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Here is a written message someone left after listening to their answerphone, What was the
orfglnal answerphone message?: 1 'Hi, this is Dave. Can you ask Pam to phone me tonight at home and give him your passport number?' 'Hi, this is Dave. Can you ask Pam to phone him tonight at home and give her my passport number?' 'Hi, this is Dave. Can you ask Pam to phone Luke tonight at home and give him your passport number?' 'Hi, this is Dave. Can you ask Pam to phone me tonight at home and give me her passport number?' 'Hi, this is Dave. Can you ask Pam to phone him tonight at home and give me her passport number?' 'Hi, this is Luke. Can you ask Pam to phone Dave tonight and give me her passport number?'

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Now, write the answerphone messages for these written messages:

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Bernard 2 Stcphane' phoned. //leeds B~r!Jet)s phone manb er , pl nCTneh~m th~s everzi~. Cheers Jacob.
j

SOIV'f\, O\iver ?hOV\eG , \-TOISV\'+Sot NOIV\C~s V\LAV'f\ber. 9hoV\e her +0 +e\\ her +0 ?noV\e 'r\iV'f\ +O'(YIorrovi '(YIorV\iV\S See ~OLA, "\ond "

© Macmillan Heinemann

ELT 2001. This page may be photocopied

for use in class.

1 Expand this headline into a full sentence. Can you predict the story?

I MAN PROPOSES IN AIRPORT, WOMAN ACCEPTS ON PLANE I
2 Now, use the notes (in the order given) to write a newspaper text of six sentences. You may
need t~c~9nge the form of some of the words. when Charles Devlin propose Lilian Lyle outside duty-free shop Rome airport she tell have wait reply not have wait long mid-flight Heathrow Captain Murray Smiles announce over airliner address system 'have message Charles Devlin proposal marriage Lilian accept' passengers applaud cabin crew offer congratulations Ahmed Habibi passenger Dubai emerge first-class cabin bear two gold watch offer couple declare most romantic thing hear 30 years 3 Compare your text with the original story at the bottom of the page.

4 Now, see if you can make a one-sentence news item out of the following notes:
birdwatcher protest fishermen Newhaven Sussex they bare backsides shout abuse he look through binoculars town pier later discover they mistake he fisheries inspector
fold here

Exercise 3

Here is the original text:

Charles Devlin proposed to Lilian Lyle outside the duty-free shop at Rome airport, she told him that he would have to wait for a reply. He did not have to wait long. In mid-flight to Heathrow, Captain Murray Smiles announced over the airliner's address system: 'I have a message for Charles Devlin. His proposal of marriage to Lilian has been accepted.'

Passengers applauded, cabin crew offered congratulations and Ahmed Habibi, a passenger from Dubai, emerged from the first-class cabin bearing two gold watches that he offered to the couple. It was, he declared, the most romantic thing he had heard for 30 years.

Exercise 4
Here is the original news item:

A BIRDWATCHER who protested to fishermen at Newhaven, Sussex, after they bared their backsides and shouted abuse at him while he looked through binoculars from the town pier, later discovered they mistook him for a fisheries inspector.

: iacmillan Heinemann

ELT 2001. This page may be photocopied

for use in class.

There was a strong wind blowing and above us dark clouds were forming. What are the differences? A I am sitting on the sand and watching the sea. There is an old man walking his dog along the beach. The sun is setting. Then suddenly. fighting for pieces of fish. There was no sign of the little house. There is a fisherman pulling his boat out of the water and up the beach. change this poem into a prose description: parting at dawn clouds turning from red to gold a light rain falling somewhere a dog is barking and the car stands humming B sitting on the sand watching the sea the sun setting a fisherman pulling his boat out of the water birds flying. It was late. and there are birds flying and screaming. screaming. We were home at last! 3 Now. we saw the moon rising over the mountain. far away then nothing only the sound of waves quietly breaking your hand in mine eyes not meeting only two hearts beating the night too short and too long the day that is coming Ruth Norby © Macmillan Heinemann ELT 2001. We could see the path leading to the house. far away. This page may be photocopied for use in class. . There was a light burning in the window.1 Read this description (A). I 2 Change this description into a poem: We were walking in the mountains. Compare it with the poem (B). Now I can hear nothing. apart from the sound of the waves quietly breaking on the shore. fighting for pieces of fish an old man walking his dog throwing sticks someone singing. throwing sticks for it to catch. Now I can hear someone singing.

