INTERNATIONAL

JOURNAL
GEOMETRY
Vol.
Edited by Depart
“Vasile Alecsandri”
INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL
OF
GEOMETRY

Vol. 1 No. 1 2012

Edited by Department of Mathematics
” National College of Bacău, Romania

ment of Mathematics
ional College of Bacău, Romania
CONTENTS
VOL. 1 (2012) No. 1
GHEORGHE SZÖLL
½
OSY and OVIDIU T. POP
A new proof of Neuberg’s theorem and one application .........................5-9
ION P
¼
ATRA¸ SCU and C
¼
AT
¼
ALIN BARBU
Two new proofs of Goormaghtigh’s theorem ..........................................10-19
NICU¸ SOR MINCULETE
Several geometric inequalities of Erdös - Mordell type in the
convex polygon ..............................................................................20-26
MIRCEA ¸ SELARIU, FLORENTIN SMARANDACHE and MARIAN NI ¸ TU
Cardinal functions and integral functions ............................................27-40
PETRU BRAICA and ANDREI BUD
A generalization of the isogonal point ..................................................41-45
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMETRY
Vol. 1 (2012), No. 1, 5 - 9
A NEW PROOF OF NEUBERG’S THEOREM
AND ONE APPLICATION
GHEORGHE SZÖLL
½
OSY and OVIDIU T. POP
Abstract. In this paper, we will give a new proof of Neuberg’s Theorem.
One application of this result is found in Theorem 2.2.
1. Introduction
In this section, we’ll recall some known results.
Theorem 1.1. Let ABC be a triangle, C(O; R) his circumscribed circle
and H the orthocentre of this triangle. If M is the midpoint of the side BC,
then
(1) AH = 2OM
and
(2) OM ? BC:
For additional comments and proofs, see [1]-[4].
In this paper, we will consider a convex quadrilateral ABCD and note
with H
a
, H
b
, H
c
, H
d
the orthocentres of triangles BCD, CDA, DAB,
respectively ABC and with T[ABCD] the area of quadrilateral ABCD:
Theorem 1.2. If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then
(3) AB H
a
H
b
; ABkH
a
H
b
;
(4) AH
b
? CD; BH
a
? CD;
(5) AH
b
BH
a
and analogues.
For comments and proofs see [3].
————————————–
Keywords and phrases: Convex quadrilateral, area
(2010)Mathematics Subject Classi…cation: 51M04, 51M25, 51M30
6 Gheorghe Szöll½osy and Ovidiu T. Pop
Corollary 1.3. If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then
(6) T[ABCD] = T[H
a
H
b
H
c
H
d
]:
Proof. It results from Theorem 1.2.
Corollary 1.4. Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral. If AH
b
BH
a
,
BH
c
CH
b
, CH
d
DH
c
or DH
a
AH
d
, then ABCD is a cyclic quadri-
lateral.
Proof. Let’s consider the relation AH
b
BH
a
.Let C(O
1
) and C(O
2
) be the
circumscribed circles of the triangle ADC, respectively BCD and M the
midpoint of DC. Taking Theorem 1.1 into account, we have that
AH
b
= 2O
1
M; BH
a
= 2O
2
M;
and
O
1
M ? DC; O
2
M ? DC;
from where, O
1
coincide to O
2
. So, the quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic.
2. Main results
In this section, the main results are proved by using the analytic geometry.
The result from Theorem 2.1 is known in literature as Neuberg’s Theorem
(see [4] or [6]) and Theorem 2.2 is an application of this.
Theorem 2.1. If M is a point in the same plan with the triangle ABC,
M 62 AB[BC[CA and H
a
, H
b
, H
c
are the orthocentres of triangles MBC,
MCA, respectively MAB, then
(7) T[ABC] = T[H
a
H
b
H
c
]:
Proof. We consider a; b; c; ; 2 R, a > 0, b < c and the points A(O; a),
B(b; 0), C(c; 0) and M(; ) (Figure 1). From M 62 BC, it results that
6= 0. The equation of the line AB is
ax +by ab = 0;
and then, from M 62 AB it results that
a +b ab 6= 0:
Similarly, from M 62 AC it results that
a +c ac 6= 0:
Taking the remarks above, from M 62 AB [ BC [ CA we obtain that
(8) (a +b ab)(a +c ac) 6= 0:
A new proof of Neuberg’s theorem and one application 7
Writing the corresponding heights equations, after the calculations, we ob-
tain
(9) H
a

;

2
+ (b +c) bc

;
(10) H
b

(c a +a
2
)
a +c ac
;
(a b +b
2
)
a +b ab

and
(11) H
c

(b a +a
2
)
a +b ab
;
(a b +b
2
)
a +b ab

:
If = 0, then from M 62 AB [ CA it results that bc 6= 0. In this case
H
a

0;
bc

, H
b

a
c
; 0

, H
c

a
b
; 0

and then T[H
a
H
b
H
c
] = jj,
where
=
1
2

x
H
a
y
H
a
1
x
H
b
y
H
b
1
x
H
c
y
H
c
1

;
H
a
(x
H
a
; y
H
a
) and analogues. We have that
=
1
2
a(b c);
so
T[H
a
H
b
H
c
] = T[ABC]
and then, in this case the theorem was proved. If 6= 0, we note
E = (a +c ac)(a +b ab)
and then
(12) E = a
2

2
+a( a)(b +c) +bc( a)
2
:
8 Gheorghe Szöll½osy and Ovidiu T. Pop
Taking (8) and (12) into account, we have that E 6= 0.
Then
=
1
2E

2
+ (b +c) bc
(c a +a
2
) (a c +c
2
) a +c ac
(b a +a
2
) (a b +b
2
) a +b ab

and multiplying the …rst line with and dividing the second column with
, we obtain
=
1
2E

2

2
+ (b +c) bc
c a +a
2
a c +c
2
a +c ac
b a +a
2
a b +b
2
a +b ab

:
Adding the …rst column to the second column, we obtain
=
1
2E

2
(b +c) bc
c a +a
2
a
2
+c
2
a +c ac
b a +a
2
a
2
+b
2
a +b ab

:
Deducting the third line from the second line, we get
=
c b
2E

2
(b +c) bc
c +b a
b a +a
2
a
2
+b
2
a +b ab

:
We multiply the second line with and adding it to the …rst line, and we
multiply the second line with b and adding it to the third line, then we
obtain
=
c b
2E

0 bc a
b +c a
a( a) a
2
bc a

:
Deducting the …rst line from the third line and taking that
T[ABC] =
a(c b)
2
;
we have
=
c b
2E

0 bc a
b +c a
a( a) a
2
0

=
1
E
T[ABC]

0 bc a
b +c a
( a) a 0

=
1
E
T[ABC]E = T[ABC]:
Now, the relation (7) is proved.
Theorem 2.2. If ABCD is a convex quadrilateral, then
(13) T[ABCD] = T[H
a
H
b
H
c
H
d
]:
Proof. Any three from the points H
a
; H
b
; H
c
; H
d
are not collinear. Even
if H
a
H
b
H
c
H
d
is a concave quadrilateral, it has at least one diagonal situ-
ated on the surface of the quadrilateral ABCD, for example [H
b
H
d
] (Figure
2).Applying Theorem 2.1 for the triangle ABD and for the point C, for the
A new proof of Neuberg’s theorem and one application 9
triangle CBD and for the point A respectively, we obtain that
T[ABD] = T[H
a
H
b
H
d
];
respectively
T[CBD] = T[H
c
H
b
H
d
]:
From the equalities above, (13) follows.
Remark 2.3. Taking Theorem 2.2 into account, it results that (13) takes
place also in quadrilateral that are not cyclic quadrilaterals.
References
[1] Barbu, C., Fundamental Theorems of Triangle Geometry (Romanian), Ed. Unique,
Bac¼ au, 2008.
[2] F. G.-M., Exercices de géométrie, Huitième édition, Paris, 1931.
[3] Golovina, L. I. and Iaglom, I. M., Induction in Geometry (Romanian), Ed. Tehnic¼ a,
Bucharest, 1964.
[4] Miculi¸ta, M. and Brânzei, D., Analogies Triangle-Tetrahedron (Romanian), Ed.
Paralela 45, 2000.
[5] Mihalescu, C., The Geometry of Remarkable Elements (Romanian), Ed. Tehnic¼ a,
Bucharest, 1957.
[6] Neuberg, J., Mathesis (1881), 168.
[7] Pop, O. T., Minculete, N. and Bencze, M., An Introduction to Quadrilateral Geometry
(to appear).
Received: December 16, 2011.
AVRAM IANCU 28E, 435500 SIGHETU MARMA¸ TIEI, ROMANIA
E-mail address: gyuri66@yahoo.com
NATIONAL COLLEGE "MIHAI EMINESCU",
MIHAI EMINESCU 5, 440014 SATU MARE, ROMANIA
E-mail address: ovidiutiberiu@yahoo.com
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMETRY
Vol. 1 (2012), No. 1, 10 - 19
TWO NEW PROOFS OF
GOORMAGHTIGH’S THEOREM
ION P
¼
ATRA¸ SCU and C
¼
AT
¼
ALIN I. BARBU
Abstract. In this note we present two new demonstrations of the theo-
rem of a Belgian mathematician René Goormaghtigh.
1. Introduction
In order to state our main results we need recall some important theorems
that we need in proving the Goormaghtigh’s theorem. Consider a triangle
ABC is neither isosceles rectangular nor with circumcenter O. We present
below an interesting proposition given by Goormaghtigh.
Theorem 1.1. (Goormaghtigh [7; pp: 281 283]): Let A
0
; B
0
; C
0
be points
on OA; OB; OC so that
OA
0
OA
=
OB
0
OB
=
OC
0
OC
= k;
k 2 R

