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Social Hair Author(s): C. R. Hallpike Reviewed work(s): Source: Man, New Series, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Jun., 1969), pp.

256-264 Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2799572 . Accessed: 30/03/2012 04:49
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the Two different hypotheses suggest themselves. thereare certain the A central problem theinterpretation in ofritual the that is fact while partiof cipants eachsociety in maybe unable givean explicit to explanation the and meaning thesymbols of involved. of by he is which usesas a basisfordiscussion Berg's particular of symbolism piece between headhairandthe is that hypothesis there a basicsymbolic equivalence such His malegenitals thesubconscious. conclusionthat have are thepsychologists theethnographers discussing different of and types quite but the and social). R. are found often and havethesame that is whythese this symbols so commonly as Thusthefirst symbols being meaning different in cultures. of or white or signification in Given. find from to as out. that in hair-cutting castration. of in between significancesymbolism the the Leachexamines relationship the Dr as Berg. social role of the sexes.andthe individual subconscious. these meanings constantly Forexample. procreation. of sexual is The mechanisms repression sublimationthe ofthe and impulses. of is celebrated stimulating and Theobject this of article a re-analysisDr Leach's a of he essay 'Magical hair'(LeachI958) in which advances theory thesymbolic first meaning hair of which ofthe is type. that psychologists contrican phenomena subconscious the (the because muchof itscontent designed is to of ritual buteto ourunderstanding our emotions. though turn in ethnowith what logical empirical or justification. Turner recur. specifically. second the of that. the the them 'about' the while second theory regards asbeing world man's and placein it. then. white redarethe colours where and often symbolic dirt rainclouds. redofblood.Charles as The in significancesymbolism socialritual. a common that is of with different cultures. given common the concern all societies survival.SOCIAL C. potentially dangerous physical environment.youthand age. therefore control. Phallic to and express. first that meanings The is which are ascribed symbols related theworkings thesubconscious.a matter fact. symbolsand and similarbasic concepts. whileanyparticular is to of and we that symbol havea multiplicity may ofmeanings society society. theory regards ' about' subconscious. ofmilk semen. interpreted ethnographers. equals of about is how problem to explain theconclusions psycho-analysis thesymbolic as of much in without meaning hair individual of fantasies. (I966) haspointed and most often inritual. outtobe closely accord ofhair His is the graphers to sayabout significance inritual. nature the of with .willtry explain basis this I to the of similarity. HAIR HALLPIKE Dalhousie University in and these symbolic which inherently acts are appropriate expressing concepts. there a number symbols. to are to of to the assumed be similar members every to in of culture more and. the orderand disorder. is a large there bodyofsymbols symbolic actswhich common a widevariety cultures. used black very is black.seenby a psycho-analyst.

whichcome underthegeneral headingof ceremonial mutilations. the problemwith at suchtheories to bring is themintosomesortof relationship thefacts. and that: Let us first all consider specialcharacteristicshair. in is prophylaxis.classedritualhairas cutting one " ofan extensive series practices. 8. It growsin greatquantity. One ofthemostfrequent ritual usesofhairis in association withmourning.. pubic hair. the latter to but riteis clearly "ceremonial a mutilation" Whileconceding ritual that does (Tylor I873: 2.on this a in myimmediate concern to consider particular is symbolic theme. He avoids reference circumcision. On thispointLeach says: 'That hair rituals may have sexual associations been has apparent anthropologists thebeginning. is a social processwhich servesto prevent the individualfrom developingsexual repressions all' (I958: I6I). 6. and 7.g. eyelashes. In old age hairoften fallsout. view ofitsmanifold in characteristics. 3. turns whiteand/or 9. to various often of due and obscure motives. . moreexplicitly. it itisnotan expression therepressed of unconscious thecollective of individual. Now thehumanbodyis thefocusof muchritual. 403)' (I958: i5o). It can be cut painlessly. of Tylor. 4. Head hairis apparent infants bothsexesat birth. it is truethat: head= phallus hair= semen haircutting= castration long hair= unrestrained sexuality short hair=restricted sexuality closeshaven hair=celibacy. on of hair in 5. suchthatindividual hairsare almost numberless.SOCIAL HAIR 25 7 symbolism occurs often ritual in because'ritualmakesexplicit these powerful and of dangerous thoughts Phallicism ritual thusa form cathartic . I have which just setout.headhair. in Moreover. e. of the of i.for example. 2." Of other suchpractices mentions he blood-letting thecutting-off finger and of joints. also body hair. thelightof truethat Leach'spsychological theory. againlikethenails.and it is notsurprising a that physicalfeature with such manipulative potentialas hair should be used so frequently ritual. This may or may not be so. to try determine and to whether is really it in headhaircan be shownto be associated withsexuality a wide rangeof societies if and. Genital/anal appearsat puberty bothsexes. Hair is a prominent feature animals. of especially monkeys. not reflect psychological the condition theindividual of performing butrather it. Hair on different partsof the body is of different texture.itwouldbe surprisingall itsritual symbolic if and manifestations could be reduced a single to origin. malesdevelopfacialhairafter puberty. mostly to from but they havenotregarded thisas a matter crucialsignificance.. In someraces. that with so can The wholerelationship they be shownempirically be trueor false. man'sanalogue in theanimalkingdom. to between occasion private socialsymbolism too complex be considered and is to here. Like thenailsit growsconstantly.