15 People with terminal illneses don't have to stay alive if they don't want to. so that it reflects the opinion of everyone in the group. 2 The Internet must be censored. 6 The government can tap telephone calls. 7 you can't buy a pet yourself until you are 12. This page may be photocopied for use in class. 2 . read and discuss each proposal. 8 Politicians can accept gifts but not money. 14 Parents with more than two children can get assistance from the government.. 9 '" you should see a dentist regularly. Change each statement in any way you like. 3 Write a similar true/false quiz for your own country. 10 Minority languages don't have to be protected. 4 Famous people have to be protected from the media. 4 '" you don't have to do military service.. 5 '" you can buy cigarettes once you turn 16. . Are these sentences true or false? In Britain . 5 Sports people shouldn't make money from advertising. 7 Everyone except children has to pay taxes.1. but you should have a licence. 4 The government is considering introducing some new laws. 10 '" you have to start your education by the time you are 5. 2 Now. 16 Private business has to support culture and the arts. 11 Same-sex couples can marry but they can't adopt children. 1 Young people should pay rent to their parents. you don't have to marry until you are 16. 3 Children don't have to be educated in schools. ~ .'vlacmillan Heinemann ELT 2001. 1 '" you have to vote when you are 18. 13 Capital punishment can be used for some crimes.. correct the false sentences so that they are true. In groups. 12 People have to get a permit to own a gun. 3 '" you should pay for a seat on trains once you turn 5. 9 Smokers have to pay for their own health care.. 6 you shouldn't smoke. 8 '" you can drive when you are 17.

2 Now. The person who bought a coffee is called Robin. check that you know the difference between: chicken a chicken a hair hair a coffee coffee a glass glass an ice cream ice cream Can you add any more words to these lists? For example: paper a paper 1. This page may be photocopied for use in class. The family name of the person who is standing on glass is Patel. The person who has long hair is called Kim. The family name. The family name of the person who bought coffee is O'Connor.:1 look at the pictures. read the sentences and work out the name (first name and family name) of each person. The person who is standing on a glass is called Jo. . The family name of the person who ordered a chicken is MacDonald. The person who ordered chicken is called Chris.) Macmillan Heinemann ELT 2001.of the person who has a long hair is Smith. The family name of the person who is eating an ice cream is Brown. The person who is eating ice cream is called Pat.

b) The man was bitten by a snake. © Macmillan Heinemann ELT 200 l. b) The elephant was frightened by the mouse. a) The professor drove to the university. . This page may be photocopied for use in class.:1 Choose the sentence that goes with the picture. a) The mother fed the child. a) The detective followed the woman. b) The professor was d riven to the university. a) The man bit a snake. b) The mother was fed by the child. b) The detective was followed. write sentences to go with these pictures. a) The elephant frightened the mouse. a) This dog bites! b) This dog was bitten! 2 Now.

A Forest. and check that the learners are familiar with the names of the different parts of speech. the framework for a poem) that consists solely of parts of speech. laughing Angry.2 Grammar poems Level Time Aims Intermediate and above 20-25 minutes To reinforce grammar terms through creative writing. The Sharks. is a poem that is based on the above rubric: Example The Sea Smiling. laughing 14 I Word grammar . joyful Smiling.1. The first line is the title of the poem. or the poems can be illustrated and displayed around the room. participle adjective. joyful The sea It comes It goes It never sleeps The sea Angry.e. for example: The Sea. Example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 article + noun participle. frowning. Here. adjective repeat 1 pronoun + verb pronoun + verb pronoun + always/never/still + verb repeat 1 repeat 3 repeat 2 Procedure 1 Write the rubric on the board. etc. Preparation Prepare a poem 'rubric' (i. frowning. 2 Tell them that this is the model for a poem. 3 Learners work individually or in pairs to compose their poems. participle. 4 They then exchange poems. for example.