+
; then the intersections of the perpendiculars to OA at A
0
, OB at B
0
,
and OC at C
0
with the respective sidelines BC; CA; AB are collinear.
R. Musselman and R. Goormaghtigh are given in [7] a proof of this theo-
rem using complex numbers. A synthetic demonstration is also given by K.
Nguyen meet in [9].
Theorem 1.2. (Kariya [3; p: 109]): Let C
a
; C
b
; C
c
the points of tangency
of the incircle with the sides BC; CA; AB of triangle ABC and I center of
the incircle. On the lines IC
a
; IC
b
; IC
c
the points A
0
; B
0
; C
0
are considered
in the same direction so that IA
0
= IB
0
= IC
0
. Then the lines AA
0
; BB
0
;
and CC
0
are concurrent.
Theorem 1.3. (Desargues [5; p: 133]): Two triangles are in axial perspective
if and only if they are in central perspective.
————————————–
Keywords and phrases: Goormaghtigh’s theorem; Miquel’s point;
complete quadrilateral
(2010) Mathematics Subject Classi…cation: 26D05; 26D15; 51N35
Two new demonstrations of Goormaghtigh’s theorem 11
Theorem 1.4. (Miquel [6; pp: 233 234]): The centers of the circles of the
four triangles of a complete quadrilateral are on a circle. (Miquel’s Circle).
Theorem 1.5. (Steiner [6; p: 235]): Miquel’s point of the circles determined
by the four triangles of a complete quadrilateral is situated on Miquel’s circle.
Theorem 1.6. (Sondat [11; p: 10]): If two triangles ABC and A
0
B
0
C
0
are
perspective and orthologic, then the center of perspective P and the ortho-
logic centers Q and Q
0
are on the same line perpendicular to the axis of
perspectivity d:
Theorem 1.7. (Thébault [12; pp: 2224]): If two triangles ABC and A
0
B
0
C
0
are perspective and orthologic, with the center of perspective P and the or-
thologic centers Q and Q
0
; then the conics ABCPQ and A
0
B
0
C
0
PQ
0
are
equilateral hyperbolas.
Theorem 1.8. (Brianchon - Poncelet [4; pp: 205220]): The centers of all
equilateral hyperbolas passing through the vertices of a triangle ABC lie on
the Euler circle of the triangle.
2. Main results
In this section we present two new demonstrations of the theorem of a
Belgian mathematician René Goormaghtigh and some consequences deriving
from this theorem.
Solution 1. We noted with A
00
the point of intersection of perpendiculars
taken at B
0
and C
0
on the OB; OC respectively. Similarly we de…ne the
points B
00
and C
00
(see Figure 1).
12 Ion P¼ atra¸scu and C¼ at¼ alin I. Barbu
Since OA = OB = OC, from the relation
OA
0
OA
=
OB
0
OB
=
OC
0
OC
= k;
we get OA
0
= OB
0
= OC
0
: Because the lines OA
0
; OB
0
; OC
0
are perpendicu-
lar on B
00
C
00
; C
00
A
00
; and A
00
B
00
respectively, then the point O is the incenter
of the triangle A
00
B
00
C
00
: Applying theorem 2 in the triangle A
00
B
00
C
00
for the
points A; B; C, it results that the lines AA
00
; BB
00
and CC
00
are concurrent
(at one of Kariya’s points which corresponds to A
00
B
00
C
00
triangle), then tri-
angles ABC and A
00
B
00
C
00
are homological. Thus, according to theorem 3,
that the points of intersection of lines AB and A
00
B
00
; BC and B
00
C
00
, and
CA and C
00
A
00
are collinear.
Denote by X the intersection of the lines BC and B
00
C
00
. Similarly we
de…ne the points Y and Z:
Solution 2. Without restricting the generality suppose that \BCA >
\ABC. Let us designate by R the radius of the circle triangle ABC, by A
1
intersection of the tangent in A to circumcircle of the triangle ABC with
the line CB, by T and X
0
the projections of the points B and X on this
tangent, by M and M
0
the projections of points A
0
and O; respectively, with
the line BT; and by A
0
1
the intersection of BC and OM
0
(see Figure 2).
We have: \CAA
1
= \ABC; \ACA
1
= \BAC +\ABC and
\AA
1
B = 180

\BAC 2 \ABC
= \BCA\ABC; \COA
0
1
= 2 \ABC 90

:
Applying the law of sines in the triangle OCA
1
; we have
A
0
1
C
sin(2B 90

)
=
OC
sin(C B)
;
so
A
0
1
C =
Rcos 2B
sin(C B)
:
Two new demonstrations of Goormaghtigh’s theorem 13
Because XX
0
= AA
0
= OAOA
0
= R(1 k); then
(1) XA
1
=
XX
0
sin(C B)
=
R(1 k)
sin(C B)
From
OA
0
OA
=
A
0
1
X
A
0
1
A
1
= k, we get
(2)
A
0
1
X
XA
1
=
k
1 k
From relations (1) and (2) we get
(3) A
0
1
X =
k
1 k

R(1 k)
sin(C B)
=
kR
sin(C B)
Since,
(4) XC = XA
0
1
+A
0
1
=
R(k cos 2B)
sin(C B)
Because \M
0
OB = 2\ACB90

; BM
0
= BOsin(2C90

) = Rcos 2C;
MM
0
= OA
0
= kR; then BM = BM
0
+MM
0
= R(k cos 2C): Since
(5) XB =
BP
sin(C B)
=
R(k cos 2C)
sin(C B)
From relations (4) and (5) we get
XB
XC
=
k cos 2C
k cos 2B
:
Similarly it is shown that
Y C
Y A
=
k cos 2A
k cos 2C
and
ZA
ZB
=
k cos 2B
k cos 2A
:
We obtain that
XB
XC