to refer Frazeragain: 'The Siamesethink dwellsin thehumanhead. together . For example. Of thisLeach says: catewiththeinnerfeelings the individual. HALLPIKE requires actor makeformal the to symbolic of that 'thestructure thesocialsituation in kind' (I958: I53). and he citesmanyother the and consequently peculiarnatureof head hair. Now exactlywhypeople shouldreactto grief in symbolism the first amenableto is themselves undoubtedly shavingofftheirhair and mutilating to reason linkitwithcastration. symbolically and parings bodily theycame.in primitive as of howeverthat'The " soul stuff" suchwriters Huttonand Wilken concludes (I958: from is notperhaps verydifferent the"libido" ofthepsycho-analysts' 5o). in almost of of In by laceration. well 'circumcision'. is but explanation. of The psycho-analyst. should therefore type ofthehairis notsimply particular ofself-mutilation? a We frequently in ethnographical literature hairhas close associations that find thata to with the soul. converts symbolinto a 'collectiverethe The ritualsituation comesfromDurkheim.whichis treated. The spirit (1922: withmanyceremonies' the or act of shaving cutting hairis accompanied of to instances show thesacredcharacter thehead 230). there noprimafacie psychological but in has Certainly circumcision no suchmeaning. demondifferentrequire to considerable but Not perhaps different.. theabsence off that cutting ofthehairis accompanied bodily the off thatthecutting assume we why to anyindication thecontrary. familiar along withnail Magic is another as from whosebody equalto theperson secretions.Thesetwoarguments. quitethereverse mostprimitive societies. For example.25 8 C. stration similarity. of is concerned acknowledged anthropologist in are acts the notesthat ritual in whichpartof theindividual's bodyis cutoff prominent . they notcontradictory. social and-he withthepublicly status socialpersons. is surely this amongother organs.Frazerlists(I923: mutilations societies whichsome in sixty-eight of the 377-83) besides Jews theOld Testament. theeffect bothsimultaneously argument..Leach seat that recognising it is a mostappropriate of thesoul.hencethe from injury every protected be must carefully spirit.But what is castration thatwomenshavetheir The notionis sufficiently on earthdoes it mean to talk of 'femalecastration'? Morewho are not psychologists. thenargues of In to the becausetheyare in factfelt be a repression libidinous energy. socialanthropologist's The rites depassageHe might labelall suchrites so shouldbe emotionally of charged explanation why ritesof 'circumcision'.Since the head is the seat of for good reason things. the and Durkof presentation' God andSociety. psycho-analytic the are We them to contrasted. of ritualuse of hair. headhairequals that in weaknesses Berg'shypothesis shaving One ofthegreatest as headsin mourning well as men.references shaving head at mourning such as gashingthe face and body. appear be sharply witha third borrowed from to Frazer. he stillfindsBerg's hypothesis of statements a particular loss of the loved one equals relationto shavingthe head at mourning-that as the of equals loss of hair-to be meaningful explaining genesis the castration by place. canaccept yet heimian. R. for bizarre require to some elucidation readers other describe veryfrequently the to over. reasonand thesensory eyes. sufficiently very whichwe are not given.. contrast. casewe find every and at form self-mutilation is performed mourning.. defined.of whichit is theguardian or spirit calledkhuan kwun of kind. beingconcerned of whichcutawaypartof theindividual's equivalents bodyas symbolic all gorizes actions ritual thatthese actshaveemotional forcefortheindividual He 'castration'.