7 Do-it-yourself concordancing Level Time Aims Elementary and above 30-45 minutes To sensitize learners to the grammar words in English. i. when I was IN India. a 219-word transcript from natural English Intermediate would be suitable.e. Use a text that learners are already familiar with.1. 2 Then ask them to tell you the words that occur on either side of it. This context should be sufficient to demonstrate the grammar pattern the word is embedded in at the phrase or clause level. arranging them in lines and so that the keyword is aligned down the centre.) 24 I Word grammar . and their multiple uses. Procedure 1 To demonstrate the activity. It could be an authentic text. and to give enough context for the meaning to be easily retrievable. there were three of us IN this boat water started coming IN (Oh no! ) (These are called concordance lines. or a transcript of a listening passage. up to about six. and ask the learners to tell you how many times it occurs. It is important that the text is as natural as possible. and to show what concordancing involves. This example is taken from the sample text below: last year. we asked this man to take us IN his coracle so we stepped IN very carefully. of at least 200 words in length. that it hasn't been specially written to display a particular grammar feature. their frequency.) Make copies of the text and distribute these to the class. 3 Write these contexts on to the board. (The sample text below. Preparation Choose a text. Or it could be a reading passage. choose a grammar word that occurs with relatively high frequency in the text. either authentic or from a coursebook. from the coursebook. write it on the board.

where in is followed by a noun. they could exchange lines and classifications. the following words might usefully be studied: go (and going). and (for the purposes of this task) make sure they are grammar words. These two are in turn preceded by a verb (stepped. To do this. either assign different words to different pairs. You could point out that. when I was in India. it will help if they look at the words immediately to the left and to the right of the keyword. three of the examples of in above are followed by a place. it was so peaceful and quiet and all we could hear was the water. his coracle. 5 Now. in the form of a noun phrase (India. it was exciting __ we managed 6 When the learners have prepared their concordance lines. they're circular. erm. Choose words that occur at least three times in the text. In the example text above. SO it was. Here. it is functioning as an adverb-as the adverbial particle of a phrasal verb. and was. they could write their concordance lines on to an overhead projector transparency. 7 Iflearners have been working on different words. I don't know if you know what they are (No!)but they're a tiny boat. Sample text Well. and try to identify what part of speech it is. But where in is not followed by a noun. in fact. it is functioning as a preposition. and compare their answers. They should also be warned that there may only be one pattern in the (relatively limited number of) lines that they have. so. or assign the same words to all pairs. and it is preceded by a verb. are concordance lines for so (from the sample text below): and so we asked this man to take us and erm. SO we stepped in very carefully it was so peaceful and quiet and so our little boat started going round to get out. off we went. and so our little boat started going round and round.really. erm. this boat). and it was just beautiful. and we were really frightened because water started coming in (Oh no!) to the coracle and it was going faster and faster.4 Ask learners if they can identify any patterns in the lines that are displayed. For example. and the man seemed out of control and we could hear the water and it was splashing us (Ah!)and we seemed to be sinking (Oh) Word grammar I 25 . almost like erm. while the other two are not. a dish really (Oh) and erm. Depending on what you choose to be your focus. so we stepped in very carefully. coming). ask learners to work individually or in pairs to prepare their own concordance lines based on the text. and then can take turns to 'explain' their lines to the rest of the class. they should then start looking for patterns. last year. and it was a really beautiful experience (Yeah)until suddenly the water started whirling round and round and round. for instance. myself and my boyfriend wanted to go from one side of the river to the other side of the river (Mm) and so we asked this man to take us in his coraclewhich is. there were three of us in this boat and erm. If they have been working on the same words.

