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Biology *I only included the information that was on the review sheet that we needed to know.

If on the exam that there is a question that the review didn’t have, just use common sense or the best sounding answer. It shouldn’t be too hard to answer questions logically. Sustainability  Ecosystem: refers to all parts of the biological community and its environment which interact together. “Eco” means home. An ecosystem is the natural home of the organisms that live in it. They can vary in sizes and features. Sustainable Ecosystem: An ecosystem that can support and endure the organisms that live in it. It is a necessity to have a sustainable ecosystem for survival. Some organisms depend on more than one ecosystem. (Ex. Frogs need to switch between water and land to live) Every ecosystem has biotic (living) parts and abiotic (non-living) parts.

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Characteristics of an Ecosystem Biotic The 3 types of interactions: 1. Mutualism – Between two organisms that live together in association and help each other benefit.. 2. Predation – An organism (predator) eating another (prey). This creates food chains. 3. Competition – Two organisms compete for the same resource. It can influence the population and success of organisms. Abiotic 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Water Oxygen Light Nutrients Soil Nutrient Cycles   Living organisms use matter to carry out various life processes such as respiration, movement, reproduction, etc. Different ecosystem processes move matter from the abiotic parts to the biotic parts in an ecosystem and back to the abiotic part again in continuous cycles.

The Nitrogen Cycle 1. 3. It refers to all regions where living organisms exist.The Four Spheres All matter on earth occupies one of Earth’s atmospheres. (Worms live in the soil and fish live in the water for example) The Water Cycle 1. Atmosphere (atmos means “vapour” in Greek): Layer of air above the earth’s surface 4.   The lithosphere. Carbon dioxide is also released when fossil fuels and wood are burnt and when organisms die. The converted nitrogen gets absorbed by plants through their roots. Hydrosphere: Salt water in oceans and fresh water in lakes and rivers 3. The clouds release the water back to the surface as rain or snow. Lithosphere (Litho means “stone” in Greek): The Earth’s crust. 2. producing energy for the animal to use and releasing carbon dioxide as a waste product. The biosphere is not separate from the other three spheres because organisms live in the other spheres. the glucose enters its body. The Carbon Cycle 1. Water is also released into the atmosphere through transpiration by plants and through cellular respiration. 2. The water that falls on land eventually returns to the rivers and lakes and some of it is absorbed or consumed by plants as it moves through the ground. 1. 3. Plants remove carbon dioxide from the air during photosynthesis and convert it into carbon containing glucose. forming clouds. 2. . hydrosphere and atmosphere can be found on other planets as well but earth is the only planet that contains the biosphere. The sun’s rays evaporate water from oceans and lakes. their bodies are broken down by fungi and that releases carbon dioxide as well. Cellular respiration then breaks the glucose down. Because the nitrogen in the atmosphere cannot be directly used by most organisms. Most conversions are done by different types of bacteria. they must convert it to a more useful form. When the plant gets eaten by an animal. Soil bacteria in land based ecosystems and the cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems convert it to ammonium ions and to nitrate ions. the hard part of the earth’s surface. The water vapour rises in the atmosphere and cools and condenses. 2. (precipitation) 4. This is the only way carbon atoms can get into the animal’s blood. Biosphere: The living surface of the earth.

The Phosphorous Cycle Phosphorous is stored in the lithosphere in rocks. Biosphere and Energy       All activities need a source of energy The energy from all fuels comes from the same source – The Sun That energy is given in forms of light. When the rocks break down in the process of weathering. The bacteria that reverse the process break down the nitrogen containing compounds and release nitrogen back into the atmosphere. blocking out sunlight and oxygen from coming through and that can lead to the death of the ecosystem that exists in the water. there will be an increase in algae. The organisms that eat the plants absorb the phosphorous into their bodies. The algae will bloom throughout the water. Nitrogen can also be released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burn and when volcanoes erupt. Glucose is passed throughout the food chain from one organism to another (Eg. bacteria break down their bodies and release phosphorous back into the soil. When the living organisms die. 1. if more phosphorous enters the water from the farmer’s fertilizer. the phosphorous released into the soil in the form of phosphate ions. 3. 2. 4. For example.3. Eutrophication: When there are high levels of biomass from the result of the addition of more natural substances. The plants then absorb the phosphorous through their roots. The rabbit gets glucose when it eats the plant and the fox gets the glucose when it eats the rabbit) Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Word equation of photosynthesis: Water + Carbon dioxide  Glucose + Oxygen Word equation of cellular respiration: Oxygen + Glucose  Carbon dioxide + Water Both processes are considered as complementary reactions because the products they produce are the starting products of each other. The nitrogen containing compounds are passed from one organism to another along the food chain. Trophic levels First level = producer (plants) Second level = primary consumers (herbivores) Third level = secondary consumers (carnivores) Fourth level = tertiary consumers (top carnivores) . heat and other forms of electromagnetic radiation A small amount of that energy reaches the earth’s surface and is used by plants to make glucose The energy supplied by the sun is important because it will continue to warm up the earth for billions of years and without the sun. the plants cannot produce glucose. 4.

The carrying capacity is the maximum number of species that an ecosystem can hold. only 10% is transferred from one level to the next. Trophic Efficiency    It shows how much energy in one trophic level is transferred to the next level.All trophic levels are linked to decomposers (bacteria and fungi) that break down dead organisms and their wastes. . at the same time. It occurs when either they are introduced to a new ecosystem or when the number of predators decrease. Population and Communities Population    A population is a group of the same species. living in the same place. since organisms use most of it for themselves. Pyramid of Energy Pyramids rarely have up to 4 levels because after the fourth level. Less than 100% of the energy in transferred. 10% of the energy in each level is transferred to the next level each time. Exponential growth is a rapid increase in population of a species. there isn’t enough energy to support the higher levels. Generally.

Without them. Ecosystem Engineers – Makes changes to a landscape that more ecosystems can be made. Keystone species . For example. There are three types of species in a community: 1. Biodiversity: The number and variety of organisms found in a specific region. 3. Biodiversity hotspot: A place where there is an exceptionally large number of species in a small area. Without them. They allow successions to happen and adaptations are made. Dominant species – have the biggest biomass and are usually producers. . Other Word Definitions Ecological niche: An organism’s position in the ecosystem Ecological footprint: The amount of resources used by an organism’s standard of living.Community  When groups of populations of organisms that live together in the same ecosystem. 2. biodiversity decreases. beavers. biodiversity suffers.Stabilizes the ecosystem and controls population and ecosystem health.