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Developing an Effective Safety & Health Program

Welcome to

At the end of the workshop, you will be able to:
1. Explain the benefits of implementing a safety and health management system. 2. Identify the core elements of an effective safety and health management system. 3. Describe the key processes in each program element.


Why improve S&H?
• • • • • • Reduce accident related costs Avoid OSHA penalties Keep employees safe Reduce turnover and absenteeism Profitability Social obligations

• • • • • • • Fewer injuries Improved employee morale Reduced absenteeism/turnover Improved productivity Lower overhead Increased profits Overall reduction of 20 – 40%

Accident Costs
• Businesses spend $171 Billion/year • Rival the costs of cancer and heart disease • Workers loose 40% of their income over 5 years • Personal cost to family


Poorer customer relations 7 -Legal fees. etc.Direct Costs are the Tip of the Iceberg Direct Costs: -Medical treatment -Physician -Hospital -Ambulance -Indemnity (compensation to injured) Indirect costs: -Training and compensating replacement workers -Spoiled product -Cleaning time -Repair of damaged property -Investigation of accident -Schedule delays . DIRECT INDIRECT .

Indirect Costs • Train replacement employee • Repair/replace damaged property • Investigation of incident • Insurance rate increase • Schedule delays • Added administrative time • Lower employee morale • Increased absenteeism • Poorer customer relations 8 .


WHERE DOES SAFETY & HEALTH FIT IN YOUR WORKPLACE? • Safety and health are an integral part of our operations. ___ Yes __No __Don’t know X 10 . ___ Yes __No __Don’t know X • Employees have full and open access to all the tools and equipment they need to do their job safely. X ___ Yes __No __Don’t know • Employees are encouraged to identify safety and health hazards and correct them on their own. X ___ Yes __No __Don’t know • Teamwork is apparent in all parts of the organization. ___ Yes __No __Don’t know X • Managers and supervisors are out on the floor frequently and always observe the company safety and health rules.

What happens if a plant manager is totally committed to safety and health. but employees follow blindly or are not involved? 11 .

What if personnel are instructed to identify workplace hazards. but no resources are provided? 12 .

If staff are responsible for correcting or eliminating identified hazards. what is the outcome? 13 . but no training is provided.

Culture is a combination of an organizations: • • • • • • Attitudes Behaviors Beliefs Values Ways of doing things Shared characteristics 14 .

Culture can: • Socialize newcomers • Define influence • Determine values 15 .

A strong S&H culture is the result of: • Positive workplace attitudes • Involvement and buy-in of all • Mutual. and measurable goals • Policies and procedures that serve as reference tools • Personnel training • Responsibility and accountability 16 . meaningful.

Elements of Safety & Health Culture • All individuals within the organization believe they have a right to a safe and healthy workplace • Each person accepts personal responsibility for ensuring his or her own safety and health. 17 . • Everyone believes he or she has a duty to protect the safety and health of others.

Element 1 – Management Leadership & Employee Involvement • Management leadership .Means through which workers express their own commitment to safety and health 18 .Motivating force and resources • Employee involvement .

A summary statement about the responsibilities of management. simple expression of concern for employee safety and health. A closing statement. A stated purpose or philosophy. 2. 4. 3. and 5.Safety & Health Policy 1. 19 . A clear. A summary of the role of employees.

• Group input provides a wider range of experience.Why Should Employees be Involved? • Workers know potential hazards and have a vested interest in effective protection. 20 . • Employees are more likely to support and use programs in which they have input.

Ways to include employees • Participating on joint labor-management committees • Conducting site inspections • Analyzing routine hazards • Developing and revising the site S&H rules • Training • Reporting hazards 21 .

Ways to include employees • Correcting hazards • Supporting fellow workers by providing feedback on risks • Participating in accident/incident investigations • Performing a pre-use or change analysis on equipment or processes 22 .

Accountability System • • • • • Established standards Resources A measurement system Consequences Application 23 .

24 .Element 2Worksite Analysis • Managers and employees analyze all worksite conditions to identify and eliminate existing or potential hazards.

25 .Workplace Hazard A "hazard“ is: An unsafe CONDITION or PRACTICE that could cause injury or illness to an employee.

Four Categories of Hazards aterials M____ quipment E_____ nvironment E____ eople P_____ 26 .

To Identify Worksite Hazards 27 .

Job Hazard Analysis • What can go wrong? • What are the consequences? • How could it happen? • What are other contributing factors? • How likely is it that the hazard will occur? 28 .

Hazard Analysis Grinding Iron Castings • Step 1 – Reach into metal box to right of machine. • Step 3 – Place finished casting in box to left of machine. and carry to wheel. 29 . • Step 2 – Push casting against wheel to grind off burr. grasp casting.

c.JSA -Additional Hazards & Controls Potential Hazard b. Move castings from the ground and place them closer to the work zone to minimize lifting. Wear cut-resistant gloves that allow a good grip and fit tightly to minimize the chance that they will get caught in grinding wheel. 2. Recommended Job Procedure 1. twisting. 2. Use a device as a clamp to pick up castings. Ideally. place them at waist height or on an adjustable platform or pallet. Contact with sharp burrs and edges of castings can cause severe lacerations. Strains to lower back from reaching. Train workers not to twist while lifting and reconfigure work station to minimize twisting during lifts. 1. and lifting 15-pound castings from the floor. 30 .

