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Mohamed Gamil

PMreferstoarangeofmanufacturingandmetal formingpracticesthatareusedtoproducenetor nearnetshapepartsfrommixturesofmetaland alloypowders

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3000B.C.Egyptiansmadetoolswithpowder metallurgy 1900stungstenfilamentforlightbulb 1930scarbidetoolmaterials 1960sautomobileparts 1980saircraftengineturbineparts

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Abilitytocreatecomplexshapes Highstrengthproperties Lowmaterialwaste Goodmicrostructurecontrol

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TABLE 17.1 Application Abrasives Aerospace Automotive Electrical/electronic Heat treating Joining Lubrication Magnetic Manufacturing Medical/dental Metallurgical Nuclear Office equipment Source: R. M. German.

Metals Fe, Sn, Zn Al, Be, Nb Cu, Fe, W Ag, Au, Mo Mo, Pt, W Cu, Fe, Sn Cu, Fe, Zn Co, Fe, Ni Cu, Mn, W Ag, Au, W Al, Ce, Si Be, Ni, W Al, Fe, Ti

Uses Cleaning, abrasive wheels Jet engines, heat shields Valve inserts, bushings, gears Contacts, diode heat sinks Furnace elements, thermocouples Solders, electrodes Greases, abradable seals Relays, magnets Dies, tools, bearings Implants, amalgams Metal recovery, alloying Shielding, filters, reflectors Electrostatic copiers, cams

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Powder Metallurgy
Afabricationtechniqueinvolvesthecompactionofpowdered
metal,followedbyaheattreatmenttoproduceamoredense piece.

Powdermetallurgyisespeciallysuitableformetals havinglowductilities havinghighmeltingtemperatures


Production of P/M Parts: Preparation of Metal Powders Compaction (pressing) Sintering (densification) at elevated temp.

pressure

heat

area contact
densify point contact at low T densification by diffusion at higher T

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(a)

(c)

(b)

Figure 17.1 (a) Examples of typical parts made by powder-metallurgy processes. (b) Upper trip lever for a commercial irrigation sprinkler, made by P/M. This part is made of unleaded brass alloy; it replaces a die-cast part, with a 60% savings. (c) Main-bearing powder metal caps for 3.8 and 3.1 liter General Motors automotive engines..
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Outline of processes and operations involved in making powder-metallurgy parts.


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Figure 17.3 Particle shapes in metal powders, and the processes by which they are produced. Iron powders are produced by many of these processes.

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(a)

(b)

Scanning-electron-microscopy photograph of iron-powder particles made by atomization. (b) Nickel-based superalloy (Udimet 700) powder particles made by the rotating electrode process; see Fig. 17.5b. Source: Courtesy of P. G. Nash, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.
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Methods of metalpowder production by atomization; (a) melt atomization; (b) atomization with a rotating consumable electrode.

Methods of mechanical comminution, to obtain fine particles: (a) roll crushing, (b) ball mill, and (c) hammer milling.

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Some common equipment geometries for mixing or blending powders: (a) cylindrical, (b) rotating cube, (c) double cone, and (d) twin shell. Source: Reprinted with permission from R. M. German, Powder Metallurgy Science. Princeton, NJ; Metal Powder Industries Federation, 1984.

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(a) Compaction of metal powder to form a bushing. The pressed powder part is called green compact. (b) Typical tool and die set for compacting a spur gear. Source: Metal Powder Industries Federation.

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TABLE 17.2 Metal Aluminum Brass Bronze Iron Tantalum Tungsten Other materials Aluminum oxide Carbon Cemented carbides Ferrites Pressure (MPa) 70275 400700 200275 350800 70140 70140 110140 140165 140400 110165
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Pressing is done under high pressure A 7.3 MN (825 ton) mechanical press for compacting metal powder.

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Figure 17.12 Schematic diagram of cold isostatic pressing, as applied to forming a tube. The powder is enclosed in a flexible container around a solid core rod. Pressure is applied isostatically to the assembly inside a high-pressure chamber. Source: Reprinted with permission from R.M. German, Powder Metallurgy Science. Princeton, NJ; Metal Powder Industries Federation, 1984.

Figure 17.14 Schematic illustration of hot isostatic pressing. The pressure and temperature variation vs. time are shown in the diagram. Source: Preprinted with permission from R.M. German, Powder Metallurgy Science. Princeton, NJ; Metal Powder Industries Federation, 1984.

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Figure 17.15 An example of powder rolling. Source: Metals Handbook (9th ed.), Vol. 7. American Society for Metals.

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Figure 17.9 (a) Density of copper- and iron-powder compacts as a function of compacting pressure. Density greatly influences the mechanical and physical properties of P/M parts. Source: F. V. Lenel, Powder Metallurgy: Principles and Applications. Princeton, NJ; Metal Powder Industries Federation, 1980. (b) Effects of density on tensile strength, elongation, and electrical conductivity of copper powder. IACS means International Annealed Copper Standard for electrical conductivity.

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Figure 17.16 Schematic illustration of two mechanisms for sintering metal powders: (a) solid-state material transport; (b) liquid-phase material transport. R = particle radius, r = neck radius, and = neck profile radius.

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Examples of P/M parts, showing Best design Practice. Note that sharp radii and reentry corners should be avoided. Threads and transverse holes have to be produced separately by additional machining operations.

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TABLE 17.5 Yield Ultimate Density strength strength Process(*) (%) (MPa) (MPa) Cast 100 840 930 Cast and forged 100 875 965 Blended elemental (P+S) 98 786 875 Blended elemental (HIP) > 99 805 875 Prealloyed (HIP) 100 880 975 (*) P+S = pressed and sintered, HIP = hot isostatically pressed. Source: R.M. German. Elongation (%) 7 14 40 8 9 14 Reduction of area (%) 15 14 17 26

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Usesasinteringatmosphereandasinteringfurnace Theatmospheretransfersheattothecompacted powder,adjustsimpuritylevelsandremove lubricants. Atmospherecanbepurehydrogen,nitrogenor ammonia.

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TABLE 17.3 M aterial Copper, brass, and bronze Iron and iron-graphite Nickel Stainless steels Alnico alloys (for permanent magnets) Ferrites Tungsten carbide M olybdenum Tungsten Tantalum Temperature ( C) 760900 10001150 10001150 11001290 12001300 12001500 14301500 2050 2350 2400 Time (M in) 1045 845 3045 3060 120150 10600 2030 120 480 480

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T A B L E 17.6 W eight (kg) P art F-14 F-18 F-18 F-14 F orged billet 2.8 7.7 79.4 143 P /M 1.1 2.5 25.0 82 F inal part 0.8 0.5 12.9 24.2 Potential cost saving (% ) 50 20 25 50

Fuselage brace E ngine m ount support A rrestor hook support fitting N acelle fram e

Mohamed Gamil

Mohamed Gamil