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JOURNAL

GEOMETRY

Vol.

Edited by Depart

“Vasile Alecsandri”

INTERNATIONAL

JOURNAL

OF

GEOMETRY

Vol. 1 No. 1 2012

Edited by Department of Mathematics

” National College of Bacău, Romania

ment of Mathematics

ional College of Bacău, Romania

CONTENTS

VOL. 1 (2012) No. 1

GHEORGHE SZÖLL

½

OSY and OVIDIU T. POP

A new proof of Neuberg’s theorem and one application .........................5-9

ION P

¼

ATRA¸ SCU and C

¼

AT

¼

ALIN BARBU

Two new proofs of Goormaghtigh’s theorem ..........................................10-19

NICU¸ SOR MINCULETE

Several geometric inequalities of Erdös - Mordell type in the

convex polygon ..............................................................................20-26

MIRCEA ¸ SELARIU, FLORENTIN SMARANDACHE and MARIAN NI ¸ TU

Cardinal functions and integral functions ............................................27-40

PETRU BRAICA and ANDREI BUD

A generalization of the isogonal point ..................................................41-45

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMETRY

Vol. 1 (2012), No. 1, 5 - 9

A NEW PROOF OF NEUBERG’S THEOREM

AND ONE APPLICATION

GHEORGHE SZÖLL

½

OSY and OVIDIU T. POP

Abstract. In this paper, we will give a new proof of Neuberg’s Theorem.

One application of this result is found in Theorem 2.2.

1. Introduction

In this section, we’ll recall some known results.

Theorem 1.1. Let ABC be a triangle, C(O; R) his circumscribed circle

and H the orthocentre of this triangle. If M is the midpoint of the side BC,

then

(1) AH = 2OM

and

(2) OM ? BC:

For additional comments and proofs, see [1]-[4].

In this paper, we will consider a convex quadrilateral ABCD and note

with H

a

, H

b

, H

c

, H

d

the orthocentres of triangles BCD, CDA, DAB,

respectively ABC and with T[ABCD] the area of quadrilateral ABCD:

Theorem 1.2. If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then

(3) AB H

a

H

b

; ABkH

a

H

b

;

(4) AH

b

? CD; BH

a

? CD;

(5) AH

b

BH

a

and analogues.

For comments and proofs see [3].

————————————–

Keywords and phrases: Convex quadrilateral, area

(2010)Mathematics Subject Classi…cation: 51M04, 51M25, 51M30

6 Gheorghe Szöll½osy and Ovidiu T. Pop

Corollary 1.3. If ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral, then

(6) T[ABCD] = T[H

a

H

b

H

c

H

d

]:

Proof. It results from Theorem 1.2.

Corollary 1.4. Let ABCD be a convex quadrilateral. If AH

b

BH

a

,

BH

c

CH

b

, CH

d

DH

c

or DH

a

AH

d

, then ABCD is a cyclic quadri-

lateral.

Proof. Let’s consider the relation AH

b

BH

a

.Let C(O

1

) and C(O

2

) be the

circumscribed circles of the triangle ADC, respectively BCD and M the

midpoint of DC. Taking Theorem 1.1 into account, we have that

AH

b

= 2O

1

M; BH

a

= 2O

2

M;

and

O

1

M ? DC; O

2

M ? DC;

from where, O

1

coincide to O

2

. So, the quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic.

2. Main results

In this section, the main results are proved by using the analytic geometry.

The result from Theorem 2.1 is known in literature as Neuberg’s Theorem

(see [4] or [6]) and Theorem 2.2 is an application of this.

Theorem 2.1. If M is a point in the same plan with the triangle ABC,

M 62 AB[BC[CA and H

a

, H

b

, H

c

are the orthocentres of triangles MBC,

MCA, respectively MAB, then

(7) T[ABC] = T[H

a

H

b

H

c

]:

Proof. We consider a; b; c; ; 2 R, a > 0, b < c and the points A(O; a),

B(b; 0), C(c; 0) and M(; ) (Figure 1). From M 62 BC, it results that

6= 0. The equation of the line AB is

ax +by ab = 0;

and then, from M 62 AB it results that

a +b ab 6= 0:

Similarly, from M 62 AC it results that

a +c ac 6= 0:

Taking the remarks above, from M 62 AB [ BC [ CA we obtain that

(8) (a +b ab)(a +c ac) 6= 0:

A new proof of Neuberg’s theorem and one application 7

Writing the corresponding heights equations, after the calculations, we ob-

tain

(9) H

a

;

2

+ (b +c) bc

;

(10) H

b

(c a +a

2

)

a +c ac

;

(a b +b

2

)

a +b ab

and

(11) H

c

(b a +a

2

)

a +b ab

;

(a b +b

2

)

a +b ab

:

If = 0, then from M 62 AB [ CA it results that bc 6= 0. In this case

H

a

0;

bc

, H

b

a

c

; 0

, H

c

a

b

; 0

and then T[H

a

H

b

H

c

] = jj,

where

=

1

2

x

H

a

y

H

a

1

x

H

b

y

H

b

1

x

H

c

y

H

c

1

;

H

a

(x

H

a

; y

H

a

) and analogues. We have that

=

1

2

a(b c);

so

T[H

a

H

b

H

c

] = T[ABC]

and then, in this case the theorem was proved. If 6= 0, we note

E = (a +c ac)(a +b ab)

and then

(12) E = a

2

2

+a( a)(b +c) +bc( a)

2

:

8 Gheorghe Szöll½osy and Ovidiu T. Pop

Taking (8) and (12) into account, we have that E 6= 0.

Then

=

1

2E

2

+ (b +c) bc

(c a +a

2

) (a c +c

2

) a +c ac

(b a +a

2

) (a b +b

2

) a +b ab

**and multiplying the …rst line with and dividing the second column with
**

, we obtain

=

1

2E

2

2

+ (b +c) bc

c a +a

2

a c +c

2

a +c ac

b a +a

2

a b +b

2

a +b ab

:

Adding the …rst column to the second column, we obtain

=

1

2E

2

(b +c) bc

c a +a

2

a

2

+c

2

a +c ac

b a +a

2

a

2

+b

2

a +b ab

:

Deducting the third line from the second line, we get

=

c b

2E

2

(b +c) bc

c +b a

b a +a

2

a

2

+b

2

a +b ab

:

We multiply the second line with and adding it to the …rst line, and we

multiply the second line with b and adding it to the third line, then we

obtain

=

c b

2E

0 bc a

b +c a

a( a) a

2

bc a

:

Deducting the …rst line from the third line and taking that

T[ABC] =

a(c b)

2

;

we have

=

c b

2E

0 bc a

b +c a

a( a) a

2

0

=

1

E

T[ABC]

0 bc a

b +c a

( a) a 0

=

1

E

T[ABC]E = T[ABC]:

Now, the relation (7) is proved.

Theorem 2.2. If ABCD is a convex quadrilateral, then

(13) T[ABCD] = T[H

a

H

b

H

c

H

d

]:

Proof. Any three from the points H

a

; H

b

; H

c

; H

d

are not collinear. Even

if H

a

H

b

H

c

H

d

is a concave quadrilateral, it has at least one diagonal situ-

ated on the surface of the quadrilateral ABCD, for example [H

b

H

d

] (Figure

2).Applying Theorem 2.1 for the triangle ABD and for the point C, for the

A new proof of Neuberg’s theorem and one application 9

triangle CBD and for the point A respectively, we obtain that

T[ABD] = T[H

a

H

b

H

d

];

respectively

T[CBD] = T[H

c

H

b

H

d

]:

From the equalities above, (13) follows.

Remark 2.3. Taking Theorem 2.2 into account, it results that (13) takes

place also in quadrilateral that are not cyclic quadrilaterals.

References

[1] Barbu, C., Fundamental Theorems of Triangle Geometry (Romanian), Ed. Unique,

Bac¼ au, 2008.

[2] F. G.-M., Exercices de géométrie, Huitième édition, Paris, 1931.

[3] Golovina, L. I. and Iaglom, I. M., Induction in Geometry (Romanian), Ed. Tehnic¼ a,

Bucharest, 1964.

[4] Miculi¸ta, M. and Brânzei, D., Analogies Triangle-Tetrahedron (Romanian), Ed.

Paralela 45, 2000.

[5] Mihalescu, C., The Geometry of Remarkable Elements (Romanian), Ed. Tehnic¼ a,

Bucharest, 1957.

[6] Neuberg, J., Mathesis (1881), 168.