It are personalnames.g. can be thought as associated withthe the becauseit grows. founders three on stubbornly facts. while the facialhair only developsin the male at puberty.as This is the well as men's. that are as of seems likely. which frequently shadowsand foot-prints examples. is only when we realisethatthe ritualuses of hair are of widely to differing typesthatwe can attempt explainany of them. But tivethought. frequently focusof ritual attention. primitive In we less andstill to foot-prints. ifwe recognize they refer 'the but samething'. secondis that head The if hairequalsmalegenitals. at is present birth. thought of find that the personis thoughtof as having extensions. and symbolise castration.Ifthere hair equals castration. is thatwomen'shair. personalnames. then areledto conclude we as thatmagical potency. expressing in changesor differences ritualor of social status. dress. therefore. There is thusno reasonwhy a theory hair in ritualshouldbe to reduceall the manifestations hair to a singleorigin-symbolic of obliged It castration. regarded a social category.But Leach's theory to but not onlytries providea singleexplanation. different reasons. in We nail etc.hair. blood reason whytheyshouldbe believedto be specially to in are of for and semen.nailsand blood. all to that cannot simply merge these three arguments.etc. parings.SOCIAL HAIR 25 9 from individuals ritual in that magical powertypically in which detached are resides objects de situations-e. theseconsiderations namesand garments. there two reasons whyhairis chosen a symbol in with thewholeperson magic. that hair. whichare veryprominent magic. ofpersons the involved rites passage.hairandnailsgrowconstantly this surely very good endowedwithvitality. if blood and body dirtas used in magic and ritual But specifically. would expect beardsto be more and thatcutting one than prominent headhairin ritual.It is endowed excellence vitality mayhave par (and associations withthesoul if it has come fromthehead) and it also fallsintothe of of widercategory extensions theperson. I have triedto demonstrate of So farin thisarticle something themultiplicity For it ofhairin itsritual of aspects. but thatsuch symbolization to effective because eachindividual ritual for is "castration" the situation felt signify (I958: 162). it to Originally.also symbolise of there a muchsimpler is explanation whyhair. course. are usedin basisto symbolise personfromwhom theywere the magic on a parspro toto is and a In taken. shadows. is little whyis it that comparatively regard paid to beards As in ritual contexts? I remarked head hairis commonto bothsexesand earlier.personalbelongings. now we have gone farbeyondthisand are beingaskedto but cut fromthebody has a sexualsignificancebelievethateverything or removed castration. will be remembered. do foot-prints shadows.as havinginherent vitality of and in thegeneral characteristics make category bodilymutilations.through head. itsphysical for like it veryappropriate.it mayfigure soul.so it is surely strange in factbeards that havea . example. in the has to Moreover. blood. garments. alsobelieved be sources vitality primicannotapplyto body dirtor nasalmucus. empirical is The first one to whichI have already referred. is is something whichinheres 'circumcision' in symbols. in In of castration? fact. Leach was concerned show thatBerg's ethnoin certain equationof head hair equals genitals was relevant explaining graphical facts. thefirst place. texture latter moreresemblance pubichairthanto head in wereanyplausibility thetheory headhairequalsmalegenitals.

' without years sleep. course. themostambitious thespiritual or of incumbrance dress theycontempthe as theyhad renounced world. livedunder common who 'The monks weredivided fanaticism. tuft hairis an essential of of his a sannyasin either shavesoff tuft hair[theisolated it mark of the male Brahmin]or else neglects altogether.. growsinto of to the tendency ignore existence thegenital (cf theascetic torment a matted mass lice-inhabited and maybe as mucha sourceofunremitting to it as theneglected penisitselfApparently is not permitted existas faras conis sciousness concerned'(Leach I958: I56). shavenhead "means" Brahminthe tonsured from sexualpassions' the and head" means"totaldetachment celibacy thematted that is explanation ofcoursequiteopposedto thetheory long (i958: i56).. whomthey affected resemble. longhairequalsunrestrained to according theequations: Now ofcourse. it behaviour beingcompulsive.thisis all sexuality. brethren. in withthecommon usurped denofsomewildbeast Theyoften grazing thefields to Hermits supposed havepassed are .Leach of courseis awareof theproblem. Berg explains long hair of the hairas follows:'Fakirssimply ignorealtogether veryexistence their It organs).000 years ago' (I958: I56).. short hairequals restricted in wrong. somesavage tuously to themselves therudeand to wereonlycovered their long hair. who discipline.the of of traits suchas spiritual powerby reason whichthepossessor possession certain . maybe outside Of and outcasts. asceticism the anchorite sannyasin theultimate expression. many nights days many (I960: 5i6). rather attitude condition rejection whichthe is or of or. so faras he adequate. state the distinguished hiskindred miserable in which human their humble of namefromtheir derived practice and the numerous of Anachorets sect the herd. 