Y C
Y A

ZA
ZB
= 1
and from the converse of Menelaus’s theorem results that points X; Y; and
Z are collinear.
Theorem 2.1. Let us consider C
1
; C
2
; C
3
and { the circumcircles of the
triangles AY Z; BZX; CXY; and respectively ABC: The circles C
1
; C
2
; C
3
;
and { pass through a common point.
The proof results from theorem 5.
Let P be the corresponding point of Miquel complete quadrilateral ABXY CZ
(see Figure 3).
14 Ion P¼ atra¸scu and C¼ at¼ alin I. Barbu
Theorem 2.2. Centers of circles C
1
; C
2
; C
3
; { and point P are on the same
circle @:
The proof results from theorems 4 and 5.
Theorem 2.3. Let us consider C
0
1
; C
0
2
; and C
0
3
the circumcircles of the tri-
angles A
00
Y Z; B
00
ZX; and respectively C
00
XY . The circles C
0
1
; C
0
2
; and C
0
3
pass through a common point.
The proof results from theorem 5.
Let us designate by O
a
; O
b
; O
c
; O
0
a
; O
0
b
; O
0
c
the circumcenters of the trian-
gles AY Z; BZX; CXY; A
00
Y Z; B
00
ZX; C
00
XY; respectively, by Q the point
of Miquel of A
00
C
00
XZB
00
Y complete quadrilateral (see Figure 4).
Two new demonstrations of Goormaghtigh’s theorem 15
Open problems:
1) Point Q is on circle @:
2) Point O is on Aubert’s line of complete quadrilaterals Y ABXCZ and
XZA
00
C
00
B
00
Y:
Remark 2.1. Goormaghtigh’s theorem is true for k < 0, where
!
OA
0
= k
!
OA;
!
OB
0
= k
!
OB;
!
OC
0
= k
!
OC; the demonstration is similar.
Remark 2.2. Points A
00
; B
00
and C
00
are on the perpendicular bisectors of
the sides of triangle ABC, therefore the triangles ABC and A
00
B
00
C
00
are
bilogical, O is a common center of orthology.
Remark 2.3. If k = 0 Goormaghtigh’s theorem remains true as a special
case of Bobillier’s theorem [10; p:119]:
16 Ion P¼ atra¸scu and C¼ at¼ alin I. Barbu
Remark 2.4. For k =
1
2
we obtain Ayme’s theorem [2]:
Remark 2.5. For k = 1 we obtain Lemoine’s theorem and XY Z is Lemoine’s
line of the triangle ABC [3; p:155]:
Remark 2.6. Theorem 4 is true for any transversal XY Z which cuts the
sides of triangle ABC, the demonstration remains the same.
Remark 2.7. Because O
a
O
0
a
; O
b
O
0
b
; O
c
O
0
c
are the perpendicular bisectors of
the segments Y Z; ZX; and XY respectively, then O
a
O
0
a
kO
b
O
0
b
kO
c
O
0
c
:
Remark 2.8. The triangles ABC and A
00
B
00
C
00
are perspective, XY Z being
the axis of perspective. Let S be the perspective center of triangles ABC and
A
00
B
00
C
00
.
Theorem 2.4. The lines OS and XY Z are perpendicular.
The proof results by Sondat’s theorem (see Figure 5).
Theorem 2.5. The conics ABCSO and A
0
B
0
C
0
SO are equilateral hyper-
bolas.
Proof. Because the circumcenter O is the common center of orthology, by
Theorem 1.7 we obtain the conclusion.
Corollary 2.6. The centers of the conics ABCSO and A
0
B
0
C
0
SO lie on
the Euler circles of the triangles ABC, respectively A
0
B
0
C
0
:
The proof results from Theorems 1.8 and 2.5 (see Figure 5).
Two new demonstrations of Goormaghtigh’s theorem 17
Corollary 2.7. The points P ans Q are the focus of parabolas tangent
to the sides of the complet quadrilaterals ABXY CZ and A
00
C
00
XZB
00
Y ,
respectively:
(see [1, p. 109], Figure 5).
18 Ion P¼ atra¸scu and C¼ at¼ alin I. Barbu
3. Dynamic properties
In this section we examine the dependence of considered con…guration on
homothety coe¢cient k. Firstly formulate
Lemma 3.1. Given two points A, B. The map f transforms the lines
passing through A to the lines passing through B and conserve the cross-
ratios of the lines. Then the locus of points l \ f(l) is a conic passing
through A and B.
Indeed if X, Y , Z are three points of the thought locus, then lines l and
f(l) intersect the conic ABXY Z in the same point.
Lemma 3.1 has also a dual formulating: if f is a projective map between
lines a and b then the envelop of lines Af(A) is a conic touching a and b.
Using Lemma 3.1 we obtain that the envelop of lines XY Z from Theorem
1.1 is a parabola touching the sidelines of ABC, and the locus of perspec-
tivity centers from Theorem 1.2 is the Feuerbach hyperbola.
Theorem 3.1. Point P from Theorem 2.1 is …xed.
Proof. Immediately follows from Lemma 3.1 and Corollary 2.7.
Theorem 3.2. The locus of points Q is a line passing through O.
Proof. Using polar transformation with center O we obtain from Theorem
2.5 that two parabolas from Corollary 2.7 are homothetic. Thus all points
Q are the foci of homothetic parabolas.
Acknowledgement. The last section of the article was created by Mr.
Alexey Zaslavsky, and the authors are grateful to him!.
References
[1] Akopyan, A. V. and Zaslavsky, A. A., Geometry of Conics, American Mathematical
Society, 2007, 109.
[2] Ayme, J. L. Geometry, http://pagesperso-orange.fr/jl.ayme/
[3] Barbu, C., Fundamental Theorems of Triangle Geometry (Romanian), Ed Unique,
Bac¼ au, 2008, 109.
[4] Brianchon, C. J. and Poncelet, J. V., Recherches sur la détermination d’une hyperbole
équiatère, Gergonne’s Annales de Math. 11(1820/21), 205-220.
[5] Court, N., College Geometry, Johnson Publishing Company, New York, 1925, 133.
[6] Mihalescu, C., Remarkable Elements of Geometry (Romanian), Ed. SSMR,
Bucharest, 2007, 233-235.
[7] Musselman, J. R. and Goormaghtigh, R., Advanced Problem 3928, Amer. Math.
Monthly, 46(1939), 601; solution, 48(1941), 281-283.
[8] Neuberg, V., Mathesis, 1922, 163.
[9] Nguyen, K. L., A Synthetic Proof of Goormaghtigh’s and Generalization of Mussel-
man’s Theorem, Forum Geometricorum, 5(2005), 17-20.
[10] Nicolescu, L. and Bosco¤, V., Practical Problems of Geometry (Romanian), Technical
Publishing House, Bucharest, 1990, 119.
[11] Sondat, P., L’intermédiaire des mathématiciens, 1894, 10 [question 38, solved by
Sollerstinsky, 94].
[12] Thébault, V., Perspective and Orthologic Triangles and Tetrahedrons, Amer. Math.
Monthly, 59(1952), 24-28.
Two new demonstrations of Goormaghtigh’s theorem 19
Received: January 12, 2012.
FRA¸ TII BUZE¸ STI COLLEGE
ION CANTACUZINO 15, S33, SC. 1, AP. 8, CRAIOVA, ROMANIA
E-mail address: patrascu_ion@yahoo.com
VASILE ALECSANDRI COLLEGE
IOSIF COCEA 12, SC. A, AP. 13, BAC
¼
AU, ROMANIA
E-mail address: kafka_mate@yahoo.com
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMETRY
Vol. 1 (2012), No. 1, 20 - 26
SEVERAL GEOMETRIC INEQUALITIES OF
ERDÖS - MORDELL TYPE IN THE CONVEX POLYGON
NICU¸ SOR MINCULETE
Abstract. In this paper we present the several geometric inequalities of
Erdös-Mordell type in the convex polygon, using the Cauchy Inequality.
1. Introduction
In [6], in colaboration with A. Gobej, we present some geometric inequal-
ities of Erdös-Mordell type in the convex polygon. Here, we found others
geometric inequalities of Erdös-Mordell type, using several known inequali-
ties, in the convex polygon.
Let A
1
,A
2
;...,A
n
the vertices of the convex polygon, n _ 3; and M, a
point interior to the polygon. We note with R
k
the distances from M to
the vertices A
k
and we note with r
k
the distances from M to the sides
[A
k
A
k+1
] of length A
k
A
k+1
= a
k
; where k = 1; n and A
n+1
= A
1
. For
all k ¸ ¦1; :::; n¦ with A
n+1
= A
1
and m
_
\
A
k
MA
k+1
_
=
k
we have the
following property:

1
+
2
+ ::: +
n
= 2:
L. Fejes Tóth conjectured a inequality which is refered to the convex polygon,
recall in [1] ¸si [3], thus
(1)
n

k=1
r
k
_ cos
_

n
_
n

k=1
R
k
:
In 1961 H.-C. Lenhard proof the inequality (1), used the inequality
(2)
n

k=1
w
k
_ cos
_

n
_
n

k=1
R
k
;
which was established in [5], where w
k
the length of the bisector of the
angle A
k
MA
k+1
, (\) k = 1; n with A
n+1
= A
1
.
————————————–
Keywords and phrases: Inequality of Erdös-Mordell type, Cauchy’s
Inequality
(2010) Mathematics Subject Classi…cation: 51 Mxx,26D15
Several geometric inequalities of Erdös-Mordell type in the convex polygon 21
M. Dinc¼ a published other solution for inequality (1) in Gazeta Matematic¼a
Seria B in 1998 (see [4]). Another inequality of Erdös-Mordell type for
convex polygon was given by N. Ozeki [9] in 1957, namely,
(3)
n

k=1
R
k
_
_
sec

n
_
n
n

k=1
w
k
which proved the inequality 16.8 from [3] due to L. Fejes-Tóth, so
(4)
n

k=1
R
k
_
_
sec

n
_
n
n

k=1
r
k
:
R. R. Jani´c in [3], shows that in any convex polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
, there is the
inequality
(5)
n

k=1
R
k
sin
A
k
2
_
n

k=1
r
k
:
D. Bu¸sneag proposed in GMB no. 1/1971 the problem 10876, which is an
inequality of Erdös-Mordell type for convex polygon, thus,
(6)
n

k=1
a
k
r
k
_
2p
2

;
where p is the semiperimeter of polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
and is the area of
polygon.
In connection with inequality (6), D. M. B¼ atine¸tu established [2] the in-
equality
(7)
n

k=1
a
k
r
k
_
2p
r
if the polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
is circumscribed about a circle of radius r.
Among the relations established between the elements of polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
we
can remark the following relation for - the area of convex polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
:
(8) 2 = a
1
r
1
+ a
2
r
2
+ ::: + a
n
r
n
:
We select several inequalities obtained from [6]:
(9) R
k
_
r
k1
+ r
k
2 sin
A
k
2
hold for all k ¸ ¦1; 2; :::; n¦ ; with r
0
= r
n
;
(10)
_
2 cos

n
_
n
n

k=1
R
k
_
n

k=1
(r
k1
+ r
k
) ; (r
0
= r
n
)
and
(11)
n

k=1
r
k1
+ r
k
R
k
_ 2ncos

n
and
(12)
n

k=1
R
2
k
r
k
_ sec

n
n

k=1
R
k
:
22 Nicu¸sor Minculete
2. Main results
First, we will follow some procedures used in paper [6], through which
we will obtain some Erdös-Mordell-type inequalities for the convex polygon.
Among these will apply the Cauchy Inequality
Theorem 2.1. In any convex polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
, there is the inequality
(13)
n

k=1
r
k
R
k
+ R
k+1
_ 2ncos

n
:
Proof. The inequality (11),
n

k=1
r
k1
+ r
k
R
k
_ 2ncos

n
;
with r
0
= r
n
; is expanded in the following way,
r
n
+ r
1
R
1
+
r
1
+ r
2
R
2
+ ::: +
r
n1
+ r
n
R
n
=
r
1
_
1
R
1
+
1
R
2
_
+ r
2
_
1
R
2
+
1
R
3
_
+ ::: + r
n
_
1
R
n
+
1
R
1
_
_ 2ncos

n
On the other hand, we have
1
R
k1
+
1
R
k
_
4
R
k1
+ R
k
; (\) k = 1; n
with R
0
= R
n
; from where we can deduce another inequality, of an Erdös-
Mordell type, namely,
n

k=1
r
k
R
k
+ R
k+1
_
n
2
cos

n
:

Theorem 2.2. For any convex polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
,we have the inequality
n

k=1
R
k
+ R
k+1
r
k
_
2n
cos
n
2
;
with R
n+1
= R
1
:
Proof. The inequality
n

k=1
x
k
y
k

n

k=1
x
k
y
k
_
_
n

k=1
x
k
_
2
is well known, because it is a particulary case of Cauchy’s inequality. In this
we will take x
k
=
r
k
R
k
+R
k+1
and y
k
= 1. Thus, the inequality becomes
n

k=1
r
k
R
k
+ R
k+1

n

k=1
R
k
+ R
k+1
r
k
_ n
2
Several geometric inequalities of Erdös-Mordell type in the convex polygon 23
and, if we use the inequality (13), we get
n

k=1
R
k
+ R
k+1
r
k
_
2n
cos
n
2
;
with R
n+1
= R
1
:
Theorem 2.3. In any convex polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
, there is the inequality
(15)
n

k=1
_
r
k1
r
k
R
k
_ ncos

n
:
Proof. From Cauchy’s inequality, we have
n

k=1
x
k
y
k

n

k=1
x
k
y
k
_
_
n

k=1
x
k
_
2
:
Using the substitutions
x
k
=
_
r
k1
r
k
R
k
and y
k
= 1, we deduce that the inequality
n

k=1
_
r
k1
r
k
R
k

n

k=1
R
k
_
r
k1
r
k
_ n
2
;
holds. However, from the relation (11), we obtain
n

k=1
_
r
k1
r
k
R
k
_ ncos

n
which implies the inequality
n

k=1
R
k
_
r
k1
r
k
_
n
cos

n
;
with r
0
= r
n
:
Remark 1. The inequality (15) generalizes the problem 1045 of G. Tsinsifas
from the magazine Crux Mathematicorum. This is also remarked in [7].
Theorem 2.4. In any convex polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
there is the inequality
(16)
n

k=1
R
2
k
_
r
k1
r
k
_
n
cos
2

n
;
with r
0
= r
n
:
Proof. In the inequality
n

k=1
x
k
y
k

n

k=1
x
k
y
k
_
_
n

k=1
x
k
_
2
we replaced x
k
= y
k
=
R
k
p
r
k1
r
k
and the inequality becomes
n
n

k=1
R
2
k
_
r
k1
r
k
_
_
n

k=1
R
k
_
r
k1
r
k
_
2
_
n
2
cos
2

n
:
24 Nicu¸sor Minculete
This means that inequality (16) is true.
Theorem 2.5. In any convex polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
there is the inequality
n

k=1
a
k
r
k
R
k
R
k+1
_ nsin
2
n
;
with A
n+1
= A
1
:
Proof. We can be written the area of triangle A
k
MA
k+1
in two ways, thus
a
k
r
k
2
=
R
k
R
k+1
sinA
k
MA
k+1
2
;
which implies the relation
a
k
r
k
R
k
R
k+1
= sinA
k
MA
k+1
so, by passing to the sum, we get the relation
n

k=1
a
k
r
k
R
k
R
k+1
=
n

k=1
sinA
k
MA
k+1
;
with A
n+1
= A
1
: Because the function f : (0; ·) ÷R, is de…ned as f (x) =
sinx, is concave, we will apply the inequality Jensen, thus
1
n
n

k=1
sinA
k
MA
k+1
_ sin
1
n
_
n

k=1
A
k
MA
k+1
_
= sin
2
n
:
Therefore, we have
n

k=1
A
k
MA
k+1
_ nsin
2
n
:
Consequently, we obtain the inequality of the statement.
Remark 2. The equality hold in the above mentioned theorems when the
polygon is regular.
Remark 3. On the a hand, we have the equality (8),
2 = a
1
r
1
+ a
2
r
2
+ ::: + a
n
r
n
=
n

k=1
a
k
r
k
;
and on the other hand, we have the inequality Cauchy, where we will replace
x
k
=
_
a
k
r
k
and y
k
=
_
a
k
r
k
,then
2
n

k=1
a
k
r
k
=
n

k=1
a
k
r
k
n

k=1
a
k
r
k
_
_
n

k=1
a
k
_
2
= 4p
2
which proves the inequality (6):
Theorem 2.6. In any convex polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
there is the inequality
(18)
n

k=1
R
2
k
sin
A
k
2
_
sec

n
n
_
n

k=1
r
k
_
2
holds.
Several geometric inequalities of Erdös-Mordell type in the convex polygon 25
Proof. Applying inequality (9), we have the inequality
R
k
= MA
k
_
r
k1
+ r
k
2 sin
A
k
2
(\) k = 1; n
with r
0
= r
n
; and this, by squaring, becomes
4R
2
k
sin
A
k
2
_
(r
k1
+ r
k
)
2
sin
A
k
2
and taking the sum, we deduce
4
n

k=1
R
2
k
sin
A
k
2
_
n

k=1
(r
k1
+ r
k
)
2
sin
A
k
2
_
_
n

k=1
(r
k1
+ r
k
)
2
_
n

k=1
sin
A
k
2
_
4
_
n

k=1
r
k
_
2
ncos

n
so, we found inequality (18).
Theorem 2.7. In any convex polygon A
1
A
2:::
A
n
there is the inequality
(19)
n

