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Social Hair Author(s): C. R. Hallpike Reviewed work(s): Source: Man, New Series, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Jun., 1969), pp.

256-264 Published by: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland Stable URL: . Accessed: 30/03/2012 04:49
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given common the concern all societies survival. that psychologists contrican phenomena subconscious the (the because muchof itscontent designed is to of ritual buteto ourunderstanding our emotions. theory regards ' about' subconscious. white redarethe colours where and often symbolic dirt rainclouds. equals of about is how problem to explain theconclusions psycho-analysis thesymbolic as of much in without meaning hair individual of fantasies. interpreted ethnographers. though turn in ethnowith what logical empirical or justification. thereare certain the A central problem theinterpretation in ofritual the that is fact while partiof cipants eachsociety in maybe unable givean explicit to explanation the and meaning thesymbols of involved. find from to as out. conclusionthat have are thepsychologists theethnographers discussing different of and types quite but the and social). of is celebrated stimulating and Theobject this of article a re-analysisDr Leach's a of he essay 'Magical hair'(LeachI958) in which advances theory thesymbolic first meaning hair of which ofthe is type. ofmilk semen. to are to of to the assumed be similar members every to in of culture more and. used black very is black. symbolsand and similarbasic concepts. redofblood. outtobe closely accord ofhair His is the graphers to sayabout significance inritual. Phallic to and express. of by he is which usesas a basisfordiscussion Berg's particular of symbolism piece between headhairandthe is that hypothesis there a basicsymbolic equivalence such His malegenitals thesubconscious. the orderand disorder. whileanyparticular is to of and we that symbol havea multiplicity may ofmeanings society society. then. of sexual is The mechanisms repression sublimationthe ofthe and impulses. social role of the sexes. that in hair-cutting castration. the the them 'about' the while second theory regards asbeing world man's and placein it.SOCIAL C. Turner recur. second the of that. of or white or signification in Given. therefore control.seenby a psycho-analyst. first that meanings The is which are ascribed symbols related theworkings thesubconscious.a matter fact. a common that is of with different cultures. R. of in between significancesymbolism the the Leachexamines relationship the Dr as Berg. are found often and havethesame that is whythese this symbols so commonly as Thusthefirst symbols being meaning different in cultures. nature the of with . HAIR HALLPIKE Dalhousie University in and these symbolic which inherently acts are appropriate expressing concepts. procreation. specifically.youthand age.willtry explain basis this I to the of similarity. potentially dangerous physical environment. these meanings constantly Forexample. (I966) haspointed and most often inritual. there a number symbols.Charles as The in significancesymbolism socialritual. the Two different hypotheses suggest themselves. is a large there bodyofsymbols symbolic actswhich common a widevariety cultures.andthe individual subconscious.

of especially monkeys.for example. suchthatindividual hairsare almost numberless.and it is notsurprising a that physicalfeature with such manipulative potentialas hair should be used so frequently ritual.. the latter to but riteis clearly "ceremonial a mutilation" Whileconceding ritual that does (Tylor I873: 2. Now thehumanbodyis thefocusof muchritual. and that: Let us first all consider specialcharacteristicshair. One ofthemostfrequent ritual usesofhairis in association withmourning. of the of i. In someraces. thelightof truethat Leach'spsychological theory. whichcome underthegeneral headingof ceremonial mutilations. also body hair.classedritualhairas cutting one " ofan extensive series practices. and 7.on this a in myimmediate concern to consider particular is symbolic theme. 2.headhair. in Moreover. that with so can The wholerelationship they be shownempirically be trueor false.itwouldbe surprisingall itsritual symbolic if and manifestations could be reduced a single to origin. in is prophylaxis. is a social processwhich servesto prevent the individualfrom developingsexual repressions all' (I958: I6I). moreexplicitly. it itisnotan expression therepressed of unconscious thecollective of individual. malesdevelopfacialhairafter puberty. e. This may or may not be so. it is truethat: head= phallus hair= semen haircutting= castration long hair= unrestrained sexuality short hair=restricted sexuality closeshaven hair=celibacy. mostly to from but they havenotregarded thisas a matter crucialsignificance. . It growsin greatquantity. Hair on different partsof the body is of different texture. 8. 6.g. He avoids reference circumcision. Hair is a prominent feature animals. I have which just setout. eyelashes. 4. the problemwith at suchtheories to bring is themintosomesortof relationship thefacts. to try determine and to whether is really it in headhaircan be shownto be associated withsexuality a wide rangeof societies if and. to between occasion private socialsymbolism too complex be considered and is to here. Head hairis apparent infants bothsexesat birth. not reflect psychological the condition theindividual of performing butrather it. turns whiteand/or 9. In old age hairoften fallsout. Like thenailsit growsconstantly. 3.SOCIAL HAIR 25 7 symbolism occurs often ritual in because'ritualmakesexplicit these powerful and of dangerous thoughts Phallicism ritual thusa form cathartic . Genital/anal appearsat puberty bothsexes. view ofitsmanifold in characteristics. man'sanalogue in theanimalkingdom. on of hair in 5." Of other suchpractices mentions he blood-letting thecutting-off finger and of joints. againlikethenails. It can be cut painlessly. pubic hair.. 403)' (I958: i5o). to various often of due and obscure motives. On thispointLeach says: 'That hair rituals may have sexual associations been has apparent anthropologists thebeginning. of Tylor.

