10 April 2012, Week 13 — Sound and Speech

1. Class Update.
• • • • • Dr. Weiner will be grading UDL Project 1. UDL Project 2 is cancelled. Dr. Weiner is prepared to teach the class for the remainder of the semester. There will be no more technology labs. The content from 4/3/12 will be made up on 4/24, along with the content of 4/24.

2. “Praxical Think Tank” Activity: applying the readings.
PowerPoint can be applied to speech more than sound in this particular context. • Downfalls: pacing, poor attention to content • Benefits: visual stimuli If the PowerPoint isn’t done well or is unclear, what purpose do the slides serve? Could slides be alternatives to worksheets? Can PowerPoints be universally designed for low-vision or blind audiences? If students do not add to students’ learning (e.g. instruction, points, clarifications), can they be harmful? How can we create PowerPoints that have the potential to be effective for both students and presenters? (It’s useful to think of students and teachers as learners.) It is important to have exactly the same content from mode to mode (e.g. the PowerPoint completely reiterates the oral presentation)? What skills are necessary in order to design effective PowerPoints? How do we make PowerPoints that are content-driven? audience-driven? speaker-driven? and visually-driven?

3. Screening of Ebert’s Lecture: “Remaking My Voice.” 4. Andrew’s Lecture.
• • Why is speech so important? Or, why do we value it? Atypical speech: What is it? How do we design our classrooms around it? What is AAC?

• Local Understanding: What is it, and how can it be used? Group 1: How does Ebert present himself (through others)? • He is confident and uses humor. His ideas remain the same: only the mode has changed. • He has re-gained autonomy through technology. Group 2: How do the people onstage perceive Ebert? How can we learn from that? • They are respectful and appreciative of his speech. • He is still situated in the center of the group, which points to the dominance of his ideas. Group 3: What other modes could Ebert have used to represent the same information? • Written version (e.g. blog post) • PowerPoint • Captioned it? • ASL • Could have used Alex or a similar software the entire time. • Performative element—dance? Group 4: Is Ebert’s intersectional status (e.g. a formerly able-bodied celebrity) privileged? • Yes, in the sense that he was featured on TED and they had access to previous recordings of his voice. • Ultimately, his former status cannot be a current privilege. Group 5: What can educators learn about “voice” from this presentation? • Voice is personal and embodied. You want to take the time to find a voice that “fits” you. • There are different modes (and opportunities) of delivery. • Think about classroom pacing and how much time different “voices” take. • Different voices—whether typical or atypical—are more readily welcome in classrooms that create a sense of community (e.g. “community of learners). • Learning to respect others’ voices and acknowledging the individual, original thought that is communicated (Don’t interject or paraphrase atypical speech.). How is speech typically expressed in K-12 education? Higher ed? When is it required? • standardized (“normed”) view of speech What advantages might someone who has non-verbal or atypical speech have in the classroom? • There is more time required (to formulate the response), which could influence the quality of the response (e.g. longer thought process). • More gestural, embodied responses. There are several kinds of speech disability: aphasia, syarthia, stammering, stuttering, fluency issues, and speech issues related to hearing impairments.  Accommodations often include oral reports and speech synthesizers. 1. Assume competence: Assume that the student can hear you (unless you know otherwise). 2. Permit the student to speak without filling in information, at least initially. Allow them

to “speak” if they want to. 3. Don’t interrupt the student when she is speaking. Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC): strategies that allow people with no or highly atypical speech to communicate with those who are speech typical. • AACs don’t always have to be digital technologies. • Speech generating devices (SGDs) are electronic, computer-like devices that transmit speech. Local understanding: the “value, intelligence and imagination (taken together what we term citizenship) of all students” where “recognized and responsive contexts are crafted that foster increasingly sophisticated citizenship” (Kliewer & Biklen, 2007, 2379-80). • The purpose is to ascribe meaning and purpose to an individual’s actions. • This represents a “moral quality of entering the child’s world” (Kliewer, 2008, 37). How might someone with atypical speech negotiate a presentation? In some ways, PowerPoint presentations can be used like CART. Presenters (with atypical speech) can place their entire presentation on the slides so that everyone gets the full content of the presentation.

5. Contributions from Jenn.
Jenn passed around a newspaper article from 20 years ago that featured the segregated program that she graduated from. Her main message: Things have not changed that much (we still have much to do!).

6. Announcements.
Guest for 4/17: Jennifer Hackett Guest for 4/24: George Irwin