens when g

k

∈ H. Then, the order of gH is the order of

H; that is, [gH[ = [H[.

Theorem 1.26. Let [G : H] = 2. Then H G.

Proof. What do we have to show here? We have to show that once

the index of H is 2, the right cosets of H in G are the same as the

left cosets of H in G. Since the index of H in G is the number of left

cosets of H in G, there are 2 left cosets. Then, each gh is either in

H or in G−H. Then we have two left cosets: g

1

H = H and g

2

H =

G−H. Now, consider... I don’t clearly see this one right now.

Let’s talk about ways to produce groups quickly. Which groups do

we know? We know the number systems: (R, +), (R ,= 0, ), (Z, +),

(Q ,= 0, ), (Q, +).

We know how to generate some groups, like the dihedral group D

4

=

¦r,s : r

4

= s

2

= e, rs = sr

3

¦. And we can always write the Cayley

16

table for any group, but it’s very hard to check associativity for crazy

groups in which we may build a table for.

Associativity, then, makes is a hard enough thing to check so that we

may wish to build groups out of things which we already know will

be associtive. For example, any group under composition is associa-

tive, so we like composition as a binary operation. So, a group can

be formed out of invertible functions from a set S into itself under

composition; what kind of groups are those? These are the symmetric

groups S

n

; they’re built out of the symmetry of objects.

For example, think of a rectangle. What can we do with a rectangle?

We can ﬂip it vertically and horizontally: we create two elements of

order 2. The identity is any of these two elements squared. We can

rotate it 180 degrees; which if we square this element, we also get

the identity. This is the symmetries of a rectangle in which we only

have elements which square to the identity; so each element is its own

inverse. This is the Klein 4-group.

Other ways to get away from checking associativity is to form groups

out of other groups. For example, let H ⊆ G. Then, by using the same

operation of G, we may form a group (H, op(G)) in which associativity

will be given by G, at no charge — a pretty good deal. Not to mention

that to check that H ≤ G we only need to check that for all h, h

∈ H,

hh

∈ H and h

−1

∈ H.

We can use generators. Pick some g ∈ G, and take a look at all

powers of g. This algorithm generates the group ¸g) which is cyclic

and, therefore, abelian, which makes every possible subgroup normal.

For example, let G = SL

2

(R). This is the special linear group of

matrices 2 2, under matrix multiplication as binary operation, with

real entries such that the determinant of each of these matrices is ±1.

Let

g =

1 1

0 1

,

and notice that ¸g)

∼

= (Z, +).

Another interesting example is the center of every group. Every group

G has a center as a subgroup. Moreover, every center subgroup is

abelian. Let Z(G) = ¦z ∈ G : zg = gz for all g ∈ G¦, then Z(G) is an

abelian subgroup of G. Next, we show an interesting theorem about

centers.

17

Theorem 1.27. Suppose G/Z(G) is cyclic. Then G is abelian and so

Z(G) = G.

Proof. Since G/Z(G) is cyclic, we can let gZ(G) generate G/Z(G).

So G/Z(G) = ¦... g

−1

Z(G), Z(G), gZ(G), g

2

Z(G), ...¦. This means

that every element of G is in a coset g

a

Z(G). Now, pick g

1

, g

2

∈ G;

these elements look like g

a

z and g

b

z

**in which each one is in some coset
**

of Z(G) in G, so z, z

**∈ Z(G). Because they are in the center of Z,
**

they both commute with every other element of G; therefore, g

a

zg

b

z

= g

a

zz

g

b

= g

a

z

zg

b

= g

a

z

g

b

z which shows that every element of

G commutes with every other element of G, therefore G is abelian.

Now Z(G) = G because once G is abelian, every element satisfy the

condition to belong in the center. In other words, abelianism implies

global centralization.

Before we move on to rings and other algebras, let’s take a look at

the quaternion group. The quaternion group is a non-abelian group

of order 8. It is usually denoted by Q

8

= ¦1, −1, i, −i, j, −j, k, −k¦.

The quaternions are actually a number system, similarly constructed

to the complex numbers, but the quaternions don’t commute, which

is unsual for number systems.

An interesting thing about the quaternion group is that once we say

that i

2

= j

2

= k

2

= ijk = −1, you can get the whole group. There’s

another way to name the elements of the group, in which I happen to

prefer right now.

Let Q

8

= ¦1, a, a

2

, a

3

, b, ab, a

2

b, a

3

b¦. Let a

4

= e, b

2

= a

2

, and so

b

4

= e. Then a

−1

= a

3

and it follows that ba = a

−1

b. From this, we

can draw the whole multiplication table.

θ 1 a a

2

a

3

b ab a

2

b a

3

b

1 1 a a

2

a

3

b ab a

2

b a

3

b

a a a

2

a

3

1 ab a

2

b a

3

b b

a

2

a

2

a

3

1 a a

2

b a

3

b b ab

a

3

a

3

1 a a

2

a

3

b b ab a

2

b

b b a

3

b a

2

b ab a

2

a 1 a

3

ab ab a

2

b a

3

b b a

3

a

2

a 1

a

2

b a

2

b a

3

b b ab 1 a

3

a

2

a

a

3

b a

3

b b ab a

2

b a 1 a

3

a

2

They don’t commute because, for example, ab ,= ba = a

3

b. However,

notice that all of its proper subgroups are abelian, because they’re all

cyclic. They are: ¦1¦, ¸a), ¸a

2

), ¸b). So non-abelianism doesn’t imply

non-abelian subgroups.

18

With a quick glance at the table and at the nature of the elements of

the quaternion, we could think that they have something to do with

the dihedral D

4

group, but they are not that similar. The quaternion

group has two elements which square to the identity, while D

4

has at

least ﬁve, so D

4

is not isomorphic to Q

8

.

Exercise 1.25. Let G abelian, let H = ¦g ∈ G : g

2

= e¦. Prove

H ≤ G. Give an example to show G abelian is necessary for such

H. Proof. We have associativity from G; e

2

= e, so we have identity.

We have closure on H because: since G is abelian, and H is subset of

G, all elements of H also commute, then e

2

= h

2

h

2

= (hh

)(hh

) =

(hh

)

2

∈ H. We also have inverses, because for each h ∈ H, h

−1

=

h ∈ H. Then H ≤ G. For the example, we consider S

4

which is not

abelian. Both (12) and (14) square to the identity. But (12)(14) =

(142), but (142)

2

= (124) ,= e, so we don’t have closure. So abelianism

is necessary.

Exercise 1.26. Let G be a group and let a be one ﬁxed element

of G. Show that H

a

= ¦x ∈ G : xa = ax¦ is a subgroup of G.

Proof. Associativity is given by G. The identity is present because

it commutes with every element of G, so it will commute with a just

ﬁne. For inverses now, let x ∈ H, so ax = xa, then x

−1

ax = x

−1

xa

=⇒ x

−1

axx

−1

= x

−1

xax

−1

=⇒ x

−1

ae = eax

−1

=⇒ x

−1

a = ax

−1

,

so x

−1

∈ H. Now we need to show closure; let x, y ∈ H

a

. We must

show xy ∈ H

a

; xa = ax =⇒ (yx)a = yax =⇒ yax = (yx)a =⇒

a(yx) = (yx)a.

Exercise 1.27. Show that S

n

is non-abelian for any n ≥ 3. Proof.

Any S

n

, where n ≥ 3, has (12) and (23) as elements; but since (12)(23)

= (123) ,= (132) = (23)(12), then no S

n

, with n ≥ 3, is abelian.

Exercise 1.28. Give an example of a group G which has no elements

of ﬁnite order greater than 1, but has a factor group G/H, all of whose

elements have ﬁnite order. Let (Z,+) be the group which none of its

elements have ﬁnite order; that’s possible because there’s no power

t > 1 such that z

t

= 1. However, Z/2Z is such that all of its cosets

have order not greater than 2.

Exercise 1.29. Let H ≤ G and ﬁx g ∈ G. Deﬁne gHg

−1

= ¦ghg

−1

: h ∈ H¦. Prove (a) that gHg

−1

≤ G. It is called a conjugate of H.

Suppose G is ﬁnite; then prove (b) that [gHg

−1

[ = [H[. Now suppose

19

G is a group and H is the unique subgroup of size [H[ in G; then,

prove (c) that H G.

For (a), we show ﬁrst the identity is present. Since e ∈ H, then geg

−1

= gg

−1

= e ∈ gHg

−1

. Associativity comes from G because gHg

−1

is composed only of elements of G. We construct the inverses this

way: e = gg

−1

= geg

−1

= ghh

−1

g

−1

= gheh

−1

g

−1

= ghg

−1

gh

−1

g

−1

= (ghg

−1

)(gh

−1

g

−1

) = e. And e = gg

−1

= geg

−1

= gh

−1

hg

−1

=

gh

−1

ehg

−1

= gh

−1

g

−1

ghg

−1

= (gh

−1

g

−1

)(ghg

−1

). So we have in-

verses; therefore, gHg

−1

≤ G.

For (b), let H = ¦h

1

, h

2

, ..., h

k

¦ with H ≤ G ﬁnite. Then

gHg

−1

= ¦gh

1

g

1

, ..., gh

k

g

−1

¦.

Now, if I can show that all elements in gHg

−1

are distinct, then I’ve

shown that there’s one and only one ghg

−1

for each h ∈ H. Therefore,

they have the same number of elements, and therefore, the same order.

So, suppose gh

g

−1

= gh

g

−1

. By cancellation law, h

= h

and then

they’re all distinct, so they have the same order.

For (c), we have [gHg

−1

[ = [H[ ≤ G, by (b) and (a) respectively.

The right coset (gHg

−1

)g = ¦gh

1

g

−1

g, ..., gh

k

g

−1

g¦ = ¦gh

1

, ..., gh

k

¦

= gH. Now, since H is the unique subgroup with [H[ elements, then

gHg

−1

= H, and so gH = Hg — because Hg = (gHg

−1

)g — implying

H G. However, (b) assumes G is ﬁnite, but I think that gHg

−1

will

always have the same elements even when G is not ﬁnite; so I think

that G-ﬁnite in (b) is not a requirement. There’s a not so hard way to

show the same cardinality here, so that we may drop the requirement

that G-ﬁnite.

2 Homomorphisms

Deﬁnition 2.1. A group homomorphism from (G, ) to (H, ) is a

mapping φ that maps every g ∈ G to some h ∈ H so that the image of

an -product is the corresponding ()-product in H; that is φ(g

1

g

2

)

= φ(g

1

) φ(g

2

).

Deﬁnition 2.2. Let φ : G →H be a homomorphism. The set φ(G) ⊆

H of all images h ∈ H of elements g ∈ G is called the homomorphic

image of G. The various elements g sharing the common image φ(g)

= h form the pre-image of h. Also, we say φ is a homomorphism onto

H if the mapping is onto; that is, if φ(G) = H, so that every element

20

of H appears as the image of at least one g ∈ G. If φ is onto and

one-to-one, then φ is an isomorphism.

Deﬁnition 2.3. Let φ : G → G

be a homomorphism. Let H ≤ G.

Then we call the set φ[H] = ¦φ(h) : h ∈ H¦ the homomorphic image

of H on G

.

Deﬁnition 2.4. Let φ : G → G

**be a homomorphism. The kernel of
**

φ is ker(φ) = ¦g ∈ G : f(g) = e¦ = f

−1

[e].

Theorem 2.1. φ[H] ≤ G

.

Deﬁnition 2.5. Let φ : G → G

be a homomorphism. Let H

≤ G

.

Then we call the set φ

−1

[H

] = ¦g ∈ G : φ(g) ∈ H

**¦ the pre-image of
**

H

.

Deﬁnition 2.6. Let φ be a homomorphism from a group G to a

group H. The group K of pre-images of e

H

is called the kernel of the

homomorphism.

Exercise 2.1. The integers can be mapped onto the integers Z

n

=

¦0, 1, 2, ..., n − 1¦, and this mapping is a homomorphism for the

operation +. Is it also a homomorphism for ? Let f(i + rn) = i

(mod n), and show that f((i +rn)(j +sn)) = ij (mod n).

Proof. We let φ(p = i +rn) = i (mod n), φ(q = i +sn) = j (mod n).

Is φ(pq) = ij (mod n)? φ((i +rn)(j +sn)) = φ(ij +isn+jrn+rsn

2

)

= φ(ij + (is + jr + rsn)n) = ij (mod n). So it is a homormorphism

for as well.

Exercise 2.2. Let φ : G → H be a group homomorphism. Prove

that φ[G] is abelian if and only if for all x, y ∈ G we have xyx

−1

y

−1

∈

ker(φ).

Proof. Suppose xyx

−1

y

−1

∈ ker(φ) for all x, y ∈ G. Let a, b in φ[G],

so we have x, y ∈ G such that a = φ(x), b = φ(y). We use the φ’s

properties, such as φ(x

−1

) = φ(x)

−1

to write

φ(xy)φ(x

−1

y

−1

) = e

φ(x)φ(y)φ(x

−1

)φ(y

−1

) = e

φ(x)φ(y)φ(x)

−1

φ(y)

−1

= e

φ(x)φ(y)φ(x)

−1

= φ(y)

φ(x)φ(y) = φ(y)φ(x)

ab = ba

21

Therefore, φ[G] is abelian. Now suppose φ[G] is abelian. Let x, y ∈ G.

Must show φ(xyx

−1

y

−1

) = e. So

φ(x)φ(y) = φ(y)φ(x)

φ(x)φ(y)φ(x)

−1

= φ(y)

φ(x)φ(y)φ(x)

−1

φ(y)

−1

= e

φ(x)φ(y)φ(x

−1

)φ(y

−1

) = e

φ(xyx

−1

y

−1

) = e

Therefore xyx

−1

y

−1

∈ ker(φ) for all x, y ∈ G.

Exercise 2.3. Let f : G →H be a group homomorphism. Prove that

f is one-to-one if and only if ker(f) = ¦e¦.

Proof. Assume f is one-to-one. Let x ∈ ker(f). Then f(x) = e =

f(e), and since f is one-to-one, we have that x = e, so ker(f) = ¦e¦.

Now assume ker(f) = ¦e¦. Let x, y ∈ G. Suppose f(x) = f(y). We

now use the fact that f is a homomorphism, to write

f(x) = f(y)

f(x)f(y)

−1

= e

f(x)f(y

−1

) = e

f(xy

−1

) = e

So xy

−1

∈ ker(f). Therefore, x = y.

Exercise 2.4. Let G be a group and ﬁx g ∈ G. Deﬁne a map φ :

G →G by

φ(x) = gxg

−1

.

Show that φ is (a) one-to-one and (b) onto. Prove φ is a (c) homo-

morphism.

For (a), let x, y ∈ G. Suppose φ(x) = φ(y). So φ(x) = gxg

−1

= φ(y)

= gyg

−1

. Apply cancellation law on the left and on the right; then x

= y. So φ is one-to-one.

For (b) let y ∈ G. We must show that there is an x ∈ G such that

y = φ(x) = gxg

−1

. Multiply by g on the right, and by g

−1

on the left,

so g

−1

yg = x; so, φ is onto.

For (c), let x, y ∈ G. Then φ(x) = gxg

−1

and φ(y) = gyg

−1

. So

φ(x)φ(y) = gxg

−1

gyg

−1

= gxyg

−1

= φ(xy)

22

So φ is a homomorphism.

Exercise 2.5. Let φ : G →H be a homomorphism and K = ker(φ),

so K G. Let g ∈ G. Prove gK = φ

−1

[φ(g)]. That is, we are proving

that the elements of the coset gK are exactly the elements of G that

map to φ(g) ∈ ¦φ(g)¦.

Proof. Let φ : G →H be a (group) homomorphism, K = ker(φ). Let

K G. Let g ∈ G. Let gk ∈ gK for some k ∈ K. Must show gk ∈

φ

−1

[φ(g)]. Since G is a group, gk ∈ G; since φ is a homomorphism,

φ(gk) = φ(g)φ(k) = φ(g) ∈ φ[G].

Since φ(gk) ∈ φ[G], gk ∈ φ

−1

[φ(g)].

Now, since f is a homomorphism,

f(g

−1

u) = f(g

−1

)f(u)

= f(g)

−1

f(u)

But f(u) = f(g) because u ∈ f

−1

[¦f(g)¦]. So

f(g)

−1

f(u) = f(g)

−1

f(g)

= e

So g

−1

u is mapped to e, which means g

−1

u ∈ K. So g

−1

u = k for

some k ∈ K. Multiply g on the right, so u = gk; so u ∈ gK.

Exercise 2.6. Let H G. Deﬁne φ : G → G/H by φ(g) = gH.

Show that φ is onto and the kernel of φ is H.

Proof. As deﬁned, φ takes each g ∈ G into a coset gH ∈ G/H; since

H is normal, G/H’s operation is deﬁned as (g

1

H)(g

2

H) = (g

1

g

2

)H.

By deﬁnition, φ(g) = gH, so

φ(g

1

g

2

) = g

1

g

2

H

= g

1

Hg

2

H

= φ(g

1

)φ(g

2

)

Therefore, φ is a homomorphism.

The kernel of φ will be all elements which land in the identity of G/H;

that is, they land in H. Which elements g will satisfy φ(g) = H? By

deﬁnition, φ(g) = gH which is equal to H if and only if (g

−1

e) ∈ H.

23

Let h ∈ H. So φ(h) = hH = H because h

−1

∈ H. Therefore,

H = ker(φ).

To show φ is onto, let gH ∈ G/H. I must ﬁnd g

∈ G such that

φ(g

) = gH; because g ∈ G, we certainly have one; let g = g

, so φ is

onto.

Deﬁnition 2.7. A group G ,= ¦e¦ is simple if and only if for every

N G, we have N = G or N = ¦e¦.

Exercise 2.7. Prove that a ﬁnite simple group G which is abelian

must be a cyclic group of prime order.

Proof. By deﬁnition, G ,= ¦e¦, so pick g ,= e; we know ¸g) ≤ G.

Suppose ¸g) ,= G; since G is abelian, ¸g) G, so ¸g) is normal and

proper in G, but G is simple, so that’s not possible. So, ¸g) = G.

By Theorem 5-3, if some prime p divides [G[, then G has a subgroup

H of order p. Since G is abelian, H must be normal. Since G is

simple, it’s not true that H is proper, so [G[ = p.

Theorem 2.2. Suppose H is a subgroup of G and N is normal in G.

Deﬁne HN a subset of G by HN = ¦hn : h ∈ H, n ∈ N¦. Then HN

is a subgroup of G.

Proof. We know e is in both H and N, so e

2

= e ∈ HN; hence HN

is not empty.

For closure, let a, b be in HN. Then there are h, h

∈ H and n, n

∈ N

such that a = hn and b = h

n

, so ab = hnh

n

. Now, since N

is normal, hN = Nh for all h ∈ G, so nh

∈ Nh

= h

N; hence,

nh

= h

n

∗

for some n

∗

∈ N, so ab = hh

n

∗

n

. Since hh

∈ H and

n

∗

n

∈ N, ab ∈ HN.

For inverses, let a be in HN, so a = hn for some h ∈ H and n ∈

N. We know a

−1

= n

−1

h

−1

, so we multiply h on the left to get

ha

−1

= hn

−1

h

−1

which is in N because N is normal. Since ha

−1

∈ N,

h

−1

(ha

−1

) ∈ HN, so a

−1

∈ HN; hence, HN is a subgroup of G.

Corollary 2.3. If H G, then HN G.

Proof. Let x in HN be arbitrary; then x = uv for some u in H and v

in N. Let g in G be arbitrary; we want to show that gxg

−1

is in HN.

Now gxg

−1

= guvg

−1

= gug

−1

gvg

−1

. But H and N are normal in G,

so gug

−1

is in H and gvg

−1

is in N, so gxg

−1

is in HN, as desired.

24

Exercise 2.8. Let G be a group. Deﬁne ∼ on G by x ∼ y if there

exists g ∈ G such that

gxg

−1

= y.

Prove (a) ∼ is an equivalence relation,(b) describe the conjugacy

classes of G if G is abelian, (c) write down the conjugacy classes of

S

3

.

Proof. Let x ∈ G. Then x ∼ x because xxx

−1

= x. Suppose x ∼ y.

So exists g such that

gxg

−1

= y

xg

−1

= g

−1

y

x = g

−1

y(g

−1

)

−1

.

Suppose x ∼ y, y ∼ z. So there exists g, h such that

gxg

−1

= y

hyh

−1

= z

So h(gxg

−1

)h

−1

= z. Let g

= hg, and notice g

−1

= g

−1

h

−1

. So

g

xg

−1

= z. So x ∼ z.

(b) If G is abelian, then the only y which will satisfy the relation is

y = x, but since ∼ is an equivalence relation, ∼ breaks G apart into

disjoint and exhaustive classes, so G has [G[ conjugacy classes of the

form ¦x¦.

(c) S

3

= ¦e, (12), (23), (13), (123), (132)¦. A 3-cycle has a 2-cycle

as a conjugate because 3-cycles are even permutations, 2-cycles are

odd, so even-cycle times odd-cycle is odd-cycle. Therefore, one class

C

1

will contain (123), (132). Now, by inspection I ﬁnd (12)(13)(12)

= (12)(123) = (23), so (13) ∼ (23). Also, (23)(12)(23) = (23)(123) =

(13), so (12) ∼ (13). So, another class C

2

will contain (12), (13), (23).

3 Polynomials

We need deﬁnitions, notation explained, the theorems, the proofs; the

exercises are already here.

Exercise 3.1. Find all primes p such that x + 2 is a factor of

x

4

+x

3

+x

2

−x + 1 ∈ Z

p

[x].

Solution. If x +2 is a factor of x

4

+x

3

+x

2

−x +1 ∈ Z

p

[x], then it’s

because −2 is a root. By evaluating the polynomial at −2, we get 15

25

as the result. Now, 15 = 0 (mod 3) and 15 = 0 (mod 5). Hence we

have p in ¦3, 5¦.

Exercise 3.2. Find all irreducible polynomials of degree 3 in Z

3

[x].

Solution. We can express all polynomials of degree 3 over Z

3

by

ax

3

+bx

2

+cx +d.

The constant term d cannot be zero, or zero is a root. The coeﬃcients

cannot sum to zero, or one is a root. Now, to derive a third rule,

evaluate x = 2 = −1: −a+b +−c +d = 0 which implies b +d = a+c.

That is, whenever the sum of the even coeﬃcients equals the sum of

odd coeﬃcients, we have 2 = −1 as a root. Since the degree must be

3, then a cannot be 0, so a is either 1 or 2.

Since factorization is unique except for scalar multiple (and order),

consider all monic polynomials and multiply each by 2 to notice that

factorization doesn’t change. So we may consider only the monic poly-

nomials; in case we want to distinguish them, we may multiply each

irreducible by 2 to obtain its match, doubling the total of irreducible

polynomials.

So, with these criteria, we have 2 choices for d, 3 choices for c, 3 choices

for b, with 1 choice for a. This gives us 18 polynomials p(x). Suppose

now that p(x) is reducible; then its factors will be of degree 2 and

degree 1; that is,

p(x) = g(x)h(x) = (x

2

+Ax +B)(x +C).

Since d isn’t zero, B and C are not zero. So, C = 1 or C = 2, B = 1 or

B = 2. This gives us 6 possibilities for g(x) and 2 possibilities for h(x);

that is, 12 factorizations, which are reducible. We take advantage of

the list to add the irreducibles in the order that they should appear.

We list only the coeﬃcients of each polynomial in the order x

3

, x

2

,

x

1

, x

0

.

1 0 0 1

1 0 0 2

1 0 1 1

1 0 1 2

1 0 2 1 irreducible

1 0 2 2 irreducible

1 1 0 1

1 1 0 2 irreducible

26

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 2 irreducible

1 1 2 1 irreducible

1 1 2 2

1 2 0 1 irreducible

1 2 0 2

1 2 1 1 irreducible

1 2 1 2

1 2 2 1

1 2 2 2 irreducible

We found 8 polynomials. If we multiply each by 2, we would get their

matches, yielding 16 irreducible polynomials as shown below.

2 0 0 1

2 0 0 2

2 0 1 1 irreducible

2 0 1 2 irreducible

2 0 2 1

2 0 2 2

2 1 0 1

2 1 0 2 irreducible

2 1 1 1 irreducible

2 1 1 2

2 1 2 1

2 1 2 2 irreducible

2 2 0 1 irreducible

2 2 0 2

2 2 1 1

2 2 1 2 irreducible

2 2 2 1 irreducible

2 2 2 2

Exercise 3.3. Demonstrate that f(x) = x

4

−22x

2

+ 1 is irreducible

over Q. Solution. By the quadratic formula,

x

2

= 11 ±

22

2

−4/2

= 11 ±2

√

30

27

So x = ±

11 ±2

√

30.