thenargues of In to the becausetheyare in factfelt be a repression libidinous energy. for bizarre require to some elucidation readers other describe veryfrequently the to over. is surely this amongother organs. The spirit (1922: withmanyceremonies' the or act of shaving cutting hairis accompanied of to instances show thesacredcharacter thehead 230).hencethe from injury every protected be must carefully spirit. socialanthropologist's The rites depassageHe might labelall suchrites so shouldbe emotionally of charged explanation why ritesof 'circumcision'. casewe find every and at form self-mutilation is performed mourning. contrast.. Of thisLeach says: catewiththeinnerfeelings the individual.. together . is but explanation. R. canaccept yet heimian. appear be sharply witha third borrowed from to Frazer.. theeffect bothsimultaneously argument.of whichit is theguardian or spirit calledkhuan kwun of kind. social and-he withthepublicly status socialpersons. there noprimafacie psychological but in has Certainly circumcision no suchmeaning. For example. of ritualuse of hair.. the and Durkof presentation' God andSociety. familiar along withnail Magic is another as from whosebody equalto theperson secretions. For example. HALLPIKE requires actor makeformal the to symbolic of that 'thestructure thesocialsituation in kind' (I958: I53). psycho-analytic the are We them to contrasted. headhairequals that in weaknesses Berg'shypothesis shaving One ofthegreatest as headsin mourning well as men. well 'circumcision'. Now exactlywhypeople shouldreactto grief in symbolism the first amenableto is themselves undoubtedly shavingofftheirhair and mutilating to reason linkitwithcastration. symbolically and parings bodily theycame. theabsence off that cutting ofthehairis accompanied bodily the off thatthecutting assume we why to anyindication thecontrary.Leach seat that recognising it is a mostappropriate of thesoul.Frazerlists(I923: mutilations societies whichsome in sixty-eight of the 377-83) besides Jews theOld Testament. they notcontradictory. of The psycho-analyst.references shaving head at mourning such as gashingthe face and body. of is concerned acknowledged anthropologist in are acts the notesthat ritual in whichpartof theindividual's bodyis cutoff prominent . sufficiently very whichwe are not given.whichis treated. reasonand thesensory eyes. and he citesmanyother the and consequently peculiarnatureof head hair.But what is castration thatwomenshavetheir The notionis sufficiently on earthdoes it mean to talk of 'femalecastration'? Morewho are not psychologists.Since the head is the seat of for good reason things. in almost of of In by laceration. stration similarity. should therefore type ofthehairis notsimply particular ofself-mutilation? a We frequently in ethnographical literature hairhas close associations that find thata to with the soul. defined.Thesetwoarguments. he stillfindsBerg's hypothesis of statements a particular loss of the loved one equals relationto shavingthe head at mourning-that as the of equals loss of hair-to be meaningful explaining genesis the castration by place. beingconcerned of whichcutawaypartof theindividual's equivalents bodyas symbolic all gorizes actions ritual thatthese actshaveemotional forcefortheindividual He 'castration'. demondifferentrequire to considerable but Not perhaps different.25 8 C. quitethereverse mostprimitive refer Frazeragain: 'The Siamesethink dwellsin thehumanhead. converts symbolinto a 'collectiverethe The ritualsituation primitive as of howeverthat'The " soul stuff" suchwriters Huttonand Wilken concludes (I958: from is notperhaps verydifferent the"libido" ofthepsycho-analysts' 5o).