[7] Pop, O. T., Minculete, N. and Bencze, M., An Introduction to Quadrilateral Geometry

(to appear).

Received: December 16, 2011.

AVRAM IANCU 28E, 435500 SIGHETU MARMA¸ TIEI, ROMANIA

E-mail address: gyuri66@yahoo.com

NATIONAL COLLEGE "MIHAI EMINESCU",

MIHAI EMINESCU 5, 440014 SATU MARE, ROMANIA

E-mail address: ovidiutiberiu@yahoo.com

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMETRY

Vol. 1 (2012), No. 1, 10 - 19

TWO NEW PROOFS OF

GOORMAGHTIGH’S THEOREM

ION P

¼

ATRA¸ SCU and C

¼

AT

¼

ALIN I. BARBU

Abstract. In this note we present two new demonstrations of the theo-

rem of a Belgian mathematician René Goormaghtigh.

1. Introduction

In order to state our main results we need recall some important theorems

that we need in proving the Goormaghtigh’s theorem. Consider a triangle

ABC is neither isosceles rectangular nor with circumcenter O. We present

below an interesting proposition given by Goormaghtigh.

Theorem 1.1. (Goormaghtigh [7; pp: 281 283]): Let A

0

; B

0

; C

0

be points

on OA; OB; OC so that

OA

0

OA

=

OB

0

OB

=

OC

0

OC

= k;

k 2 R

+

; then the intersections of the perpendiculars to OA at A

0

, OB at B

0

,

and OC at C

0

with the respective sidelines BC; CA; AB are collinear.

R. Musselman and R. Goormaghtigh are given in [7] a proof of this theo-

rem using complex numbers. A synthetic demonstration is also given by K.

Nguyen meet in [9].

Theorem 1.2. (Kariya [3; p: 109]): Let C

a

; C

b

; C

c

the points of tangency

of the incircle with the sides BC; CA; AB of triangle ABC and I center of

the incircle. On the lines IC

a

; IC

b

; IC

c

the points A

0

; B

0

; C

0

are considered

in the same direction so that IA

0

= IB

0

= IC

0

. Then the lines AA

0

; BB

0

;

and CC

0

are concurrent.

Theorem 1.3. (Desargues [5; p: 133]): Two triangles are in axial perspective

if and only if they are in central perspective.

————————————–

Keywords and phrases: Goormaghtigh’s theorem; Miquel’s point;

complete quadrilateral

(2010) Mathematics Subject Classi…cation: 26D05; 26D15; 51N35

Two new demonstrations of Goormaghtigh’s theorem 11

Theorem 1.4. (Miquel [6; pp: 233 234]): The centers of the circles of the

four triangles of a complete quadrilateral are on a circle. (Miquel’s Circle).

Theorem 1.5. (Steiner [6; p: 235]): Miquel’s point of the circles determined

by the four triangles of a complete quadrilateral is situated on Miquel’s circle.

Theorem 1.6. (Sondat [11; p: 10]): If two triangles ABC and A

0

B

0

C

0

are

perspective and orthologic, then the center of perspective P and the ortho-

logic centers Q and Q

0

are on the same line perpendicular to the axis of

perspectivity d:

Theorem 1.7. (Thébault [12; pp: 2224]): If two triangles ABC and A

0

B

0

C

0

are perspective and orthologic, with the center of perspective P and the or-

thologic centers Q and Q

0

; then the conics ABCPQ and A

0

B

0

C

0

PQ

0

are

equilateral hyperbolas.

Theorem 1.8. (Brianchon - Poncelet [4; pp: 205220]): The centers of all

equilateral hyperbolas passing through the vertices of a triangle ABC lie on

the Euler circle of the triangle.

2. Main results

In this section we present two new demonstrations of the theorem of a

Belgian mathematician René Goormaghtigh and some consequences deriving

from this theorem.

Solution 1. We noted with A

00

the point of intersection of perpendiculars

taken at B

0

and C

0

on the OB; OC respectively. Similarly we de…ne the

points B

00

and C

00

(see Figure 1).