Now we can write f(x) as the product of 4 linear factors in R[x]. The

linear factors are irreducible polynomials in R[x]; so, the factorization

of f(x) is unique — except for order and scalar multiples. Therefore,

if f(x) were to factor in Q[x], we would see rational roots in these

linear factors, which we don’t.

Because the irrationals are not closed under multiplication, we must

also make sure that no factors of degree 2 will have rational coeﬃcients.

We take the linear factors and multiply them in all possible ways.

Let

A = x −

11 + 2

√

30

B = x +

11 + 2

√

30

C = x −

11 −2

√

30

D = x +

11 −2

√

30.

So

AB = x

2

−11 −2

√

30

AC = x

2

+ (−

11 + 2

√

30 −

11 −2

√

30)x + 1

AD = x

2

+ (−

11 + 2

√

30 +

11 −2

√

30)x + 1

BC = x

2

+ (−

11 −2

√

30 +

11 + 2

√

30)x + 1

BD = x

2

+ (

11 −2

√

30 +

11 + 2

√

30)x + 1

CD = x

2

+ 241 −44

√

30

No factor with rational coeﬃcients; so f(x) is irreducible in Q[x].

Exercise 3.4. Let φ : G → H be a group homomorphism which is

onto. Suppose G has 60 elements and H has 4 elements. Find [ker(φ)[.

Let h be in H. How many elements of G map to h?

Solution. By the fundamental theorem of homomorphisms, G/ker(φ)

∼

= Image(φ). Since φ is onto, H

∼

= Image(φ), so G/ker(φ)

∼

= H.

Since [H[ = 4, 60/[ker(φ)[ = 4; hence, [ker(φ)[ = 15. Let h be in H;

so [φ

−1

[h][ = 15.

28

Exercise 3.5. Show that α =

√

2 +

√

3 is algebraic over Q by ﬁnding

f(x) in Q[x] such that f(α) = 0. Repeat for α =

3

√

2 −i.

Solution.

α

2

= 5 + 2

√

6

α

2

−5 = 2

√

6

α

4

−10α

2

+ 25 = 24

α

4

−10α

2

+ 1 = 0

So,

√

2 +

√

3 is algebraic over Q; so it’s an algebraic number.

For the other, we write

α

2

=

3

√

2 −i

α

2

−i =

3

√

2

(α

2

−i)

3

= 2

(α

4

−2iα

2

−1)(α

2

−i) = 2

α

6

−iα

4

−2iα

4

−2α

2

−α

2

+i = 2

α

6

−3iα

4

−3α

2

+i = 2

α

6

−3α

2

−2 = 3iα

4

−i

(α

6

−3α

2

−2)

2

= −9α

8

+ 6α

4

+ 1

(α

6

−3α

2

−2)

2

+ 9α

8

−6α

4

−1 = 0

Now the coeﬃcients are rational. Since α is a root of the polynomial

above, and α is in C and C is an extension ﬁeld of Q, then α is algebraic

over Q, so α is algebraic number.

Exercise 3.6. The complex numbers s + ti and s − ti with s, t in R

are often called conjugates. Show that they satisfy the deﬁnition of

conjugates. What happens if t = 0?

Solution. If the coeﬃcients of the polynomial

p(x) = (x −s +ti)(x −s −ti),

are real numbers, then we can pick R = F and C = E to satisfy the

deﬁnition, because C is an extension ﬁeld of R. Also, p(x) would be

irreducible over R because all of its roots are complex numbers. Since

p(x) = x

2

−2sx + (s

2

+t

2

),

29

we have p(x) in R[x] satisfying the deﬁnition. If t = 0, then the dis-

criminant found in the application of the quadratic formula is greater

than zero which implies that all roots are real which causes p(x) to be

reducible in R failing the deﬁnition for the chosen ﬁelds here. If we

want to, however, we can pick other ﬁelds to satisfy the deﬁnition for

when t = 0.

Exercise 3.7. Let F be the ﬁeld of rational numbers and let p(x) =

x

2

+x/3−1. Show that x

3

+1, −1/3x

2

+x+1 and 10x/9+2/3 are in

the same equivalence class. Show that x

4

+x

2

+1 and −28x/27+28/9

are in the same equivalence class.

Solution. We have x

3

+1 = 10x/9+2/3 and −x

2

/3+x+1 = 10x/9+

2/3. This shows they’re all in the same equivalence class. For the

other class, we have x

4

+x

2

+ 1 = −28x/27 + 28/9.

Exercise 3.8. Still using Q/¸p(x) = x

2

+ x/3 − 1), ﬁnd linear poly-

nomials equivalent to x

2

, x

3

, x

4

. Use the results to ﬁnd a linear

polynomial equivalent to 3x

4

+x

3

−2/3x

2

+x + 1.

Solution. For the ﬁrst part, we do long division on each. So

x

2

= −x/3 + 1

x

3

= 10x/9 −1/3

x

4

= −19x/27 + 10/9.

For the second part, we use the equivalences above to perform the

appropriate substituitions for 3x

4

+ x

3

− 2/3x

2

+ x + 1. That is, we

can write it as

3(−19x/27) + 10/9 + (10x/9) −1/3 + (−2/3) −(x/3) + 1 +x + 1,

which is equivalent to (46 + 16x)/9.

Exercise 3.9. What is the multiplicative identity of F[x]/¸p(x))?

Solution. The multiplicative inverse e(x) is an element of the ﬁeld

such that k(x)e(x) = e(x)k(x) = k(x). If we take any member of k(x)

and multiply it by a constant term, we get a member of k(x), so all

constants are members of e(x).

Exercise 3.10. Let q(x) = x + 1/2; check if q(x)

−1

= −4/5x + 2/5

is the inverse of q(x) in the ﬁeld Q[x]/¸x

2

+ 1).

30

Solution. To check, we verify that q(x) q(x)

−1

= e(x) and we divide

e(x) by x

2

+ 1. If we get a constant polynomial, it worked. It does

because

q(x) q(x)

−1

= 1/5 −4x

2

/5 = 1.

But it could’ve been any constant other than 1, since all constants are

members of the class 1.

Exercise 3.11. Find the inverse of x in Q[x]/¸x

2

+ 1).

Solution. What polynomial that when multiplied by x will yield a

constant mod x

2

+ 1? The polynomial x itself, because (x)(x) = x

2

= −1 mod x

2

+ 1. So x

−1

= x.

Exercise 3.12. Divide θ

2

+ 1 by tθ + s, express their gcd linearly,

ﬁnd the inverse of s+ti, and compare with the preceding result of the

book.

Solution. The division algorithm yields

θ

2

+ 1 = (tθ +s)(θ/t −s/t

2

) + (1 +s

2

/t

2

).

Since (1 +s

2

/t

2

) is a constant, it is a gcd(θ

2

+ 1, tθ +s). We express

it linearly now with

1 +

s

2

t

2

= θ

2

+ 1 −

tθ +s

θ

t

−

s

t

2

= θ

2

+ 1 −

θ

t

−

s

t

2

tθ +s

**We want to express 1 as a combination of θ
**

2

+ 1 and tθ + s. So we

multiply the equation by 1/(1 +s

2

/t

2

), which yields

1 =

θ

2

+ 1 −

θ

t

−

s

t

2

tθ +s

1

1 +s

2

/t

2

=

1

1 +s

2

/t

2

θ

2

+ 1

−

1

1 +s

2

/t

2

θ

t

−

s

t

2

tθ +s

=

t

2

t

2

+s

2

θ

2

+ 1

−

tθ −s

t

2

+s

2

tθ +s

So

1 +¸θ

2

+ 1) = −

tθ −s

t

2

+s

2

tθ +s

+¸θ

2

+ 1).

The inverse of s +ti is

s −ti

s

2

+t

2

.

31

The comparison we can make here is that

s −ti

s

2

+t

2

seems to be the same as

−

tθ −s

t

2

+s

2

=

s −tθ

t

2

+s

2

,

where θ plays the role of i.

Exercise 3.13 (7-12).

Exercise 3.14 (7-14).

Exercise 3.15. Find the minimum polynomials over the small ﬁeld

of the following elements in the following extensions: (a) i in C : Q,

(b)

3

√

7 in R : Q, (c) (1 +

5

)/2 in C : Q, (d)

√

5 +

√

3 in C : Q.

Solution. We set x = r, where r is the desired root, then we work

with the equation until we get the coeﬃcients over the desired ﬁeld.

For (a), we have x

2

+1, for (b) x

3

−7, (c) x

2

−x−1, (d) x

4

−16x

2

+4.

Exercise 3.16. Find an irreducible polynomial p(x) in Z

3

[x] of degree

2. Explain why it is irreducible. Contruct the ﬁeld E = Z

3

[x]/¸p(x)).

Factor p(x) into two linear terms in E[x].

Solution. For a prime p, Z

p

is a ﬁeld, so it has no zero divisors and

it’s closed under the operations, so a polynomial is reducible if and

only if it has a root. In Z

3

, x

2

+ 1 has no roots.

Let the roots be caled T and −T = 2T. We attach the roots to Z

3

,

and we compute what other elements will be appear in the ﬁeld by

computing the addition and multiplication tables.

+ | 0 1 2 T 2T 1+T 1+2T 2+T 2+2T

-----------------------------------------------------------

0 | 0 1 2 T 2T 1+T 1+2T 2+T 2+2T

1 | 1 2 0 1+T 1+2T 2+T 2+2T T 2T

2 | 2 0 1 2+T 2+2T T 2T 1+T 1+2T

T | T T+1 T+2 2T 0 1+2T 1 2+2T T

2T | 2T 1+2T 2+2T 0 T 1 1+T 2 2+T

1+T |1+T 2+T T 1+2T 1 2+2T 2 2T 0

1+2T |1+2T 2+2T 2T 1 1+T 2 2+T 0 T

32

2+T |2+T T 1+T 2+2T 2 2+2T 0 1+2T 1

2+2T |2+2T 2T 1+2T 2 2+T 0 T 1 1+T

* | 0 1 2 T 2T 1+T 1+2T 2+T 2+2T

-----------------------------------------------------------

0 | 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 | 0 1 2 T 2T 1+T 1+2T 2+T 2+2T

2 | 0 2 1 2T T 2+2T 2+T 1+2T 1+T

T | 0 T 2T 2 1 2+T 1+T 2+2T 1+2T

2T | 0 2T T 1 2 1+2T 2+2T 1+T 2+T

1+T | 0 1+T 2+2T 2+T 1+2T 2T 2 1 T

1+2T | 0 1+2T 2+T 1+T 2+2T 2 T 2T 1

2+T | 0 2+T 1+2T 2+2T 1+T 1 2T T 2

2+2T | 0 2+2T 1+T 1+2T ---- T 1 2 2T

We can now factor every polynomial in Z

3

(T, 2T) all the way to linear

factors. The roots of x

2

+ 1 are T and 2T, so

x

2

+ 1 = (x +T)(x + 2T).

4 Algebraic ﬁeld extensions

Deﬁnition 4.1. If every element of a ﬁeld F is an element of a ﬁeld

E and if F has the same ﬁeld operations as E, then F is a subﬁeld of

E and E is an extension of F. We write F ⊆ E.

Deﬁnition 4.2. Let a

0

+a

1

x+a

2

x

2

+... +a

n

x

n

= 0 be a polynomial

equation of degree n with coeﬃcients a

i

in a ﬁeld F, and let E be an

extension ﬁeld of F. If r in E is a root of such an equation, then r is

said to be algebraic over F. If F is Q, then r is an algebraic number.

Deﬁnition 4.3. A real number that is not the root of any polynomial

equation with rational coeﬃcients is called transcendental.

Knowing that π is transcendental from hearing people say it, makes

one wonder if we can show that it is not transcendental. All we have

to do is ﬁnd a polynomial with rational coeﬃcients which has π as a

root. We can’t consider x −π = 0 because we can’t assume that π is

rational. A rational number times an irrational number is irrational,

so we will need at least a polynomial of degree 2.

33

Why? Because the idea is: if π isn’t transcendental, then eventually

we would ﬁnd some natural n such that π

n

= r, where r is a rational

number. Consider the irrational

√

2. If we square it, we get 2; so this

way we can ﬁnd a polynomial to which

√

2 is a root. For example,

x

2

− 2 = 0. So, if we can apply some power to π and get it to

become a rational number, then we would be done. If I believe the

mathematicians, then I have to say that this is not possible and if not,

then this is another way to think of transcendental numbers: numbers

which won’t square to a rational number, ever.

Deﬁnition 4.4. An algebraic number is called an algebraic integer

if and only if it is a root of a monic polynomial equation of degree n

with coeﬃcients in Z.

Every algebraic number r is a root of an equation with coeﬃcients in

Z. Why? Because r is a root of an equation with coeﬃcients in Q, by

deﬁnition. So, multiply the equation by the least common multiple of

the denominators of the rational coeﬃcients and we get an equation

with integral coeﬃcients; the polynomial equation won’t necessarily

be monic.

Theorem 4.1. Let F be a ﬁeld and let r be in E ⊆ F be algebraic

with respect to F. Then r is a root of a unique monic irreducible

polynomial p(x) in F[x] and p(x) divides each polynomial in F[x]

that has r as a root.

Deﬁnition 4.5. Let F be a ﬁeld. Then r

1

, r

2

in E ⊆ F are conjugates

if they are roots of the same irreducible polynomial in F[x].

Deﬁnition 4.6. If every element of an extension E of F is algebraic

with respect to F, then E is an algebraic extension of F.

Deﬁnition 4.7. Let F be a ﬁeld and let p(x) be in F[x] such that p(x)

is irreducible in F[x]. We let F[x]/¸p(x)) stand for the polynomials

with coeﬃcients in F taken modulo ¸p(x)) with equivalence classes

described as ¦r(x) + p(x)q(x), where q(x) is in F[x]¦, represented by

r(x) mod p(x).

The uniqueness of the remainder of a long division is guaranteed by

the Division Algorithm, so the representation is described in the deﬁ-

nition above is also unique. Also, we must check that p(x), from the

deﬁnition above, is really irreducible.

34

Deﬁnition 4.8. We may write the representative of an equivalence

class of polynomials as a polynomial with a bar on top; for example,

(10/9)x + 2/3.

Theorem 4.2 (Kronecker). Let F be a ﬁeld, and let p(x) be irre-

ducible in F[x]. Then F[x]/¸p(x)) is a ﬁeld, and contains a subﬁeld

isomorphic to F. The polynomial p(x) has a root in F[x]/¸p(x)).

Let’s review some concepts. Let F be a ﬁeld. Suppose r is algebraic

over F which means r is the root of some polynomial over F. If we

require r to be the root of some irreducible polynomial, then there’s

only one polynomial to which r is a root of. We call such polynomial,

the minimum polynomial of r over F.

For example, if F = Q and r =

3

√

2, then p(x) = x

3

− 2. But if F =

Q, then

3

√

2 implies the existence of p(x) = x −

3

√

2. So, it depends on

the ﬁeld. Now, consider π as the root of some polynomial over Q.

Theorem 4.3 (Kronecker, in new words). We have a polynomial p(x)

which is irreducible over F. We can take all polynomials in F[x] and

quotient it out with p(x); that is, we can create F[x]/¸p(x)); this is a

ﬁeld, with nice properties.

The ﬁrst property is that the ﬁeld, mentioned in the theorem of Kro-

necker, has F inside it: the constant polynomials. Now x is a root

of p(x). For example, x

2

+ 2x + 2 is irreducible by E.I.C. Now take

Q[x]/¸p(x)) and notice that since p(x) is congruent to zero by deﬁni-

tion, x is a root. To check, just plug x in the polynomial.

Another way to think of the previous example is to declare r to be a

root of p(x). Now, we form a ﬁeld F(r) — read this as “F adjoin r”.

Now use the fact that p(r) = 0 to “multiply” things around — what

would this mean?

Going on; if p(x) has degree n, then every element of F(r) is of the

form c

0

+ c

1

r + c

2

r

2

+ ... + c

n−1

ra

n−1

with c

i

in F. Let’s look at an

example.

Declare r a root of x

2

+2x+2. In Q(r), we know that r

2

+2r+2 = 0 or

r

2

= −2r −2. Now Q(r) = ¦x+yr : x, y ∈ Q¦. With this information

now, we write (6 + 2r)(−1 −3r) = −6 −20r −6r

2

= −6 −20r −6r

2

= 6 −8r because r

2

= −2r −2.

Remark 4.1. So, we have a ﬁeld. But how do we divide things in it?

That is, what’s 1/a, for example? We can use the divison algorithm to

35

answer that. The multiplication by conjugates doesn’t always work;

that is, in C you can deﬁne division in terms of multiplication by

inverses, but it seems to me that this works in C and not on every

ﬁeld. So, I should be able to ﬁnd one ﬁeld in which this does not work,

right? This is my task now, because I don’t know one right now, but

I will say that I believe that not all the time we get something like i

2

= −1 in a ﬁeld that will answer all of our questions. So I say that C

is a very nice ﬁeld, but there are some mean ones.

Deﬁnition 4.9. A simple extension is an extension which includes

only one element. The degree of an extension F ⊆ E is the number

of elements of E that we need to span E over F.

What does this mean? Take

Q(

√

2,

√

3) = ¦a +b

√

2 +c

√

3 +d

√

6¦,

and notice that it is a degree 4 extension of Q, because we absolutely

need 1,

√

2,

√

3, and

√

6.

Now, we have to notice that Q(

√

2 +

√

3) = Q(

√

2,

√

3), but they

have diﬀerent bases and diﬀerent degrees. Doesn’t this sound not

well-deﬁned? This alters perhaps what we call, in this document, a

splitting ﬁeld. I owe an explanation here.

Theorem 4.4. If r has minimum polynomial p(x) of degree n over

F, then F(r) : F is an extension of degree n.

So, for example, take p(x) = x

5

+ 2x

2

+ 2x + 6, which is irreducible

over Q, and declare r as a root, so

Q(r) = ¦a +br +cr

2

+dr

3

+er

4

¦

has degree 5.

Now, consider x

2

+ 2x + 2. Here,

Q(r) = ¦a +br : a, b ∈ Q¦.

The rule for multiplication here is r

2

= −2r −2. This is just like the

complex i such that i

2

= −1. Now, we have a root, so we can factor

it. We do the long division between x −r and x

2

+ 2x + 2. We get

x

2

+ 2x + 2 = (x −r)(x + 2 +r) + 0.

So r and −r −2 are conjugates in Q(r).

36

Consider now x

3

−2 which is irreducible over Q. So we extend the ﬁeld

by adjoining

3

√

2. So a division should happen with zero remainder.

We get

x

3

−2 = (x −

3

√

2)(x

2

+

√

2 +

3

√

4) + 0.

Now (x

2

+

√

2 +

3

√

4) is irreducible. We then expand the ﬁeld to get

it to be reducible. So Q(

3

√

2,

3

√

2(−1/2 +i

√

3/2)). I wondered if these

additions to the ﬁeld would make the ﬁeld completely factorable, but it

doesn’t; these additions make these polynomials factorable, but others

are still irreducible, so what happens to C? C somehow is completely

factorable. This is a miracle; it turns out that R[x] mod x

2

+1 makes

C a beautiful ﬁeld.

Deﬁnition 4.10. Let p(x) be irreducible over F. Suppose F ⊆ E ⊆ D

are ﬁelds. The polynomial “splits” if it factors into linear terms. We

say D is a spliting ﬁeld for p(x) if p(x) splits in D[x], and p(x) does

not split in E[x] for any F ⊂ E ⊂ D.

By the way, all roots of p(x) lie in the splitting ﬁeld. Why? Because

if it factors then

p(x) = (x −r

1

)(x −r

2

)...(x −r

n

).

Theorem 4.5. There exists is a unique splitting ﬁeld. Take F(r

1

, r

2

,

..., r

n

) which are the roots of p(x).

Let’s now see an example. Find a splitting ﬁeld of x

4

−3x

2

+1. How

do we do it? Find the roots of the polynomial; use the quadratic

formula. So x

2

= (3 ±

√

5)/2, so x = ±

(3 ±

√

5)/2. Now,

Q

(3 +

√

5)/2,

(3 −

√

5)/2

**is a splitting ﬁeld. We’re done. There may be a better way to write
**

this ﬁeld, and this is one of the frustrating thing: there is so many

ways to write it and it’s not always easy to ﬁgure out whether we have

the simplest.

Theorem 4.6. F(r

1

, r

2

) = F(r

1

)F(r

2

) = F(r

2

)F(r

1

) et cetera.

Theorem 4.7. Suppose F ⊆ E ⊆ D with degree E : F = m, degree

D : E = n. Then D : F = mn.

37

An example of this theorem is F = Q and E = Q(

√

2) = ¦a + b

√

2

: a, b ∈ Q¦. Degree E : F = 2. Now, look at E = Q(

√

2) and

D = E(

4

√

2). The minimum polynomial of

4

√

2 over Q(

√

2) is x

2

−

√

2

so degree D : E = 2 and degree E : Q = 4. I don’t really follow this

example, so if there’s anything wrong here I wouldn’t be able to tell.

Degree Q(π) : Q = ∞. Now consider Q(π) : Q(π

2

) which has degree

2, and π is root of x

2

−π

2

.

In this section, we’ve studied algebraic numbers and transcendental

numbers. We have seen irreducible polynomials over a ﬁeld F. We

have seen Kronecker’s theorem which claims the existence of a ﬁeld

F[x]/¸p(x)) which is an extension ﬁeld of F where p(x), in particular,

has a root; we can think of F[x]/¸p(x)) as a simple degree n extension

F(r) where p(r) = 0 degree p(x) = n.

We’ve seen minimum polynomials, conjugates of ﬁeld elements. On

the next section, we will be looking at roots in which when we permute

them around, we will ﬁnd nice properties; that is, we’ll be building a

group of permutations of roots.

Exercise 4.1. Prove that 1, i =

√

−1 form a linear basis for R(i),

where R is the real ﬁeld. Show that g =

√

2 −2i is algebraic relative

to R by ﬁnding a polynomial having g as a zero.

Solution. Every element of R(i) can be written as a + bi, so 1 and i

span R(i). To show linear independence, we must show that for all r

in R(i), r = a 1 +b i = 0 if and only if a = b = 0.

If a = b = 0, then r = 0. Now if r = 0, then

r = a +ib = 0

a = −ib

a

2

= (−ib)

2

= (−i)

2

b

2

= −b

2

a

2

+b

2

= 0

But since a and b are real numbers, a

2

and b

2

are non-negative, so

a = b = 0.

38

To show that g =

√

2 −2i is algebraic relative to R, we write

g

2

= 2 + 4i

2

−4i

√

2

g

2

−2 + 4 = −4i

√

2

(g

2

+ 2)

2

= (−4i

√

2)

2

= −32

(g

2

+ 2)

2

+ 32 = 0

Exercise 4.2. Construct a splitting ﬁeld for p(x) = x

4

− 8x

2

+ 15

over Q.

Solution. We factor p(x) into linear terms and see which elements

we’re missing into some ﬁeld, so that we can build the smallest possible

ﬁeld such that p(x) factors completely.

p(x) = (x

2

−5)(x

2

−3)

= (x +

√

5)(x −

√

5)(x +

√

3)(x −

√

3)

So p(x) splits into linear factors in Q(

√

5,

√

3).

Exercise 4.3. Is Q(π) a ﬁnite extension? If so, give a basis of Q(π)

: Q.

Solution. Suppose it is ﬁnite. Then we could try 1 and π as a basis,

but we need to account for π

2

, so we could try, 1, π, π

2

as a basis, but

then we would have to account for π

3

as well, so we could expand the

basis again and so on, so it doesn’t look like this will ever terminate.

Exercise 4.4. Find minimal polynomial of α ∈ Q[x] and degree of

Q(α) : Q.

(a) α =

3 −

√

6

a

2

= 3 −

√

6

a

2

−3 = −

√

6

(a

2

−3)

2

= 6

(a

2

−3)

2

−6 = 0

a

4

−6a

2

+ 3 = 0

Degree Q(α) : Q = 4. Let p = 3, so by E.I.C. it is irreducible.

39

(b) α =

1

3

+

√

7

α

2

=

1

3

+

√

7

α

2

−

1

3

=

√

7

α

2

−

1

3

2

= 7

α

2

−

1

3

2

−7 = 0

α

4

−

2α

2

3

−

62

9

= 0

9α

4

−6α

2

−62 = 0

Degree Q(α) : Q = 4. Let p = 2, so by E.I.C. it is irreducible.

(c) α =

√

2 +i

α

2

= 1 + 2i

√

2

α

2

−1 = 2i

√

2

α

4

−2α

2

+ 9 = 0

Degree Q(α) : Q = 4. E.I.C. doesn’t seem to help here. What would

be another approach? The only thing I can think of is to compute the

roots and show they won’t allow reducibility over Q.