It are personalnames. dress. itsphysical for like it veryappropriate. primitive In we less andstill to foot-prints. is only when we realisethatthe ritualuses of hair are of widely to differing typesthatwe can attempt explainany of them.SOCIAL HAIR 25 9 from individuals ritual in that magical powertypically in which detached are resides objects de situations-e. blood.nailsand blood. which frequently shadowsand foot-prints examples.It is endowed excellence vitality mayhave par (and associations withthesoul if it has come fromthehead) and it also fallsintothe of of widercategory extensions theperson.personalbelongings. empirical is The first one to whichI have already referred. therefore. can be thought as associated withthe the becauseit havinginherent vitality of and in thegeneral characteristics make category bodilymutilations. I have triedto demonstrate of So farin thisarticle something themultiplicity For it ofhairin itsritual of aspects. secondis that head The if hairequalsmalegenitals. different reasons. ifwe recognize they refer 'the but samething'. regarded a social category. blood reason whytheyshouldbe believedto be specially to in are of for and semen.But Leach's theory to but not onlytries providea singleexplanation. at is present birth. texture latter moreresemblance pubichairthanto head in wereanyplausibility thetheory headhairequalsmalegenitals. Leach was concerned show thatBerg's ethnoin certain equationof head hair equals genitals was relevant explaining graphical facts. is little whyis it that comparatively regard paid to beards As in ritual contexts? I remarked head hairis commonto bothsexesand earlier. in In of castration? fact. now we have gone farbeyondthisand are beingaskedto but cut fromthebody has a sexualsignificancebelievethateverything or removed castration. will be remembered. shadows. garments. whichare veryprominent magic. ofpersons the involved rites passage. parings. is is something whichinheres 'circumcision' in symbols. There is thusno reasonwhy a theory hair in ritualshouldbe to reduceall the manifestations hair to a singleorigin-symbolic of obliged It castration. there two reasons whyhairis chosen a symbol in with thewholeperson magic. do foot-prints shadows. would expect beardsto be more and thatcutting one than prominent headhairin ritual. but thatsuch symbolization to effective because eachindividual ritual for is "castration" the situation felt signify (I958: 162). thought of find that the personis thoughtof as having extensions. personalnames. founders three on stubbornly mayfigure soul. But tivethought. if blood and body dirtas used in magic and ritual But hair equals castration. expressing in changesor differences ritualor of social status. while the facialhair only developsin the male at puberty. is thatwomen'shair. then areledto conclude we as thatmagical potency. in the has to Moreover. all to that cannot simply merge these three arguments.also symbolise of there a muchsimpler is explanation whyhair. thefirst place. course. and symbolise This is the well as men's. theseconsiderations namesand garments. in We nail etc.etc.through head. that hair. alsobelieved be sources vitality primicannotapplyto body dirtor nasalmucus. are usedin basisto symbolise personfromwhom theywere the magic on a parspro toto is and a In taken. frequently focusof ritual attention.hairandnailsgrowconstantly this surely very good endowedwithvitality. it to Originally. that are as of seems it is surely strange in factbeards that havea . example.

in withthecommon usurped denofsomewildbeast Theyoften grazing thefields to Hermits supposed havepassed are . close shavenhairequals celibacy. and the a intotwoclasses... many nights days many (I960: 5i6).is farfrom and from socialobligation He quotesIyeras follows:'The sannyasin's freedom but by hisfinal renunciation thesex lifeis symbolised changeof dress above all of to he to According themode of asceticism intends pursue by changeof hairstyle.the of of traits suchas spiritual powerby reason whichthepossessor possession certain . shavenhead "means" Brahminthe tonsured from sexualpassions' the and head" means"totaldetachment celibacy thematted that is explanation ofcoursequiteopposedto thetheory long (i958: i56). who discipline. Leach pointsout thatfarfromthe hair 'The correct prescribed.evenallowingforthefactthatin someracesmalesdo comparatively is defect one to which and mostserious not developmuchfacialhair.. I have not so faralluded. advances one. theAnachorets. short hairequals restricted in wrong. and castaway.000 years ago' (I958: I56). HALLPIKE minorrole. asceticism the anchorite sannyasin theultimate expression.Leach of courseis awareof theproblem. Coenobites. indulged and regular the of renounced convent. shad over2.260 C. so faras he adequate.. The mostdevout. somesavage tuously to themselves therudeand to wereonlycovered their long hair. state the distinguished hiskindred miserable in which human their humble of namefromtheir derived practice and the numerous of Anachorets sect the herd.. course. many food.thisis all sexuality. tuft hairis an essential of of his a sannyasin either shavesoff tuft hair[theisolated it mark of the male Brahmin]or else neglects altogether. But this sexuality.. longhairequalsunrestrained to according theequations: Now ofcourse. the tuft "means" sexualrestraint.. livedunder