12 Ion P¼ atra¸scu and C¼ at¼ alin I. Barbu

Since OA = OB = OC, from the relation

OA

0

OA

=

OB

0

OB

=

OC

0

OC

= k;

we get OA

0

= OB

0

= OC

0

: Because the lines OA

0

; OB

0

; OC

0

are perpendicu-

lar on B

00

C

00

; C

00

A

00

; and A

00

B

00

respectively, then the point O is the incenter

of the triangle A

00

B

00

C

00

: Applying theorem 2 in the triangle A

00

B

00

C

00

for the

points A; B; C, it results that the lines AA

00

; BB

00

and CC

00

are concurrent

(at one of Kariya’s points which corresponds to A

00

B

00

C

00

triangle), then tri-

angles ABC and A

00

B

00

C

00

are homological. Thus, according to theorem 3,

that the points of intersection of lines AB and A

00

B

00

; BC and B

00

C

00

, and

CA and C

00

A

00

are collinear.

Denote by X the intersection of the lines BC and B

00

C

00

. Similarly we

de…ne the points Y and Z:

Solution 2. Without restricting the generality suppose that \BCA >

\ABC. Let us designate by R the radius of the circle triangle ABC, by A

1

intersection of the tangent in A to circumcircle of the triangle ABC with

the line CB, by T and X

0

the projections of the points B and X on this

tangent, by M and M

0

the projections of points A

0

and O; respectively, with

the line BT; and by A

0

1

the intersection of BC and OM

0

(see Figure 2).

We have: \CAA

1

= \ABC; \ACA

1

= \BAC +\ABC and

\AA

1

B = 180

\BAC 2 \ABC

= \BCA\ABC; \COA

0

1

= 2 \ABC 90

:

Applying the law of sines in the triangle OCA

1

; we have

A

0

1

C

sin(2B 90

)

=

OC

sin(C B)

;

so

A

0

1

C =

Rcos 2B

sin(C B)

:

Two new demonstrations of Goormaghtigh’s theorem 13

Because XX

0

= AA

0

= OAOA

0

= R(1 k); then

(1) XA

1

=

XX

0

sin(C B)

=

R(1 k)

sin(C B)

From

OA

0

OA

=

A

0

1

X

A

0

1

A

1

= k, we get

(2)

A

0

1

X

XA

1

=

k

1 k

From relations (1) and (2) we get

(3) A

0

1

X =

k

1 k

R(1 k)

sin(C B)

=

kR

sin(C B)

Since,

(4) XC = XA

0

1

+A

0

1

=

R(k cos 2B)

sin(C B)

Because \M

0

OB = 2\ACB90

; BM

0

= BOsin(2C90

) = Rcos 2C;

MM

0

= OA

0

= kR; then BM = BM

0

+MM

0

= R(k cos 2C): Since

(5) XB =

BP

sin(C B)

=

R(k cos 2C)

sin(C B)

From relations (4) and (5) we get

XB

XC

=

k cos 2C

k cos 2B

:

Similarly it is shown that

Y C

Y A

=

k cos 2A

k cos 2C

and

ZA

ZB

=

k cos 2B

k cos 2A

:

We obtain that

XB

XC

Y C

Y A

ZA

ZB

= 1

and from the converse of Menelaus’s theorem results that points X; Y; and

Z are collinear.

Theorem 2.1. Let us consider C

1

; C

2

; C

3

and { the circumcircles of the

triangles AY Z; BZX; CXY; and respectively ABC: The circles C

1

; C

2

; C

3

;

and { pass through a common point.

The proof results from theorem 5.

Let P be the corresponding point of Miquel complete quadrilateral ABXY CZ

(see Figure 3).

14 Ion P¼ atra¸scu and C¼ at¼ alin I. Barbu

Theorem 2.2. Centers of circles C

1

; C

2

; C

3

; { and point P are on the same

circle @:

The proof results from theorems 4 and 5.

Theorem 2.3. Let us consider C

0

1

; C

0

2

; and C

0

3

the circumcircles of the tri-

angles A

00

Y Z; B

00

ZX; and respectively C

00

XY . The circles C

0

1

; C

0

2

; and C

0

3

pass through a common point.

The proof results from theorem 5.

Let us designate by O

a

; O

b

; O

c

; O

0

a

; O

0

b

; O

0

c

the circumcenters of the trian-

gles AY Z; BZX; CXY; A

00

Y Z; B

00

ZX; C

00

XY; respectively, by Q the point

of Miquel of A

00

C

00

XZB

00

Y complete quadrilateral (see Figure 4).