Safety & Health Inspections • Cover entire worksite • Regular intervals • Inspectors trained • Hazards tracked to correction 31 .

Why an inspection might be conducted • To meet OSHA standard • Involve team in S&H • Identify areas of undue risk and high loss potential • Check past training and skills development 32 .

Why an inspection might be conducted • Identify and develop positive safety attitudes • Suggest better job methods • Reinforce the positive efforts of people in the workplace 33 .

Sample Inspection Report 34 .

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Could lead to death/serious injury in case of fire or other emergency. boxes could fall from upper level onto those below. Also. Could cause amputation or other injury. Overhead storage area with no guardrail or toeboard.Inspection Report Date: Inspection Team: Number & Classification Findings Exit blocked by boxes and other storage. body part. Falling hazard for those on upper level. 1A 2B 3B Hazard Classification A = Loss of life. Chain and sprocket with guard removed. extensive damage B = Serious injury or property damage C = Non-disabling injury or minor damage 38 .

Heinrich’s Accident Pyramid Serious Injury Minor Injury 1 29 300 Near Miss Incidents 39 .

etc. 5.Accident Investigation Procedures 1. Identification of those authorized to notify outside agencies (fire.). A clear policy statement. police. Identification of those who will receive the report and take corrective action. 40 . 4. Designation and training of those responsible to investigate accidents. Timetables for conducting the investigation and follow-up. 3. 2.

Causes of Injuries. Illnesses and Accidents • Direct Causes • Indirect Causes • Root Causes 41 .

Direct Cause • Always a harmful transfer of energy • Can take the form of: – – – – – – – – Acoustic Chemical Electrical Kinetic Mechanical Potential Radiant Thermal 42 .

Indirect Causes (Unsafe acts/conditions) • Specific hazardous conditions and/or unsafe management or employees actions • May directly produce or indirectly contribute to the accident • May exist or occur at any time • May involve actions of victims or others 43 .

and controls 44 . standards.Root Causes • The system weaknesses that produce the surface causes for the accident • Include inadequacies in management procedures.

Case Study Ike on Loan 45 .

Ineffective training program.Ike on Loan Answers • Direct causes – Brakes failed and Ike drove off end of dock. • Indirect causes (Unsafe acts or conditions) – Not inspecting vehicle before operation. Ineffective inspection program. • Root Causes (Management system weaknesses) – Inadequate selection of employee by management. protective barrier removed from dock. 46 . vehicle driven without sufficient brake fluid. Maintenance program/procedures inadequate.

Element 3 – Hazard Prevention and Control Systems used to prevent and control hazards include: • Hierarchy of Controls • Engineering controls • Safe work practices • Administrative procedures • Personal protective equipment (PPE) • Systems to track hazard correction • Preventive maintenance systems • Emergency plans • Medical programs 47 .

Control Measures? 48 .

Control Measures? 49 .

Emergency Action Plan • Survey of possible emergencies • Planning actions to reduce impact on the workplace • Employee information and training • Emergency drills as needed 50 .

and • Location of each operation and its proximity to a health care facility. • Number of workers. • Characteristics of the workforce. • Type of facilities. 51 .Medical Programs • Size and complexity of a medical program depends on: • Type of processes and materials and the related hazards.

Element 4 – Safety and Health Training • Education tells Why • Training shows How • Experience improves Skills 52 .

Five Principles of Teaching and Learning • Trainees should understand purpose of training • Organize information to maximize effectiveness • Immediately practice and apply new knowledge and skills • As trainees practice. feedback needed • Effective training incorporates a variety of methods 53 .

Safety and Health Program Evaluation • All evaluations should involve: – A review of documents – Employee interviews – A site tour 54 .

Management Leadership and Employee Involvement – Policy. Goal and Objectives – How visible and effective is management leadership? – How effective is employee involvement in identifying safety and health problems and in finding solutions? – How clearly is responsibility for safety and health assigned? – Are adequate authority and resources allocated to the program? – Are responsible people held accountable? – How does the site assure that only safe contractors come on the site and that they are held responsible for safety and health while working there? 55 .1.

processes. and accidents reported and investigated effectively? – Are the results of all worksite analyses being 56 tracked to resolution? .2. incidents. Worksite Analysis – Have comprehensive surveys been done? – Have pre-use analyses been done before purchase and installation of new equipment. and are existing hazards being found? – Is the system for employees to report hazards effective? – Are all near-misses. and materials? – Are routine hazard analyses being done and used effectively? – Are periodic site inspections being done as scheduled.

and maintenance of PPE appropriate? – Is the preventive maintenance system working well? – Have emergency drills been conducted and critiqued? – Is the medical program adequate and effective? 57 .3. use. Hazard Prevention and Control – Are engineering. work practice and administrative controls in place and effective? – Is the availability.

Training – – – – Is appropriate training being conducted? Are employees learning what they should? Are any unsafe work practices being used? Are training records easily accessible and complete? 58 .4.

• The core elements of an effective safety and health management system. • The key processes within each program element. and. 59 .Summary This workshop has covered: • The benefits of implementing a safety and health management system.

you can reach your goal Effective S&H Management System 60 .Closing • You now have the tools • With time and experience.