k=1
(R
k
+ R
k+1
) r
k
_
2 sec

n
n
_
n

k=1
r
k
_
2
holds.
Proof. From inequality (9), we have
R
k
= MA
k
_
r
k1
+ r
k
2 sin
A
k
2
; (\) k = 1; n
with r
0
= r
n
; and this, by multiply with (r
k1
+ r
k
) ,becomes
2 (r
k1
+ r
k
) R
k
_
(r
k1
+ r
k
)
2
sin
A
k
2
and by passing to the sum, we obtain the relation
2
n

k=1
(r
k1
+ r
k
) R
k
_
n

k=1
(r
k1
+ r
k
)
2
sin
A
k
2
_
_
n

k=1
(r
k1
+ r
k
)
_
2
n

k=1
sin
A
k
2
_
4
_
n

k=1
r
k
_
2
ncos

n
:
Therefore, we have
n

k=1
(r
k1
+ r
k
) R
k
_
2 sec

n
n
_
n

k=1
r
k
_
2
:
But, it follows that
n

k=1
(R
k
+ R
k+1
) r
k
=
n

k=1
(r
k1
+ r
k
) R
k
which means that, we obtain the inequality of statement.
26 Nicu¸sor Minculete
References
[1] Abi-Khuzam, F. F., A Trigonometric Inequality and its Geometric Applications,
Mathematical Inequalities & Applications, 3(2000), 437-442.
[2] B¼ atine¸tu, D. M., An Inequality Between Weighted Average and Applications (Ro-
manian), Gazeta Matematic¼ a seria B, 7(1982).
[3] Botema, O., Djordjevi´c R. Z., Jani´c, R. R., Mitrinovi´c, D. S. and Vasi´c, P. M.,
Geometric Inequalities, Groningen,1969.
[4] Dinc¼ a, M., Generalization of Erdös-Mordell Inequality (Romanian), Gazeta Matem-
atic¼ a seria B, 7-8(1998).
[5] Lenhard, H.-C., Verallgemeinerung und Verscharfung der Erdös-Mordellschen Ungle-
ichung für Polygone, Arch. Math., 12(1961), 311-314.
[6] Minculete, N. and Gobej, A.,Geometric Inequalities of Erdös-Mordell Type in a Con-
vex Polygon (Romanian), Gazeta Matematic¼ a Seria A, nr. 1-2(2010).
[7] Minculete, N., Geometry Theorems and Speci…c Problems (Romanian), Editura Eu-
rocarpatica, Sfântu Gheorghe, 2007.
[8] Mitrinovi´c, D. S., Peµcari´c, J. E. and Volenec, V., Recent Advances in Geometric
Inequalities, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1989.
[9] Ozeki, N., On P. Erdös Inequality for the Triangle, J. College Arts Sci. Chiba Univ.,
2(1957), 247-250.
[10] Vod¼ a, V. Gh., Spell Old Geometry (Romanian), Editura Albatros,1983.
"DIMITRIE CANTEMIR" UNIVERSITY
107 BISERICII ROMÂNE, 500068 BRA¸ SOV, ROMANIA
E-mail address: minculeten@yahoo.com
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMETRY
Vol. 1 (2012), No. 1, 27 - 40
CARDINAL FUNCTIONS AND
INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS
MIRCEA E. ¸ SELARIU, FLORENTIN SMARANDACHE and
MARIAN NI¸ TU
Abstract. This paper presents the correspondences of the eccentric
mathematics of cardinal and integral functions and centric mathematics,
or ordinary mathematics. Centric functions will also be presented in the
introductory section, because they are, although widely used in undulatory
physics, little known.
In centric mathematics, cardinal sine and cosine are de…ned as well as the
integrals. Both circular and hyperbolic ones. In eccentric mathematics, all
these central functions multiplies from one to in…nity, due to the in…nity of
possible choices where to place a point. This point is called eccenter o(:, -)
which lies in the plane of unit circle UC(O, 1 = 1) or of the equilateral unity
hyperbola HU(O, a = 1, / = 1). Additionally, in eccentric mathematics there
are series of other important special functions, as acr0, /cr0, dcr0, rcr0,
etc. If we divide them by the argument 0, they can also become cardinal
eccentric circular functions, whose primitives automatically become integral
eccentric circular functions.
All supermatematics eccentric circular functions (SFM-EC) can be of vari-
able excentric 0, which are continuous functions in linear numerical eccen-
tricity domain : ¸ [÷1, 1], or of centric variable c, which are continuous for
any value of :. This means that : ¸ [÷·, +·].
————————————–
Keywords and phrases: C-Circular , CC- C centric, CE- C Eccentric,
CEL-C Elevated, CEX-C Exotic, F-Function, FMC-F Centric Mathemat-
ics, M- Matemathics, MC-M Centric, ME-M Excentric, S-Super, SM- S
Matematics, FSM-F Supermatematics FSM-CE- FSM Eccentric Circulars,
FSM-CEL- FSM-C Elevated, FSM-CEC- FSM-CE- Cardinals, FSM-CELC-
FSM-CEL Cardinals
(2010) Mathematics Subject Classi…cation: 32A17
28 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu
1. INTRODUCTION: CENTRIC CARDINAL SINE FUNCTION
According to any standard dictionary, the word "cardinal" is synonymous
with "principal", "essential", "fundamental".
In centric mathematics (CM), or ordinary mathematics, cardinal is, on
the one hand, a number equal to a number of …nite aggregate, called the
power of the aggregate, and on the other hand, known as the sine cardinal
:i:c(r) or cosine cardinal co:c(r), is a special function de…ned by the centric
circular function (CCF). :i:(r) and co:(r) are commonly used in undulatory
physics (see Figure 1) and whose graph, the graph of cardinal sine, which is
called as "Mexican hat" (sombrero) because of its shape (see Figure 2).
Note that :i:c(r) cardinal sine function is given in the speciality litera-
ture, in three variants
:i:c(r) =
(
1, for r = 0
:i:(r)
r
, for r ¸ [÷·, +·] ¸ 0
(1)
=
:i:(r)
r
= 1 ÷
r
2
6
+
r
4
120
÷
r
76
5040
+
r
8
362880
+ 0[r]
11
=
+1
X
n=0
(÷1)
n
r
2n
(2: + 1)!
÷ :i:c(
¬
2
) =
2
¬
,
d(:i:c(r))
dr
=
co:(r)
r
÷
:i:(r)
r
2
= co:c(r) ÷
:i:c(r)
r
,
(2) :i:c(r) =
:i:(¬r)
¬r
(3) :i:c
a
(r) =
:i:(
x
a
)
x
a
It is a special function because its primitive, called sine integral and denoted
oi(r)
Centric circular cardinal
sine functions
Modi…ed centric circular
cardinal sine functions
Figure 1: The graphs of centric circular functions cardinal sine, in 2D, as
known in literature
Cardinal functions and integral functions 29
Figure 2: Cardinal sine function in 3D Mexican hat (sombrero)
oi(r) =
Z
x
0
:i:(t)
t
dt =
Z
x
0
:i:c(t) dt (4)
= r ÷
r
3
18
+
r
5
600
r
7
35280
+
r
9
3265920
+ 0[r]
11
= r ÷
r
8
3.3!
+
r
5
5.5!
÷
r7
7.7!
+ ÷. . .
=
+1
X
n=0
(÷1)
n
r
2n
(2: + 1)
2
(2:)!
, \r ¸ R
can not be expressed exactly by elementary functions, but only by expansion
of power series, as shown in equation (4). Therefore, its derivative is
(5) \r ¸ R, oi
0
(r) =
d(oi(r))
dr
=
:i:(r)
r
= :i:c(r),
an integral sine function oi(r), that satis…es the di¤erential equation
(6) r )
000
(r) + 2)
00
(r) + r )
0
(r) = 0 ÷ )(r) = oi(r).
The Gibbs phenomenon appears at the approximation of the square with
a continuous and di¤erentiable Fourier series (Figure 3 right I). This op-
eration could be substitute with the circular eccentric supermathematics
functions (CE-SMF), because the eccentric derivative function of eccentric
variable 0 can express exactly this rectangular function (Figure 3 N top) or
square (Figure 3 H below) as shown on their graphs (Figure 3 J left).
1 ÷cos
x=2
_
1sin(x=2)
2
,
¦r, ÷¬, 2.01¬¦
1
2
÷4r
P
Si :c[2¬(2/÷1)r],
¦/, :¦¦:, 5¦¦r, 0, 1¦
30 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu
1
2
dcr[(0,