Two new demonstrations of Goormaghtigh’s theorem 15

Open problems:

1) Point Q is on circle @:

2) Point O is on Aubert’s line of complete quadrilaterals Y ABXCZ and

XZA

00

C

00

B

00

Y:

Remark 2.1. Goormaghtigh’s theorem is true for k < 0, where

!

OA

0

= k

!

OA;

!

OB

0

= k

!

OB;

!

OC

0

= k

!

OC; the demonstration is similar.

Remark 2.2. Points A

00

; B

00

and C

00

are on the perpendicular bisectors of

the sides of triangle ABC, therefore the triangles ABC and A

00

B

00

C

00

are

bilogical, O is a common center of orthology.

Remark 2.3. If k = 0 Goormaghtigh’s theorem remains true as a special

case of Bobillier’s theorem [10; p:119]:

16 Ion P¼ atra¸scu and C¼ at¼ alin I. Barbu

Remark 2.4. For k =

1

2

we obtain Ayme’s theorem [2]:

Remark 2.5. For k = 1 we obtain Lemoine’s theorem and XY Z is Lemoine’s

line of the triangle ABC [3; p:155]:

Remark 2.6. Theorem 4 is true for any transversal XY Z which cuts the

sides of triangle ABC, the demonstration remains the same.

Remark 2.7. Because O

a

O

0

a

; O

b

O

0

b

; O

c

O

0

c

are the perpendicular bisectors of

the segments Y Z; ZX; and XY respectively, then O

a

O

0

a

kO

b

O

0

b

kO

c

O

0

c

:

Remark 2.8. The triangles ABC and A

00

B

00

C

00

are perspective, XY Z being

the axis of perspective. Let S be the perspective center of triangles ABC and

A

00

B

00

C

00

.

Theorem 2.4. The lines OS and XY Z are perpendicular.

The proof results by Sondat’s theorem (see Figure 5).

Theorem 2.5. The conics ABCSO and A

0

B

0

C

0

SO are equilateral hyper-

bolas.

Proof. Because the circumcenter O is the common center of orthology, by

Theorem 1.7 we obtain the conclusion.

Corollary 2.6. The centers of the conics ABCSO and A

0

B

0

C

0

SO lie on

the Euler circles of the triangles ABC, respectively A

0

B

0

C

0

:

The proof results from Theorems 1.8 and 2.5 (see Figure 5).

Two new demonstrations of Goormaghtigh’s theorem 17

Corollary 2.7. The points P ans Q are the focus of parabolas tangent

to the sides of the complet quadrilaterals ABXY CZ and A

00

C

00

XZB

00

Y ,

respectively:

(see [1, p. 109], Figure 5).

18 Ion P¼ atra¸scu and C¼ at¼ alin I. Barbu

3. Dynamic properties

In this section we examine the dependence of considered con…guration on

homothety coe¢cient k. Firstly formulate

Lemma 3.1. Given two points A, B. The map f transforms the lines

passing through A to the lines passing through B and conserve the cross-

ratios of the lines. Then the locus of points l \ f(l) is a conic passing

through A and B.

Indeed if X, Y , Z are three points of the thought locus, then lines l and

f(l) intersect the conic ABXY Z in the same point.

Lemma 3.1 has also a dual formulating: if f is a projective map between

lines a and b then the envelop of lines Af(A) is a conic touching a and b.

Using Lemma 3.1 we obtain that the envelop of lines XY Z from Theorem

1.1 is a parabola touching the sidelines of ABC, and the locus of perspec-

tivity centers from Theorem 1.2 is the Feuerbach hyperbola.

Theorem 3.1. Point P from Theorem 2.1 is …xed.

Proof. Immediately follows from Lemma 3.1 and Corollary 2.7.

Theorem 3.2. The locus of points Q is a line passing through O.

Proof. Using polar transformation with center O we obtain from Theorem

2.5 that two parabolas from Corollary 2.7 are homothetic. Thus all points

Q are the foci of homothetic parabolas.

Acknowledgement. The last section of the article was created by Mr.

Alexey Zaslavsky, and the authors are grateful to him!.

References

[1] Akopyan, A. V. and Zaslavsky, A. A., Geometry of Conics, American Mathematical

Society, 2007, 109.

[2] Ayme, J. L. Geometry, http://pagesperso-orange.fr/jl.ayme/

[3] Barbu, C., Fundamental Theorems of Triangle Geometry (Romanian), Ed Unique,

Bac¼ au, 2008, 109.