The polynomial factors into

(α +

√

2 +i)(α +

√

2 −i)(α −

√

2 +i)(α −

√

2 −i).

Let A, B, C, D be ﬁrst, second, third, forth factors, respectively. Then

AB has an irrational coeﬃcient, AC has a complex one, AD has a

complex one, BC has a complex one, BD has a complex one and CD

has a complex one; brute force shows no factors over Q are possible.

(d) α =

√

2 +

√

5

α

2

= 2 + 5 + 2

√

10

(α

2

−7)

2

−40 = 0

α

4

−14α

2

+ 9 = 0

Degree Q(α) : Q = 4. Brute force again. The roots are r

1

=

√

2 +

√

5,

r

2

=

√

2 −

√

5, r

3

= −

√

2 +

√

5, r

4

= −

√

2 −

√

5. So it factors over R

as

(x −r

1

)(x −r

2

)(x −r

3

)(x −r

4

).

40

Let A, B, C, D be the factors in the other they appear above. So

AB, AC, AD, BC, BD and CD have an irrational coeﬃcient. So

factorization over Q is not possible.

Exercise 4.5. For each α ∈ C and each given ﬁeld F, classify α as

either algebraic or transcendental over F. If α is algebraic, ﬁnd the

degree of F(α) : F.

(a) α = i, F = Q.

α

2

= i

2

α

2

+ 1 = 0.

So i is algebraic over Q, and degree of Q(i) : Q = 2.

(b) α = π, F = Q. Transcendental.

(c) α = π

2

, F = Q(π). We have −π

2

as a root of p(α) = α − π

2

, so

π

2

is algebraic over Q(π) and the degree of Q(π

2

) : Q(π) = 1.

(d) α = π

2

, F = Q(π

3

). Transcendental.

Exercise 4.6. Find degree and basis for the given ﬁeld extensions.

(a) Q(

√

2) : Q. Basis (1,

√

2), degree 2.

(b) Q(

√

2,

√

3,

√

18) : Q. Basis (1,

√

2,

√

3,

√

6), degree 4.

(c) Q(

3

√

2,

√

3) : Q. Basis (1,

√

3,

3

√

2,

3

√

4,

√

3

3

√

2,

√

3

3

√

4), degree 6.

(d) Q(

√

2,

√

3) : Q(

√

2 +

√

3). Since

√

3 +

√

2 is in the ﬁeld, we also

have

√

6,

√

2,

√

3, so the ﬁelds here are the same, and we have 1 as a

basis, so degree is 1.

Exercise 4.7. Find all conjugates for α =

√

2 +

√

3 over Q. Repeat

for α =

3

√

2.

Solution. We look for an irreducible polynomial over Q which has α

as a root. So p(x) = x

4

−10a

2

+ 1 is irreducible over Q and its roots

are α itself, and all of its conjugates which are −

√

3 −

√

2, −

√

3 +

√

2,

√

3 −

√

2.

Exercise 4.8. Let σ, τ: F → F be two ﬁeld automorphisms. Prove

that σ

−1

and (σ ◦ t) are also ﬁeld automorphisms.

Proof. Since σ is an automorphism, it is one-to-one and onto and takes

each f ∈ F to some f

∈ F for each f

∈ F. By deﬁnition, σ

−1

is the

41

one-to-one and onto function such that (σ ◦ σ

−1

)(f) = (σ

−1

◦ σ)(f) =

f for all f ∈ F.

So, if we show that σ

−1

is a homomorphism, we would have shown

that it is an isomorphism, and therefore, an automorphism. Let a, b

be in F. Since σ is an automorphism, there are u, v in F with a =

σ(u), b = σ(v). So,

σ

−1

(ab) = σ

−1

(σ(u)σ(v))

= σ

−1

(σ(uv))

= uv

= σ

−1

(a)σ

−1

(b).

Similarly for addition,

σ

−1

(a +b) = σ

−1

(σ(u) +σ(v))

= σ

−1

(σ(u +v))

= u +v

= σ

−1

(a) +σ

−1

(b).

Now σ ◦ τ. Since σ and τ are ﬁeld automorphisms, they preserve the

operations. Let a and b be in F. So, for multiplication, we do

(σ ◦ τ)(ab) = σ(τ(ab))

= σ(τ(a)τ(b))

= σ(τ(a))σ(τ(b))

= (σ ◦ τ)(a)(σ ◦ τ)(b).

For addition,

(σ ◦ τ)(a +b) = σ(τ(a +b))

= σ(τ(a) +τ(b))

= σ(τ(a)) +σ(τ(b))

= (σ ◦ τ)(a) + (σ ◦ τ)(b).

So (σ ◦ τ) is a homomorphism. To show that it is onto, let f

be in F

and then we must show that there’s an f in F such that (σ ◦ τ)(f) =

f

, for all f

in F.

Since τ is an automorphism, then for each f

in F, there is an f in F

such that τ(f) = f

**. Since σ is also an automorphism, then for each
**

f

in F, there’s τ(f) in F such that σ(τ(f)) = f

. So for each f

in

F, there’s an f in F such that σ(τ(f)) = (σ ◦ τ)(f) = f

, so it’s onto,

and hence, an automorphism.

42

Exercise 4.9. Prove that G(C/R) is cyclic with 2 elements.

Proof. By deﬁnition, the Galois group G(C/R) is the group of auto-

morphisms of C that ﬁx every r ∈ R, where the binary operation is

composition. One automorphism is the identity map, which is one-to-

one and onto, and is the identity of the group.

We will try to ﬁnd a second one. Deﬁne a map σ that maps conjugates;

that is, the rule is “map a +bi to a −bi” and notice that every r ∈ R

is of the form “a + b 0,” so for a real number r, σ(r) = r, so every

r ∈ R is ﬁxed. Now, if σ is an isomorphism, then it is a member of

the group, and if we can show that σ

2

= (σ ◦ s) = e, then we would

have shown that there are no more elements in the group, hence that

the group is cyclic.

Let a +bi, c +di ∈ C. So,

s((a +bi)(c +di)) = s(ac −bd + (ad +bc)i)

= ac −bd −(ad +bc)i

= (a −bi)(c −di)

= s(a +bi)s(c +di).

Also,

s((a +bi) + (c +di)) = s((a +c) + (b +d)i)

= a +c −(b +d)i

= a −bi +c −di

= s(a +bi)s(c +di)

So σ is a homomorphism. Let a+bi be in C. We want to show that σ

is onto; that is, we want to show that there is a c +di in C such that

σ(c +di) = a +bi.

We know that σ(c + di) = c − di, where c and −d are real numbers.

The task was to ﬁnd c and d such that c = a, d = −b or −d = b. There

are such numbers, pick c = a and d = −b. So σ is an isomorphism.

Now we must show that σ

2

= (σ ◦ s) = e. Let a + bi in C. Compute

(σ ◦ σ)(a +bi) = σ(σ(a +bi)) = σ(a −bi) = a +bi = e(a +bi); hence,

the group is cyclic with two elements, e and σ.

Exercise 4.10. Let F be a ﬁeld. Deﬁne the characteristic of F to be

the smallest n ≥ 1 such that 1 + 1 + ... + 1 = 0 where we are adding

1 to itself n times. If no such n exists, we say F has characteristic

zero. What is char(Q)? What is char(Z

7

)? Suppose F has ﬁnite

43

characteristic n. Prove that n must be prime. Hint: ﬁelds have no

zero divisors.

We have char(Q) = 0, and char(Z

7

) = 7.

Now char(F) = n. Proof. Let F have ﬁnite characteristic n; n must

be composite or prime. Suppose n is composite. Then there is a prime

p < n such that n = pq, for some natural q.

Then (1 + 1 + ... + 1)

p

(1 + 1 + ... + 1)

q

= 0, where the index p

means 1 added p times, and similarly for q. Since ﬁelds have no zero

divisors, F isn’t a ﬁeld if n is composite; hence, n is prime.

5 Galois theory

Deﬁnition 5.1. An automorphism σ of a mathematical system S

with an operation deﬁned on S is a one-to-one correspondence from

S onto itself that is an isomorphism with respect to the operation.

Deﬁnition 5.2. An automorphism σ of a ﬁeld F is an automorphism

of F that preserves both ﬁeld operations. An element f in F is ﬁxed

by an automorphism σ if σ maps f to itself; that is, σ(f) = f; it is

moved by σ if σ(f) ,= f.

Theorem 5.1. Let D be a ﬁnite extension of F, let E be an inter-

mediate ﬁeld F ⊆ E ⊆ D. Let G(D/F) be the automorphisms of D

that ﬁx every f in F. Let G(D/E) be the automorphisms of D that

ﬁx every e in E. Then G(D/F) is a group under composition and

G(D/E) is a subgroup of G(D/F).

Proof. Suppose that G(D/F) is a group under composition. Then it’s

easy to believe that G(D/E) is a subgroup of G(D/F) because we

know that we would have a similar set with less automorphisms. So

anyway, we will ﬁrst prove that G(D/F) is a group.

We show that we have closure under composition. Let σ

1

, σ

2

be in

G(D/F). So any d in D has an image σ

2

(d) in D because σ

2

is an

automorphism of D, and σ

1

(σ

2

(d)) is in D. So the composition of two

automorphisms produces an element in D. Now... oh well, can you

go on?

Deﬁnition 5.3. Let E be the splitting ﬁeld of a polynomial f(x) in

F[x]. The group G(E/F) of automorphisms of E that ﬁx every f in

44

F is the Galois group or group of the polynomial and the group of the

equation f(x) = 0.

Theorem 5.2. Let F be a ﬁeld. Let F(r) : F = n. Any automor-

phism σ in G(F(r)/F) is completely determined by σ(r). It’s true

that [G(F(r)/F)[ ≤ n. Let E be the splitting ﬁeld of an irreducible

polynomial p(x) in F[x]. The Galois group G(E/F) is isomorphic to a

group of permutations of the k zeros of p(x) in E, hence to a subgroup

of the symmetric group S

k

.

Notice the importance of this theorem. It links group theory to the

permutations of the roots of an equation. The theory of groups, as we

see in the Abstract Algebra books today wasn’t very much developed

by Galois or Abel. They studied particular groups formed by the per-

mutations of the roots of an equation, but in 1870, Kronecker isolated

the group properties in their own right.

Theorem 5.3 (). Suppose r is algebraic over F with a minimal

polymonial of degree n. Then [G(F(r)/F)[ ≤ n.

Proof. Let σ be in G(F(r)/F). By deﬁnition, the group leaves every

u in F ﬁxed, so there are at most n possible images of r under σ.

Since every σ is one-to-one and onto, and since every u in F is already

taken, there are at most n possible mappings available because there

at most n roots for the minimal polynomial.

Consider the extension ﬁeld Q(r) : Q, and let the minimum polynomial

of r be p(x) = x

5

+

2

3

x

3

+ 2x + 1. How do we know that σ(r) must

be a root? We know that p(r) = 0. So now apply σ to r, so σ(p(r))

= σ(0) = 0 because 0 is in Q and so it is ﬁxed. Now, since σ is an

automorphism, we can write

σ(p(r)) = σ(r

5

+

2r

3

3

+ 2r + 1)

= σ(r

5

) +

2σ(r

3

)

3

+ 2σ(r) + 1

= σ(r)

5

+

2σ(r)

3

3

+ 2σ(r) + 1 = 0

So σ(r) is a root.

So, suppose that σ is in G(E/F) and p(x) is in F[x], then σ permutes

any roots of p(x) which lie in E. We prove this with the argument

above.

45

Deﬁnition 5.4. A ﬁeld extension E ⊆ F is normal if and only if any

irreducible p(x) in F[x] which has a root in E must factor completely

in E.

Here’s an example of a non-normal extension. Consider Q(

3

√

2) : Q,

which is not normal; it isn’t because x

3

− 2 has a root, but doesn’t

factor completely, and this is a problem for us. We want a bigger ﬁeld

with a Galois group.

E : F is normal if and only if every irreducible p(x) in F[x] with a

root in E splits in E, since “to split” means to factor all the way down

into linear terms.

This is the same as saying that E is the splitting ﬁeld of some poly-

nomial. Or equivalently, ¦a ∈ E : σ(a) = a for all σ ∈ G(E/F)¦ = F.

Normal extensions will correspond to normal subgroups.

Deﬁnition 5.5. A ﬁeld F is called a ﬁeld of characteristic zero if F

contains a subﬁeld isomorphic to the ﬁeld Q of rational numbers.

Let’s review some stuﬀ. Suppose E ⊂ F is a ﬁeld extension. The Ga-

lois group G(E/F) = ¦σ : E →E such that σ is a ﬁeld automorphism

and σ(r) = r for every r in F¦.

We have to check that ﬁeld automorphism form a group under com-

position. I also have to check that if σ and τ both ﬁx f, then so do

σ

−1

and σ ◦ τ.

Remark 5.1. Let σ be in G(E/F), then σ ﬁxes polynomials in F[x],

thus σ permutes roots of polynomials in F[x].

Galois group elements take roots to roots, but the roots must belong

in the ﬁeld. Suppose a cubic root is a a root of some polynomial with

only one real solution. Suppose the complex roots do not belong in

the ﬁeld. Then the only element will be the identity.

Proposition 5.4. Suppose r is algebraic over F with minimal poly-

nomial of degree n. Then G(F(r)/F) has at most n elements.

Proof. Let r have minimal polynomial

p(x) = a

0

+a

1

x +... +a

n

x

n

.

46

So p(r) = 0. Let u be in G(F(r)/F). So

p(u(r)) = a

0

+a

1

u(r) +... +a

n

(u(r))

n

= a

0

+a

1

u(r) +... +a

n

(u(r)

n

)

= u(a

0

) +u(a

1

r) +... +u(a

n

r

n

)

= u(a

0

) +a

1

r +... +a

n

r

n

)

= u(p(r))

= u(0)

= 0

The last two equations hold because p(r) = 0 and u(0) = 0 because u

is an automorphism, so it maps 0 to 0. So u(r) is also a root. Now, we

notice that every element of G(F(r)/F) corresponds, in a one-to-one

and onto fashion — because they’re automorphisms —, with a root

of p(x). Since there are at most n roots for p(x), there are at most n

automorphisms in G(F(r)/F).

A word on degrees. The degree of E:F depends on both E and F.

Sure, compare Q(

√

2,

√

3) : Q with Q(

√

2,

√

3) : Q(

√

2).

By the way, in this document, our deﬁnition of splitting ﬁeld is the

smallest possible for a minimal polynomial. There seems to be other

equivalent deﬁnitions.

Proposition 5.5. Suppose E is a splitting ﬁeld of a polynomial of

degree k in F[x]. Then G(E/F) is a subgroup of S

k

.

Proof. Let r

1

, r

2

, ..., r

k

be roots of p(x) over E. We know that over

E, p(x) splits. Then E = F(r

1

, r

2

, ..., r

k

).

Let σ be in G(F(r

1

, ..., r

k

)/F). To ﬁnish the proof, we must show that

(1) σ is completely determined by σ(r

1

), ..., σ(r

k

). (2) σ(r

i

) must be

r

j

for some j. To conclude, notice that (1) and (2) tell us that the

Galois group is isomorphic to some subgroup of S

k

.

Deﬁnition 5.6. Galois group of p(x) in F[x] is G(E/F) for E a

splitting ﬁeld of p(x).

Exercise 5.1. Find the Galois group of x

4

−2 over Q.

Solution. We ﬁrst look for the roots of x

4

−2. The polynomial factors

as

(x

2

+

√

2)(x

2

−

√

2) = (x +

4

√

2i)(x −

4

√

2i)(x +

4

√

2)(x +

4

√

2)

47

Let r =

4

√

2. So roots are r, −r, ri, −ri. What’s the splitting ﬁeld?

Well, throw, in the basis, the elements r and ri, but notice that we

only need r and i.

What do we need now? Let f be in G(Q(r, i)/Q). To determine f, we

need to know f(r) and f(i). What are the possibilities for f(r)? All

the roots of x

4

−2. What about f(i)? It goes to i or −i.

So we have 4 possibilities for r, and 2 for i, so 4 2 = 8. This

group has at most 8 elements. It is not necessary that all of these

possibilities will work. We need more theory to show how this could

work, but they are all technically possible so for.

Let’s list them. As we read the table, notice that σ

2

(r) = σ(σ(r)) =

−r. That’s σ(−r) = −ir. So σ

4

is the identity. We introduce τ. Now,

we do σ ◦ τ.

automorphism domain range

1 r i

σ ir i

σ

2

−r i

σ

3

−ir i

τ r −i

σ ◦ τ ir −i

σ

2

◦ τ −r −i

σ

3

◦ τ −ir −i

Do you recognize this table? This group is isomorphic to D

8

, the

dihedral group with 8 elements; the symmetries of a square. We can

describe it by τ ◦ σ = σ

3

◦ τ.

Theorem 5.6. Suppose F ⊂ E ⊂ D. Then (1) G(D/E) ≤ G(E/F).

(2) Suppose H ≤ G(D/F). Let D

H

= ¦d ∈ D : σ(d) = d for all

σ ∈ H¦. Then F ⊆ D

H

⊆ D.

Recall that E/F is a normal extension if any of the following 3 equiv-

alent conditions hold: (1) E is a splitting ﬁeld of some polynomial

in F[x], (2) any irreducible polynomial p(x) in F[x] with a root in E

must split in E, (3) ﬁxed ﬁeld of G(E/F) is F.

Theorem 5.7 (Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory). Suppose

the characteristic of F = 0, and F ⊂ D is a normal extension. Let F ⊆

E ⊆ D; then (1) E ←→ G(D/E) gives a one-to-one correspondence

between intermediate ﬁelds E and subgroups of G(D/F), (2) The

48

degree [D : E] = [G(D/E)[, (3) F ⊆ E

1

E

2

⊆ D if and only if

¦e¦ ≤ G(D/E

2

) G(D/E

1

) ≤ G(D/F), (4) E is normal over F if

and only if G(E/F) G(D/F).

We now solve a series of exercises which will help us to understand

the claims of the Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory.

Exercise 5.2. Determine the Galois group of

(x

2

−2)(x

2

−3)(x

2

−5),

over Q.

Solution. The polynomial splits in Q(

√

2,

√

3,

√

5). Now, let σ be

arbitrary in G(Q(

√

2,

√

3,

√

5)/Q). Then, the splitting ﬁeld must also

split r’s minimal polynomial which is r

2

−2 = 0, and so σ must take

√

2 to

√

2 or −

√

2. The same goes for

√

3; σ must take

√

3 to

√

3 or

−

√

3, and the same for

√

5; σ must take

√

5 to

√

5 or −

√

5.

So, the automorphisms are

automorphisms

√

2

√

3

√

5

1

√

2

√

3

√

5

σ

√

2

√

3 −

√

5

τ

√

2 −

√

3

√

5

σ ◦ τ

√

2 −

√

3 −

√

5

γ −

√

2

√

3

√

5

γ ◦ σ −

√

2

√

3 −

√

5

γ ◦ τ −

√

2 −

√

3

√

5

γ ◦ σ ◦ τ −

√

2 −

√

3 −

√

5

So the galois group is determined, and it is completely determined by

σ :

√

5 →−

√

5, τ :

√

3 →−

√

3 and γ :

√

2 →−

√

2.

Exercise 5.3. Now determine all subﬁelds of the splitting ﬁeld found

in the previous exercise.

Solution. The subﬁelds of the “second level” of the ﬁeld diagram

would be Q(

√

2,

√

3), Q(

√

2,

√

5), Q(

√

3,

√

5), Q(

√

2,

√

15), Q(

√

6,

√

5),

Q(

√

6,

√

10), Q(

√

3,

√

10). In the “third level” we would get Q(

√

2),

Q(

√

3), Q(

√

5), Q(

√

6), Q(

√

10), Q(

√

15), Q(

√

30). So, including the

trivial ones, we get a total of 16 in the diagram.

What if I wanted to know the ﬁxed ﬁeld of this Galois group? I would

have to look at every automorphism and see which elements of the

49

basis never get moved. So I collect these elements and throw them in

Q to get the ﬁxed ﬁeld.

When we look at each of automorphism, we see that

σ(a +b

√

2 +c

√

3 +d

√

5 +e

√

6 +f

√

10 +g

√

15 +h

√

30) =

a +b

√

2 +c

√

3 −d

√

5 +e

√

6 −f

√

10 −g

√

15 −h

√

30),

τ(a +b

√

2 +c

√

3 +d

√

5 +e

√

6 +f

√

10 +g

√

15 +h

√

30) =

a +b

√

2 −c

√

3 +d

√

5 −e

√

6 +f

√

10 −g

√

15 −h

√

30),

σ ◦ τ(a +b

√

2 +c

√

3 +d

√

5 +e

√

6 +f

√

10 +g

√

15 +h

√

30) =

a +b

√

2 −c

√

3 −d

√

5 −e

√

6 −f

√

10 +g

√

15 +h

√

30,

γ(a +b

√

2 +c

√

3 +d

√

5 +e

√

6 +f

√

10 +g

√

15 +h

√

30) =

a −b

√

2 +c

√

3 +d

√

5 −e

√

6 −f

√

10 +g

√

15 −h

√

30,

γ ◦ σ(a +b

√

2 +c

√

3 +d

√

5 +e

√

6 +f

√

10 +g

√

15 +h

√

30) =

a −b

√

2 +c

√

3 −d

√

5 −e

√

6 +f

√

10 −g

√

15 +h

√

30,

γ ◦ σ ◦ τ(a +b

√

2 +c

√

3 +d

√

5 +e

√

6 +f

√

10 +g

√

15 +h

√

30) =

a −b

√

2 −c

√

3 −d

√

5 +e

√

6 +f

√

10 +g

√

15 −h

√

30,

so it looks like that the only ﬁeld that is ﬁxed by every automorphism

is Q itself.

If now I wanted to know each corresponding subgroup of G(Q(

√

2,

√

3,

√

5)/Q),

then one way would be to work with Z

2

Z

2

Z

2

. We assign (0,0,1)

to σ because σ moves only

√

5, so we consider

√

5 as the 1 in the third

component of the 3-tuple. Similarly, we assign (0, 1, 0) with τ, and

(1, 0 ,0) with γ, and (0,0,0) with the identity map.

We then work with Z

2

Z

2

Z

2

under addition. To get each sub-

group now, we can consider (0,0,0), (0,0,1) and notice that it would

correspond to Q(

(2),

(3)) because it moves only

√

5. The others

would be found similarly.

Exercise 5.4 (8-3). Let F = Q, D = Q(

√

2, i), E

1

= Q(

√

2), E

2

=

Q(i). Then F has characteristic 0 and D = F(r), where r =

√

2 +fi,

f ,= 0 is in Q. Find σ(r) for each automorphism σ ∈ G(D/E

1

) and

τ(r) for each τ ∈ G(D/E

2

). Find the four conjugates of r = r

1

, hence,

by Theorem 8-2, the four automorphisms of G(D/F).

They say D = F(r), but isn’t D = Q(

√

2, i)? So are they saying that

D can be written as F(r) where r is the root of some polynomial that

when adjoined will give us

√

2 and i? I think so.

50

Such root is r =

√

2 +fi, with f ,= 0, f ∈ Q. Its minimal polynomial

is

r

2

= 2 −f

2

+ 2fi

√

2

r

2

−2 +f

2

= 2fi

√

2

(r

2

−2 +f

2

)

2

= −8f

2

(r

2

−2 +f

2

)

2

+ 8f

2

= 0

This polynomial has degree 4 and therefore will have at most 4 roots.

Since one root is complex, I guess the fundamental theorem of algebra

implies that we will have 4 distinct roots.

Now I must ﬁnd σ(r) for each automorphism in G(D/E

1

). Since E

1

= Q(

√

2), then each automorphism moves only i, so s(r) = i or s(r)

= −i. So all of the automorphisms here are

automorphism i

1 i

σ −i

Similarly for τ(r) ∈ G(D/E

1

). Since E

2

= Q(i), then each automor-

phism moves

√

2 only, so σ(

√

2) =

√

2 or s(r) = −

√

2. So all of the

automorphisms here are

automorphism

√

2

1

√

2

τ −

√

2

The four conjugates of r

1

=

√

2 +fi are r

2

= −

√

2 +fi, r

3

= −

√

2 −

fi, r

4

=

√

2 − fi. Now I must ﬁnd, by the theorem above, the 4

automorphisms of G(D/Q). I’m failing to see a clear way to use the

theorem, even though I may have gotten the automorphisms correctly

here. The exercise suggests that by the theorem, we are able to get

all the automorphisms. I guess it must be all permutations of the

elements that get moved in G(D/E

1

) and G(D/E

2

).