2
), o(1, 0)]
Gibbs phenomenon for
a square wave with : = 5
and : = 10
Figure 3: Comparison between the square function, eccentric derivative
and its approximation by Fourier serial expansion
Integral sine function (4) can be approximated with su¢cient accuracy.
The maximum di¤erence is less than 1%, except the area near the origin.
By the CE-SMF eccentric amplitude of eccentric variable 0
(7) 1(0) = 1.57 acr[0, o(0.6, 0)],
as shown on the graph on Figure 5.
Sin
R
r, ¦r, ÷20, 20¦
Sin
R
(r + 1j)
¦r, ÷20, 20¦, ¦j, ÷3, 3¦
Figure 4: The graph of integral sine function Si(r) N compared with the
graph CE-SMF Eccentric amplitude 1, 57acr[0, o(0, 6; 0)] of eccentric
variable 0H
Cardinal functions and integral functions 31
Figure 5: The di¤erence between integral sine and CE-SMF eccentric
amplitude 1(0) = 1, 5acr[0, o(0, 6; 0] of eccentric variable 0
2. ECCENTRIC CIRCULAR SUPERMATHEMATICS CARDINAL
FUNCTIONS, CARDINAL ECCENTRIC SINE (ECC-SMF)
Like all other supermathematics functions (SMF),they may be eccentric
(ECC-SMF), elevated (ELC-SMF) and exotic (CEX-SMF), of eccentric vari-
able 0, of centric variable c
1;2
of main determination, of index 1, or secondary
determination of index 2. At the passage from centric circular domain to
the eccentric one, by positioning of the eccenter o(:, -) in any point in the
plane of the unit circle, all supermathematics functions multiply from one to
in…nity. It means that in CM there exists each unique function for a certain
type. In EM there are in…nitely many such functions, and for : = 0 one will
get the centric function. In other words, any supermathematics function
contains both the eccentric and the centric ones.
Notations :crc(r) and respectively, ocrc(r) are not standard in the lit-
erature and thus will be de…ned in three variants by the relations:
(8) :crc(r) =
:cr(r)
r
=
:cr[0, o(:, :)]
0
of eccentric variable 0 and
(8’) ocrc(r) =
ocr(r)
r
=
ocr[c, o(:, :)]
c
of eccentric variable c.
(9) :crc(r) =
:cr(¬r)
¬r
,
of eccentric variable 0, noted also by :crc

(r) and
(9’) ocrc(r) =
:cr(¬r)
¬r
=
ocr[c, o(:, :)]
c
,
of eccentric variable c, noted also by ocrc

(r)
(10) :crc
a
(r) =
:cr
x
a
x
a
=
:cr

,
32 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu
of eccentric variable 0, with the graphs from Figure 6 and Figure 7.
(10’) ocr
a
(r) =
ocr
x
a
x
a
=
ocr
a
a
a
a
Sin
ArcSin[s Sin()]

¦:, 0, +1¦, ¦0, ¬, 4¬¦
Sin
ArcSin[s Sin()]

¦:, ÷1, 0¦, ¦0, ÷¬, ¬¦
Sin
ArcSin[s Sin()]

¦:, 0, 1¦, ¦0, ÷¬, ¬¦
Figure 6: The ECCC-SMF graphs :crc
1
[0, o(:, -)] of eccentric variable 0
Sin
+ArcSin[s Sin()]

¦:, 0, 1¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, 4¬¦
Sin
ArcSin[0.1s Sin()]

¦:, ÷10, 0¦, ¦0, ÷¬, ¬¦
Sin
ArcSin[0.1s Sin()]

¦:, 0.1, 0¦, ¦0, ÷¬, ¬¦
Figure 7: Graphs ECCC-SMF :crc
2
[0, o(:, -)], eccentric variable 0
Cardinal functions and integral functions 33
3. ECCENTRIC CIRCULAR SUPERMATHEMATICS
FUNCTIONS CARDINAL ELEVATED SINE AND COSINE
(ECC- SMF-CEL)
Supermathematical elevated circular functions (ELC-SMF), elevated sine
:c|(0) and elevated cosine cc|(0), is the projection of the fazor/vector
r = rcr(0) rad(0) = rcr[0, o(:, -)] rad(0)
on the two coordinate axis A
S
and 1
S
respectively, with the origin in the
eccenter o(:, -), the axis parallel with the axis r and j which originate in
O(0, 0).
If the eccentric cosine and sine are the coordinates of the point \(r, j),
by the origin O(0, 0) of the intersection of the straight line d = d +' d^ ac\,
revolving around the point o(:, -), the elevated cosine and sine are the same
coordinates to the eccenter o(:, -); ie, considering the origin of the coordi-
nate straight rectangular axes Ao1 /as landmark in o(:, -). Therefore, the
relations between these functions are as follows:
(11)

r = ccr(0) = A + : co:(-) = cc|(0) + : co:(-)
j = 1 + : :i:(-) = :cr(0) = :c|(0) + : :i:(-)
Thus, for - = 0, ie o eccenter o located on the axis r 0, :cr(0) = :c|(0),
and for - =

2
, ccr(0) = cc|(0), as shown on Figure 8.
On Figure 8 were represented simultaneously the elevated cc|(0) and the
:c|(0) graphics functions, but also graphs of ccr(0) functions, respectively,
for comparison and revealing :cr(0) elevation Eccentricity of the functions
is the same, of : = 0.4, with the attached drawing and :c|(0) are - =

2
, and
cc|(0) has - = 0.
Figure 8: Comparison between elevated supermathematics function and
eccentric functions
34 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu
Figure 9: Elevated supermathematics function and cardinal eccentric
functions cc|c(r) J and :c|c(r) I of : = 0.4
Figure 10: Cardinal eccentric elevated supermathematics function
cc|c(r) J and :c|c(r) I
Elevate functions (11) divided by 0 become cosine functions and cardinal
elevated sine, denoted cc|c(0) = [0, o] and :c|c(0) = [0, o], given by the
equations
(12)
8
>
<
>
:
A = cc|c(0) = cc|c[0, o(:, -)] = ccrc(0) ÷
: co:(:)
0
1 = :c|c(0) = :c|c[0, o(:, -)] = :crc(0) ÷
: :i:(:)
0
with the graphs on Figure 9 and Figure 10.
Cardinal functions and integral functions 35
4. NEW SUPERMATHEMATICS CARDINAL ECCENTRIC
CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS (ECCC-SMF)
The functions that will be introduced in this section are unknown in math-
ematics literature. These functions are centrics and cardinal functions or
integrals. They are supermathematics eccentric functions amplitude, beta,
radial, eccentric derivative of eccentric variable [1], [2], [3], [4], [6], [7] cardi-
nals and cardinal cvadrilobe functions [5].
Eccentric amplitude function cardinal acr(0), denoted as
(r) = acr[0, o(:, -)], r = 0,
is expressed in
(13) acrc(0) =
acr(0
0
=
acr[0, o(:, :)]
0
=
0 ÷arc:i:[: :i:(0 ÷:]
0
and the graphs from Figure 11.
Sin()

, ¦:, 0, 1¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, +4¬¦
Figure 11: The graph of cardinal eccentric circular supermathematics
function acrc(0)
The beta cardinal eccentric function will be
(14) /crc(0) =
/cr(0)
0
=
/cr[0o(:, :)]
0
=
arc:i:[: :i:(0 ÷:)]
0
,
with the graphs from Figure 12.
Figure 12: The graph of cardinal eccentric circular supermathematics
function /crc(0) (¦:, ÷1, 1¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, 4¬¦)
36 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu
The cardinal eccentric function of eccentric variable 0 is expressed by
(15) rcrc
1;2
(0) =
rcr(0)
0
=
rcr[0, o(:, :)]
0
=
÷: co:(0 ÷:) ±
p
1 ÷:
2
:i:(0 ÷:)
0
and the graphs from Figure 13, and the same function, but of centric variable
c is expressed by
(16) 1crc(c
1;2
) =
1cr(c
1;2
)
c
1;2
=
1cr[c
1;2
o(:, :)]
c
1;2
=

p
1 + :
2
÷2: co:(c
1;2
÷:)
c
1;2
sCos()+
_
1[s Si n()]
2

,
¦:, 0, 1¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, 4¬¦
sCos()
_
1[s Si n()]
2