[4] Brianchon, C. J. and Poncelet, J. V., Recherches sur la détermination d’une hyperbole

équiatère, Gergonne’s Annales de Math. 11(1820/21), 205-220.

[5] Court, N., College Geometry, Johnson Publishing Company, New York, 1925, 133.

[6] Mihalescu, C., Remarkable Elements of Geometry (Romanian), Ed. SSMR,

Bucharest, 2007, 233-235.

[7] Musselman, J. R. and Goormaghtigh, R., Advanced Problem 3928, Amer. Math.

Monthly, 46(1939), 601; solution, 48(1941), 281-283.

[8] Neuberg, V., Mathesis, 1922, 163.

[9] Nguyen, K. L., A Synthetic Proof of Goormaghtigh’s and Generalization of Mussel-

man’s Theorem, Forum Geometricorum, 5(2005), 17-20.

[10] Nicolescu, L. and Bosco¤, V., Practical Problems of Geometry (Romanian), Technical

Publishing House, Bucharest, 1990, 119.

[11] Sondat, P., L’intermédiaire des mathématiciens, 1894, 10 [question 38, solved by

Sollerstinsky, 94].

[12] Thébault, V., Perspective and Orthologic Triangles and Tetrahedrons, Amer. Math.

Monthly, 59(1952), 24-28.

Two new demonstrations of Goormaghtigh’s theorem 19

Received: January 12, 2012.

FRA¸ TII BUZE¸ STI COLLEGE

ION CANTACUZINO 15, S33, SC. 1, AP. 8, CRAIOVA, ROMANIA

E-mail address: patrascu_ion@yahoo.com

VASILE ALECSANDRI COLLEGE

IOSIF COCEA 12, SC. A, AP. 13, BAC

¼

AU, ROMANIA

E-mail address: kafka_mate@yahoo.com

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMETRY

Vol. 1 (2012), No. 1, 20 - 26

SEVERAL GEOMETRIC INEQUALITIES OF

ERDÖS - MORDELL TYPE IN THE CONVEX POLYGON

NICU¸ SOR MINCULETE

Abstract. In this paper we present the several geometric inequalities of

Erdös-Mordell type in the convex polygon, using the Cauchy Inequality.

1. Introduction

In [6], in colaboration with A. Gobej, we present some geometric inequal-

ities of Erdös-Mordell type in the convex polygon. Here, we found others

geometric inequalities of Erdös-Mordell type, using several known inequali-

ties, in the convex polygon.

Let A

1

,A

2

;...,A

n

the vertices of the convex polygon, n _ 3; and M, a

point interior to the polygon. We note with R

k

the distances from M to

the vertices A

k

and we note with r

k

the distances from M to the sides

[A

k

A

k+1

] of length A

k

A

k+1

= a

k

; where k = 1; n and A

n+1

= A

1

. For

all k ¸ ¦1; :::; n¦ with A

n+1

= A

1

and m

_

\

A

k

MA

k+1

_

=

k

we have the

following property:

1

+

2

+ ::: +

n

= 2:

L. Fejes Tóth conjectured a inequality which is refered to the convex polygon,

recall in [1] ¸si [3], thus

(1)

n

k=1

r

k

_ cos

_

n

_

n

k=1

R

k

:

In 1961 H.-C. Lenhard proof the inequality (1), used the inequality

(2)

n

k=1

w

k

_ cos

_

n

_

n

k=1

R

k

;

which was established in [5], where w

k

the length of the bisector of the

angle A

k

MA

k+1

, (\) k = 1; n with A

n+1

= A

1

.

————————————–

Keywords and phrases: Inequality of Erdös-Mordell type, Cauchy’s

Inequality

(2010) Mathematics Subject Classi…cation: 51 Mxx,26D15

Several geometric inequalities of Erdös-Mordell type in the convex polygon 21

M. Dinc¼ a published other solution for inequality (1) in Gazeta Matematic¼a

Seria B in 1998 (see [4]). Another inequality of Erdös-Mordell type for

convex polygon was given by N. Ozeki [9] in 1957, namely,

(3)

n

k=1

R

k

_

_

sec

n

_

n

n

k=1

w

k

which proved the inequality 16.8 from [3] due to L. Fejes-Tóth, so

(4)

n

k=1

R

k

_

_

sec

n

_

n

n

k=1

r

k

:

R. R. Jani´c in [3], shows that in any convex polygon A

1

A

2:::

A

n

, there is the

inequality

(5)

n

k=1

R

k

sin

A

k

2

_

n

k=1

r

k

:

D. Bu¸sneag proposed in GMB no. 1/1971 the problem 10876, which is an

inequality of Erdös-Mordell type for convex polygon, thus,

(6)

n

k=1

a

k

r

k

_

2p

2

;

where p is the semiperimeter of polygon A

1

A

2:::

A

n

and is the area of

polygon.