Any automorphism of G(D/Q) ﬁxes Q and moves

√

2 and i.

automorphism

√

2 i

1

√

2 i

σ −

√

2 i

τ

√

2 −i

γ −

√

2 −i

51

The theorem says that this Galois group, in particular, is isomorphic

to a group of permutations of 4 zeros of p(x) in Q(

√

2, i); hence isomor-

phic to a subgroup of the symmetric group S

4

. Every automorphism

squares to the identity, so it should be isomorphic to the Klein-4 which

is isomorphic to the ﬂips of a square.

Exercise 5.5 (8-4). Still with F = Q and D = Q(

√

2,i). Notice

that G(D/F) is isomorphic to the Klein-4 group. Find the unique

subgroup of G(D/F) that corresponds to each intermediate ﬁeld E

1

= Q(

√

2) and E

2

= Q(i). Also, ﬁnd the subﬁeld corresponding to each

subgroup.

Solution. As proper subgroups of G(D/F), we have ¦1, σ¦, ¦1, τ¦, ¦1,

γ¦, which are isomorphic to subgroups of the Klein-4. The exercise

is asking for the subgroups that correspond to the ﬁelds E

1

and E

2

.

Which subgroup would correspond to Q(

√

2)?

It would be the subgroup that is linked to the maps that do not move

Q(

√

2), so it’s ¦1, τ¦. For Q(i), it would be the subgroup that is linked

to the maps that do not move Q(i); so it’s ¦1, σ¦.

Here’s a question. The claim iii of the Fundamental Theorem of

Galois Theory seems to say that we have Q(

√

2, i) ⊆ Q(i) ⊂ Q(

√

2) ⊆

Q if and only if ¦1¦ ⊆ G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q(i)) ⊂ G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q(

√

2)) ⊆

G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q). Q(i) is not an of Q(

√

2); it’s not even a subset. Is

this a case in which we don’t satisfy the hypothesis of the claim iii?

Or is my interpretation wrong?

The exercise also says “ﬁnd the subﬁeld corresponding to each sub-

group.” Isn’t this the same task above? Once we ﬁnd the subgroup

correspondent to the subﬁeld, then we’ve found the subﬁeld corre-

spondent to the subgroup.

Exercise 5.6 (8-5). Verify that the claim ii of the Fundamental The-

orem of Galois Theory holds for the example we’ve been working with.

Solution. The claim says, for this example in particular, that

[Q(

√

2, i) : Q(i)] = [G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q(i))[

which is true because the degree of the extension is 2 since the basis

is a +b

√

2 for a, b ∈ Q(i), and for the Galois group we have only two

possible automorphisms; one that takes

√

2 to −

√

2 and the identity.

The Theorem also claims that

[Q(

√

2, i) : Q(

√

2)] = [G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q(

√

2))[

52

which is almost the same case as above. Here, we have the basis as

a + bi, for a, b ∈ Q(

√

2). The degree of the extension is 2 and there

are only two possible automorphisms in the Galois group; they are the

identity and another one that takes i to −i.

Also, the theorem claims that

[Q(i) : Q] = [G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q) : G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q(i))].

I think that this is a link between a degree extension and the number

of left cosets of a subgroup in its group. The degree extension is 2.

G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q) = G has 4 automorphisms, and G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q(i)) =

H has 2. Now, by Lagrange’s theorem, we have that 4 = 2 [G : H],

so [G : H] = 2 as well and it matches the degree extension Q(i) : Q.

Also, the theorem claims that

[Q(

√

2) : Q] = [G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q) : G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q(

√

2))].

The degree extension is 2,

[G[ = [G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q)[ = 4,

[H[ = [G(Q(

√

2, i)/Q(

√

2))[ = 2.

So again, by Lagrange’s theorem, 4 = 2 [G : H], so [G : H] = 2

matching the degree extension of Q(

√

2) over Q.

Exercise 5.7 (8-6). Still with F = Q and D = Q(

√

2, i). Show

that ¦1¦ is a proper subset of G(D/E) which is a proper subset of

G(D/F) for E = E

1

= Q(

√

2) and for E = E

2

= Q(i) but that

G(D/E

2

) G(D/E

1

). Why are the inclusions reversed in order in

the second clause of the third claim of the Fundamental Theorem of

Galois Theory?

Solution. Let E = Q(

√

2). Then G(D/E) has two automorphisms ¦1,

σ¦, where σ takes i to −i, so ¦1¦ is a proper subset of G(D/E). We

also know that G(D/F) has 4 automorphisms: ¦1, σ, τ, γ¦ as deﬁned

in Exercise 5.4. So, evidently, G(D/E) is a proper subset of G(D/F).

Let E = Q(i). Then G(D/E) has two automorphisms ¦1, τ¦, where

τ takes

√

2 to −

√

2, so ¦1¦ is a proper subset of G(D/E). We also

know that G(D/F) has 4 automorphisms: ¦1, σ, τ, γ¦ as deﬁned in

Exercise 5.4. So, evidently, G(D/E) is a proper subset of G(D/F).

Is G(D/E

2

) ⊂ G(D/E

1

)? No, because σ is in G(D/E

2

), but not in

G(D/E

1

). Also, τ is in G(D/E

1

), but not in G(D/E

2

). That is, my

observations here do not satisfy claim iii.

53

Why are the inclusions reversed? They are reversed because the less

elements the Galois group has to permute, the smaller it gets. So if

the ﬁeld increases in elements to be ﬁxed, the Galois group decreases

in order.

Exercise 5.8 (8-7). Still working the same D, F, E

1

, and E

2

ﬁelds,

show that G(D/E

1

) is normal in G(D/F) and that G(E

1

/F) is iso-

morphic to G(D/F)/G(D/E

1

). Repeat for E

2

.

Solution. We can show that the left cosets match the right cosets,

since we’re working with a particular case. G(D/E

1

) is ¦1, τ¦ = H.

So the left cosets are H, and ¦σ, σ ◦ τ = γ¦. But the index is 2; so,

it’s normal, by some theorem we’ve seen in the past.

To show that G(E

1

/F) is isomorphic to G(D/F)/G(D/E

1

), we need

to ﬁnd a one-to-one and onto map that preserves the operations be-

tween them. That’s easy here because we have only two automor-

phisms in G(E

1

/F), and identity goes with identity, so the other map

goes with the other map.

Repeating for E

2

, we know that G(D/E

2

) is normal because the in-

dex is 2; it’s isomorphic to G(D/F)/G(D/E

2

) for the same reason

described above.

Exercise 5.9. Recall that we determined that the splitting ﬁeld of

x

4

− 2 over was Q(ζ, i) where ζ =

4

√

2. Also, we’ve calculated before

that the Galois group was isomorphic to the dihedral group with eight

elements: D

8

= ¸σ, τ : σ

4

= τ

2

= e, τ ◦ σ = σ

3

◦ τ). Now, let H be the

subgroup ¦1, σ

3

◦ τ¦. Show by explicit calculation that the ﬁxed ﬁeld

Q(ζ, i)

H

is equal to Q((1 −i)ζ).

Solution. No idea.

Theorem 5.8 (9-3). Let E

0

be a ﬁeld of characteristic zero containing

all the nth roots of unity. Let f ∈ E

0

and let E be a splitting ﬁeld for

x

n

−f over E

0

. If w is any zero of x

n

−f in E, then E = E

0

(w) and

G(E/E

0

) is cyclic.

Exercise 5.10. In Theorem 9-3, let E

0

= Q, n = 2, f = 7. Find the

splitting ﬁeld for x

2

−7 over Q. Show that G(E/E

0

) has order 2.

Solution. The splitting ﬁeld for x

2

− 7 over Q is Q(

√

7) since x

2

− 7

= (x −

√

7)(x +

√

7). So, in the theorem, E = Q(

√

7), and E

0

= Q.

We must show that G(Q(

√

7)/Q) is cyclic.

54

Here, the w of the theorem is either

√

7 or −

√

7, so the theorem

says that we can adjoin

√

7 or −

√

7 and get a cyclic Galois group

G(Q(w)/Q). We let w =

√

7. So now we must show that G(Q(w)/Q)

has order 2.

Since it’s cyclic of order 2, we must show that every element squares

to the identity. The identity itself does. The only non-trivial element

is σ that takes

√

7 to −

√

7 and squares to the identity as well because

(σ ◦ σ) takes

√

7 to −

√

7 and then back to

√

7.

Here, Q(

√

7) is a normal extension of Q because (1) Q is the ﬁxed ﬁeld

of G(Q(w)/Q) or instead we could justify by saying that (2) Q(

√

7) is

the splitting ﬁeld over Q for x

2

−7 over Q.

Exercise 5.11. In Theorem 9-3, let E

0

= Q, n = 2, f = 4. Show that

x

2

−f in this case splits in E

0

so that G(E/E

0

) has only the identity

automorphism.

Solution. It’s true that x

2

−4 = (x −2)(x +2) which evidently splits

in Q. So, in the Galois group of Q over Q, there’s really “nothing”

to permute because the roots of the polynomial were already in Q

anyway. The degree of the extension is 1, so we have only one element:

the identity.

Exercise 5.12. In Theorem 9-3, let E

0

= Q(r) where r is a primitive

third root of unity. Let n = 3, f = 7. Factor x

3

−f into linear factors

in its splitting ﬁeld over E

0

. Show that the Galois group G(E/E

0

) is

cyclic of order 3.

Solution. The roots of unity for n = 3 are

1,

−1

2

+

√

3i

2

,

−1

2

+

√

3i

2

.

They form a cyclic group under multiplication. We can’t let r = 1,

though, otherwise it wouldn’t generate the group. Let’s let

r =

−1

2

+

√

3i

2

.

So x

3

−1 splits over E

0

.

We’re interested in x

3

−7. Its roots are

3

√

7,

−

3

√

7

2

+

√

3

3

√

7i

2

,

−

3

√

7

2

−

√

3

3

√

7i

2

.

55

So, we really just need

3

√

7, because we can express the roots as r

3

√

7,

r

2

3

√

7, r

3

3

√

7 — noticing that r

3

= 1, the identity of the cyclic group

of roots of unity. So the factorization can be written as

(x −r

3

√

7)(x −r

2

3

√

7)(x −r

3

3

√

7).

So we adjoin

3

√

7 to get E = Q(r,

3

√

7). We now consider G(E/E

0

) and

show that it’s cyclic of order 3.

The Galois group ﬁxes Q(r), and roots must be taken to roots. Let

σ(

3

√

7) = r

3

√

7, so σ

2

(

3

√

7) = σ(σ(

3

√

7) = σ(r

3

√

7) = r

2

3

√

7 because σ is,

by deﬁnition, multiplying its argument by r. Finally, σ

3

= r

3

3

√

7 =

3

√

7. That shows that we have only 3 elements and that they’re cyclic

with r

3

√

7 as generator.

Exercise 5.13. Show that the Galois group for x

3

− 7 over Q is

isomorphic to S

3

and therefore nonabelian.

Solution. Take a look at the Fundamental Theorem. Notice how many

elements the group has, and that there is a theorem that claims that

the Galois group would be isomorphic to some subgroup of S

n

, but

here we will ﬁnd 6 elements and this can be seen by using the degree

of the extension ﬁeld and therefore it will have to be isomorphic to S

3

itself, which is nonabelian.

Exercise 5.14. Prove that A

5

is not abelian. Why doesn’t the chain

S

5

¸1) provide a solvability chain for S

5

?

Solution. A

5

is not abelian because

(1324)(1432) = (234) ,= (123) = (1432)(1324)

and (1324), (1432) are even permutations.

The deﬁnition of solvability requires a chain of subgroups G = G

0

G

1

... G

t

= ¸1) to have the property that G

i

/G

i+1

is abelian for

i = 0, 1, ..., t −1.

For the chain S

5

¸1) satisfy the deﬁnition, we need G

0

/G

1

abelian,

but G

0

/G

1

= S

5

/¸1) = S

5

, and S

5

isn’t abelian.

56

Exercise 1.3. Are the odd positive integers closed under addition? Yes. Proof. Because 2n+1+2n+1 = 4n+1 is odd and positive. Under multiplication? Yes. Proof. Because (2n + 1)(2n + 1) = 4n2 + 4n + 1 is odd and positive. Theorem 1.1. Let r be a nonzero integer. Let D be the set of all divisors of r. The system of all fractions, in lowest terms, with the property that their denominators is di ∈ D, is closed under addition. Proof. Let 0 = r ∈ Z. Let D be the set of divisors of r. Let d1 = ar, d2 = br. Then, p q ap + bq + = , d1 d2 lcd(d1 , d2 ) where lcd(d1 , d2 ) ∈ D and p, q ∈ Z. Exercise 1.4. Show that the system of fractions having denominators of 1, 2, or 4 when written in lowest terms is closed under addition. Proof. By Theorem 1.1, it is closed. Here, r = 4 and D = {1, 2, 4} which are all divisors of 4. Theorem 1.2. The identity of a group is unique. Proof. Let e and e be identities. So, ee = e because e is an identity. Also, ee = e because e is an identity as well. Since the binary operation of a group is a function, and assigns the operation to a single element in the group, there can only be one identity and so, e=e. Exercise 1.5. Consider Z with the binary operation of subtraction. Is Z a group? If so, what is the identity? If not, what axioms do not hold? At ﬁrst I thought that 0 could be the identity, because z −0 = z, but for 0 to be an identity, it must be true that z − 0 = 0 − z = z. That is not true because z − 0 = z = 0 − z = −z. Also, notice that subtraction is not associative: (a − b) − c = a − (b − c). Theorem 1.3. Let G be ﬁnite with order 2n, n ∈ N. Then, there’s g ∈ G such that g 2 = e. Proof. Let S = {g1 , ..., g2n }. Step one: remove from S all pairs −1 −1 −1 −1 (gi , gi ) such that gi gi = gi gi = e with gi = gi . This removes an even number of elements. We’re left with an even number of elements in S. After step one, e ∈ S because e−1 = e. Step two: remove e

2

from S. We’re left with an odd number of elements in S. So at least one of these left will have to be its own inverse — since they come in pairs. Theorem 1.4. Let G = {1, 2, ..., p − 1}, p prime. Let θ be multiplication mod p on G. Then (G, θ) is a group. Proof. Unfortunately, I haven’t proved this entirely; but here’s what I can say: because p is prime, we have no g1 g2 ∈ G such that g1 g2 divides p, so it never happens that gi θgj = 0 mod p. Multiplication is a binary operation, but we would need to show closure with mod p. The identity is always present by hypothesis. Multiplication is associative, but we would need an argument for inverses. Theorem 1.5. The multiplication table of a group is a latin square; that is, each group element occurs once and only once in each row of the body of the table and in each column of the body of the table. Proof. Consider the elements of the ith row. They are gi g1 , ..., gi gj . The theorem claims that each element occurs once; so, suppose one does not show up once; that is, two elements of the row must be equal. In other words, suppose gi g1 = gi g2 , but notice that g1 = g2 . −1 −1 Then, since we’re dealing with a group, gi is present; so, gi (gi g1 ) = −1 −1 −1 gi (gi g2 ) =⇒ (gi gi )g1 = (gi gi )g2 =⇒ eg1 = eg2 =⇒ g1 = g2 . So, each element occurs once. If the group is ﬁnite, we’re done. If the group is not ﬁnite, we must still show that each element still occurs on a row. To prove for columns, we can repeat the proof replacing the appropriate subscripts. Deﬁnition 1.3 (permutation). A permutation P of a set S is a oneto-one mapping of S into itself. In other words, P implies the existence of a function f : S → S such that f is one-to-one and onto. Exercise 1.6. Write the 4! = 24 possible arrangements of all four letters A, E, P, T. Check which permutations are English words. What is the probability of making an English word from these four letters by chance arrangement? I’m not going to write them all here, but I will tell the algorithm I’d use. Fix A and permute EPT; then ﬁx E and permute APT, then ﬁx P and permute AET; then ﬁx T and permute APT. This will generate 3! + 3! + 3! + 3! = 24 permutations, and it’s easy to do it this way. To permute EPT, the same can be done: ﬁx E, permute PT, ﬁx P permute ET, ﬁx T permute EP.

3

It turns out, we ﬁnd the English words PATE, PETA, PEAT, TAPE, TEPA. They mean, respectively: the human head, 1015 , carbonized vegetable matter, tape, a chemical compound: C6 H12 N2 OP . So, we have 5 chances out of 24 of making a word by chance arrangement; that’s a probability of 5/24 = 0.208 which is aproximatelly 20% of chances of making a word out of random permutation; a pretty good chance, if you will. Exercise 1.7. Let Mr. 1, Mrs 2, Mr. 3 and Mrs 4 be seated on a table. How many seating arrangements are possible? 4! = 24. Write down all seating arrangements in which men and women are alternated. There are 8 possibilities because once you ﬁx 1, there are two possibilities to follow: 2 and 4. Fix 2, there are two possiblities: 1 and 3. Fix 3, there are two possibilities; ﬁx 4, there are two possibilities. What’s the probabilitity that a random permutation of the four people will alternate men and women? That’d be 8/24 = 1/3 which means 33%. Theorem 1.6. The permutations of a set S form a group under composition. Proof. Let P and Q be two permutations; then, for any s ∈ S, there is a unique Q(s) ∈ S because for any s1 , s2 ∈ S, if Q(s1 ) = Q(s2 ), then s1 = s2 . The fact that Q(s) ∈ S comes from the fact that Q is a function from S into S. Also, because P is one-to-one and because Q is onto, for all s ∈ S, there is a unique P (Q(s)) ∈ S. Last paragraph implies P (Q(s)) is one-to-one. Now, to show composition is a binary operation, we need to show that the composition of P and Q is onto; because that would be showing that it is closed in S. For all s ∈ S, there is q ∈ S such that q = Q(s). For all q ∈ S, there is p ∈ S such that p = P (q). Then, for all s ∈ S, there is a q ∈ S such that q = P (Q(s)) = (P ◦ Q)(s). To show it forms a group, we state that composition is associative by some theorem — which we haven’t proved yet. The identity would be the permutation which maps each s ∈ S into itself. The inverses of each permutation is the same permutation with domain and range swaped. Deﬁnition 1.4. If S is ﬁnite with n elements, then the set of all permutations on S is called the symmetric group Sn on n elements. Sn has n! members.

4

Exercise 1.8. Let P = 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 1 4 5

What is the image of 3 under the permutation? It’s 1. Which elements are ﬁxed under the permutation? 4 and 5. Which are moved? 1, 2, 3. Write the inverse permutation with respect to composition. P −1 = 2 3 1 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 .

Exercise 1.9. Let Q= 1 2 3 4 5 1 4 3 5 2 .

Find P ◦ Q and Q ◦ P . Find Q−1 . P ◦Q= 1 2 3 4 5 2 4 1 5 3 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 1 5 3 1 4 3 5 2 1 2 3 4 5

Q◦P =

Q−1 =

.

Exercise 1.10. Find Q−1 ◦ P −1 . Find (P ◦ Q) ◦ (Q−1 ◦ P −1 ). Q−1 ◦ P −1 = 2 3 1 4 5 1 5 3 2 4 2 3 1 4 5 2 3 1 4 5

(P ◦ Q) ◦ (Q−1 ◦ P −1 ) =

5

12. 1 goes to 1 which does to 2. It’s a bit tough to be sure that this is correct.13. Exercise 1. (132)−1 = (123). (123). because 2 goes to 4 which goes to 1. 6 . (23). (13)−1 = (13). Repeat until all elements have been used. we may as well omit the ones which don’t move. then the left. (134) = 1 3 4 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 4 3 2 1 . Then. Write the permutations of S3 as cycles. (132). (12). The same happens to 4 and 5 because they didn’t move at all. You apply the right side ﬁrst. S3 is the symmetric group of all permutations on n = 3 elements. It’s not commutative. (123)−1 = (132). If we omit the 1-cycles. 2 goes to 3. Q used previously in cycle notation is (245). Exercise 1. they are: e. (12)(34) = . (23)−1 . In general. If the ﬁrst cycle has not exhausted all elements. 3 goes to one and we close. For the permutation P above. then we close the cycle. For example. Cycle multiplication is cycle composition. 6 goes to 5 which goes to 5 (since it does not appear). but I built the table and it does work. S3 has 3! = 6 elements. For example. which is easier to write. (23). Exercise 1. Write the following cycles in permutation form. But usually this is not a problem. 3 goes to 3 which goes to 4. (12)−1 = (12). (1234)(2465) = 2 4 6 5 3 1 1 6 5 3 4 2 . 5 goes to 2 which goes to 3. We close because it has cycled. then someone who only sees the permutation in cycle notation would not know possible elements which were omited. go on writing which follows which until the ﬁrst element appears. 4 goes to 6 which goes to 6 (since it does not appear). start the ﬁrst cycle with the ﬁrst element of the permutation.11. (13). though: (12)(13) = (132) = (123) = (13)(12). start a new cycle with an element that has been used. we would write (123)(4)(5) meaning 1 goes to 2.Permutations can be written in cycle notation.

Proof.5. (13)(12) = . it’s true that f (u!v) = f (u) ∗ f (v).10. Then G is abelian. Inverses are unique. (14)(13)(12) = . The identity of a subgroup H of G is necessarily the identity of the group G. we have eG h = heG = h. and Sm is closed because it is a group. !) and (H. = Theorem 1. A transposition is a 2-cycle. Let G be a group in which every element g ∈ G has the property that g 2 = e. the set of all permutations of Sm is a subset of Sn . Let h ∈ G. If m ≤ n. Then: (ab)2 = e =⇒ a2 b(ab) = a =⇒ b(ab) = a =⇒ b2 (ab) = ba =⇒ ab = ba. for all h ∈ H. one isomorphism exists between Sm and Sm : the identity map. for all h ∈ H. Let H be a subgroup G.7.(1423) = 1 4 2 3 4 2 3 1 1 2 3 4 2 3 1 4 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 1 . Theorem 1. Deﬁnition 1. 1 2 1 2 7 . Proof. Proof. So. so it is a subgroup of Sn . ∗) be groups. then. We say G is isomorphic to H if and only if there exists a bijective function f : G → H such that for all u.8. Since m ≤ n. Theorem 1. Since every element of H is also in G. eG h = eH h =⇒ eG = eH by cancellation law. eH h = heH = h. Now h−1 h = e and h−1 h = e =⇒ h−1 = h−1 .9. Let (G. v ∈ G. there is a subgroup of Sn isomorphic to Sm .6 (group isomorphism). Let a. Deﬁnition 1. Theorem 1. Proof. We write H ∼ G. b ∈ G.

When we write σ(1) = 2. (1432). Also.. (1432) with r3 . for two matrices P. so we need not use elementary matrices here. (1234) with r. (1234). As you pick diﬀerent elements g ∈ G...11.. 8 . (123). (14)(23) with sr2 . Deﬁnition 1.. GL(n. det(E) = −1 whenever E comes from I by interchanging two rows. express P as Ek . (13)(24) with r2 . (24)}. (13)(24).) = σ(1) = 2.. Give an explicit isomorphism from D4 to the subgroup of S4 .E1 . Map eP with e. ghk . Then H is a subgroup of GL(n. s. Theorem 1.E1 Q) = det(Ek ). .} where g ∈ G and hi ∈ H.det(E1 ) = ±1.. Let H ≤ G. every invertible matrix can be expressed as a product of elementary matrices.. (14)(23). Find a collection of eight permutations in S4 that is a subgroup isomorphic to the dihedral group D4 = {e. we mean that it’s a cycle in which 1 always goes to 2. Exercise 1. (12)(34).7.. r3 . gh2 . Let P ∈ H. Let E be an elementary matrix. det(AB) = det(A) det(B) for any square matrices A and B. On this next example.. B ∈ H. This is called the index of H in G. det(Ei ) = ±1. . R) denotes the group of invertible n×n matrices with real entries. Q ∈ H. det(E) = 1 whenever E comes from I by adding a row to a multiple of another row of I. Proof. For any Ei . Is C ≤ S6 ? No. Let P4 = {e.14. Deﬁne as left cosets of H in G the sets gH = {gh1 . r. (24) with sr3 . (13) with sr. that is... you create |G|/|H| cosets. So. (1234). Examples: (12).. there’s a new notation there. the group is inﬁnite.E1 ) = det(Ek ). (13). The collection H of matrices with determinants {±1} forms a subgroup of GLn (R).. (12)(34) with s. (12345). R).. sr3 }. and so on. We only need to show that H is closed. Let C = {σ ∈ S6 : σ(1) = 2}. with 1 ≤ i ≤ k. then det(P ) = det(Ek . because (1256)(1256) = (15. So the set described includes all permutations of S6 in which 1 goes to 2. Okay. sr2 . this proof is not correct because we must also show that the group is closed under inverses. r2 . det(P Q) = det(Ek ..det(E1 )det(Q) = det(P )det(Q) = ±1.Exercise 1. for any A. sr.. det(AB) = ±1 = det(A)det(B).15.

and (12) is left congruent to (1423) because (12) = (1423)[(14)(23)] and (14)(23) ∈ V . (123). Left cosets: (12)W = {(12). Let H ≤ G. call this number the index of H in G. (13)(24). In the example above. (1342). as (12)V . Right congruence is an equivalence relation. Count the number of left cosets. can have many names. (1234). (23)W = {(23). notice that the coset (1423)V is the same coset. (1243). Exercise 1. each coset is an equivalence class.10. Two elements. Now. (34). (1234)}. (132). Generate all left cosets of H in G. (34)(12). Let W = {e. (34)}. e. in fact. though with a diﬀerent name. Cosets. (124)V = {(124). of a group P are left congruent (mod Q ≤ P ) to each other if there’s q ∈ Q such that i = jq. (1432)}. (132). Left congruence is an equivalence relation. Left cosets: (12)V = {(12). e. (1342). (142)}. (124). (134). Deﬁne gi ≡R gj (mod H) if and only if there is a hk ∈ H such that gi = hk gj . (243)}. Deﬁnition 1.” Theorem 1. the subgroup is V . Call this relation “right congruence. Let H ≤ G. (134). Deﬁnition 1. Let H ≤ G. (1243)}. however. (1423)}. i and j. one way to know if two names are actually the same coset is to check if their g’s are left equivalent modulo H.12. (12)(34)}. What are the right cosets?. (34).Deﬁnition 1. (24). Call this relation “left congruence. (14)(23)}. (13)(24)}. but since they’re equivalence classes.9. Deﬁne gi ≡L gj (mod H) if and only if there is a hk ∈ H such that gi = gj hk . (143).13. (14)(23). So notice that the multiplication by q happens on the right.(13)(24). (12). (12)(34). (243). (1432).8. (142). (13)W = {(13). (143). (1324). Why? Recal the deﬁnition of the left congruence. (14)V = {(14). 9 . (23)}. (234)}. (14)(23).16. What are the right cosets? Take a look at the ﬁrst coset of V — (12)V . (1324)W = {(1324). (24)W = {(24). See the next example. (12)(34)V = {(12)(34). (1423)}. (234)}. These cosets are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. like equivalence classes. (123)V = {(123). Let V = {e. Why? Because (1423) is left congruent to (12) modulo H. (13)V = {(13). (14)W = {(14).” Theorem 1.