'For the But he agrees withBergthat I This illustrates well thehypothesis wish to advancein thisarticle:that very of with being outsidesocietyand thatthe cutting hair long hairis associated regime or disciplinary society. The most to perfect without and without speaking. many food. Leach pointsout thatfarfromthe hair 'The correct prescribed.. theAnachorets. By not suggesting thatlong hair is appropriate only to hermits and the of being'outsidesociety'I do not meantherefore totalexclusion ascetics of or an of similar but categories. R. again. and the a intotwoclasses.but his solution. HALLPIKE minorrole. I have not so faralluded. and castaway. hairequalsunrestrained Empire passagein Gibbon'sDeclineandfall of theRoman There is a striking to relating long hairand asceticism.Theyaspired reduce by is brute scarcely above animals. livingundera particular re-entering symbolises or society partially whollyandI am one within society. advances one. shad over2. social identification the and allowingit to grow matted lousy' (Leach I958: I56).evenallowingforthefactthatin someracesmalesdo comparatively is defect one to which and mostserious not developmuchfacialhair.The third commonly have long hair.This is thefactthatascetics sexuality. Coenobites. close shavenhairequals celibacy. The mostdevout. the tuft "means" sexualrestraint. their independent unsocial.. But this sexuality.is farfrom and from socialobligation He quotesIyeras follows:'The sannyasin's freedom but by hisfinal renunciation thesex lifeis symbolised changeof dress above all of to he to According themode of asceticism intends pursue by changeof hairstyle...260 C. is socially sannyasin's Upanibehaviour of Indianascetics all laid downin theNaradaparivrajaka was .. All superfluous havebeen whosenaked bodies saints bothsexes of admired. indulged and regular the of renounced convent.

butthere no single is quality whichthey havein commonbesides negative the one of beingpartially whollyoutsidesociety. be moreprecise. is nevertheis and it lessa striking resemblance. Gibbon's in irony delights emphasising menintheir how search holiness for come to resemble beasts. or of beinglessamenable socialcontrol to thanthe averagecitizen. that Long hairis therefore. Gibbon'squotaideally a mostrigorously tionmakes is no and very clear. are thought be. under socialdiscipline whatsoever indeed represents rejection social controlin its most extreme of degree. hippies and women all have long hair. The animalfamiliars of witches thewild beasts and overwhichtheEgyptian saints suchpower. soldier convict and that signifies they underdiscipline.) is of coursetruethatin pastcenturies have It men wornlonghair.byreason hisinterests. symbol beingin someway outside a of society. of remote concerns everyday or evenpositively of and life.It is notdifficult seethat various and in to waysthey or are. in practice are of deprived sex. abstains The monk. The anchorite. to more whimsical and less predictable thanmen.of course. Leachrefers andwhichat first briefly seems support theory to sight the (I958: I54) that shaven three headequalscelibacy. ifconvicts.ofwhichchastity is onlyone.and secondly. in Western society. monkin factis underdisThe as cipline. to of enough beenwritten has about'hippies'to makeanyexplanation their of longhair somewhat superfluous.Anchorites. Thereis considerable evidence fact an association in for of 'outside societyequals hairiness equals animality'. witches. yet he. underthediscipline institutional who hashishaircutshort. thecaseofwomenperhaps But needsa little moreelucidation. of as they have alwaysbeen considered be more governedby theiremotions. intellectuals. like the monk. in suchperiods but women'shairhasbeenevenlonger.come had .at theend of the eighteenth century was not considered it unmanlyfor men to weep but is publicly.SOCIAL HAIR 26I is notfully amenable socialcontrol. I suggest. generally credited withlong hair-intellectuals. of havinglessto do withit.theyare traditionally and concerned withdomestic affairs not withtherunning society a whole. whileI am notsuggesting therelationship the and that between spiritual powerand beastliness morethanoutward analogical.Thusthecropped heador tonsure all three in are casesofmonk. The soldier of life and the convictare otherwell known examples. even having by reason their of circumstances. themonktakes But vows. mayconsider we three categories person of who are.In thefirst place. whatever for reason:thisis animality. would formulate to To I the as theory 'cutting hairequals socialcontrol'. there no indication theyoutdidwomenin thisrespect. in somerespects subject socialcontrol to less thantheaverage to man. But themeansby whichone attains condition of course this are various. ceremonially equivalent cutting to The tonsure themonkis a familiar of of aspect Christian religious to which life. not theonlyperson is fromthelustsof theflesh. (Whether truly falsely besidethe point-it is stilla or is widelyheldsocialstereotype. or Thereis howeverone characteristic whichis often associated withbeingoutsidesociety.Dressingthehairmay also be the it.The intellectual someone is from the who is. hostile and critical society. juvenilerebels against society women. but nobody would supposethat soldiers ideally are from intended refrain to sexualrelations. of socialtype. By contrast these to groups. theothers poverty are and obedience.