common who 'The monks weredivided fanaticism.but his solution.. rather attitude condition rejection whichthe is or of or. again.Theyaspired reduce by is brute scarcely above animals.This is thefactthatascetics sexuality. growsinto of to the tendency ignore existence thegenital (cf theascetic torment a matted mass lice-inhabited and maybe as mucha sourceofunremitting to it as theneglected penisitselfApparently is not permitted existas faras conis sciousness concerned'(Leach I958: I56). their independent unsocial. livingundera particular re-entering symbolises or society partially whollyandI am one within society.' without years sleep. whomthey affected resemble. hairequalsunrestrained Empire passagein Gibbon'sDeclineandfall of theRoman There is a striking to relating long hairand asceticism. social identification the and allowingit to grow matted lousy' (Leach I958: I56). themostambitious thespiritual or of incumbrance dress theycontempthe as theyhad renounced world.The third commonly have long hair. All superfluous havebeen whosenaked bodies saints bothsexes of admired. brethren. By not suggesting thatlong hair is appropriate only to hermits and the of being'outsidesociety'I do not meantherefore totalexclusion ascetics of or an of similar but categories. 'For the But he agrees withBergthat I This illustrates well thehypothesis wish to advancein thisarticle:that very of with being outsidesocietyand thatthe cutting hair long hairis associated regime or disciplinary society. maybe outside Of and outcasts. Berg explains long hair of the hairas follows:'Fakirssimply ignorealtogether veryexistence their It organs). R. it behaviour beingcompulsive. is socially sannyasin's Upanibehaviour of Indianascetics all laid downin theNaradaparivrajaka was . The most to perfect without and without speaking.

SOCIAL HAIR 26I is notfully amenable socialcontrol. Gibbon's in irony delights emphasising menintheir how search holiness for come to resemble beasts. symbol beingin someway outside a of society. whileI am notsuggesting therelationship the and that between spiritual powerand beastliness morethanoutward analogical. be moreprecise. whatever for reason:thisis animality. or of beinglessamenable socialcontrol to thanthe averagecitizen.and secondly. The soldier of life and the convictare otherwell known examples. but nobody would supposethat soldiers ideally are from intended refrain to theend of the eighteenth century was not considered it unmanlyfor men to weep but is publicly. to of enough beenwritten has about'hippies'to makeanyexplanation their of longhair somewhat superfluous. mayconsider we three categories person of who are. hippies and women all have long hair. are thought be. witches. theothers poverty are and obedience. The animalfamiliars of witches thewild beasts and overwhichtheEgyptian saints suchpower.) is of coursetruethatin pastcenturies have It men wornlonghair. hostile and critical society. Thereis considerable evidence fact an association in for of 'outside societyequals hairiness equals animality'.Anchorites. that Long hairis therefore. Gibbon'squotaideally a mostrigorously tionmakes is no and very clear. to more whimsical and less predictable thanmen. in suchperiods but women'shairhasbeenevenlonger. generally credited withlong hair-intellectuals. By contrast these to groups. themonktakes But vows. intellectuals.In thefirst place. like the monk. there no indication theyoutdidwomenin thisrespect.byreason hisinterests. or Thereis howeverone characteristic whichis often associated withbeingoutsidesociety. I suggest. butthere no single is quality whichthey havein commonbesides negative the one of beingpartially whollyoutsidesociety. (Whether truly falsely besidethe point-it is stilla or is widelyheldsocialstereotype. ifconvicts. juvenilerebels against society women. soldier convict and that signifies they underdiscipline.It is notdifficult seethat various and in to waysthey or are. would formulate to To I the as theory 'cutting hairequals socialcontrol'. of as they have alwaysbeen considered be more governedby theiremotions. of remote concerns everyday or evenpositively of and life. The anchorite.ofwhichchastity is onlyone. of socialtype.Dressingthehairmay also be the it. in somerespects subject socialcontrol to less thantheaverage to man. But themeansby whichone attains condition of course this are various. ceremonially equivalent cutting to The tonsure themonkis a familiar of of aspect Christian religious to which life.of course. abstains The monk.come had . Leachrefers andwhichat first briefly seems support theory to sight the (I958: I54) that shaven three headequalscelibacy.theyare traditionally and concerned withdomestic affairs not withtherunning society a whole. underthediscipline institutional who hashishaircutshort. is nevertheis and it lessa striking resemblance. under socialdiscipline whatsoever indeed represents rejection social controlin its most extreme of degree. thecaseofwomenperhaps But needsa little moreelucidation. monkin factis underdisThe as cipline. not theonlyperson is fromthelustsof theflesh. of havinglessto do withit. even having by reason their of circumstances.The intellectual someone is from the who is.Thusthecropped heador tonsure all three in are casesofmonk. in Western society. in practice are of deprived sex. yet he.