(14725836). Theorem 1.. (g −1 )1 .11 (cyclic). then g2 = h−1 g1 (symmetric). 10 . Let G be ﬁnite and cyclic.15.. it has a ﬁnite order. Then. The cycles of the cyclic group of order 8 are e. Call a “cyclic group” the group generated by some element g. then. (15)(26)(37)(48).(g −1 )n = e. and so on. Suppose that for some g1 . It is an equivalence relation.14. In a group G. g −1 ∈ G have the same order. (1357)(2468). there is n < t such that (g −1 )n = e. 1 is a generator for the integers under addition because 10 = 0. the members of the cyclic group of order 8 and compare with the octic group. Let g i . that is.. Proof. 1−2 = −2. Then g ≡ g because g = eH g (reﬂexive). we have that (g −1 )1 . Then G is abelian. in cycle form. Suppose g1 = h1 g2 and g2 = h2 g3 . write (g −1 )t as g −1 multiplied t times: (g −1 )1 . So. Notice that the distinct elements of g are g. and so on. (12345678). . notice that the powers are not always positive. we do 1−1 = −1. by the last theorem.16.. where 1 ≤ k ≤ n. g1 ≡ g2 (mod H). Any element of G is expressed g k .. But where are the inverses? Well. Because G is ﬁnite. (18765432). g f = e. Then g1 = (h1 h2 )g3 implying g1 ≡ g3 (mod H) (transitive). (16385274). g 2 .. Then (g −1 )t g t = (g −1 )t e which implies e = (g −1 )t . Theorem 1. Proof.(g −1 )t . Now what? Where is the contradiction? Deﬁnition 1. there is h ∈ H such that g1 = hg2 . Since n < t. Let H be a subgroup of G. Now we must show that t is the smallest such number in which (g −1 )t = e.(g −1 )t = e(g −1 )n+1 . g. Call an “inﬁnite cyclic group” the cyclic group in which g s = g t if and only if s = t. Order of g divides |G|. 12 = 2. Are both groups abelian? No. g j ∈ g . Theorem 1. (1753)(2864). 11 = 1.. For example. where e is the identity of the group. Let g t = e. but D4 is non-abelian.. Write. Suppose not. call it n. and write g . g2 ∈ G. Also. Exercise 1.Proof.. a cyclic group of order 8 is abelian. Suppose g1 = hg2 ..17. Now g j g i = g j+i = g i+j = g i g j . Let G be ﬁnite with g ∈ G. 13 = 3..(g −1 )t . then call the “order of g” the least positive element f for which g f = e. If g is ﬁnite.

Prove this for n = 5 by expressing each (a. (13)(24). (12)(34)} is normal in K and that K is normal in G. because they’re closed under the binary operation. (14)(23).b) ∈ S5 as a product of adjacent transpositions. the left cosets are eV = V and (14)(23)V = {(14)(23). that is. those of the form (i. . since G is ﬁnite. Exercise 1. Now the right coset W (1234) = {(1234). (25)(34). (12)(34)}. (13)(24)} ⊂ D4 = G. which is abelian.). so n divides |G| with |G : g | as quotient.} = (1234) W = (1234). Write down all elements in D4 . In D4 . (14)(35). (12) = (12). here in particular. (25). f = nq + r. (14). (13)(24). (13). (24)(35). (25) = (23)(34)(45)(34)(23). |G| and n are natural numbers. (15)(24). (34). Let H be a subgroup of a ﬁnite group G. (24). Proof. Show this is not true with an example. If H is abelian. (23). (15)(34). (234). (12)(34). (23)(45). We list the cosets. (13. We know that Sn can be generated by transpositions. (12)(34). In S4 we have (12).. so n divides f .Proof. (24). (14) = (12)(23)(34)(23)(12). But r < n by the division algorithm.. (134). (14)(25). (13) = (12)(23)(12). (35). (13). (12)(34)} ≤ S4 . (15) = (12)(23)(34)(45)(34)(23)(12). that is. (13)(24). (13)(25). (24).19. every σ ∈ Sn can be written as a product of transpositions. (34). Suppose f is a natural number such that g f = e.18. Consider the dihedral group with its subgroup V = {1. (14). By the division algorithm.21. |G| = | g | · |G : g |. Show that V = {1. (15). (24) = (23)(34)(23). (12)(35).. (45). then H is normal in G. (23). (45) = (45). and since n is the smallest natural such that g n = e. Exercise 1. (13)(24)} and the right cosets 11 . and | g | = n. Let K = {1. It is actually the case that Sn can be generated by adjacent transpositions. Exercise 1. f ≥ n. (12)(34). (123). r ∈ Z with r < n. (13)(45). (14)(23). where q. The “order of g” is the natural number n such that g n = e. (34). (23) = (23). (12).20. with order 2. we have: (13). Exercise 1. since n is the smallest such number. The distinct powers of g form a subgroup of G. Let W = {e. S4 and S5 which have order 2.. (14)(23). (34) = (34). (14)(23). r must be zero. In S5 we have (12). (12)(34). i + 1). (15)(23). (12)(45). but V is not normal in G. Lagrange’s theorem states that. (35) = (34)(45)(34). So g f = g nq+r = (g n )q g r = eq g r = eg r = g r = e.

so V normal in K. (13)(24)}. (234). a 3-cycle. A4 has no subgroup with 6 elements. Let H1 . g ∈ H1 ∩ H2 . Since h. For example. (24). Closure: let h. Since G/H is a group. h−1 ∈ H1. (1432)}. (132). Theorem 1. we have G/N as the group of cosets of N in G. Since n ∈ N . The intersection of two subgroups is a group. Therefore. Since N is normal subgroup of G. hg ∈ H2 . for sure. which we assumed we had. (143). Now. so K is normal in G. (243). We want to show a contradiction. then we can square each of them because H is a subgroup.2 is a group. Similarly. g −1 N ·nN ·gN = g −1 ngN . We square the elements until we actually see that we don’t get only 6 elements. g ∈ H1 and H1 is a group. Then g −1 N nN gN = g −1 N eN gN = g −1 egN = g −1 gN = eN = N . Proof. (13)(24).2 . for some h ∈ H. We start by letting n ∈ N . so it’s the same identity.are V e = V and V = {(14)(23). and 1 identity which amounts to 4 elements. (134). Theorem 1. Therefore. (142). then hg ∈ H1 . Then (134) = g (123)g −1 . So.17. nN ∈ G/H and g −1 N ∈ G/H. H contains −1 ∈ H for all g ∈ A .2 is the e of G. since n ∈ N . then e ∈ H1 ∩ H2 because e1. (24)}. Show that the converse of Lagrange’s Theorem is false. Let h ∈ H1 ∩ H2 . (124). because H1.18.23. (12)(34). then g −1 ng is an element of N for each element g ∈ G. the right cosets of K in G are Ke = K and K(1234) = (1234)K because there are four elements left to be taken. (13). Then (243) = g (123) g −1 . (14)(23). Exercise 1. gN ∈ G/H. Associativity comes from the fact that G is associative. Proof. it is closed. we will need 3-cycles. We know that H A4 because the index is 2. Exercise 1. We start by listing the twelve permutations of A4 : e. (134). (13)} = V (1234) = {(1234).22. If (123). Now V is not normal in G because (1234)V = {(1234). so to get to 6. ghg 4 Let’s say that (123) ∈ H. Prove that if n is an element of N . 12 . Now the left cosets of K in G are eK = K and (1234)K = {(1234). H2 ≤ G. show that A4 is a group with 12 elements that contains no subgroup with 6 elements.2 ∈ H1. hg ∈ H1 ∩ H2 . There are 3 2-cycles. Let N be a normal subgroup of a group G. then (234)(123)(243) = (134). g −1 ngN = N which implies g −1 ng ∈ N . (243) ∈ H. (123). Let’s say (234) ∈ H. Let H ≤ A4 such that |H| = 6. it follows that nN = eN = N . Then (124)(123)(142) ∈ H which implies (243) ∈ H.

Z(G) = {z ∈ G such that zg = gz for all g ∈ G}. Associativity comes from the fact that G is a group. since e ∈ Z(G) and e = zz −1 . H2 G. so z −1 ∈ Z(G). that the left 13 . Deﬁnition 1.Theorem 1. The intersection of two normal subgroups is normal. Theorem 1.21. we must understand cosets well. Proof. By cancellation law and associativity. we have (zz −1 )g = (z −1 z)g =⇒ z(z −1 g) = (gz)z −1 . z −1 g = gz −1 . Z(G) G. Theorem 1. To understand normality.14. The cosets of H in G is the quotient group G/H. ghg −1 ∈ (H1 ∩ H2 ) and we’re done. Now. Is it really a group? It is. Now.19. and it also has a name. the group formed by the cosets of H has the same order as H. we have that gh = h g for some h ∈ (H1 ∩ H2 ). Deﬁnition 1. The center Z(G) of a group is the set of all elements of G which commute with every element of G. Let g ∈ G. The identity is in Z(G) because eg = ge = g for all g ∈ G.12. That is. Deﬁnition 1. then gZ(G) = Z(G)g. so z(z −1 g) = (zg)z −1 .13. Let z ∈ Z(G).20. we must show g(H1 ∩ H2 ) = (H1 ∩ H2 )g. it commutes. A subgroup H of G is a normal subgroup of G if gH = Hg for all g ∈ G. Proof. which is true if ghg −1 ∈ (H1 ∩ H2 ) for some h ∈ (H1 ∩ H2 ) — see some example above. The set of left cosets of H in G form a group under the operation deﬁned as (g1 H)(g2 H) = g1 g2 H whenever gH = Hg for all g ∈ G. Proof. that is. Consider a subgroup H ≤ G. that is. So. So. We write H G. as we prove on the next theorem. We multiply g −1 on the right to get ghg −1 = h e = h for some h ∈ (H1 ∩ H2 ). Let subgroups H1 . This operation can only be used whenever some condition about the left and right cosets holds. What can we say about the cosets of H? We can say that |gH| = |H|.17. normality comes from the fact that gz = zg for all g ∈ G. In fact. Then H1 ∩ H2 is a subgroup by Theorem 1. Let’s think of cosets for a while. so must only show normality. Since z ∈ Z(G). This theorem deﬁnes the binary operation in which the group is formed upon. such group has a name.

g1 H = g2 H. if g1 H = g2 H. Then. it is associative. Verbal mathematics is very hard to understand. −1 Now we must show that once g2 g1 ∈ H. and we have a group. If this holds. then (g1 Hg2 H)g3 H = g1 H(g2 Hg3 H). it would be nice to have theorems that would tell us when they’re equal. 14 . −1 Theorem 1. then it’s because there is an h ∈ H such that g1 = g2 h. Next we prove a theorem about normal subgroups. Theorem 1. these two theorems give us a nice way to check if cosets are equal. multiply it on the left: −1 −1 g2 g1 = eh = h. for some h ∈ H. now g1 H = g2 H if and only if g2 g1 ∈ H. so eg1 = g2 h =⇒ g1 = g2 h. this means that there’s an h ∈ H. So we have inverses. we can write g2 g1 = h. That is. Do we have inverses? Yes. Since cosets are sets. it follows that g1 H = g2 H. The deﬁnition of the binary operation gives us the fact that (g1 g2 H) is a coset. does that mean that the cosets are diﬀerent? Not necessarily. how can we tell? One way.cosets match the right cosets exactly. Let H ≤ G. we have the inverse of g2 available. Let H ≤ G. in any order.23. Now. if what they have as elements are all the same. It says that a normal subgroup of a group is normal only when an element of the group times an element of the subgroup times the inverse of the element of the group is in the subgroup. A subgroup H of G is normal in G if and only if ghg −1 is in H. g1 ≡L g2 (mod H). they’re equal. Therefore. Because cosets have many names. Is it associative? Since (g1 g2 )g3 H = g1 (g2 g3 )H. of course. because G is a group. such that g1 = g2 . In other words.22. Now. the proof of that is (gH)(gH)−1 = gg −1 H = eH = H. Because cosets are equivalence classes. multiply g2 on the right. because g1 HeH = g1 eH = g1 H. −1 −1 Well. now g1 H = g2 H if and only if g1 g2 ∈ H. Repeat last proof changing subscripts appropriately. but it’s a good exercise. for all g in G. For instance. such that g1 = g2 h. then g2 g1 ∈ H. Then. because (gH)−1 = g −1 H. if I show you g1 H and g2 H. H is the identity. because g2 g1 ∈ H. Proof. −1 Theorem 1. g1 H = g2 H if g1 ≡L g2 (mod H) — we’re dealing with left cosets here. Proof. So. Do we have an identity? Yes. So. So yes. H must be normal in G. So. is to take a look at the contents.24.

we can write the hypothesis as g −1 hg = h . so let ghg −1 = h be in H. 1+3Z. Now multiply by g on the left to get hg = gh which means that hg is in gH and since h is an arbitrary element of H. The elements of Z/3Z are {3Z. Once a group G is abelian. every subgroup is normal. suppose G is abelian and that H ≤ G. Now multiply by g −1 on the right to get ghg −1 = h which is in H. gh = h g for some h in H. Let G = (Z. how do we actually build a quotient group? Let’s look at an example. where r < 3. Now. But. so gg −1 h = eh =⇒ ghg −1 = eh = h ∈ H and whenever this happens. Now. if G is abelian. Then for any g ∈ G. gH is a subset of Hg. gH = Hg. which means that gh is in Hg. you may notice that it gives you a nice message. right? Now. z ÷ 3 = nq + r. Suppose H is normal in G. we set up the Cayley table. write AT and notice that they are equal. then any subgroup H of G is normal. How does it say that? Well. gg −1 = e ∈ H. That explains why the members are as they are. So r is either 0. ghg −1 is in H. and so G/H is also abelian. Because addition is the binary operation for this group. is it true that G/H is also abelian? Yes. So. Hg is a subset of gH. so gh = h g. Now since g −1 and g are inverses of each other. mathematicians like to write the cosets in the form g + H to make explicit that the operation is addition. +). since every element of G commutes with every element of G. Let h in H and g in G be arbitrary elements. 1 or 2. The fact that this group is abelian may get us a new theorem. and since h is an arbitrary element of H. If it were any other operation. By hypothesis. By the division algorithm. If you’re asking why. θ 3Z 1 + 3Z 2 + 3Z 3Z 3Z 1 + 3Z 2 + 3Z 1 + 3Z 1 + 3Z 2 + 3Z 3Z 2 + 3Z 2 + 3Z 3Z 1 + 3Z You may quickly notice that this group is abelian. so we’ll build Z/3Z. How would one quickly notice such thing? Think of the group as a matrix A. multiply h on the right to get gg −1 h = eh. for n = 3. H = nZ. H G. Let’s try to build the quotient group Z/nZ. The message is. Multiply by g on the right.Proof. consider the integers mod 3. 15 . if you read this theorem carefully. for all g in G. 2+3Z}. we can alter their order. Now. Now. they’d probably write gH as we have been so far. including those of H because H ≤ G. Then. if G is abelian.

the order of gH is the order of H. Since we’re talking about abelianism. that is. Then H G. every g commutes with every element of G. consider. can you prove? If not. can you show an example? But now. once G is abelian. right? That’s the deﬁnition for the multiplication (the binary operation) of a quotient group.24. I don’t clearly see this one right now.. Then we have two left cosets: g1 H = H and g2 H = G − H. Since the index of H in G is the number of left cosets of H in G. because let H = {e} which is normal in G and is a subgroup of any G non-abelian.s : r4 = s2 = e. then there’s no way that a subgroup won’t be abelian. (Q = 0. and every subgroup of G is abelian. |gH| = |H|. Think about it. ·). Now (g1 H)(g2 H) = (g1 g2 )H. (Z. Which groups do we know? We know the number systems: (R. a quotient group with respect to the subgroup is also abelian. there’s just no way because all elements are expressed as a factor of the generator. Proof. and once a subgroup is normal.Theorem 1. does it automatically follow that G is abelian? It can’t be. Let [G : H] = 2. We know how to generate some groups. But. Theorem 1. +). Proof. rs = sr3 }. the right cosets of H in G are the same as the left cosets of H in G. Exercise 1. ·). so it doesn’t matter which order you multiply any of them. like the dihedral group D4 = {r. Let H G. Now. then G/H is abelian. Let H G. g2 H ∈ G/H. Let g1 H. abelianism is a pretty powerful and nice property that a group may have. And we can always write the Cayley 16 . each gh is either in H or in G − H. (R = 0. Then.. (Q.26. because G is abelian. Once I say H G. there are 2 left cosets. +).25. What do we have to show here? We have to show that once the index of H is 2. every subgroup of G is normal. with G abelian. What is the order of gH ∈ G/H? Recall that the order of gH is the smallest k such that (gH)k = H = g k H which happens when g k ∈ H. Then. So. so (g1 g2 )H = g2 g1 H = g2 Hg1 H and this shows that G/H is abelian. +). notice that when G is cyclic. Let’s talk about ways to produce groups quickly. But what if H is a proper normal subgroup of G? Does that make G abelian automatically? If so.

Then. therefore. under matrix multiplication as binary operation. This is the special linear group of matrices 2 × 2. we also get the identity. For example. makes is a hard enough thing to check so that we may wish to build groups out of things which we already know will be associtive. What can we do with a rectangle? We can ﬂip it vertically and horizontally: we create two elements of order 2. Let Z(G) = {z ∈ G : zg = gz for all g ∈ G}. +). at no charge — a pretty good deal. This algorithm generates the group g which is cyclic and. hh ∈ H and h−1 ∈ H. h ∈ H. We can use generators. 17 . then Z(G) is an abelian subgroup of G. So. then. We can rotate it 180 degrees. For example. which makes every possible subgroup normal. = Another interesting example is the center of every group. by using the same operation of G. which if we square this element. so we like composition as a binary operation. any group under composition is associative. Not to mention that to check that H ≤ G we only need to check that for all h. Let g= and notice that g ∼ (Z. Pick some g ∈ G. abelian. let G = SL2 (R). op(G)) in which associativity will be given by G. This is the Klein 4-group. Next. they’re built out of the symmetry of objects. Associativity. and take a look at all powers of g. what kind of groups are those? These are the symmetric groups Sn . every center subgroup is abelian. let H ⊆ G. 1 1 0 1 . a group can be formed out of invertible functions from a set S into itself under composition. Every group G has a center as a subgroup. so each element is its own inverse. For example. we show an interesting theorem about centers. Other ways to get away from checking associativity is to form groups out of other groups. but it’s very hard to check associativity for crazy groups in which we may build a table for. For example.table for any group. with real entries such that the determinant of each of these matrices is ±1. The identity is any of these two elements squared. think of a rectangle. This is the symmetries of a rectangle in which we only have elements which square to the identity. Moreover. we may form a group (H.

g a zg b z = g a zz g b = g a z zg b = g a z g b z which shows that every element of G commutes with every other element of G. a3 b}. a2 . From this. Now. j. Z(G). g 2 Z(G). a. a . θ 1 a a2 a3 b ab a2 b a3 b 1 1 a a2 a3 b ab a2 b a3 b a a a2 a3 1 a3 b a2 b a3 b b a2 a2 a3 1 a a2 b a3 b b ab a3 a3 1 a a2 ab b ab a2 b b b ab a2 b a3 b a2 a3 1 a ab ab a2 b a3 b b a a2 a3 1 a2 b a2 b a3 b b ab 1 a a2 a3 a3 b a3 b b ab a2 b a3 1 a a2 They don’t commute because. abelianism implies global centralization. 18 . This means that every element of G is in a coset g a Z(G). Let a4 = e. a2 . let’s take a look at the quaternion group.}. Since G/Z(G) is cyclic. a2 b. g −1 Z(G). The quaternion group is a non-abelian group of order 8. ab = ba = a3 b. It is usually denoted by Q8 = {1. −i. gZ(G).27. So non-abelianism doesn’t imply non-abelian subgroups. However. Proof. therefore. The quaternions are actually a number system. z ∈ Z(G). −1. b2 = a2 . b. Before we move on to rings and other algebras. They are: {1}. There’s another way to name the elements of the group. Then a−1 = a3 and it follows that ba = a−1 b. Suppose G/Z(G) is cyclic. you can get the whole group. ab. Because they are in the center of Z... these elements look like g a z and g b z in which each one is in some coset of Z(G) in G. a3 . and so b4 = e.. which is unsual for number systems. Now Z(G) = G because once G is abelian. so z. An interesting thing about the quaternion group is that once we say that i2 = j 2 = k 2 = ijk = −1. i. they both commute with every other element of G. k. Let Q8 = {1. Then G is abelian and so Z(G) = G. So G/Z(G) = {. In other words. in which I happen to prefer right now.. every element satisfy the condition to belong in the center. but the quaternions don’t commute. we can draw the whole multiplication table. b . −j. because they’re all cyclic.Theorem 1. pick g1 . we can let gZ(G) generate G/Z(G). . notice that all of its proper subgroups are abelian. for example. −k}. g2 ∈ G. similarly constructed to the complex numbers. therefore G is abelian.

then no Sn .+) be the group which none of its elements have ﬁnite order. However. e2 = e. h−1 = h ∈ H. all elements of H also commute. because for each h ∈ H. Proof. is abelian.25. xa = ax =⇒ (yx)a = yax =⇒ yax = (yx)a =⇒ a(yx) = (yx)a. It is called a conjugate of H. Exercise 1. Let (Z. Both (12) and (14) square to the identity. but (142)2 = (124) = e. let H = {g ∈ G : g 2 = e}.28. Give an example of a group G which has no elements of ﬁnite order greater than 1. let x ∈ H. but since (12)(23) = (123) = (132) = (23)(12). But (12)(14) = (142). The identity is present because it commutes with every element of G. so it will commute with a just ﬁne. then prove (b) that |gHg −1 | = |H|. so we don’t have closure. Exercise 1. all of whose elements have ﬁnite order. We also have inverses. Show that Ha = {x ∈ G : xa = ax} is a subgroup of G. so D4 is not isomorphic to Q8 . let x. we could think that they have something to do with the dihedral D4 group. Give an example to show G abelian is necessary for such H. Prove (a) that gHg −1 ≤ G. y ∈ Ha . Any Sn . then e2 = h2 h 2 = (hh )(hh ) = (hh )2 ∈ H. Proof. Suppose G is ﬁnite. has (12) and (23) as elements. Exercise 1. then x−1 ax = x−1 xa =⇒ x−1 axx−1 = x−1 xax−1 =⇒ x−1 ae = eax−1 =⇒ x−1 a = ax−1 . For the example. Prove H ≤ G. So abelianism is necessary. where n ≥ 3. Let G be a group and let a be one ﬁxed element of G.27. Associativity is given by G. so x−1 ∈ H. Now suppose 19 . Proof. but has a factor group G/H. we consider S4 which is not abelian. Show that Sn is non-abelian for any n ≥ 3. Now we need to show closure. The quaternion group has two elements which square to the identity. with n ≥ 3. so ax = xa. while D4 has at least ﬁve. We have associativity from G. Let H ≤ G and ﬁx g ∈ G. Exercise 1. but they are not that similar. so we have identity. We must show xy ∈ Ha .With a quick glance at the table and at the nature of the elements of the quaternion.26. Let G abelian. Then H ≤ G. We have closure on H because: since G is abelian.29. Deﬁne gHg −1 = {ghg −1 : h ∈ H}. For inverses now. that’s possible because there’s no power t > 1 such that z t = 1. Z/2Z is such that all of its cosets have order not greater than 2. Exercise 1. and H is subset of G.

ghk g −1 g} = {gh1 . then gHg −1 = H. .. Now... so that we may drop the requirement that G-ﬁnite. so I think that G-ﬁnite in (b) is not a requirement. so that every element 20 .2. h = h and then they’re all distinct. and therefore. . Also.. by (b) and (a) respectively. And e = gg −1 = geg −1 = gh−1 hg −1 = gh−1 ehg −1 = gh−1 g −1 ghg −1 = (gh−1 g −1 )(ghg −1 )... Now. So. ghk g −1 }. 2 Homomorphisms Deﬁnition 2. Associativity comes from G because gHg −1 is composed only of elements of G. h2 . ·) is a mapping φ that maps every g ∈ G to some h ∈ H so that the image of an ×-product is the corresponding (·)-product in H.. let H = {h1 .1. that is. However. . (b) assumes G is ﬁnite. if φ(G) = H. ghk } = gH. .. By cancellation law. For (b). so they have the same order. if I can show that all elements in gHg −1 are distinct. therefore. and so gH = Hg — because Hg = (gHg −1 )g — implying H G.. we have |gHg −1 | = |H| ≤ G. then geg −1 = gg −1 = e ∈ gHg −1 . The set φ(G) ⊆ H of all images h ∈ H of elements g ∈ G is called the homomorphic image of G. hk } with H ≤ G ﬁnite. Since e ∈ H. we say φ is a homomorphism onto H if the mapping is onto. So we have inverses. then I’ve shown that there’s one and only one ghg −1 for each h ∈ H. but I think that gHg −1 will always have the same elements even when G is not ﬁnite. The right coset (gHg −1 )g = {gh1 g −1 g. For (a). prove (c) that H G. the same order. then. ×) to (H. since H is the unique subgroup with |H| elements. they have the same number of elements.. Let φ : G → H be a homomorphism. suppose gh g −1 = gh g −1 .. that is φ(g1 × g2 ) = φ(g1 ) · φ(g2 ). We construct the inverses this way: e = gg −1 = geg −1 = ghh−1 g −1 = gheh−1 g −1 = ghg −1 gh−1 g −1 = (ghg −1 )(gh−1 g −1 ) = e. gHg −1 ≤ G. For (c).. Therefore.G is a group and H is the unique subgroup of size |H| in G. Deﬁnition 2. The various elements g sharing the common image φ(g) = h form the pre-image of h. we show ﬁrst the identity is present. There’s a not so hard way to show the same cardinality here. Then gHg −1 = {gh1 g 1 . A group homomorphism from (G.