examplesare a completelist of everysignificant of mentionof hair. thehunter wild beasts. society. hisnailslikebirds'claws' (Daniel: the Elijah andJohn Baptist. HALLPIKE place an give societies animals important Mostprimitive connexion. In the Book ofjudges we are told thatSamson'sstrength man(Judges: he in resided hishair. In Leviticus is prescribed a sufferer in ready to be reincorporated an therefore outcast.and socialattributes: the (Esau) hunter hairiness= (Nebuchadnezzar) wild beasts hairiness= (Samson) strength physical hairiness= JohntheBaptist) power(Elijah.who behavedas were ordinary the thatin thelatter personages they of people behave now. woman shouldalwaysappear thatthe married usage required Jewish upon her. and was of The description howKingNebuchadnezzar overthrown .since atehischildren homeon theeastbankoftheNile. that 4. and he was driven from separation as oxen. 23-27). On the contrary. and his body was wet with the dew of heaven.exceptthosepassagesdealingwith the cutting-off hair in discussed.till and did eat grass and hishairsweregrownlike eagles'feathers. a smoothman. 3). from ' in society thestateof nature: . herdsman. for but for support myhypothesis. culture 'They [thetwo cultureassociation. F. be a signof thehusband's headas a withuncovered procession walkedin thewedding thatthebride sources was authority Then. R. little Leach's. I shouldemphasise I have in of theseBiblicalexamples orderto prove a in not been partial my selection the point. a hairy for was in man dwelling tents. 8. hairiness= I6..262 C. (Numbers:6.werenever arated shaved offat the tabernacle when the hair was formally of theirseparation. ..Esau also sold his birthright food and fromleprosy that it (Genesis:25. to mindin this before nature the symbolise chaosof untamed and cosmologies theyoften in their heroDribiduof theLugbaraas described The of theprocess socialisation. I7-I9). aspect hairalready between long hair. that withherheadcovered'(Howard 1929: I Cor. 2. It maybe significant two majorprophets. 9). . The Nazarites.when cured and thereby who sepshallshaveoffall his hair(Leviticus:14.. a worldin whichthere in behaved a contrary no clans'(I960: 233).He is alsoknownas " Banyale was covered out and until was discovered driven of he he of (" eater men"). .whereasin the former were in and manner livedinisolation. In our own terms hisearlier the and after heroesis betweenthetwo periodsbefore differences thesignificant humanbeings. I-I8).whilehisbrother was of Esau. as a signthather husband's tokenof herfreemaidenhood. Howard says:'It may to injunction womento covertheir Rabbinical showfrom So Stack& Billerbeck authority. the hairuntil end allowedto cuttheir unto themselves theLord. 33). of an mourning. a discussion St Paul's with hairiness are associated W. considerable The Bibleprovides a Jacob. and were members clans. of In and animalclothing.' (I960: 23 I) '.or associations the provides following The Bible therefore cutting hair.and whenhe is shorn is as weak as anyother and of of clearexample theassociation hairiness the very is madean outcast another men. spiritual asceticism. headsin church. of by Middleton (I960) is a good example this one" sincehe werenothumanas menarenow. Dribidumeans" thehairy heroes] " withlonghairovermostofhisbody.