,
¦:, ÷1, 0¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, 4¬¦
sCos()
_
1[s Si n()]
2

,
¦:, 0, 1¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, 4¬¦
Figure 13: The graph of cardinal eccentric circular supermathematical
function rcrc
1;2
(0)
And the graphs for 1crc(c1), from Figure 14.
Figure 14: The graph of cardinal eccentric radial circular
supermathematics function Rexc(0)
An eccentric circular supermathematics function with large applications,
representing the function of transmitting speeds and/or the turning speeds of
all known planar mechanisms is the derived eccentric dcr
1;2
(0) and 1cr(c
1;2
),
functions that by dividing/reporting with arguments 0 and, respectively, c
Cardinal functions and integral functions 37
lead to corresponding cardinal functions, denoted dcrc
1;2
(0), respectively
1crc(c
1;2
) and expressions
(17) dcrc
1;2
(0) =
dcr
1;2
(0)
0
=
dcr
1;2
[0, o(:, :)]
0
=
1 ÷
scos(")
1s
2
sin
2
(")
0
(18)
1crc(c
1;2
) =
1cr(c
1;2
)
c
1;2
=
1cr¦c[c
1;2
o(:, :)]¦
c
1;2
=
p
1 + :
2
÷2: co:(c
1;2
÷:)
c
1;2
the graphs on Figure 15.
Figure 15: The graph of supermathematical cardinal eccentric radial
circular function dexc
1
(0)
Because 1cr(c
1;2
) =
1
dex
1;2
()
results that 1crc(c
1;2
) =
1
dexc
1;2
()
:i¡(0)
and co¡(0) are also cvadrilobe functions, dividing by their arguments lead
to cardinal cvadrilobe functions :i¡c(0) and co¡c(0) obtaining with the ex-
pressions
(19) co¡c(0) =
co¡(0)
0
=
co¡[0o(:, :)]
0
=
co:(0 ÷:)
0
p
1 ÷:
2
:i:
2
(0 ÷:)
(20) :i¡c(0) =
:i¡(0)
0
=
:i¡[0o(:, :)]
0
=
:i:(0 ÷:)
0
p
1 ÷:
2
co:
2
(0 ÷:)
the graphs on Figure 16.
Figure 16: The graph of supermathematics cardinal cvadrilobe function
cc¡c(0) J and :i¡c(0) I
38 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu
It is known that, by de…nite integrating of cardinal centric and eccentric
functions in the …eld of supermathematics, we obtain the corresponding
integral functions.
Such integral supermathematics functions are presented below. For zero
eccentricity, they degenerate into the centric integral functions. Otherwise
they belong to the new eccentric mathematics.
5. ECCENTRIC SINE INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS
Are obtained by integrating eccentric cardinal sine functions (13) and are
(21) :ic(r) =
Z
x
0
:crc(0) d0
with the graphs on Figure 17 for the ones with the eccentric variable r = 0.
Figure 17: The graph of eccentric integral sine function sie
1
(r)N and
sie
2
(r)H
Unlike the corresponding centric functions, which is denoted oic(r), the
eccentric integral sine of eccentric variable was noted :ic(r), without the
capital o, which will be assigned according to the convention only for the
ECCC-SMF of centric variable. The eccentric integral sine function of cen-
tric variable, noted oic(r) is obtained by integrating the cardinal eccentric
sine of the eccentric circular supermathematics function, with centric vari-
able
(22) ocrc(r) = ocrc[c, o(:, -)],
Cardinal functions and integral functions 39
thus
(23) oic(r) =
Z
x
0
ocr[c, o(:, -]
c
,
with the graphs from Figure 18.
Figure 18: The graph of eccentric integral sine function sie
2
(r)
6. C O N C L U S I O N
The paper highlighted the possibility of inde…nite multiplication of car-
dinal and integral functions from the centric mathematics domain in the
eccentric mathematics’s or of supermathematics’s which is a reunion of the
two mathematics. Supermathematics, cardinal and integral functions were
also introduced with correspondences in centric mathematics, a series new
cardinal functions that have no corresponding centric mathematics.
The applications of the new supermathematics cardinal and eccentric
functions certainly will not leave themselves too much expected.
References
[1] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Eccentric circular functions, Com. I Conferin¸ta Na¸tional¼ a de Vibra¸tii
în Construc¸tia de Ma¸sini, Timi¸soara , 1978, 101-108.
[2] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Eccentric circular functions and their extension, Bul .¸ St. Tehn. al I.P.T.,
Seria Mecanic¼ a, 25(1980), 189-196.
[3] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Supermathematica, Com.VII Conf. Interna¸tional¼ a. De Ing. Manag. ¸si
Tehn.,TEHNO’95 Timi¸soara, 9(1995), 41-64.
[4] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Eccentric circular supermathematic functions of centric variable,
Com.VII Conf. Interna¸tional¼ a. De Ing. Manag. ¸si Tehn.,TEHNO’98 Timi¸soara, 531-
548.
[5] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Quadrilobic vibration systems, The 11
th
International Conference on
Vibration Engineering, Timi¸soara, Sept. 27-30, 2005, 77-82.
[6] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Supermathematica. Fundaments, Vol.II, Ed. Politehnica, Timi¸soara,
2007.
[7] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Supermathematica. Fundaments, Vol.II, Ed. Politehnica, Timi¸soara,
2011 (forthcoming).
40 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu
Received: December, 2011
POLYTEHNIC UNIVERSITY OF TIMI¸ SOARA, ROMANIA
E-mail address: mselariu@gmail.com
UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO-GALLUP, USA
E-mail address: smarand@unm.edu
INSTITUTUL NA¸ TIONAL DE CERCETARE - DEZVOLTARE
PENTRU ELECTROCHIMIE ¸ SI MATERIE CONDENSAT
¼
A
TIMI¸ SOARA, ROMANIA
E-mail address: nitumarian13@gmail.com
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMETRY
Vol. 1 (2012), No. 1, 41 - 45
A GENERALIZATION OF THE ISOGONAL POINT
PETRU I. BRAICA and ANDREI BUD
Abstract. In this paper we give a generalization of the isogonal point in
terms of concurrency, starting with the ideea of "breaking" the equilateral
triangles constructed on the sides of one triangle, rotating them with the
same acute angle and compressing with the same ratio the broken sides.
1. Introduction
We will denote by c
2
the euclidean space.
De…nition 1.1. For A ¸ c
2
…xed and c ¸ (÷¬; ¬), we call rotation of
center A and angle c of 1 ¸ c
2
, the point . = 1
x;
(1 ), having the following
properties:
(i) :(]1 A7) = c;
(ii)
÷÷÷
A1 =
÷÷÷
A7.
De…nition 1.2. Let O ¸ c
2
a …xed point and / ¸ R¸¦0¦. We call homothety
with center O and ratio / an application:
H
0;k
: c
2
÷÷ c
2
: H
0;k
(') = '
0
with the following properties:
(1) H
0;k
(O) = O;
(2) If ' ,= 0, then the points O, ', '
0
are collinear;
(3) If / 0, then '
0
¸ [O', and if / < 0, then O ¸ [''
0
];
(4) O'
0
= [/[ O'.
————————————–
Keywords and phrases: Triangle, isogonal point
(2010)Mathematics Subject Classi…cation: 51M04, 51M25, 51M30
42 Petru I. Braica and Andrei Bud
2. Main Results
If we consider an arbitrary triangle ¹1C and the points C
a
= (H
A;k
·
1
A;
)(1), C
b
= (H
B;k
· 1
B;
)(¹), ¹
b
= (H
B;k
· 1
B;
)(C), ¹
c
= (H
C;k
·
1
C;
)(1), 1
c
= (H
C;k
· 1
C;
)(¹), 1
a
= (H
A;k
· 1
A;
)(C) with / ¸ R

¸ and c ¸ (÷¬; ¬) …xed.
Lemma 2.1. If C
0
, 1
0
are points in the interior of the triangle ¹1C with
´¹1C
0
~ ´¹C1
0
and CC
0
¨ ¹1 = ¦C
1
¦, also 11
0
¨ ¹C = ¦1
1
¦, then
the following identity is true:

0
¹
0
C
=
sinC sin(1 +j)
sin1 sin(C +j)
,
with j
not
= :(]¹1C
0
) = :(]¹C1
0
).
Proof. We have
1
1
¹
1
1
C
=
o
4BB
0
C
o
4BAB
0
=
1C 1
0
C sin(C +j)
¹1 ¹1
0
sin(¹+r)
=
sinC sinj sin(¹+r)
sin¹ sinr sin(C +j)
,
where r
not
= :(]1¹C
0
) = :(]C¹1
0
) (see Figure 1).
Similarly, we have
C
1
¹
C
1
1
=
o
4ACC
0
o
4CC
0
B
=
¹C
0
¹C sin(¹+r)
1C
0
1C sin(1 +j)
=
sinj sin1 sin(¹+r)
sinr sin¹ sin(1 +j)
.
Now, using the Ceva’s Theorem, in the triangle ¹1C, one obtains
¹
0
C

0
=
1
1
C
1
1
¹

C
1
¹
C
1
1
=
sin1 sin(C +j)
sinC sin(1 +j)
.