Let φ be a homomorphism from a group G to a group H. We let φ(p = i + rn) = i (mod n). b = φ(y).1. then φ is an isomorphism. Proof. Theorem 2. Prove that φ[G] is abelian if and only if for all x. y ∈ G we have xyx−1 y −1 ∈ ker(φ). 2. Let φ : G → G be a homomorphism. such as φ(x−1 ) = φ(x)−1 to write φ(xy)φ(x−1 y −1 ) = e φ(x)φ(y)φ(x−1 )φ(y −1 ) = e φ(x)φ(y)φ(x)−1 φ(y)−1 = e φ(x)φ(y)φ(x)−1 = φ(y) φ(x)φ(y) = φ(y)φ(x) ab = ba 21 .5. Suppose xyx−1 y −1 ∈ ker(φ) for all x. Deﬁnition 2.6. y ∈ G such that a = φ(x). Then we call the set φ[H] = {φ(h) : h ∈ H} the homomorphic image of H on G . The group K of pre-images of eH is called the kernel of the homomorphism. The integers can be mapped onto the integers Zn = {0. Let H ≤ G. Let a. Deﬁnition 2. φ(q = i + sn) = j (mod n).1.of H appears as the image of at least one g ∈ G.3. So it is a homormorphism for × as well. 1.4. Deﬁnition 2.. . Is φ(pq) = ij (mod n)? φ((i + rn)(j + sn)) = φ(ij + isn + jrn + rsn2 ) = φ(ij + (is + jr + rsn)n) = ij (mod n). φ[H] ≤ G . We use the φ’s properties. so we have x. Let H ≤ G . n − 1}. b in φ[G].. Let φ : G → H be a group homomorphism. Exercise 2.2. y ∈ G. If φ is onto and one-to-one. Let φ : G → G be a homomorphism. and this mapping is a homomorphism for the operation +. The kernel of φ is ker(φ) = {g ∈ G : f (g) = e} = f −1 [e]. Is it also a homomorphism for ×? Let f (i + rn) = i (mod n). Exercise 2.. Deﬁnition 2. Let φ : G → G be a homomorphism. Proof. Then we call the set φ−1 [H ] = {g ∈ G : φ(g) ∈ H } the pre-image of H. and show that f ((i + rn)(j + sn)) = ij (mod n).

x = y. Therefore. so ker(f ) = {e}. y ∈ G. Apply cancellation law on the left and on the right. For (c). Multiply by g on the right. Exercise 2. so. Deﬁne a map φ : G → G by φ(x) = gxg −1 . Prove that f is one-to-one if and only if ker(f ) = {e}. Suppose φ(x) = φ(y). y ∈ G.Therefore. Assume f is one-to-one. Proof. Suppose f (x) = f (y). For (a). y ∈ G. Exercise 2. Let x. Then φ(x) = gxg −1 and φ(y) = gyg −1 . So φ(x) = gxg −1 = φ(y) = gyg −1 . we have that x = e. We must show that there is an x ∈ G such that y = φ(x) = gxg −1 . Let x. Let G be a group and ﬁx g ∈ G. to write f (x) = f (y) f (x)f (y)−1 = e f (x)f (y −1 ) = e f (xy −1 ) = e So xy −1 ∈ ker(f ). So φ is one-to-one. φ[G] is abelian. then x = y. so g −1 yg = x. Let x ∈ ker(f ). let x. So φ(x)φ(y) = φ(y)φ(x) φ(x)φ(y)φ(x)−1 = φ(y) φ(x)φ(y)φ(x)−1 φ(y)−1 = e φ(x)φ(y)φ(x−1 )φ(y −1 ) = e φ(xyx−1 y −1 ) = e Therefore xyx−1 y −1 ∈ ker(φ) for all x. We now use the fact that f is a homomorphism. For (b) let y ∈ G. So φ(x)φ(y) = gxg −1 gyg −1 = gxyg −1 = φ(xy) 22 . y ∈ G. Show that φ is (a) one-to-one and (b) onto. Must show φ(xyx−1 y −1 ) = e. let x. φ is onto. Now suppose φ[G] is abelian. Then f (x) = e = f (e). and since f is one-to-one. and by g −1 on the left. Now assume ker(f ) = {e}.4. Prove φ is a (c) homomorphism.3. Let f : G → H be a group homomorphism. y ∈ G.

so u ∈ gK. f (g −1 u) = f (g −1 )f (u) = f (g)−1 f (u) But f (u) = f (g) because u ∈ f −1 [{f (g)}]. As deﬁned. Since φ(gk) ∈ φ[G]. Exercise 2. since H is normal. Deﬁne φ : G → G/H by φ(g) = gH. φ takes each g ∈ G into a coset gH ∈ G/H. since φ is a homomorphism. So g −1 u = k for some k ∈ K. Let K G.5. gk ∈ φ−1 [φ(g)].6. Proof. so u = gk. The kernel of φ will be all elements which land in the identity of G/H. φ(gk) = φ(g)φ(k) = φ(g) ∈ φ[G]. So f (g)−1 f (u) = f (g)−1 f (g) =e So g −1 u is mapped to e. Which elements g will satisfy φ(g) = H? By deﬁnition. we are proving that the elements of the coset gK are exactly the elements of G that map to φ(g) ∈ {φ(g)}. Show that φ is onto and the kernel of φ is H. K = ker(φ). By deﬁnition. Let φ : G → H be a homomorphism and K = ker(φ). φ(g) = gH which is equal to H if and only if (g −1 e) ∈ H. Exercise 2. so K G. that is. Let φ : G → H be a (group) homomorphism. Now. Must show gk ∈ φ−1 [φ(g)]. That is. Multiply g on the right. Proof. Prove gK = φ−1 [φ(g)]. since f is a homomorphism. so φ(g1 g2 ) = g1 g2 H = g1 Hg2 H = φ(g1 )φ(g2 ) Therefore. G/H’s operation is deﬁned as (g1 H)(g2 H) = (g1 g2 )H.So φ is a homomorphism. gk ∈ G. φ(g) = gH. Let gk ∈ gK for some k ∈ K. 23 . Let H G. they land in H. Let g ∈ G. Let g ∈ G. Since G is a group. φ is a homomorphism. which means g −1 u ∈ K.

so a−1 ∈ HN . Deﬁne HN a subset of G by HN = {hn : h ∈ H. H = ker(φ). hence HN is not empty. since G is abelian. n ∈ N }. For closure. if some prime p divides |G|. For inverses. 24 . g = G. so we multiply h on the left to get ha−1 = hn−1 h−1 which is in N because N is normal. so pick g = e. Deﬁnition 2. Since ha−1 ∈ N . we want to show that gxg −1 is in HN . so φ is onto. then HN G.3. I must ﬁnd g ∈ G such that φ(g ) = gH. so ab = hh n∗ n . so ab = hnh n . Proof. Then there are h. we know g ≤ G. Proof. To show φ is onto. So φ(h) = hH = H because h−1 ∈ H. A group G = {e} is simple if and only if for every N G. then x = uv for some u in H and v in N .2. Now gxg −1 = guvg −1 = gug −1 gvg −1 . so g is normal and proper in G. then G has a subgroup H of order p. let gH ∈ G/H. Theorem 2. Let x in HN be arbitrary. But H and N are normal in G. G = {e}. so |G| = p. By Theorem 5-3. let g = g . ab ∈ HN . as desired. g G. Corollary 2. h−1 (ha−1 ) ∈ HN . By deﬁnition. HN is a subgroup of G. Then HN is a subgroup of G. So. Let g in G be arbitrary. We know e is in both H and N .7. so a = hn for some h ∈ H and n ∈ N . so nh ∈ N h = h N . Suppose g = G. nh = h n∗ for some n∗ ∈ N . hence. hN = N h for all h ∈ G.7. We know a−1 = n−1 h−1 . it’s not true that H is proper. let a. Suppose H is a subgroup of G and N is normal in G. so that’s not possible. b be in HN . Since G is simple. let a be in HN . because g ∈ G. Since hh ∈ H and n∗ n ∈ N . hence. If H G. but G is simple. Now. h ∈ H and n. we have N = G or N = {e}. Since G is abelian. n ∈ N such that a = hn and b = h n . H must be normal. so gxg −1 is in HN .Let h ∈ H. Therefore. since N is normal. we certainly have one. so e2 = e ∈ HN . Exercise 2. so gug −1 is in H and gvg −1 is in N . Prove that a ﬁnite simple group G which is abelian must be a cyclic group of prime order. Proof.

then it’s because −2 is a root. So x ∼ z. h such that gxg −1 = y hyh−1 = z So h(gxg −1 )h−1 = z. Exercise 3. but since ∼ is an equivalence relation. So there exists g. (23). Now. Let x ∈ G. (23)(12)(23) = (23)(123) = (13). Let G be a group. 3 Polynomials We need deﬁnitions. Then x ∼ x because xxx−1 = x. so (13) ∼ (23). the exercises are already here. Solution. so (12) ∼ (13). by inspection I ﬁnd (12)(13)(12) = (12)(123) = (23). and notice g −1 = g −1 h−1 . Suppose x ∼ y. (c) write down the conjugacy classes of S3 . A 3-cycle has a 2-cycle as a conjugate because 3-cycles are even permutations. By evaluating the polynomial at −2. (b) If G is abelian. Prove (a) ∼ is an equivalence relation. (23). y ∼ z. Also. So g xg −1 = z. (13).1. (132)}. 2-cycles are odd.Exercise 2. (132).8. (c) S3 = {e.(b) describe the conjugacy classes of G if G is abelian. So exists g such that gxg −1 = y xg −1 = g −1 y x = g −1 y(g −1 )−1 . another class C2 will contain (12). (123). the theorems. (12). Find all primes p such that x + 2 is a factor of x4 + x3 + x2 − x + 1 ∈ Zp [x]. then the only y which will satisfy the relation is y = x. Suppose x ∼ y. we get 15 25 . Deﬁne ∼ on G by x ∼ y if there exists g ∈ G such that gxg −1 = y. ∼ breaks G apart into disjoint and exhaustive classes. So. (13). one class C1 will contain (123). Let g = hg. Therefore. the proofs. If x + 2 is a factor of x4 + x3 + x2 − x + 1 ∈ Zp [x]. notation explained. Proof. so even-cycle times odd-cycle is odd-cycle. so G has |G| conjugacy classes of the form {x}.

That is. Since the degree must be 3. Now. p(x) = g(x)h(x) = (x2 + Ax + B)(x + C). which are reducible. So we may consider only the monic polynomials. Solution. we have 2 = −1 as a root. The constant term d cannot be zero. Exercise 3. Hence we have p in {3. Since d isn’t zero. in case we want to distinguish them. B = 1 or B = 2. with these criteria. 12 factorizations. We take advantage of the list to add the irreducibles in the order that they should appear. So. So. so a is either 1 or 2. The coeﬃcients cannot sum to zero. This gives us 18 polynomials p(x). then a cannot be 0.2. x0 . 3 choices for b. that is. 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 irreducible 2 irreducible 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 2 irreducible 26 . Find all irreducible polynomials of degree 3 in Z3 [x]. We can express all polynomials of degree 3 over Z3 by ax3 + bx2 + cx + d. We list only the coeﬃcients of each polynomial in the order x3 . that is.as the result. 5}. then its factors will be of degree 2 and degree 1. we have 2 choices for d. 15 = 0 (mod 3) and 15 = 0 (mod 5). whenever the sum of the even coeﬃcients equals the sum of odd coeﬃcients. x1 . consider all monic polynomials and multiply each by 2 to notice that factorization doesn’t change. Suppose now that p(x) is reducible. evaluate x = 2 = −1: −a + b + −c + d = 0 which implies b + d = a + c. with 1 choice for a. we may multiply each irreducible by 2 to obtain its match. doubling the total of irreducible polynomials. This gives us 6 possibilities for g(x) and 2 possibilities for h(x). B and C are not zero. to derive a third rule. x2 . or one is a root. Since factorization is unique except for scalar multiple (and order). C = 1 or C = 2. Now. or zero is a root. 3 choices for c.

Solution.3.1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 2 2 1 2 irreducible 1 irreducible 2 1 irreducible 2 1 irreducible 2 1 2 irreducible We found 8 polynomials. By the quadratic formula. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 2 2 0 0 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 irreducible 2 irreducible 1 2 1 2 irreducible 1 irreducible 2 1 2 irreducible 1 irreducible 2 1 2 irreducible 1 irreducible 2 Exercise 3. x2 = 11 ± 222 − 4/2 √ = 11 ± 2 30 27 . If we multiply each by 2. Demonstrate that f (x) = x4 − 22x2 + 1 is irreducible over Q. we would get their matches. yielding 16 irreducible polynomials as shown below.

which we don’t. = = = Since |H| = 4.√ So x = ± 11 ± 2 30. we would see rational roots in these linear factors. Now we can write f (x) as the product of 4 linear factors in R[x]. The linear factors are irreducible polynomials in R[x]. Therefore. G/ker(φ) ∼ Image(φ). if f (x) were to factor in Q[x]. so f (x) is irreducible in Q[x]. so |φ−1 [h]| = 15. so G/ker(φ) ∼ H.4. Let A=x− B =x+ C =x− D =x+ So √ AB = x2 − 11 − 2 30 √ √ AC = x2 + (− 11 + 2 30 − 11 − 2 30)x + 1 √ √ AD = x2 + (− 11 + 2 30 + 11 − 2 30)x + 1 √ √ BC = x2 + (− 11 − 2 30 + 11 + 2 30)x + 1 √ √ BD = x2 + ( 11 − 2 30 + 11 + 2 30)x + 1 √ CD = x2 + 241 − 44 30 No factor with rational coeﬃcients. Let h be in H. we must also make sure that no factors of degree 2 will have rational coeﬃcients. so. the factorization of f (x) is unique — except for order and scalar multiples. By the fundamental theorem of homomorphisms. Find |ker(φ)|. Exercise 3. hence. 28 . Let φ : G → H be a group homomorphism which is onto. 60/|ker(φ)| = 4. Because the irrationals are not closed under multiplication. |ker(φ)| = 15. √ 11 + 2 30 √ 11 + 2 30 √ 11 − 2 30 √ 11 − 2 30. Suppose G has 60 elements and H has 4 elements. We take the linear factors and multiply them in all possible ways. How many elements of G map to h? Solution. Since φ is onto. Let h be in H. H ∼ Image(φ).

Repeat for α = 2 − i. and α is in C and C is an extension ﬁeld of Q.6.5. √ 3 2−i √ 3 2 α −i= 2 α2 = (α2 − i)3 = 2 (α4 − 2iα2 − 1)(α2 − i) = 2 α6 − iα4 − 2iα4 − 2α2 − α2 + i = 2 α6 − 3iα4 − 3α2 + i = 2 α6 − 3α2 − 2 = 3iα4 − i (α6 − 3α2 − 2)2 = −9α8 + 6α4 + 1 (α6 − 3α2 − 2)2 + 9α8 − 6α4 − 1 = 0 For the other. If the coeﬃcients of the polynomial p(x) = (x − s + ti)(x − s − ti).√ √ Exercise 3. t in R are often called conjugates. Show that α = 2 + 3 is algebraic over Q by ﬁnding √ 3 f (x) in Q[x] such that f (α) = 0. Since p(x) = x2 − 2sx + (s2 + t2 ). 29 . then we can pick R = F and C = E to satisfy the deﬁnition. Show that they satisfy the deﬁnition of conjugates. are real numbers. p(x) would be irreducible over R because all of its roots are complex numbers. Exercise 3. so α is algebraic number. so it’s an algebraic number. Also. we write Now the coeﬃcients are rational. Solution. The complex numbers s + ti and s − ti with s. √ √ 2 + 3 is algebraic over Q. √ α2 = 5 + 2 6 √ α2 − 5 = 2 6 α4 − 10α2 + 25 = 24 α4 − 10α2 + 1 = 0 So. What happens if t = 0? Solution. then α is algebraic over Q. Since α is a root of the polynomial above. because C is an extension ﬁeld of R.

The multiplicative inverse e(x) is an element of the ﬁeld such that k(x)e(x) = e(x)k(x) = k(x). Exercise 3. we do long division on each. Show that x3 + 1. For the ﬁrst part. That is. we can pick other ﬁelds to satisfy the deﬁnition for when t = 0. Exercise 3.8. Let q(x) = x + 1/2. So x2 = −x/3 + 1 x3 = 10x/9 − 1/3 x4 = −19x/27 + 10/9. For the other class. Use the results to ﬁnd a linear polynomial equivalent to 3x4 + x3 − 2/3x2 + x + 1. If we want to. Exercise 3. we can write it as 3(−19x/27) + 10/9 + (10x/9) − 1/3 + (−2/3) − (x/3) + 1 + x + 1. This shows they’re all in the same equivalence class. we get a member of k(x). x3 . −1/3x2 + x + 1 and 10x/9 + 2/3 are in the same equivalence class.9. For the second part. If t = 0. Exercise 3. however. We have x3 + 1 = 10x/9 + 2/3 and −x2 /3 + x + 1 = 10x/9 + 2/3. Let F be the ﬁeld of rational numbers and let p(x) = x2 + x/3 − 1. which is equivalent to (46 + 16x)/9. If we take any member of k(x) and multiply it by a constant term. x4 . we use the equivalences above to perform the appropriate substituitions for 3x4 + x3 − 2/3x2 + x + 1. so all constants are members of e(x). Solution. we have x4 + x2 + 1 = −28x/27 + 28/9. Show that x4 + x2 + 1 and −28x/27 + 28/9 are in the same equivalence class.we have p(x) in R[x] satisfying the deﬁnition. Still using Q/ p(x) = x2 + x/3 − 1 . check if q(x) is the inverse of q(x) in the ﬁeld Q[x]/ x2 + 1 . ﬁnd linear polynomials equivalent to x2 .10. What is the multiplicative identity of F [x]/ p(x) ? Solution. then the discriminant found in the application of the quadratic formula is greater than zero which implies that all roots are real which causes p(x) to be reducible in R failing the deﬁnition for the chosen ﬁelds here.7. Solution. −1 = −4/5x + 2/5 30 .

If we get a constant polynomial. What polynomial that when multiplied by x will yield a constant mod x2 + 1? The polynomial x itself. It does because −1 q(x) q(x) = 1/5 − 4x2 /5 = 1. we verify that q(x) q(x) = e(x) and we divide e(x) by x2 + 1. So x−1 = x. Since (1 + s2 /t2 ) is a constant. Find the inverse of x in Q[x]/ x2 + 1 . Solution.11. Exercise 3. because (x)(x) = x2 = −1 mod x2 + 1. ﬁnd the inverse of s + ti. t2 + s2 s − ti . To check. Exercise 3.12. express their gcd linearly. since all constants are members of the class 1. Solution. So we multiply the equation by 1/(1 + s2 /t2 ). Divide θ2 + 1 by tθ + s. it worked.Solution. tθ + s). which yields 1 = θ2 + 1 − 1 1 + s2 /t2 1 1 θ s = θ2 + 1 − − 2 2 /t2 2 /t2 t 1+s 1+s t 2 t tθ − s = 2 θ2 + 1 − 2 tθ + s 2 t +s t + s2 tθ + s 1 + θ2 + 1 = − The inverse of s + ti is s θ − 2 t t tθ + s So tθ − s tθ + s + θ2 + 1 . s2 + t2 31 . and compare with the preceding result of the book. it is a gcd(θ2 + 1. The division algorithm yields θ2 + 1 = (tθ + s)(θ/t − s/t2 ) + (1 + s2 /t2 ). We express it linearly now with 1+ s2 t2 = θ2 + 1 − tθ + s = θ2 + 1 − s θ − 2 t t s θ − 2 t t tθ + s −1 We want to express 1 as a combination of θ2 + 1 and tθ + s. But it could’ve been any constant other than 1.