with the keyword blanked out. one word per page. but erm. as in Activity 1. Dictionaries. like way. it was exciting and it was different.and eventually he pulled us to the side and er. above. 1. which can then be exchanged with other groups. like take. Materials 26 I Word grammar . it was a bit to: frightening. such as high frequency verbs. make. of course. Follow-up This activity is a good way ofintroducing learners to the idea of keeping a Keyword Notebook-that is. but other high frequency words. and place. and even number them according to the use each example represents. so it was. Variation 2002) The concordance lines can be used to make sentence gap-fills. Oxford University Press. and high frequency nouns.. 2 This activity has focused solely on grammar words. For example in1 = preposition.: Dictionary grammar. As they encounter new instances of these words (in their classroom work or outside the classroom). thing. (natural English Intermediate Listening Booklet. they can add lines to their concordances.8 Keyword stories Level Time Aims Intermediate to advanced 30-50 minutes To sensitize learners to the productive power of keywords. Comments I A list of the top page 127. a notebook in which they record examples of the high frequency words in English. Comments 1 The classification of concordance lines can. 100 most frequent words in English can be found on Acknowledgements I am grateful to Jane Willis for introducing me to the idea oflearners malting their own concordances. and to provide practice in associating these words with their typical grammatical environments. and get. be done by consulting dictionaries and grammars. in2 = adverb. we managed to get ot. could also be targeted. who have to guess what the missing word is.

that is. for example.) The children soon became bored. He got up to no good. But Tom got bored. (= Please take off your hat) Can you photograph me? (= Can you take my photograph?) I usually go to work by bus. they 'unpack' the text. (= She never got to work on time. One night he got home late. She got to thinking. (= I usually take the bus to work) etc. the unpacking may only involve substituting the keyword with a synonym. 3 Finally. take: The bus journey was very long. You can give an example: Tom and Liz got on well. either because it is a grammar word or because it is a highly versatile content word (like take. way).) etc. Depending on the level. He got what was coming. 'You've got lipstick on your collar: she said. In others it will mean redrafting the sentence completely. Procedure Exam pie 1 Students read the story. and identify the keyword. they can attempt to define the categories themselves. for example She got the first bus. (In this case it occurs in every sentence. Write a short text that uses this keyword a number of times and in a number of different ways. or they can be given the categories in advance: Word grammar I 27 . 4 Students then classify the different uses of got. prepare some sentences that can be paraphrased using another keyword. 2 Example Prepare some sentences for dictation that do not include the keyword.) 2 Using dictionaries and working in pairs or small groups. (= The children soon got bored. without using the verb got. They never got her. She got a gun. (= They got on well [with each other]. = Tom and Liz liked each other. 3 Individual students take turns to report to the class how their group unpacked each sentence. (= The bus journey took a long time) Please remove your hat.e. got. i.) What do you have in your hand? (= What have you got in your hand?) They enjoyed each other's company.Preparation __ 1 Choose a keyword-that is a word that has high frequency in English. = He behaved badly. for example He got up to no good. but which can be paraphrased using the keyword. that is the word that is significantly prominent. She never arrived at work on time. thing. She got the first bus out of town. You can consult the entries in a dictionary for ideas. In some cases. they work out what it means so that they are prepared to give a paraphrase of the story.) Tom and Liz got on well and in time they got married. got. Example This sample text below uses got. = She took the first bus.

They write their story but leave a gap in place of the keyword. using a high frequency verb. 28 I Word grammar . they provide an effective resource for complementing the information in the Keyword Notebook. for example: Spidergrams have the advantage over lists in that they can display relationships between uses more clearly and memorably. and ask the learners to paraphrase them using the keyword (got).7. an idea outlined above.got + noun phrase got + participle got as phrasal verb have + got got as part of an idiomatic phrase 5 Using dictionaries. 8 Students can then write their own keyword story. 6 Dictate the second set of prepared sentences. different groups can be given different keywords. and they have to work out what the missing keyword is. For these reasons. They can then read and compare each other's stories..'Do-it-yourself concordancing' . Groups read the stories of other groups. and ask learners to paraphrase them using another keyword (take). Variation For Stage 8 above. and new words or uses can be inserted without major disruption to the existing pattern. in the Follow-up to Activity 1. 7 Dictate the third set of prepared sentences. such as the one that you chose in stage 7. They will need dictionaries to do this. Follow-up Show learners how to record the different uses of a keyword in the form of a 'spidergram'. they can then add two or three more combinations to each list.