It maybe significant two majorprophets.exceptthosepassagesdealingwith the cutting-off hair in discussed. . the hairuntil end allowedto cuttheir unto themselves theLord. Dribidumeans" thehairy heroes] " withlonghairovermostofhisbody. hisnailslikebirds'claws' (Daniel: the Elijah andJohn Baptist. . hairiness= I6.who behavedas were ordinary the thatin thelatter personages they of people behave now.werenever arated shaved offat the tabernacle when the hair was formally of theirseparation. In Leviticus is prescribed a sufferer in ready to be reincorporated an therefore outcast.and socialattributes: the (Esau) hunter hairiness= (Nebuchadnezzar) wild beasts hairiness= (Samson) strength physical hairiness= JohntheBaptist) power(Elijah. 3). HALLPIKE place an give societies animals important Mostprimitive connexion. On the contrary.since atehischildren homeon theeastbankoftheNile. herdsman. (Numbers:6. F.. I shouldemphasise I have in of theseBiblicalexamples orderto prove a in not been partial my selection the point.or associations the provides following The Bible therefore cutting hair.whilehisbrother was of Esau. 8. to mindin this before nature the symbolise chaosof untamed and cosmologies theyoften in their heroDribiduof theLugbaraas described The of theprocess socialisation.when cured and thereby who sepshallshaveoffall his hair(Leviticus:14.and whenhe is shorn is as weak as anyother and of of clearexample theassociation hairiness the very is madean outcast another men. R. of by Middleton (I960) is a good example this one" sincehe werenothumanas menarenow. and he was driven from separation as oxen.whereasin the former were in and manner livedinisolation. a hairy for was in man dwelling tents. that 4. headsin church. of an mourning. In the Book ofjudges we are told thatSamson'sstrength man(Judges: he in resided hishair. aspect hairalready between long hair. Howard says:'It may to injunction womento covertheir Rabbinical showfrom So Stack& Billerbeck authority.262 C. woman shouldalwaysappear thatthe married usage required Jewish upon her. I-I8). from ' in society thestateof nature: .He is alsoknownas " Banyale was covered out and until was discovered driven of he he of (" eater men"). society. I7-I9). The Nazarites. and was of The description howKingNebuchadnezzar overthrown . 23-27). as a signthather husband's tokenof herfreemaidenhood.. and his body was wet with the dew of heaven. little Leach's. a discussion St Paul's with hairiness are associated W.Esau also sold his birthright food and fromleprosy that it (Genesis:25. In our own terms hisearlier the and after heroesis betweenthetwo periodsbefore differences thesignificant humanbeings. be a signof thehusband's headas a withuncovered procession walkedin thewedding thatthebride sources was authority Then. considerable The Bibleprovides a Jacob.' (I960: 23 I) '. for but for support myhypothesis.till and did eat grass and hishairsweregrownlike eagles'feathers. culture 'They [thetwo cultureassociation. spiritual asceticism. examplesare a completelist of everysignificant of mentionof hair. 33). 9). a worldin whichthere in behaved a contrary no clans'(I960: 233). thehunter wild beasts. . 2. and were members clans. a smoothman. of In and animalclothing. that withherheadcovered'(Howard 1929: I Cor..