Contruct the ﬁeld E = Z3 [x]/ p(x) . √ √ √ (b) 3 7 in R : Q. Solution. Solution. We attach the roots to Z3 . (d) x4 − 16x2 + 4. 2 + s2 t t + s2 where θ plays the role of i. so a polynomial is reducible if and only if it has a root. Exercise 3. Factor p(x) into two linear terms in E[x]. so it has no zero divisors and it’s closed under the operations. and we compute what other elements will be appear in the ﬁeld by computing the addition and multiplication tables.The comparison we can make here is that s − ti s2 + t2 seems to be the same as − s − tθ tθ − s = 2 . we have x2 + 1. + | 0 1 2 T 2T 1+T 1+2T 2+T 2+2T ----------------------------------------------------------0 | 0 1 2 T 2T 1+T 1+2T 2+T 2+2T 1 | 1 2 0 1+T 1+2T 2+T 2+2T T 2T 2 | 2 0 1 2+T 2+2T T 2T 1+T 1+2T T | T T+1 T+2 2T 0 1+2T 1 2+2T T 2T | 2T 1+2T 2+2T 0 T 1 1+T 2 2+T 1+T |1+T 2+T T 1+2T 1 2+2T 2 2T 0 1+2T |1+2T 2+2T 2T 1 1+T 2 2+T 0 T 32 . Exercise 3. In Z3 . Let the roots be caled T and −T = 2T . For (a).14 (7-14). Zp is a ﬁeld. Exercise 3. where r is the desired root. Find an irreducible polynomial p(x) in Z3 [x] of degree 2. (d) 5 + 3 in C : Q.16. We set x = r. x2 + 1 has no roots.13 (7-12).15. then we work with the equation until we get the coeﬃcients over the desired ﬁeld. for (b) x3 − 7. Explain why it is irreducible. For a prime p. (c) (1 + 5 )/2 in C : Q. (c) x2 − x − 1. Find the minimum polynomials over the small ﬁeld of the following elements in the following extensions: (a) i in C : Q. Exercise 3.

makes one wonder if we can show that it is not transcendental. then F is a subﬁeld of E and E is an extension of F .2+T |2+T 2+2T |2+2T T 2T 1+T 1+2T 2+2T 2 2 2+T 2+2T 0 0 T 1+2T 1 1 1+T * | 0 1 2 T 2T 1+T 1+2T 2+T 2+2T ----------------------------------------------------------0 | 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 | 0 1 2 T 2T 1+T 1+2T 2+T 2+2T 2 | 0 2 1 2T T 2+2T 2+T 1+2T 1+T T | 0 T 2T 2 1 2+T 1+T 2+2T 1+2T 2T | 0 2T T 1 2 1+2T 2+2T 1+T 2+T 1+T | 0 1+T 2+2T 2+T 1+2T 2T 2 1 T 1+2T | 0 1+2T 2+T 1+T 2+2T 2 T 2T 1 2+T | 0 2+T 1+2T 2+2T 1+T 1 2T T 2 2+2T | 0 2+2T 1+T 1+2T ---T 1 2 2T We can now factor every polynomial in Z3 (T.2. The roots of x2 + 1 are T and 2T . Deﬁnition 4. Let a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + . + an xn = 0 be a polynomial equation of degree n with coeﬃcients ai in a ﬁeld F . A real number that is not the root of any polynomial equation with rational coeﬃcients is called transcendental. If every element of a ﬁeld F is an element of a ﬁeld E and if F has the same ﬁeld operations as E. Knowing that π is transcendental from hearing people say it.1. If F is Q. and let E be an extension ﬁeld of F . then r is an algebraic number. We write F ⊆ E. Deﬁnition 4. A rational number times an irrational number is irrational. All we have to do is ﬁnd a polynomial with rational coeﬃcients which has π as a root.3. 2T ) all the way to linear factors. 33 . so x2 + 1 = (x + T )(x + 2T ). 4 Algebraic ﬁeld extensions Deﬁnition 4. so we will need at least a polynomial of degree 2.. If r in E is a root of such an equation.. then r is said to be algebraic over F . We can’t consider x − π = 0 because we can’t assume that π is rational.

Also. Deﬁnition 4. then this is another way to think of transcendental numbers: numbers which won’t square to a rational number. so this √ way we can ﬁnd a polynomial to which 2 is a root. We let F [x]/ p(x) stand for the polynomials with coeﬃcients in F taken modulo p(x) with equivalence classes described as {r(x) + p(x)q(x). Let F be a ﬁeld and let p(x) be in F [x] such that p(x) is irreducible in F [x]. Deﬁnition 4. then I have to say that this is not possible and if not. represented by r(x) mod p(x). Consider the irrational 2. Let F be a ﬁeld. r2 in E ⊆ F are conjugates if they are roots of the same irreducible polynomial in F [x]. the polynomial equation won’t necessarily be monic. Why? Because r is a root of an equation with coeﬃcients in Q. If every element of an extension E of F is algebraic with respect to F .Why? Because the idea is: if π isn’t transcendental. Let F be a ﬁeld and let r be in E ⊆ F be algebraic with respect to F . So. Deﬁnition 4. If we square it. then eventually we would ﬁnd some natural n such that π n = r. then E is an algebraic extension of F .5.6. is really irreducible. we must check that p(x). where r is a rational √ number. Theorem 4. Then r1 . 34 . If I believe the mathematicians. ever. So. Then r is a root of a unique monic irreducible polynomial p(x) in F [x] and p(x) divides each polynomial in F [x] that has r as a root. The uniqueness of the remainder of a long division is guaranteed by the Division Algorithm. we get 2. by deﬁnition. if we can apply some power to π and get it to become a rational number.4. from the deﬁnition above.1. x2 − 2 = 0. For example. then we would be done. where q(x) is in F [x]}. Deﬁnition 4. Every algebraic number r is a root of an equation with coeﬃcients in Z. An algebraic number is called an algebraic integer if and only if it is a root of a monic polynomial equation of degree n with coeﬃcients in Z.7. multiply the equation by the least common multiple of the denominators of the rational coeﬃcients and we get an equation with integral coeﬃcients. so the representation is described in the deﬁnition above is also unique.

then p(x) √ x3 − 2. x2 + 2x + 2 is irreducible by E. x is a root. and let p(x) be irreducible in F [x]. in new words). we can create F [x]/ p(x) . But how do we divide things in it? That is. Remark 4. In Q(r). we know that r2 +2r+2 = 0 or r2 = −2r − 2.. We have a polynomial p(x) which is irreducible over F . we have a ﬁeld. y ∈ Q}. for example? We can use the divison algorithm to 35 .I. Now. √ For example. then 3 2 implies the existence of p(x) = x − 3 2. Then F [x]/ p(x) is a ﬁeld. it depends on the ﬁeld. mentioned in the theorem of Kronecker. With this information now.2 (Kronecker). So. Now. To check. But if F = = √ Q. If we require r to be the root of some irreducible polynomial. with nice properties. We can take all polynomials in F [x] and quotient it out with p(x). Declare r a root of x2 +2x+2. Now Q(r) = {x + yr : x.3 (Kronecker.8. Suppose r is algebraic over F which means r is the root of some polynomial over F . for example.. The ﬁrst property is that the ﬁeld. if p(x) has degree n.C. if F = Q and r = 3 2. that is. Another way to think of the previous example is to declare r to be a root of p(x). The polynomial p(x) has a root in F [x]/ p(x) . Let’s look at an example. Theorem 4. Theorem 4. Let F be a ﬁeld. For example. Let’s review some concepts. we write (6 + 2r)(−1 − 3r) = −6 − 20r − 6r2 = −6 − 20r − 6r2 = 6 − 8r because r2 = −2r − 2. then there’s only one polynomial to which r is a root of. just plug x in the polynomial. We call such polynomial. consider π as the root of some polynomial over Q. Now use the fact that p(r) = 0 to “multiply” things around — what would this mean? Going on. + cn−1 ran−1 with ci in F . and contains a subﬁeld isomorphic to F . this is a ﬁeld. We may write the representative of an equivalence class of polynomials as a polynomial with a bar on top.1. the minimum polynomial of r over F . So. then every element of F (r) is of the form c0 + c1 r + c2 r2 + . has F inside it: the constant polynomials. Now x is a root of p(x).Deﬁnition 4. what’s 1/a. Now take Q[x]/ p(x) and notice that since p(x) is congruent to zero by deﬁnition. (10/9)x + 2/3. we form a ﬁeld F (r) — read this as “F adjoin r”. Let F be a ﬁeld.

√ √ Now. because we absolutely √ √ = Q( 2. so Q(r) = {a + br + cr2 + dr3 + er4 } has degree 5. So.9. that is. and 6. 3). I owe an explanation here. in this document. we have a root. So. 36 . I should be able to ﬁnd one ﬁeld in which this does not work. So r and −r − 2 are conjugates in Q(r). 3) = {a + b 2 + c 3 + d 6}. We get x2 + 2x + 2 = (x − r)(x + 2 + r) + 0. A simple extension is an extension which includes only one element. then F (r) : F is an extension of degree n. which is irreducible over Q. in C you can deﬁne division in terms of multiplication by inverses. Now. The rule for multiplication here is r2 = −2r − 2. So I say that C is a very nice ﬁeld. Q. Now.4. we have to notice that Q( 2 + 3) have diﬀerent bases and diﬀerent degrees. and notice that it is a degree 4 extension of √ √ √ need 1. We do the long division between x − r and x2 + 2x + 2. The multiplication by conjugates doesn’t always work. 3. well-deﬁned? This alters perhaps what we splitting ﬁeld. and declare r as a root. take p(x) = x5 + 2x2 + 2x + 6. but they Doesn’t this sound not call. consider x2 + 2x + 2. right? This is my task now. a Theorem 4. Here. for example. Deﬁnition 4. but it seems to me that this works in C and not on every ﬁeld. because I don’t know one right now. b ∈ Q}. Q(r) = {a + br : a. This is just like the complex i such that i2 = −1.answer that. If r has minimum polynomial p(x) of degree n over F . but there are some mean ones. but I will say that I believe that not all the time we get something like i2 = −1 in a ﬁeld that will answer all of our questions. so we can factor it. What does this mean? Take √ √ √ √ √ Q( 2. 2. The degree of an extension F ⊆ E is the number of elements of E that we need to span E over F .

How do we do it? Find the roots of the polynomial. ..Consider now √3 −2 which is irreducible over Q. but others are still irreducible.(x − rn ). it turns out that R[x] mod x2 + 1 makes C a beautiful ﬁeld.6. so x = ± (3 ± 5)/2. and p(x) does not split in E[x] for any F ⊂ E ⊂ D. so what happens to C? C somehow is completely factorable. We then expand the ﬁeld to get √ √ √ it to be reducible. Suppose F ⊆ E ⊆ D are ﬁelds.. Find a splitting ﬁeld of x4 − 3x2 + 1. The polynomial “splits” if it factors into linear terms. Theorem 4. So x2 = (3 ± 5)/2. r2 . r2 ) = F (r1 )F (r2 ) = F (r2 )F (r1 ) et cetera. We get √ √ √ 3 3 x3 − 2 = (x − 2)(x2 + 2 + 4) + 0. Suppose F ⊆ E ⊆ D with degree E : F = m. and this is one of the frustrating thing: there is so many ways to write it and it’s not always easy to ﬁgure out whether we have the simplest. all roots of p(x) lie in the splitting ﬁeld. rn ) which are the roots of p(x).5. Let’s now see an example. degree D : E = n. Then D : F = mn. So Q( 3 2. Deﬁnition 4. So a division should happen with zero remainder. This is a miracle. So we extend the ﬁeld x by adjoining 3 2. Why? Because if it factors then p(x) = (x − r1 )(x − r2 ).. There exists is a unique splitting ﬁeld.10. 37 . We say D is a spliting ﬁeld for p(x) if p(x) splits in D[x].. Theorem 4. 3 2(−1/2 + i 3/2)). Now. (3 − √ 5)/2 is a splitting ﬁeld. We’re done. I wondered if these additions to the ﬁeld would make the ﬁeld completely factorable. F (r1 .. use the quadratic √ √ formula. Theorem 4. but it doesn’t. √ √ Now (x2 + 2 + 3 4) is irreducible. Let p(x) be irreducible over F .7. There may be a better way to write this ﬁeld. these additions make these polynomials factorable. By the way. Take F (r1 . Q (3 + √ 5)/2.

we must show that for all r in R(i). so 1 and i span R(i). Degree E : F = 2. 38 . a2 and b2 are non-negative. we’ve studied algebraic numbers and transcendental numbers. I don’t really follow this example. We have seen irreducible polynomials over a ﬁeld F . we can think of F [x]/ p(x) as a simple degree n extension F (r) where p(r) = 0 degree p(x) = n. we’ll be building a group of permutations of roots. so a = b = 0. then r = 0. √ Exercise 4. √ look at E √ Q( 2) and = √ D = E( 4 2). In this section. Degree Q(π) : Q = ∞.√ √ An example of this theorem is F = Q and E = Q( 2) = {a + b 2 √ : a. that is. Prove that 1. We’ve seen minimum polynomials. then r = a + ib = 0 a = −ib a2 = (−ib)2 = (−i)2 b2 = −b2 a2 + b2 = 0 But since a and b are real numbers. We have seen Kronecker’s theorem which claims the existence of a ﬁeld F [x]/ p(x) which is an extension ﬁeld of F where p(x). so if there’s anything wrong here I wouldn’t be able to tell. i = −1 form a linear basis for R(i). Solution. Show that g = 2 − 2i is algebraic relative to R by ﬁnding a polynomial having g as a zero. conjugates of ﬁeld elements. If a = b = 0. has a root. in particular. we will be looking at roots in which when we permute them around. To show linear independence. Every element of R(i) can be written as a + bi. and π is root of x2 − π 2 . √ where R is the real ﬁeld. Now. The minimum polynomial of 4 2 over Q( 2) is x2 − 2 so degree D : E = 2 and degree E : Q = 4. Now consider Q(π) : Q(π 2 ) which has degree 2. Now if r = 0. we will ﬁnd nice properties. On the next section. r = a · 1 + b · i = 0 if and only if a = b = 0. b ∈√Q}.1.

3. so by E. Exercise 4. Exercise 4. 3). 39 . π 2 as a basis. give a basis of Q(π) : Q. so we could try. Then we could try 1 and π as a basis. We factor p(x) into linear terms and see which elements we’re missing into some ﬁeld. so we could expand the basis again and so on. Construct a splitting ﬁeld for p(x) = x4 − 8x2 + 15 over Q. we write √ g 2 = 2 + 4i2 − 4i 2 √ g 2 − 2 + 4 = −4i 2 √ (g 2 + 2)2 = (−4i 2)2 = −32 (g 2 + 2)2 + 32 = 0 Exercise 4. but then we would have to account for π 3 as well. Solution. Solution. Suppose it is ﬁnite. Find minimal polynomial of α ∈ Q[x] and degree of Q(α) : Q. 1.4. so that we can build the smallest possible ﬁeld such that p(x) factors completely. but we need to account for π 2 . Let p = 3.C. it is irreducible. so it doesn’t look like this will ever terminate. √ (a) α = 3 − 6 √ a2 = 3 − 6 √ a2 − 3 = − 6 (a2 − 3)2 = 6 (a2 − 3)2 − 6 = 0 a4 − 6a2 + 3 = 0 Degree Q(α) : Q = 4. Is Q(π) a ﬁnite extension? If so.2.To show that g = √ 2 − 2i is algebraic relative to R. p(x) = (x2 − 5)(x2 − 3) √ √ √ √ = (x + 5)(x − 5)(x + 3)(x − 3) √ √ So p(x) splits into linear factors in Q( 5. π.I.

Let p = 2. √ (c) α = 2 + i √ α2 = 1 + 2i 2 √ α2 − 1 = 2i 2 α4 − 2α2 + 9 = 0 Degree Q(α) : Q = 4. √ √ (d) α = 2 + 5 √ α2 = 2 + 5 + 2 10 (α2 − 7)2 − 40 = 0 α4 − 14α2 + 9 = 0 √ √ Degree Q(α) : Q = 4. doesn’t seem to help here.C. Let A. it is irreducible.(b) α = 1 √ + 7 3 1 √ + 7 3 1 √ α2 − = 7 3 1 2 α2 − =7 3 α2 = 1 2 −7=0 3 2α2 62 α4 − − =0 3 9 9α4 − 6α2 − 62 = 0 α2 − Degree Q(α) : Q = 4. What would be another approach? The only thing I can think of is to compute the roots and show they won’t allow reducibility over Q. √ √ √ √ r2 = 2 − 5.I. third. r3 = − 2 + 5. C. The √ roots are r1 = 2 + 5. respectively. D be ﬁrst.C. so by E. r4 = − 2 − 5. Brute √ force again. BC has a complex one. AC has a complex one. So it factors over R as (x − r1 )(x − r2 )(x − r3 )(x − r4 ). Then AB has an irrational coeﬃcient. AD has a complex one. BD has a complex one and CD has a complex one. E.I. B. second. forth factors. 40 . The polynomial factors into √ √ √ √ (α + 2 + i)(α + 2 − i)(α − 2 + i)(α − 2 − i). brute force shows no factors over Q are possible.

3. Transcendental. Basis (1. 3. α2 = i2 α2 + 1 = 0. Basis (1. and we have 1 as a basis. AD. AC. 3 4. 3 2. BD and CD have an irrational coeﬃcient. (c) α = π 2 . 2. Let σ. so the ﬁelds here are the same. F = Q(π 3 ). 3)√ Q( 2 + 3). 2. By deﬁnition. 3 3 2. so degree is 1. BC. D be the factors in the other they appear above. For each α ∈ C and each given ﬁeld F . Transcendental.Let A. Exercise 4.7.5. σ −1 is the 41 . We have −π 2 as a root of p(α) = α − π 2 . degree 2. so π 2 is algebraic over Q(π) and the degree of Q(π 2 ) : Q(π) = 1. C. Exercise 4. (b) α = π. √ √ (a) Q( 2) : Q. √ √ √ √ √ √ (b) Q( 2. we also : √ √ have 6. 2).8. 6). (d) α = π 2 . ﬁnd the degree of F (α) : F . degree 4. If α is algebraic. and all of its conjugates which are − 3 − 2. F = Q(π). Basis (1. degree 6. √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ (c) Q( 3 2. Exercise 4. − 3 + 2. (a) α = i. √ 3 − 2. F = Q. So AB. Proof. classify α as either algebraic or transcendental over F . √ √ √ √ √ √ (d) Q( 2. Since σ is an automorphism. 3. Since 3 + 2 is in the ﬁeld. √ √ 2 + 3 over Q. Find degree and basis for the given ﬁeld extensions. 3) : Q. 18) : Q. B. 3 3 4). We look for an irreducible polynomial over Q which has α as a root. 3. So p(x) = x4 − 10a2 + 1 is irreducible√ over √ and√ roots Q its √ are α √ itself. and degree of Q(i) : Q = 2. Repeat Solution. F = Q. So factorization over Q is not possible.6. So i is algebraic over Q. it is one-to-one and onto and takes each f ∈ F to some f ∈ F for each f ∈ F . Exercise 4. Prove that σ −1 and (σ ◦ t) are also ﬁeld automorphisms. Find all conjugates for α = √ for α = 3 2. τ : F → F be two ﬁeld automorphisms.

Now σ ◦ τ . b = σ(v). b be in F . (σ ◦ τ )(a + b) = σ(τ (a + b)) = σ(τ (a) + τ (b)) = σ(τ (a)) + σ(τ (b)) = (σ ◦ τ )(a) + (σ ◦ τ )(b). for multiplication. they preserve the operations. 42 . for all f in F. then for each f in F . if we show that σ −1 is a homomorphism. Let a.one-to-one and onto function such that (σ ◦ σ −1 )(f ) = (σ −1 ◦ σ)(f ) = f for all f ∈ F . we do (σ ◦ τ )(ab) = σ(τ (ab)) = σ(τ (a)τ (b)) = σ(τ (a))σ(τ (b)) = (σ ◦ τ )(a)(σ ◦ τ )(b). then for each f in F . we would have shown that it is an isomorphism. Since σ is also an automorphism. v in F with a = σ(u). Since τ is an automorphism. Since σ is an automorphism. there’s τ (f ) in F such that σ(τ (f )) = f . there are u. let f be in F and then we must show that there’s an f in F such that (σ ◦ τ )(f ) = f . σ −1 (a + b) = σ −1 (σ(u) + σ(v)) = σ −1 (σ(u + v)) =u+v = σ −1 (a) + σ −1 (b). For addition. and hence. So for each f in F . Since σ and τ are ﬁeld automorphisms. So (σ ◦ τ ) is a homomorphism. Similarly for addition. So. there is an f in F such that τ (f ) = f . an automorphism. an automorphism. To show that it is onto. σ −1 (ab) = σ −1 (σ(u)σ(v)) = σ −1 (σ(uv)) = uv = σ −1 (a)σ −1 (b). there’s an f in F such that σ(τ (f )) = (σ ◦ τ )(f ) = f . So. So. and therefore. so it’s onto. Let a and b be in F .

Prove that G(C/R) is cyclic with 2 elements. then we would have shown that there are no more elements in the group. So σ is an isomorphism. where c and −d are real numbers. the rule is “map a + bi to a − bi” and notice that every r ∈ R is of the form “a + b · 0. If no such n exists. Let a + bi. s((a + bi)(c + di)) = s(ac − bd + (ad + bc)i) = ac − bd − (ad + bc)i = (a − bi)(c − di) = s(a + bi)s(c + di). we want to show that there is a c + di in C such that σ(c + di) = a + bi. There are such numbers. which is one-toone and onto.Exercise 4. e and σ. Let a + bi in C. c + di ∈ C. σ(r) = r. What is char(Q)? What is char(Z7 )? Suppose F has ﬁnite 43 . where the binary operation is composition. pick c = a and d = −b. We will try to ﬁnd a second one. so every r ∈ R is ﬁxed. Compute (σ ◦ σ)(a + bi) = σ(σ(a + bi)) = σ(a − bi) = a + bi = e(a + bi). Now we must show that σ 2 = (σ ◦ s) = e. Proof. One automorphism is the identity map. By deﬁnition. Let F be a ﬁeld. and if we can show that σ 2 = (σ ◦ s) = e. that is... Exercise 4. s((a + bi) + (c + di)) = s((a + c) + (b + d)i) = a + c − (b + d)i = a − bi + c − di = s(a + bi)s(c + di) So σ is a homomorphism.” so for a real number r. Deﬁne the characteristic of F to be the smallest n ≥ 1 such that 1 + 1 + . We want to show that σ is onto. hence that the group is cyclic. then it is a member of the group. the group is cyclic with two elements. Now.10. d = −b or −d = b. Let a + bi be in C. We know that σ(c + di) = c − di. if σ is an isomorphism. + 1 = 0 where we are adding 1 to itself n times. and is the identity of the group. So. the Galois group G(C/R) is the group of automorphisms of C that ﬁx every r ∈ R. Deﬁne a map σ that maps conjugates. we say F has characteristic zero. that is. Also.9. The task was to ﬁnd c and d such that c = a. hence.

Let F have ﬁnite characteristic n. Then it’s easy to believe that G(D/E) is a subgroup of G(D/F ) because we know that we would have a similar set with less automorphisms. 5 Galois theory Deﬁnition 5. The group G(E/F ) of automorphisms of E that ﬁx every f in 44 . n must be composite or prime. We show that we have closure under composition. and similarly for q. and char(Z7 ) = 7. Hint: ﬁelds have no zero divisors.1. and σ1 (σ2 (d)) is in D.characteristic n. where the index p means 1 added p times. Now. Since ﬁelds have no zero divisors.. So any d in D has an image σ2 (d) in D because σ2 is an automorphism of D. σ2 be in G(D/F). An automorphism σ of a ﬁeld F is an automorphism of F that preserves both ﬁeld operations... Deﬁnition 5. Proof. We have char(Q) = 0. + 1)q = 0. So anyway. Let σ1 . Then there is a prime p < n such that n = pq. Then (1 + 1 + . can you go on? Deﬁnition 5. for some natural q. Let E be the splitting ﬁeld of a polynomial f (x) in F [x]. Let G(D/F ) be the automorphisms of D that ﬁx every f in F . Theorem 5. it is moved by σ if σ(f ) = f . hence. An automorphism σ of a mathematical system S with an operation deﬁned on S is a one-to-one correspondence from S onto itself that is an isomorphism with respect to the operation. let E be an intermediate ﬁeld F ⊆ E ⊆ D.. we will ﬁrst prove that G(D/F ) is a group... n is prime. Now char(F ) = n. oh well.2. Proof. Let D be a ﬁnite extension of F . Prove that n must be prime. Then G(D/F ) is a group under composition and G(D/E) is a subgroup of G(D/F ).3. So the composition of two automorphisms produces an element in D. that is. Suppose n is composite. σ(f ) = f . Suppose that G(D/F ) is a group under composition. F isn’t a ﬁeld if n is composite. + 1)p × (1 + 1 + . Let G(D/E) be the automorphisms of D that ﬁx every e in E. An element f in F is ﬁxed by an automorphism σ if σ maps f to itself.1.

Notice the importance of this theorem. How do we know that σ(r) must 3 be a root? We know that p(r) = 0. then σ permutes any roots of p(x) which lie in E. we can write σ(p(r)) = σ(r5 + 2r3 + 2r + 1) 3 2σ(r3 ) = σ(r5 ) + + 2σ(r) + 1 3 2σ(r)3 = σ(r)5 + + 2σ(r) + 1 = 0 3 So σ(r) is a root. Consider the extension ﬁeld Q(r) : Q. So now apply σ to r. but in 1870. So. Then |G(F (r)/F )| ≤ n. Proof. The Galois group G(E/F ) is isomorphic to a group of permutations of the k zeros of p(x) in E. 45 . It’s true that |G(F (r)/F )| ≤ n. suppose that σ is in G(E/F ) and p(x) is in F [x]. Let F (r) : F = n. It links group theory to the permutations of the roots of an equation. Now. so there are at most n possible images of r under σ. since σ is an automorphism. so σ(p(r)) = σ(0) = 0 because 0 is in Q and so it is ﬁxed. We prove this with the argument above. The theory of groups.2. Theorem 5.F is the Galois group or group of the polynomial and the group of the equation f (x) = 0. Suppose r is algebraic over F with a minimal polymonial of degree n. there are at most n possible mappings available because there at most n roots for the minimal polynomial. hence to a subgroup of the symmetric group Sk . Let E be the splitting ﬁeld of an irreducible polynomial p(x) in F [x]. Let σ be in G(F (r)/F ). Since every σ is one-to-one and onto. as we see in the Abstract Algebra books today wasn’t very much developed by Galois or Abel. Let F be a ﬁeld. Any automorphism σ in G(F (r)/F ) is completely determined by σ(r). By deﬁnition.3 ( ). and since every u in F is already taken. Kronecker isolated the group properties in their own right. and let the minimum polynomial of r be p(x) = x5 + 2 x3 + 2x + 1. They studied particular groups formed by the permutations of the roots of an equation. Theorem 5. the group leaves every u in F ﬁxed.