he always parks his car in the... for example.. if it is subsequently discovered that that team did not get all the answers correct. 'Can you stop by on your to work?' he asked. the team that got the most right answers is declared the winner instead. Sample text My neighbour A neighbour of mine who lives across the phoned me to say that he was in a bad. the first sentence of the sample text below would read: A neighbour of mine who lives across the ~ . in a strange. and tell learners that twelve instances of the word way/ways have been removed. you may want to let them consult dictionaries as they do the task. He's one of those people who like to get their own. He has been a bad neighbour in more than one. either because they are grammar words or because they are highly versatile content words). Word grammar I 29 . or in pairs or small groups. 2 Once the task has been completed. if it is not already obvious. I wouldn't usually go out of my for him. On the other hand. and my first thought was..9 Keyword insertion Level Time Aims Intermediate and above 15-25 minutes To raise awareness about the frequency and multi-functionality of keywords (words that have high frequency in English. but they are not of course representative of real texts. He also owes me money. all twelve examples of way (and ways) have been taken out. 1. no. So I thought this might be a good to improve relations . And he doesn't have much in the of family or friends. I quite like him.. their task is to re-insert them.Comments These keyword stories are designed to display a particular feature of the language in a way that makes it stand out. Make copies for your students. Working individually. For a start. by the. Variation A competitive element can be introduced by turning the task into a race. Preparation Prepare a text with all instances of one keyword removed. Depending on the level ofthe class. So. where such a high degree of repetition would be unusual. Of course. Procedure 1 Hand out copies of the text. with the pair or group who are first to complete the task calling out Bingo!. check by having learners take turns to read the sentences of the text aloud.You may wish to make this point to the learners. In the sample text below.

and then to prepare a version of the text with all instances of that word removed. based around a high frequency word. as in Activity 1. a text with a dozen or more of the keywords in it is very contrived. Learners then exchange texts and 'test' each other. Follow-up 2 Ask learners to write their own texts. Of course. It will help iflearners have access to a dictionary when doing this task. since keywords are-by definition-highly frequent. once the words themselves have been reinserted into the text. and therefore even naturally occurring texts are likely to have a high proportion of them. Or ask them to record them in the form of a spidergram (see Activity 1. Comments Such texts are not that difficult to compose. but this does not necessarily detract from its value as a learning tooL .Follow-up 1 Ask learners to classify all the different uses of the keyword.8.8 Follow-up for an example). 'Keyword stories'.

here are five sentences about the author of this book.- -··-····---·····-·0··----·· 2. When I was 26 I went and taught in Egypt. 46 I Sentence grammar . never) but could equally well be used to focus on a verb form. After that Itaught in Poland for five years. At least one of the sentences should contain an item of grammar that you plan to highlight. such as the present perfect: Ihave been teaching since Iwas 25. some false. Preparation Prepare. one of which is false.3 True or false? Level Time Aims Any 20-30 minutes To rehearse a grammar item in a personalized context. for dictation. They have been designed to include different time expressions (since I was 25. Some of the sentences should be true. five or six sentences about yourself or about someone likely to be well known to the learners. For example. I once worked in New Zealand. Ihave never taught in China orJapan.

If there are any problems. each of the following sentences has a time adverbial embedded in it. tell the class the correct answer. (This could also be turned into a true/false activity. using the targeted grammar feature or features. do not tell them who they are about. If the sentences are about yourself. invite the learners to ask more questions about any of the topics mentioned. After that I taught in Poland for five years. for 'standardized'. Dictate the sentences. When I was 26 Iwent and taught in Egypt. For example. Tell the class who the sentences are about (if they can't already guess). that everyone has the same version. using this opportunity to ask questions aimed at drawing attention to relevant grammar rules-such as the use of for with periods oftime (for five years) and since with the point of time at which an activity began (since Iwas 25)or the use of the present perfect to talk about situations that started in the past and extend to the present. Why did you go and teach in Egypt? Would you like to work in China orJapan?. 6 7 8 Now it is time to focus on the embedded language feature. of any words 2. At this stage. Show learners one example of the targeted feature. and the use of the past simple to talk about situations that are separated from the present. repeating once or twice. at natural speed. phrase. and to compare in pairs.) Ihave been teaching since I was 25. and some false. challenging learners to justify their choice. S to read back the sentences aloud to the class. (You can choose whether or not to tell them how many are false.) Sentence gramme' I 47 . etc. 9 Conduct an open class feedback on the task. 4 Ask individuals ask learners to important. Ihave never taught in China orJapan. Finally. 2 Allow learners to compare in pairs to make sure they have the same sentences. (A time adverbial is a word. or clause which adds information about time to the sentence. that the sentences are that is.3 ~ 3 Ask questions to check that learners know the meaning that might be unfamiliar. then ask them to find the same feature in the other sentences. or that some are true and some false. dictate the problem sentences again.-Procedure 1 Tell the class you are going to dictate some sentences. For example.) Ask them to decide which are true and which are false. with learners asked to include some 'misinformation' in their sentences. and tell them that some of the sentences are true. 10 Ask the learners individually to write sentences that are true about themselves. It is very the purposes of this activity. Have a show of hands about each sentence. I once worked in New Zealand. and/or come and write the sentences on the board. one at a time.