mode of analysis be two-fold. beingassociated withsupernatural half-human sevenassociations is paperon organisation values. it fits of of equallywell withmy hypothesis. itis accordingly and possible evaluate to Thus the particular piece of symbolism terms how well theyfitthefacts. by The advantage treating than'about' of symbolism 'about' theworld. but it seemsto me thatthe association cited so faris ampleconfirmation thereis no frequent that evidence of of head hair and the male genitals. imagination training. haveconsulted (I onlythereferences 'hair' and 'hairy'. hairiness or beings. in But there a morefundamental is When an anthropologist is whichit shares with all suchpsychological theories.) withsexuality. as the structure there a language in just analysed thelinguist.threeassociawithanimal-human relationships.The his in he is is in structure there the symbolism. Of course. withwhatthesymbols standforin thesubconscious each thattakenby itself But could be citedas evidence theassociation head hairand sexuality. But intelligence. that account My primary objection Leach'stheory to therefore simply it takes is of veryfewof thefacts. One could go on producing confirmatory data.rather as thesubconscious thattherelations and is between symbols theworldare empiridifferent explanations a of callyverifiable. successof the interpretation dependon the qualityof the anthropologist's will themselves. facts and the cannotinterpret thepointI am making thatonce theanthropologist discerned structure has the is of the symbolism the culture is investigating.SOCIAL HAIR 263 growing long hair= separation from society God (Nazarites) to whenlepers cured) are shaving hair= rejoining society (Nazarites. work is complete. but wheresocialstatus overtly hairand withsex. littleforLeach's. withwitches. There are twenty for and suchas fairies. of When he has collectedsufficient of thistype he will tryto discernthe data structure the symbolism of and its relationto the people's cosmology. relations. he has no meansof knowing will He this. The chiefdeficiency Leach's hypothesis he rangeoffacts than leadsus to however notthat applies a muchnarrower is it to associated with is suppose. to andsixwithasceticism. will His askthenatives eliciting satisfactory a whateachsymbol means(without necessarily answer)and make a listof theoccurrences each symbolin its ritualcontext. devilsand mermaids. threeassociations tionswithvegetable-human sevenassociations withthesoul or vitality. considerable Stith-Thompson's Motif-index literature offolk (I955-8) alsoprovides instances of support my hypothesis. weakness histheory. giants. of covering hair= discipline (women's acceptance husbands'authority).A good exampleof thisprocedure Turner's and the symbols passage Ndembu circumcision of in ritual (TurnerI962).itfails provideanyexplanation whylonghairis associated to of with withascetics and with men like Samson. waterand wood spirits. in of is advantage my theory of thatcutting hair equals social control thatit can be .and why shorthairis associated monksand soldiers. he himself trying understand rituals an alien culture does not concern to the of of indeed. thaton itsown ground. it The onlymarginal case amongtheseis thatof Samson. though Therewereno clearreferences headhairin association to Leach might disagree withme.

. R. Thedecline I922. of Withpsychologicaltheories suchas Leach's. 3). Banton. Frazer. I958.J. London: Epworth Press. i96o. I960. I923. F. Press. Eiserlen etal. Low). anthrop. E. Motif on ritual. offolk literature. Middleton. Leach. other In words. a mode of analysis with fewerconceptualproblemsand which permits high haveto fallback If fails then will perforce we degree empirical of verification. Chatto & Windus. (Ass. to study approachesthe in I966. cannotrelatea people'ssymbolism we to thefacts their and but of natural environment their society.In Essays the in Turner. E. Primitive bough (abridgededn). G. Abingdon commentary F. Three symbolsofpassage Ndembu circumcision (ed. London: Oxford Univ. Stith-Thompson. i955-8. Folklore theOld Testament by of Roman empire (abridgement D. W. this on theresources psychology. seemssounder tryfirst all to see if social and a symbolism be explained relation society thephysical can in to environment. B. M.) ofreligion M. Ist and 2nd Corinthians. HALLPIKE appliedfairly rigorously thelogic of socialsituations whichhairis symbolito in callysignificant. I47-64. I929. Lugbara Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger. index J. Press. Londoii: andfall the Gibbon.V. Inst. do nothave to ask ourselves: we 'What is going on in the mindsof people who cut offtheir hairafter beingcuredof leprosy?' minds (quitepossibly nothing all is goingon in their at beyondtheacceptance a of socialrule).we simply consider structural the form theevidence. Magical hair. religion. London.E.J. Bible (eds) In Howard. of REFERENCES J. onlyto one of an indefinite number theories of aboutthesubconscious. I873. Colour classification Ndembu ritual. therefore. R. to of it Methodologically. Thegolden in (abridged edn). Monogr. C. I962.In Anthropological (ed. Manchester:Univ. R. 88.264 C. 2 culturevols. London: Macmillan.however. W. social Anthrop. London: Macmillan. London: Tavistock Publications. Tylor.) ritual social of relations Max Gluckman.