Remark 5. E : F is normal if and only if every irreducible p(x) in F [x] with a root in E splits in E. Let r have minimal polynomial p(x) = a0 + a1 x + . We have to check that ﬁeld automorphism form a group under composition. I also have to check that if σ and τ both ﬁx f .4..4. which is not normal. Consider Q( 3 2) : Q. Then G(F (r)/F ) has at most n elements. A ﬁeld extension E ⊆ F is normal if and only if any irreducible p(x) in F [x] which has a root in E must factor completely in E. since “to split” means to factor all the way down into linear terms.Deﬁnition 5.. 46 . Suppose r is algebraic over F with minimal polynomial of degree n. and this is a problem for us. but doesn’t factor completely. Suppose E ⊂ F is a ﬁeld extension. Then the only element will be the identity. then σ ﬁxes polynomials in F [x]. thus σ permutes roots of polynomials in F [x]. Proposition 5. Proof. Or equivalently. Deﬁnition 5. + an xn . Suppose a cubic root is a a root of some polynomial with only one real solution. Let’s review some stuﬀ.5. {a ∈ E : σ(a) = a for all σ ∈ G(E/F )} = F . This is the same as saying that E is the splitting ﬁeld of some polynomial. Let σ be in G(E/F ). Normal extensions will correspond to normal subgroups. We want a bigger ﬁeld with a Galois group. A ﬁeld F is called a ﬁeld of characteristic zero if F contains a subﬁeld isomorphic to the ﬁeld Q of rational numbers. Suppose the complex roots do not belong in the ﬁeld. it isn’t because x3 − 2 has a root. then so do σ −1 and σ ◦ τ . √ Here’s an example of a non-normal extension. Galois group elements take roots to roots.1. but the roots must belong in the ﬁeld. The Galois group G(E/F ) = {σ : E → E such that σ is a ﬁeld automorphism and σ(r) = r for every r in F }.

The polynomial factors as √ √ √ √ √ √ 4 4 4 4 (x2 + 2)(x2 − 2) = (x + 2i)(x − 2i)(x + 2)(x + 2) 47 . Since there are at most n roots for p(x). Deﬁnition 5. compare Q( 2.... in this document. Then E = F (r1 .. Let r1 . + an (u(r))n = a0 + a1 u(r) + . our deﬁnition of splitting ﬁeld is the smallest possible for a minimal polynomial. 3) : Q with Q( 2.. A word on degrees. Suppose E is a splitting ﬁeld of a polynomial of degree k in F [x]. we notice that every element of G(F (r)/F ) corresponds. 3) : Q( 2). + an (u(r)n ) = u(a0 ) + u(a1 r) + . ..... we must show that (1) σ is completely determined by σ(r1 ). . rk ). in a one-to-one and onto fashion — because they’re automorphisms —. We ﬁrst look for the roots of x4 − 2. with a root of p(x).. .. So u(r) is also a root.6. rk )/F )... r2 . σ(rk ).. Let σ be in G(F (r1 . + an rn ) = u(p(r)) = u(0) =0 The last two equations hold because p(r) = 0 and u(0) = 0 because u is an automorphism. There seems to be other equivalent deﬁnitions.1. ... So p(u(r)) = a0 + a1 u(r) + . By the way.. (2) σ(ri ) must be rj for some j. notice that (1) and (2) tell us that the Galois group is isomorphic to some subgroup of Sk . Then G(E/F ) is a subgroup of Sk .5. p(x) splits. Galois group of p(x) in F [x] is G(E/F ) for E a splitting ﬁeld of p(x). Now. + u(an rn ) = u(a0 ) + a1 r + . Exercise 5. We know that over E.. rk be roots of p(x) over E. Let u be in G(F (r)/F ). Solution. so it maps 0 to 0. The degree of E:F depends on both E and F . r2 . Proposition 5. Find the Galois group of x4 − 2 over Q.So p(r) = 0. To conclude. Proof. √ √ √ √ √ Sure... To ﬁnish the proof. there are at most n automorphisms in G(F (r)/F ).

What about f (i)? It goes to i or −i. but notice that we only need r and i. the elements r and ri. the symmetries of a square. (2) The 48 . ri. So roots are r. (3) ﬁxed ﬁeld of G(E/F ) is F . −r. We need more theory to show how this could work. we do σ ◦ τ . What do we need now? Let f be in G(Q(r. What’s the splitting ﬁeld? Well. We can describe it by τ ◦ σ = σ 3 ◦ τ . What are the possibilities for f (r)? All the roots of x4 − 2. This group has at most 8 elements. So we have 4 possibilities for r. we need to know f (r) and f (i). but they are all technically possible so for.7 (Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory). (2) any irreducible polynomial p(x) in F [x] with a root in E must split in E. −ri. It is not necessary that all of these possibilities will work. Then (1) G(D/E) ≤ G(E/F ).√ Let r = 4 2. then (1) E ←→ G(D/E) gives a one-to-one correspondence between intermediate ﬁelds E and subgroups of G(D/F ). and 2 for i. automorphism 1 σ σ2 σ3 τ σ◦τ σ2 ◦ τ σ3 ◦ τ domain r ir −r −ir r ir −r −ir range i i i i −i −i −i −i Do you recognize this table? This group is isomorphic to D8 . i)/Q). To determine f . in the basis. So σ 4 is the identity. Suppose the characteristic of F = 0. and F ⊂ D is a normal extension. Theorem 5. Recall that E/F is a normal extension if any of the following 3 equivalent conditions hold: (1) E is a splitting ﬁeld of some polynomial in F [x]. notice that σ 2 (r) = σ(σ(r)) = −r. so 4 × 2 = 8. That’s σ(−r) = −ir. Let F ⊆ E ⊆ D. the dihedral group with 8 elements. Then F ⊆ DH ⊆ D. throw. Let’s list them. Let DH = {d ∈ D : σ(d) = d for all σ ∈ H}. Suppose F ⊂ E ⊂ D. We introduce τ . Now. (2) Suppose H ≤ G(D/F ).6. As we read the table. Theorem 5.

5). 3. The subﬁelds of √ “second level” √ the ﬁeld √ √ of √ diagram √ √ √ the √ √ would be Q( 2. 5). Now. Q( 5). and it is completely determined by is √ √ √ √ √ σ : 5 → − 5. 5). the automorphisms are automorphisms 1 σ τ σ◦τ γ γ◦σ γ◦τ γ◦σ◦τ √ √2 √2 √2 √2 2 √ −√2 −√2 −√2 − 2 √ √3 √3 3 √ −√3 − 3 √ √3 3 √ −√3 − 3 √ √5 5 √ − 5 √ 5 √ − 5 √ 5 √ − 5 √ 5 √ − 5 So the galois group √ determined. Exercise 5. (4) E is normal over F if and only if G(E/F ) G(D/F ). 10).degree [D : E] = |G(D/E)|. let σ be √ √ arbitrary in G(Q( 2.2. Q( 2. So. σ must take 5 to 5 or − 5. Q( 3. Q( 2. Q( 3. 10). √ the “third level” we would get Q( 2). √ √ − 3. Q( 10). we get a total of 16 in the diagram.3. √ √ Q(√6. the splitting ﬁeld must also split r’s minimal polynomial which is r2 − 2 = 0. So. Q( 6). √ √ √ Solution. and the same for 5. Then. What if I wanted to know the ﬁxed ﬁeld of this Galois group? I would have to look at every automorphism and see which elements of the 49 . 5)/Q). Solution. Q( 30). Q( 6. In √ √ √ √ Q( 3). Determine the Galois group of (x2 − 2)(x2 − 3)(x2 − 5). 3. We now solve a series of exercises which will help us to understand the claims of the Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory. τ : 3 → − 3 and γ : 2 → − 2. including the trivial ones. The polynomial√ splits in Q( 2. 15). The√ same goes for √ σ must take √ 3 to 3 or 3. √ √ 3).√5). Q( 15). Now determine all subﬁelds of the splitting ﬁeld found in the previous exercise. and so √ must take σ √ √ √ √ √ 2 to 2 or − 2. (3) F ⊆ E1 E2 ⊆ D if and only if {e} ≤ G(D/E2 ) G(D/E1 ) ≤ G(D/F ). over Q. Exercise 5.

0. √ √ √ √ √ √ √ σ ◦ τ (a + b 2 + c 3 + d 5 + e 6 + f 10 + g 15 + h 30) = √ √ √ √ √ √ √ a + b 2 − c 3 − d 5 − e 6 − f 10 + g 15 + h 30. we can consider (0. the four automorphisms of G(D/F ). So I collect these elements and throw them in Q to get the ﬁxed ﬁeld. √ √ √ If now I wanted to know each corresponding subgroup of G(Q( 2. √ √ √ √ √ √ √ γ(a + b 2 + c 3 + d 5 + e 6 + f 10 + g 15 + h 30) = √ √ √ √ √ √ √ a − b 2 + c 3 + d 5 − e 6 − f 10 + g 15 − h 30.0.1) √ √ to σ because σ moves only 5.0. We then work with Z2 × Z2 × Z2 under addition. 1. D = Q( 2. 0) with τ . so we consider 5 as the 1 in the third component of the 3-tuple. and (1. Let F = Q. by Theorem 8-2. where r = 2 + f i. i). E1 = Q( 2). so it looks like that the only ﬁeld that is ﬁxed by every automorphism is Q itself. We assign (0. but isn’t D = Q( 2.0. Find the four conjugates of r = r1 . and (0. The others would be found similarly. then one way would be to work with Z2 × Z2 × Z2 . hence. we assign (0. 0 .0) with γ. √ They say D = F (r). f = 0 is in Q. Find σ(r) for each automorphism σ ∈ G(D/E1 ) and τ (r) for each τ ∈ G(D/E2 ).basis never get moved.4 (8-3). √ √ √ √ √ √ √ τ (a + b 2 + c 3 + d 5 + e 6 + f 10 + g 15 + h 30) = √ √ √ √ √ √ √ a + b 2 − c 3 + d 5 − e 6 + f 10 − g 15 − h 30). i)? So are they saying that D can be written as F (r) where r is the root of some polynomial that √ when adjoined will give us 2 and i? I think so.0) with the identity map. √ √ √ √ √ √ √ γ ◦ σ ◦ τ (a + b 2 + c 3 + d 5 + e 6 + f 10 + g 15 + h 30) = √ √ √ √ √ √ √ a − b 2 − c 3 − d 5 + e 6 + f 10 + g 15 − h 30. √ √ √ √ √ √ √ γ ◦ σ(a + b 2 + c 3 + d 5 + e 6 + f 10 + g 15 + h 30) = √ √ √ √ √ √ √ a − b 2 + c 3 − d 5 − e 6 + f 10 − g 15 + h 30.1) and notice that it would √ correspond to Q( (2).0). (3)) because it moves only 5. When we look at each of automorphism. E2 = √ Q(i). 3. √ √ Exercise 5. Then F has characteristic 0 and D = F (r). (0. we see that √ √ √ √ √ √ √ σ(a + b 2 + c 3 + d 5 + e 6 + f 10 + g 15 + h 30) = √ √ √ √ √ √ √ a + b 2 + c 3 − d 5 + e 6 − f 10 − g 15 − h 30). 5)/Q). Similarly. To get each subgroup now. 50 .

even though I may have gotten the automorphisms correctly here. I guess the fundamental theorem of algebra implies that we will have 4 distinct roots. √ √ √ phism moves 2 only. Since one root is complex. r3 = − 2 − √ f i. Since E1 I = Q( 2). automorphism 1 σ τ γ √ √2 2 √ − 2 √ 2 √ − 2 i i i −i −i 51 . So all of the automorphisms here are automorphism 1 σ i i −i Similarly for τ (r) ∈ G(D/E1√ Since E2 = Q(i). by the theorem above. so s(r) = i or s(r) = −i. so σ( 2) = 2 or s(r) = − 2. I guess it must be all permutations of the elements that get moved in G(D/E1 ) and G(D/E2 ). then each automorphism moves only i. Its minimal polynomial √ r2 = 2 − f 2 + 2f i 2 √ r2 − 2 + f 2 = 2f i 2 (r2 − 2 + f 2 )2 = −8f 2 (r2 − 2 + f 2 )2 + 8f 2 = 0 This polynomial has degree 4 and therefore will have at most 4 roots. with f = 0. Now I must ﬁnd. So all of the automorphisms here are automorphism 1 τ √ √2 2 √ − 2 √ √ √ The four conjugates of r1 = 2 + f i are r2 = − 2 + f i. I’m failing to see a clear way to use the theorem. Now √must ﬁnd σ(r) for each automorphism in G(D/E1 ). The exercise suggests that by the theorem. f ∈ Q. √ Any automorphism of G(D/Q) ﬁxes Q and moves 2 and i. then each automor). r4 = 2 − f i. we are able to get all the automorphisms.Such root is r = is √ 2 + f i. the 4 automorphisms of G(D/Q).

τ }. √ Which subgroup would correspond to Q( 2)? It would be the subgroup that is linked to the maps that do not move √ Q( 2). Solution. Every automorphism squares to the identity. The claim iii of the Fundamental Theorem of √ √ Q(i) ⊂ Q( 2) ⊆ Galois Theory seems to say that we have Q( 2. so it’s {1. Exercise 5. σ}. Verify that the claim ii of the Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory holds for the example we’ve been working with. i). Here’s a question. As proper subgroups of G(D/F ). one that takes 2 to − 2 and the identity. then we’ve found the subﬁeld correspondent to the subgroup. that √ √ [Q( 2. Is this a case in which we don’t satisfy the hypothesis of the claim iii? Or is my interpretation wrong? The exercise also says “ﬁnd the subﬁeld corresponding to each subgroup. The Theorem also claims that √ √ √ √ [Q( 2. we have {1.6 (8-5). b ∈ Q(i). it would be the subgroup that is linked to the maps that do not move Q(i). Also. {1.5 (8-4). i)/Q(i))| which is true because the degree of the extension is 2 since the basis √ is a + b 2 for a.i). which are isomorphic to subgroups of the Klein-4. Notice that G(D/F ) is isomorphic to the Klein-4 group. so it should be isomorphic to the Klein-4 which is isomorphic to the ﬂips of a square. The claim says.” Isn’t this the same task above? Once we ﬁnd the subgroup correspondent to the subﬁeld. hence isomorphic to a subgroup of the symmetric group S4 . ﬁnd the subﬁeld corresponding to each subgroup. i)/Q). Find the unique subgroup of G(D/F ) that corresponds to each intermediate ﬁeld E1 √ = Q( 2) and E2 = Q(i). i) : Q(i)] = |G(Q( 2. i)/Q( 2)) ⊆ √ √ G(Q( 2. The exercise is asking for the subgroups that correspond to the ﬁelds E1 and E2 . it’s not even a subset.The theorem says that this Galois group. Still with F = Q and D = Q( 2. Solution. √ Exercise 5. Q(i) is not an of Q( 2). τ }. so it’s {1. For Q(i). and for the Galois group we have only two √ √ possible automorphisms. σ}. i) : Q( 2)] = |G(Q( 2. i)/Q(i)) ⊂ G(Q( 2. γ}. {1. for this example in particular. in particular. is isomorphic √ to a group of permutations of 4 zeros of p(x) in Q( 2. i) ⊆√ √ √ Q if and only if {1} ⊆ G(Q( 2. i)/Q( 2))| 52 .

i)/Q( 2))]. The degree extension is 2. Here. Let E =√ Q(i). and G(Q( 2. σ. so [G : H] = 2 √ matching the degree extension of Q( 2) over Q. so [G : H] = 2 as well and it matches the degree extension Q(i) : Q. they are the identity and another one that takes i to −i. So. I think that this is a link between a degree extension and the number of left cosets of a subgroup in its group. my observations here do not satisfy claim iii. we have that 4 = 2 [G : H]. Then G(D/E) has two automorphisms {1. √ Exercise 5. We also know that G(D/F ) has 4 automorphisms: {1. evidently. So. That is. where √ τ takes 2 to − 2. σ}. b ∈ Q( 2). γ} as deﬁned in Exercise 5. for a. 53 . the theorem claims that √ √ √ √ [Q( 2) : Q] = [G(Q( 2. i)/Q) = G has 4 automorphisms. i)/Q) : G(Q( 2. γ} as deﬁned in Exercise 5. because σ is in G(D/E2 ). i)/Q)| = 4. by Lagrange’s theorem. τ is in G(D/E1 ). Is G(D/E2 ) ⊂ G(D/E1 )? No.which is almost the √ same case as above. i).4. so {1} is a proper subset of G(D/E). Also. i)/Q( 2))| = 2.4. but not in G(D/E1 ). but not in G(D/E2 ). Then G(D/E) has two automorphisms {1. √ |G| = |G(Q( 2. The degree √ extension is 2. σ. i)/Q(i)) = H has 2. Now. √ G(Q( 2. Also. Also. G(D/E) is a proper subset of G(D/F ). G(D/E) is a proper subset of G(D/F ). where σ takes i to −i. τ }. 4 = 2 [G : H]. Let E = Q( 2). Show that {1} is a proper subset √ G(D/E) which is a proper subset of of G(D/F ) for E = E1 = Q( 2) and for E = E2 = Q(i) but that G(D/E2 ) G(D/E1 ). τ . The degree of the extension is 2 and there are only two possible automorphisms in the Galois group. Still with F = Q and D = Q( 2. i)/Q) : G(Q( 2. by Lagrange’s theorem. Why are the inclusions reversed in order in the second clause of the third claim of the Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory? √ Solution. √ √ |H| = |G(Q( 2. the theorem claims that √ √ [Q(i) : Q] = [G(Q( 2. i)/Q(i))]. so {1} is a proper subset of G(D/E).7 (8-6). τ . We also know that G(D/F ) has 4 automorphisms: {1. we have the basis as a + bi. So again. evidently.

τ : σ 4 = τ 2 = e. by some theorem we’ve seen in the past. But the index is 2. Now. f = 7. Still working the same D. let H be the subgroup {1. E1 . i) where ζ = 4 2. Repeating for E2 . No idea.8 (9-3). If w is any zero of xn − f in E. we’ve calculated before that the Galois group was isomorphic to the dihedral group with eight elements: D8 = σ. Repeat for E2 . Exercise 5.10. and E2 ﬁelds. √ Solution. Exercise 5.Why are the inclusions reversed? They are reversed because the less elements the Galois group has to permute.9. Recall that we determined that the splitting ﬁeld of √ x4 − 2 over was Q(ζ. the Galois group decreases in order. G(D/E1 ) is {1. Show by explicit calculation that the ﬁxed ﬁeld Q(ζ. show that G(D/E1 ) is normal in G(D/F ) and that G(E1 /F ) is isomorphic to G(D/F )/G(D/E1 ). τ ◦ σ = σ 3 ◦ τ . and {σ. then E = E0 (w) and G(E/E0 ) is cyclic. Show that G(E/E0 ) has order 2. it’s normal. Also. The splitting ﬁeld for x2 − 7 over Q is Q( 7) since x2 − 7 √ √ √ = (x − 7)(x + 7). Find the splitting ﬁeld for x2 − 7 over Q. Let f ∈ E0 and let E be a splitting ﬁeld for xn − f over E0 . we need to ﬁnd a one-to-one and onto map that preserves the operations between them.8 (8-7). let E0 = Q. We can show that the left cosets match the right cosets. In Theorem 9-3. Let E0 be a ﬁeld of characteristic zero containing all the nth roots of unity. So. so. σ 3 ◦ τ }. So if the ﬁeld increases in elements to be ﬁxed. 54 . in We must show that G(Q( 7)/Q) is cyclic. the smaller it gets. Solution. since we’re working with a particular case. n = 2. F .√ the theorem. and E0 = Q. So the left cosets are H. and identity goes with identity. Theorem 5. Solution. To show that G(E1 /F ) is isomorphic to G(D/F )/G(D/E1 ). so the other map goes with the other map. we know that G(D/E2 ) is normal because the index is 2. Exercise 5. σ ◦ τ = γ}. i)H is equal to Q((1 − i)ζ). it’s isomorphic to G(D/F )/G(D/E2 ) for the same reason described above. That’s easy here because we have only two automorphisms in G(E1 /F ). τ } = H. E = Q( 7).

We can’t let r = 1. n = 2. We let w = 7. It’s true that x2 − 4 = (x − 2)(x + 2) which evidently splits in Q. 2 2 2 2 They form a cyclic group under multiplication. f = 7. let E0 = Q.11. The degree of the extension is 1. Since it’s cyclic of order 2. We’re interested in x3 − 7. Show that x2 − f in this case splits in E0 so that G(E/E0 ) has only the identity automorphism. So. 2 2 2 2 55 . √ The identity itself does. let E0 = Q(r) where r is a primitive third root of unity. So now we must show that G(Q(w)/Q) has order 2. Q( 7) is a normal extension of Q because (1) Q is the ﬁxed ﬁeld √ of G(Q(w)/Q) or instead we could justify by saying that (2) Q( 7) is the splitting ﬁeld over Q for x2 − 7 over Q. Factor x3 − f into linear factors in its splitting ﬁeld over E0 . Its roots are √ √ √ √ √ √ √ −37 3 3 7i − 3 7 3 3 7i 3 7. The roots of unity for n = 3 are √ √ 3i −1 3i −1 + . + . Solution. Exercise 5. Let’s let √ 3i −1 r= + . so we have only one element: the identity. Exercise 5. there’s really “nothing” to permute because the roots of the polynomial were already in Q anyway. In Theorem 9-3. f = 4.√ √ Here. + . 2 2 So x3 − 1 splits over E0 . Show that the Galois group G(E/E0 ) is cyclic of order 3.12. the w of the theorem is either 7 or − 7. Solution. The only non-trivial element √ is σ that takes 7 to − 7 and squares to the identity as well because √ √ √ (σ ◦ σ) takes 7 to − 7 and then back to 7. in the Galois group of Q over Q. otherwise it wouldn’t generate the group. √ Here. Let n = 3. In Theorem 9-3. though. we must show that every element squares to the identity. − . 1. so the theorem √ √ says that we can adjoin √ 7 or − 7 and get a cyclic Galois group G(Q(w)/Q).

we need G0 /G1 abelian. 3 7). Prove that A5 is not abelian. the identity of the cyclic group of roots of unity. . so σ 2 ( 3 7) = σ(σ( 3 7) = σ(r 3 7) = r2 3 7 because σ is. because we can express the roots as r 3 7. Take a look at the Fundamental Theorem.. t − 1.13. Why doesn’t the chain S5 1 provide a solvability chain for S5 ? Solution. r3 3 7 — noticing that r3 = 1.. Gt = 1 to have the property that Gi /Gi+1 is abelian for i = 0. but here we will ﬁnd 6 elements and this can be seen by using the degree of the extension ﬁeld and therefore it will have to be isomorphic to S3 itself. and S5 isn’t abelian. That shows that we have only 3 elements and that they’re cyclic √ with r 3 7 as generator. but G0 /G1 = S5 / 1 = S5 . which is nonabelian. √ √ r2 3 7. and that there is a theorem that claims that the Galois group would be isomorphic to some subgroup of Sn .. (1432) are even permutations. The Galois√ group ﬁxes Q(r).. So the factorization can be written as √ √ √ 3 3 3 (x − r 7)(x − r2 7)(x − r3 7). Exercise 5. 56 . multiplying its argument by r.√ √ So. 1. σ 3 = r3 3 7 = √ 3 7. and roots must be taken to roots. Show that the Galois group for x3 − 7 over Q is isomorphic to S3 and therefore nonabelian. Exercise 5. Let √ √ √ √ √ 3 3 σ( 7) = r 7. we really just need 3 7. The deﬁnition of solvability requires a chain of subgroups G = G0 G1 . For the chain S5 1 satisfy the deﬁnition.. A5 is not abelian because (1324)(1432) = (234) = (123) = (1432)(1324) and (1324).14. Finally. We now consider G(E/E0 ) and show that it’s cyclic of order 3. Solution. Notice how many elements the group has. √ by deﬁnition. √ √ So we adjoin 3 7 to get E = Q(r.

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