For example. Iforgot to feed the cat this morning. Yesterday evening I took the dog for a walk. 2 Other topics which could be used are daily routine. as well as providing useful models for the learners' own sentences. the school curriculum. Learners should use your sentences as a model but no grammar point is preselected. Variation 2 1 Having dictated your own sentences (as in Stages 1-7 above). 48 I Sentence grammar . all of which provide content for this kind of activity. 2 Elicit some of these back on to the board. put all the sentences that use the present perfect together. Then proceed as in Stage 5.- 11 Learners then form small groups to take turns to read their sentences aloud to one another and say if they think the sentences are true or false. free-time activities. and group them according to the language structures they embed. Variation 1 The same process can be used to contrast two related structures. using your sentences as a model. In this case. Learners then use these sentences as the basis for a conversation in which they ask further questions about the content of each other's sentences. the sentences chosen above could be used to focus on the difference between the present perfect and the past simple. 4 Use these sentences as the 'data' for the language focus. if this option in Stage 11has been chosen. Thistime next week I'll be on holiday. or even last night's TVviewing. as in Stage 8 above. For example. 3 Elicit corrections for any sentences that are not well formed. Here are some examples (with time adverbials underlined): My sister phoned while Iwas having dinner. as in Activity 2. and to write these down. learners can be asked first to separate the sentences into two groups. and all the sentences that use the past simple together-or all the sentences that use for and all the sentences that use since.2. omit the language focus (Stage 8)but instead ask learners to create sentences about themselves. etc. Comments 1 Dictating the sentences in Stages 1-4 ensures that learners engage with both the form and the meaning of the sentences but you could also simply write the sentences on the board for learners to copy down.

My younger brother has just graduated. Preparation Prepare about six to eight sentences which include the target structure. Write the sentences on slips of paper. Example Here are six sentences that practise the present perfect with just: My sister has just had a baby. Sentence grammar I 61 . My grandparents have just moved house.12 Picasso sentences Level Time Aims Elementary and above 20-30 minutes To review any grammar structure.2. My elder brother has just had an operation. My daughter has just learnt to read. My uncle has just been to New York. and which represent a situation that can be drawn.

and the process is repeated with a new sentence. wins a point. 4 When all the sentences have been used. draw two stick figures on the board. and shapes to represent the Pyramids. to elicit the sentence My parents have just been to Egypt.e. Write a recent date above the picture. and then write it on the board-this will serve as a model. and return to their group where they 'draw' the sentence.Procedure 1 Demonstrate the activity: attempt to elicit a sentence that contains the structure you have selected by drawing on the board. writing. Then another team representative comes forward from each group. 2 Divide the class into teams of about three or four students each. Once learners have more or less guessed the sentence. Speaking. parents) with yourself. to establish the relationship (i. elicit the sentences back from the groups and write them on the board (their drawings will help to remind them of what the sentences were about). Each member of each team will take turns to come to the front of the class. This will be easier ifit is a structure that has been recently presented and practised. . Use this stage to focus on the form and meaning of the structure. Draw further stick figures. according to the model. tidy it up for them. 3 The first group to produce the full sentence aloud and correctly formed. or mime are not allowed. For example. if necessary. be shown one of the sentences (all team representatives are shown the same sentence simultaneously).