Theorem 2.1. Let us consider now an arbitrary triangle ¹1C and the
points C
a
= (H
A;k
· 1
A;
)(1), C
b
= (H
B;k
· 1
B;k
)(¹), ¹
b
= (H
B;k
·
1
B;
)(C), ¹
c
= (H
C;k
· 1
C;
)(1), 1
c
= (H
C;k
· 1
C;
)(¹), 1
a
= (H
A;k
·
1
A;
)(C), with / ¸ R

, c ¸ (÷¬; ¬) …xed. Using this points, de…ned above,
we consider the following intersections: 11
c
¨ CC
b
= ¦1
a
¦, ¹1
a
¨ 1C =
¦1
A
¦, 11
a
¨ ¹¹
b
= ¦1
c
¦, C1
c
¨ ¹1 = ¦1
C
¦, CC
a
¨ ¹¹
c
= ¦1
b
¦, 11
b
¨
A generalization of the isogonal point 43
¹C = ¦1
B
¦. The concurrency of the cevians ¹1
A
, 11
B
, C1
C
takes place
in the point T
;k
.
Proof. Applying Lema 2.1 one obtains:
11
A
1
A
C
=
sinC sin(1 +c)
sin1 sin(C +c)
C1
B
1
B
¹
=
sin¹ sin(C +c)
sinC sin(¹+c)
¹1
C
1
C
1
=
sin1 sin(¹+c)
sin¹ sin(1 +c)
.
Now, evaluating the product
11
A
1
A
C

C1
B
1
B
¹

¹1
C
1
C
1
= 1
and from the reciprocal of Ceva’s Theorem, we have the concurrency in T
;k
(see Figure 2).
Corrolary 2.1. For c = 60

one obtains the …rst Torricelli point, and for
c = ÷60

one obtains the second Torricelli point, replacing / = 1.
Corrolary 2.2. For / = 1,(2 cos c), one obtains: C
a
= C
b
; 1
a
= 1
c
;
¹
c
= ¹
b
¸ and the ¹1C
a
, 1¹
b
C, C1
a
¹ are similar isosceles triangles and
the Theorem of Kiepert takes place.[1].
Corrolary 2.3. From Lemma 2.2 one obtaines that the geometrical locus
of the intersection point CC
0
¨ 11
0
is the line ¹¹
0
, where

0

0
C =
sinC sin(1 +j)
sin1 sin(C +j)
.
44 Petru I. Braica and Andrei Bud
Theorem 2.2. Let us consider now an arbitrary triangle ¹1C and the
following points C
a
= (H
A;k
· 1
A;
)(1), C
b
= (H
B;k
· 1
B;
)(¹), ¹
b
=
(H
B;k
· 1
B;
)(C),¹
c
= (H
C;k
· 1
C;
)(1), 1
c
= (H
C;k
· 1
C;
)(¹), 1
a
=
(H
A;k
· 1
A;
)(C) with / ¸ R

, c ¸ (÷¬; ¬) …xed. Using this points, we
consider the following intersections: ¦Q
a
¦ = CC
a
¨11
a
, ¦Q
b
¦ = ¹¹
b
¨CC
b
,
¦Q
c
¦ = 11
c
¨ ¹¹
c
, ¹Q
a
¨ 1C = ¦Q
A
¦, 1Q
b
¨ ¹C = ¦Q
B
¦, CQ
c
¨ ¹1 =
¦Q
C
¦. The concurrency of lines ¹Q
A
, 1Q
B
, CQ
C
takes place in the point
T

;k
.
Proof. We make the following notations: , = :(]C
a
1¹) = :(]C
b
¹1) =
:(]1
a
C¹) = :(]1
c
¹C) = :(]¹
c
1C) = :(]¹
b
C1).
Applying Lemma 2.1 one obtains:
1Q
A
Q
A
C
=
sinC sin(1 +,)
sin1 sin(C +,)
CQ
B
Q
B
¹
=
sin¹ sin(C +,)
sinC sin(¹+,)
¹Q
C
Q
C
1
=
sin1 sin(¹+,)
sin¹ sin(1 +,)
.
Now, applying again the reciprocal of the Ceva’s Theorem, one obtains the
required concurrency in the point T

;k
(See Figure 3).
Remark 2.1. The corrolary 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 takes place also for Theorem
2.2.
Remark 2.2. The barycentric coordinates for the points T
k;
and T

k;
can
remain an open problem.
Remark 2.3. For / = 1, Theorem 2.1 become Theorem 1.1 from [4].
A generalization of the isogonal point 45
References
[1] Barbu, C., Fundamental Theorems of Triangle Geometry (Romanian), Ed. Unique,
Bac¼ au, 2008.
[2] Nicolescu, L. and Bosko¤, V., Practical Problems of Geometry (Romanian), Ed.
Tehnic¼ a, Bucure¸sti, 1990.
[3] Mathematical Gazette (Romanian), Bucharest.
[4] Braica, P. and Pop, O. T., An Extension of Torricelli’s Theorem (Romanian).
Received: February 2, 2012.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOL "GRIGORE MOISIL"
MILENIULUI 1, 440037 SATU MARE, ROMANIA
E-mail address: petrubr@yahoo.com
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E-mail address: and_rei_95@yahoo.com
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CONSTANTIN CIOFU
AIMS AND SCOPE
International Journal of Geometry publishes high quality original re-
search papers and survey articles in areas of euclidean geometry, non - euclid-
ean geometry and combinatorial geometry. It will also occasionally publish,
as special issues, proceedings of international conferences (co)-organized by the
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Vasile Alecsandri National
College of Bacau and Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau.
MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION
Manuscripts should be written in English, following the style of our journal
in what concerns the technical preparation of the papers. The manuscripts must
be prepared electronically in LATEX macro package, and should be submitted
either in two paper copies and .tex …le on a ‡oppy diskette, or by E-mail (the
.tex-…le will be accompanied by .pdf …le). The style "ijgeometry.sty" and also
an example of its usage may be found on the web site of the journal (address
below). On the title page author should include the title of the article, au-
thor’s name (no degrees), author’s a¢liation, e-mail addresses, mailing address
of the corresponding author and running head less than 60 characters. The
manuscript must be accompanied by a brief abstract, no longer than 200-250
words. It should make minimal use of mathematical symbols and displayed
formulas. Mathematics Subject Classi…cation with primary (and secondary)
subject classi…cation codes and a list of 4-5 key words must be given. Biblio-
graphic references should be listed alphabetically at the end of the article. The
author should consult Mathematical Reviews for the standard abbreviations of
journal names. References should be listed in alphabetical order; the following
reference style should be used:
[1] Andreescu, T. and Andrica, D., Complex Numbers from A to . . . Z,
Birkhauser Verlag, Boston-Berlin-Basel, 2005.
[2] Andrica, D. and Barbu, C., A Geometric Proof to Blundon’s Inequalities,
Mathematical Inequalities & Applications, 15 (2011), 180-192.
Reprints
The (…rst) author of each published paper will receive the .pdf reprint
of the paper.
Further information about the journal can be found at:
http://ijgeometry.com/
Technical Editors
EVELIN BARBU
CONSTANTIN CIOFU
Cover Design
CONSTANTIN CIOFU