In connection with inequality (6), D. M. B¼ atine¸tu established [2] the in-

equality

(7)

n

k=1

a

k

r

k

_

2p

r

if the polygon A

1

A

2:::

A

n

is circumscribed about a circle of radius r.

Among the relations established between the elements of polygon A

1

A

2:::

A

n

we

can remark the following relation for - the area of convex polygon A

1

A

2:::

A

n

:

(8) 2 = a

1

r

1

+ a

2

r

2

+ ::: + a

n

r

n

:

We select several inequalities obtained from [6]:

(9) R

k

_

r

k1

+ r

k

2 sin

A

k

2

hold for all k ¸ ¦1; 2; :::; n¦ ; with r

0

= r

n

;

(10)

_

2 cos

n

_

n

n

k=1

R

k

_

n

k=1

(r

k1

+ r

k

) ; (r

0

= r

n

)

and

(11)

n

k=1

r

k1

+ r

k

R

k

_ 2ncos

n

and

(12)

n

k=1

R

2

k

r

k

_ sec

n

n

k=1

R

k

:

22 Nicu¸sor Minculete

2. Main results

First, we will follow some procedures used in paper [6], through which

we will obtain some Erdös-Mordell-type inequalities for the convex polygon.

Among these will apply the Cauchy Inequality

Theorem 2.1. In any convex polygon A

1

A

2:::

A

n

, there is the inequality

(13)

n

k=1

r

k

R

k

+ R

k+1

_ 2ncos

n

:

Proof. The inequality (11),

n

k=1

r

k1

+ r

k

R

k

_ 2ncos

n

;

with r

0

= r

n

; is expanded in the following way,

r

n

+ r

1

R

1

+

r

1

+ r

2

R

2

+ ::: +

r

n1

+ r

n

R

n

=

r

1

_

1

R

1

+

1

R

2

_

+ r

2

_

1

R

2

+

1

R

3

_

+ ::: + r

n

_

1

R

n

+

1

R

1

_

_ 2ncos

n

On the other hand, we have

1

R

k1

+

1

R

k

_

4

R

k1

+ R

k

; (\) k = 1; n

with R

0

= R

n

; from where we can deduce another inequality, of an Erdös-

Mordell type, namely,

n

k=1

r

k

R

k

+ R

k+1

_

n

2

cos

n

:

**Theorem 2.2. For any convex polygon A
**

1

A

2:::

A

n

,we have the inequality

n

k=1

R

k

+ R

k+1

r

k

_

2n

cos

n

2

;

with R

n+1

= R

1

:

Proof. The inequality

n

k=1

x

k

y

k

n

k=1

x

k

y

k

_

_

n

k=1

x

k

_

2

is well known, because it is a particulary case of Cauchy’s inequality. In this

we will take x

k

=

r

k

R

k

+R

k+1

and y

k

= 1. Thus, the inequality becomes

n

k=1

r

k

R

k

+ R

k+1

n

k=1

R

k

+ R

k+1

r

k

_ n

2

Several geometric inequalities of Erdös-Mordell type in the convex polygon 23

and, if we use the inequality (13), we get

n

k=1

R

k

+ R

k+1

r

k

_

2n

cos

n

2

;

with R

n+1

= R

1

:

Theorem 2.3. In any convex polygon A

1

A

2:::

A

n

, there is the inequality

(15)

n

k=1

_

r

k1

r

k

R

k

_ ncos

n

:

Proof. From Cauchy’s inequality, we have

n

k=1

x

k

y

k

n

k=1

x

k

y

k

_

_

n

k=1

x

k

_

2

:

Using the substitutions

x

k

=

_

r

k1

r

k

R

k

and y

k

= 1, we deduce that the inequality

n

k=1

_

r

k1

r

k

R

k

n

k=1

R

k

_

r

k1

r

k

_ n

2

;

holds. However, from the relation (11), we obtain

n

k=1

_

r

k1

r

k

R

k

_ ncos

n

which implies the inequality

n

k=1

R

k

_

r

k1

r

k

_

n

cos

n

;

with r

0

= r

n

:

Remark 1. The inequality (15) generalizes the problem 1045 of G. Tsinsifas

from the magazine Crux Mathematicorum. This is also remarked in [7].