relations.and why shorthairis associated monksand soldiers. There are twenty for and suchas fairies.SOCIAL HAIR 263 growing long hair= separation from society God (Nazarites) to whenlepers cured) are shaving hair= rejoining society (Nazarites. successof the interpretation dependon the qualityof the anthropologist's will themselves.social is paperon organisation values. hairiness or beings.The his in he is is in structure there the symbolism. thaton itsown ground. of covering hair= discipline (women's acceptance husbands'authority). threeassociations tionswithvegetable-human sevenassociations withthesoul or vitality. he himself trying understand rituals an alien culture does not concern to the of of indeed.) withsexuality. devilsand mermaids. withwitches. haveconsulted (I onlythereferences 'hair' and 'hairy'.itfails provideanyexplanation whylonghairis associated to of with withascetics and with men like Samson. beingassociated withsupernatural half-human sevenassociations dwarfs.threeassociawithanimal-human relationships. he has no meansof knowing will He this. but wheresocialstatus overtly hairand withsex. One could go on producing confirmatory data. by The advantage treating than'about' of symbolism 'about' theworld. that account My primary objection Leach'stheory to therefore simply it takes is of veryfewof thefacts. mode of analysis be two-fold. But intelligence. considerable Stith-Thompson's Motif-index literature offolk (I955-8) alsoprovides instances of support my hypothesis. will His askthenatives eliciting satisfactory a whateachsymbol means(without necessarily answer)and make a listof theoccurrences each symbolin its ritualcontext.A good exampleof thisprocedure Turner's and the symbols passage Ndembu circumcision of in ritual (TurnerI962). imagination training.rather as thesubconscious thattherelations and is between symbols theworldare empiridifferent explanations a of callyverifiable. itis accordingly and possible evaluate to Thus the particular piece of symbolism terms how well theyfitthefacts. but it seemsto me thatthe association cited so faris ampleconfirmation thereis no frequent that evidence of of head hair and the male genitals. work is complete. in of is advantage my theory of thatcutting hair equals social control thatit can be . littleforLeach's. it fits of of equallywell withmy hypothesis. in But there a morefundamental is When an anthropologist is whichit shares with all suchpsychological theories. to andsixwithasceticism. though Therewereno clearreferences headhairin association to Leach might disagree withme. withwhatthesymbols standforin thesubconscious each participant. as the structure there a language in just analysed thelinguist. weakness histheory. Of course. it The onlymarginal case amongtheseis thatof Samson. giants.in thattakenby itself But could be citedas evidence theassociation head hairand sexuality. facts and the cannotinterpret thepointI am making thatonce theanthropologist discerned structure has the is of the symbolism the culture is investigating. waterand wood spirits. of When he has collectedsufficient of thistype he will tryto discernthe data structure the symbolism of and its relationto the people's cosmology. The chiefdeficiency Leach's hypothesis he rangeoffacts than leadsus to however notthat applies a muchnarrower is it to associated with is suppose.

R.we simply consider structural the form theevidence. Bible (eds) In Howard.In Anthropological (ed. R. Thegolden in (abridged edn). London: Epworth Press. 2 culturevols. 88. Stith-Thompson. Ist and 2nd Corinthians. Motif on ritual. Frazer. M.J. i955-8. Eiserlen etal.J. cannotrelatea people'ssymbolism we to thefacts their and but of natural environment their society. E. London: Tavistock Publications. I923. Press. I873. religion. onlyto one of an indefinite number theories of aboutthesubconscious.264 C. HALLPIKE appliedfairly rigorously thelogic of socialsituations whichhairis symbolito in callysignificant. i96o. F. Lugbara Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger. seemssounder tryfirst all to see if social and a symbolism be explained relation society thephysical can in to environment.) ritual social of relations Max Gluckman. W. social Anthrop. index J.V. to study approachesthe in I966. W. Folklore theOld Testament by of Roman empire (abridgement D. I47-64. Banton. of Withpsychologicaltheories suchas Leach's. Manchester:Univ. Leach. Primitive bough (abridgededn). R. Londoii: andfall the Gibbon. London: Macmillan. Abingdon commentary F. to of it Methodologically. B.In Essays the in Turner. E. I962. Chatto & Windus. of REFERENCES J. London: Oxford Univ. Thedecline I922. London: Macmillan.) ofreligion M. Colour classification Ndembu ritual. London. Tylor. C. therefore. a mode of analysis with fewerconceptualproblemsand which permits high haveto fallback If fails then will perforce we degree empirical of verification. other In words. this on theresources psychology. anthrop. I958. Press. I960. . 3). Monogr.E. do nothave to ask ourselves: we 'What is going on in the mindsof people who cut offtheir hairafter beingcuredof leprosy?' minds (quitepossibly nothing all is goingon in their at beyondtheacceptance a of socialrule). Low). Middleton. Magical hair. Inst. G.however. Three symbolsofpassage Ndembu circumcision (ed. offolk literature. (Ass. I929.