or which they may not have thought significant. Check the meaning of any vocabulary likely to be unfamiliar. Listen: who used to live in Italy? etc. 3 Work through a few more questions in open class. they can write short texts about themselves. 4 Check the answers and elicit a rule about the use of used to. incorporating used to. Make a copy of the prepared text for each learner. substituting used to where appropriate. For example.2. using a text. and answer either Jenny or Jamie indiscriminately. Give clear feedback on their answers. see Worksheet 2. that it is used only to talk about past habits or habitual states.31 Problem-solving presentation (using text) Level Time Aims Pre-intermediate and above 20-30 minutes To draw learners' attention. and then let them work individually or in pairs on the rest. For example: TEACHER STUDENT TEACHER Who used to live in Italy? 1 Jamie. No. i. to a conceptual distinction that they may not have previously noticed. or in the questions about the text. and how it contrasts with the present simple for present habits and habitual states. learners may not appreciate that it differs from the present simple. Preparation Write a text and associated comprehension questions in such a way that the questions require learners to discriminate between two contrasting grammar items. Sentence grammar I 93 . Depending on their familiarity with the form used to. Procedure 1 Distribute the text and allow learners time to read it silently. designed to alert learners to the way used to is used to refer to past habits. just to make sure that the learners have got the general idea. The items can either be in the text itself. 2 Ask Questions 1 and 2. 5 Learners can then rewrite the texts.31a. 6 Finally.e. and habitual states.

Before that he lived in France. He worked as an English teacher in France. to talk about a time period that is 'detached' from the present (because the person referred to is dead). and the present perfect. The task hinges on learners understanding the difference between the past simple. Jamie has lived in Italy for five years now. 94 I Sentence grammar . and she writes poetry.31. rather than in the questions that follow it. Now he's a writer. His wife is a cook.b is an example of a task in which the targeted grammar items are included in the text. 1 Who used to live in Italy? 2 Who lives in Italy? 3 Who used to live in France? 4 Who lives in France? 5 Who used to be an English teacher? 6 Who is an English teacher? 7 Who is married? 8 Who used to be married? 9 Who plays tennis? 10 Who used to play tennis? 11 Who writes poetry? 12 Who used to write poetry? Photocopiable © Oxford University Press Variation Worksheet 2. He played tennis in his youth.Worksheet 2. In his free time Jamie goes sailing. He wrote poetry when he was young but now he writes travel books. but now she is divorced. to talk about a time period that still has present relevance (because the person referred to is alive). She worked as an English teacher in Italy. and she does the same in France.31a Jenny and Jamie Jenny lived in Italy for two years and then she moved to France. She was married to an Italian. but now he says he's too fat. She plays tennis a lot.

and writer. He has also taught drama.. He has lived mostly in New York. He also wrote two travel books. One is about Arthur Miller and the other is about David Mamet. and died in 2005. He lived most of his life in New York. David Mamet was born in Illinois in 1947.30. He lived most of his life in New York. and has three children. He worked as a writer and director. director. He was married twice-once to the film star Marilyn Monroe. He has written many plays and screenplays. He also wrote two travel books. are designed to raise awareness about conceptual distinctions that might otherwise go unnoticed . He has worked as an actor. and has three children. David Mamet was born in Illinois in 1947. He wrote many plays and screenplays. but never acted. He has been married twice. Can you sort them out? Arthur Miller was born in New York in 1915.Worksheet 2. director. . He has worked as an actor. He has also taught drama. but never acted. Comments As with Activity 2. ':t2 'Grammaring' sentences . He has lived mostly in New York. Photocopiable © Oxford University Press -II The two texts are: Arthur Miller was born in New York in 1915. He worked as a writer and director. He was married twice-once to the film star Marilyn Monroe. He has written many plays and screenplays. He has been married twice. the above tasks. and died in 2005.31 b Here are two texts that have been mixed up. He wrote many plays and screenplays. and writer. by creating a grammar 'problem'.