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Mohamed Gamil

» PM refers to a range of manufacturing and metal  forming practices that are used to produce net or  near‐net shape parts from mixtures of metal and  alloy powders 

Mohamed Gamil

C.» 3000 B. Egyptians made tools with powder  metallurgy » 1900’s tungsten filament for light bulb » 1930’s carbide tool materials » 1960’s automobile parts » 1980’s aircraft engine turbine parts Mohamed Gamil .

» » » » Ability to create complex shapes High strength properties Low material waste Good microstructure control Mohamed Gamil .

Ce. magnets Dies. Si Be. Zn Al. Pt. Be. Sn Cu. Nb Cu. Fe. Au. abrasive wheels Jet engines.1 Application Abrasives Aerospace Automotive Electrical/electronic Heat treating Joining Lubrication Magnetic Manufacturing Medical/dental Metallurgical Nuclear Office equipment Source: R. Mn. alloying Shielding. gears Contacts. W Ag. Fe. Ni Cu. Zn Co. Fe. heat shields Valve inserts. Au. W Cu. reflectors Electrostatic copiers. M. tools. filters. Sn. W Al. abradable seals Relays. diode heat sinks Furnace elements. Ni.TABLE 17. Ti Uses Cleaning. Fe. Fe. cams Mohamed Gamil . German. bearings Implants. amalgams Metal recovery. thermocouples Solders. electrodes Greases. W Ag. Mo Mo. W Al. Metals Fe. bushings.

pressure heat area contact densify point contact at low T densification by diffusion at higher T Mohamed Gamil . followed by a heat treatment to produce a more dense  piece. » Powder metallurgy is especially suitable for metals  ˃ having low ductilities ˃ having high melting temperatures Production of P/M Parts:  Preparation of Metal Powders  Compaction (pressing)  Sintering (densification) at elevated temp.Powder Metallurgy » A fabrication technique involves the compaction of powdered  metal.

made by P/M. (b) Upper trip lever for a commercial irrigation sprinkler. Mohamed Gamil . This part is made of unleaded brass alloy.8 and 3.1 liter General Motors automotive engines.(a) (c) (b) Figure 17. (c) Main-bearing powder metal caps for 3. it replaces a die-cast part. with a 60% savings..1 (a) Examples of typical parts made by powder-metallurgy processes.

Mohamed Gamil .Outline of processes and operations involved in making powder-metallurgy parts.

Mohamed Gamil .

and the processes by which they are produced. Mohamed Gamil . Iron powders are produced by many of these processes.3 Particle shapes in metal powders.Figure 17.

Source: Courtesy of P.(a) (b) Scanning-electron-microscopy photograph of iron-powder particles made by atomization. Mohamed Gamil . see Fig.5b. 17. Illinois Institute of Technology. Chicago. Nash. G. (b) Nickel-based superalloy (Udimet 700) powder particles made by the rotating electrode process.

Methods of metalpowder production by atomization. (b) ball mill. (a) melt atomization. Mohamed Gamil . (b) atomization with a rotating consumable electrode. Methods of mechanical comminution. to obtain fine particles: (a) roll crushing. and (c) hammer milling.

and (d) twin shell. German. Source: Reprinted with permission from R. (c) double cone. 1984.Some common equipment geometries for mixing or blending powders: (a) cylindrical. Princeton. NJ. Powder Metallurgy Science. Metal Powder Industries Federation. (b) rotating cube. Mohamed Gamil . M.

Mohamed Gamil .

Source: Metal Powder Industries Federation. Mohamed Gamil . (b) Typical tool and die set for compacting a spur gear.(a) Compaction of metal powder to form a bushing. The pressed powder part is called green compact.

2 Metal Aluminum Brass Bronze Iron Tantalum Tungsten Other materials Aluminum oxide Carbon Cemented carbides Ferrites Pressure (MPa) 70–275 400–700 200–275 350–800 70–140 70–140 110–140 140–165 140–400 110–165 Mohamed Gamil .TABLE 17.

Pressing is done under high pressure A 7.3 MN (825 ton) mechanical press for compacting metal powder. Mohamed Gamil .

Mohamed Gamil . The powder is enclosed in a flexible container around a solid core rod. time are shown in the diagram. The pressure and temperature variation vs. as applied to forming a tube. NJ. NJ. Powder Metallurgy Science. 1984.M.Figure 17. Powder Metallurgy Science. 1984. Source: Reprinted with permission from R. Pressure is applied isostatically to the assembly inside a high-pressure chamber. Source: Preprinted with permission from R.14 Schematic illustration of hot isostatic pressing. Princeton. Princeton.12 Schematic diagram of cold isostatic pressing. German. German. Metal Powder Industries Federation.M. Figure 17. Metal Powder Industries Federation.

7.Figure 17. Vol.). American Society for Metals. Mohamed Gamil . Source: Metals Handbook (9th ed.15 An example of powder rolling.

Source: F. 1980. and electrical conductivity of copper powder. Lenel. NJ.Figure 17. (b) Effects of density on tensile strength. V.9 (a) Density of copper. elongation. Mohamed Gamil . Princeton.and iron-powder compacts as a function of compacting pressure. Powder Metallurgy: Principles and Applications. IACS means International Annealed Copper Standard for electrical conductivity. Density greatly influences the mechanical and physical properties of P/M parts. Metal Powder Industries Federation.

and  = neck profile radius. Mohamed Gamil . r = neck radius.16 Schematic illustration of two mechanisms for sintering metal powders: (a) solid-state material transport.Figure 17. (b) liquid-phase material transport. R = particle radius.

showing Best design Practice. Mohamed Gamil . Threads and transverse holes have to be produced separately by additional machining operations.Examples of P/M parts. Note that sharp radii and reentry corners should be avoided.

Elongation (%) 7 14 40 8 9 14 Reduction of area (%) 15 14 17 26 Mohamed Gamil .TABLE 17.5 Yield Ultimate Density strength strength Process(*) (%) (MPa) (MPa) Cast 100 840 930 Cast and forged 100 875 965 Blended elemental (P+S) 98 786 875 Blended elemental (HIP) > 99 805 875 Prealloyed (HIP) 100 880 975 (*) P+S = pressed and sintered. HIP = hot isostatically pressed.M. Source: R. German.

 nitrogen or  ammonia. Mohamed Gamil . » Atmosphere can be pure hydrogen.» Uses a sintering atmosphere and a sintering furnace » The atmosphere transfers heat to the compacted  powder. adjusts impurity levels and remove  lubricants.

TABLE 17. brass.3 M aterial Copper. and bronze Iron and iron-graphite Nickel Stainless steels Alnico alloys (for permanent magnets) Ferrites Tungsten carbide M olybdenum Tungsten Tantalum Temperature (° C) 760–900 1000–1150 1000–1150 1100–1290 1200–1300 1200–1500 1430–1500 2050 2350 2400 Time (M in) 10–45 8–45 30–45 30–60 120–150 10–600 20–30 120 480 480 Mohamed Gamil .

8 0.9 24.0 82 F inal part 0.7 79.4 143 P /M 1.1 2.8 7.5 25.T A B L E 17.5 12.2 Potential cost saving (% ) 50 20 25 50 Fuselage brace E ngine m ount support A rrestor hook support fitting N acelle fram e Mohamed Gamil .6 W eight (kg) P art F-14 F-18 F-18 F-14 F orged billet 2.

Mohamed Gamil .