Theorem 2.4. In any convex polygon A

1

A

2:::

A

n

there is the inequality

(16)

n

k=1

R

2

k

_

r

k1

r

k

_

n

cos

2

n

;

with r

0

= r

n

:

Proof. In the inequality

n

k=1

x

k

y

k

n

k=1

x

k

y

k

_

_

n

k=1

x

k

_

2

we replaced x

k

= y

k

=

R

k

p

r

k1

r

k

and the inequality becomes

n

n

k=1

R

2

k

_

r

k1

r

k

_

_

n

k=1

R

k

_

r

k1

r

k

_

2

_

n

2

cos

2

n

:

24 Nicu¸sor Minculete

This means that inequality (16) is true.

Theorem 2.5. In any convex polygon A

1

A

2:::

A

n

there is the inequality

n

k=1

a

k

r

k

R

k

R

k+1

_ nsin

2

n

;

with A

n+1

= A

1

:

Proof. We can be written the area of triangle A

k

MA

k+1

in two ways, thus

a

k

r

k

2

=

R

k

R

k+1

sinA

k

MA

k+1

2

;

which implies the relation

a

k

r

k

R

k

R

k+1

= sinA

k

MA

k+1

so, by passing to the sum, we get the relation

n

k=1

a

k

r

k

R

k

R

k+1

=

n

k=1

sinA

k

MA

k+1

;

with A

n+1

= A

1

: Because the function f : (0; ·) ÷R, is de…ned as f (x) =

sinx, is concave, we will apply the inequality Jensen, thus

1

n

n

k=1

sinA

k

MA

k+1

_ sin

1

n

_

n

k=1

A

k

MA

k+1

_

= sin

2

n

:

Therefore, we have

n

k=1

A

k

MA

k+1

_ nsin

2

n

:

Consequently, we obtain the inequality of the statement.

Remark 2. The equality hold in the above mentioned theorems when the

polygon is regular.

Remark 3. On the a hand, we have the equality (8),

2 = a

1

r

1

+ a

2

r

2

+ ::: + a

n

r

n

=

n

k=1

a

k

r

k

;

and on the other hand, we have the inequality Cauchy, where we will replace

x

k

=

_

a

k

r

k

and y

k

=

_

a

k

r

k

,then

2

n

k=1

a

k

r

k

=

n

k=1

a

k

r

k

n

k=1

a

k

r

k

_

_

n

k=1

a

k

_

2

= 4p

2

which proves the inequality (6):

Theorem 2.6. In any convex polygon A

1

A

2:::

A

n

there is the inequality

(18)

n

k=1

R

2

k

sin

A

k

2

_

sec

n

n

_

n

k=1

r

k

_

2

holds.

Several geometric inequalities of Erdös-Mordell type in the convex polygon 25

Proof. Applying inequality (9), we have the inequality

R

k

= MA

k

_

r

k1

+ r

k

2 sin

A

k

2

(\) k = 1; n

with r

0

= r

n

; and this, by squaring, becomes

4R

2

k

sin

A

k

2

_

(r

k1

+ r

k

)

2

sin

A

k

2

and taking the sum, we deduce

4

n

k=1

R

2

k

sin

A

k

2

_

n

k=1

(r

k1

+ r

k

)

2

sin

A

k

2

_

_

n

k=1

(r

k1

+ r

k

)

2

_

n

k=1

sin

A

k

2

_

4

_

n

k=1

r

k

_

2

ncos

n

so, we found inequality (18).

Theorem 2.7. In any convex polygon A

1

A

2:::

A

n

there is the inequality

(19)

n

k=1

(R

k

+ R

k+1

) r

k

_

2 sec

n

n

_

n

k=1

r

k

_

2

holds.

Proof. From inequality (9), we have

R

k

= MA

k

_

r

k1

+ r

k

2 sin

A

k

2

; (\) k = 1; n

with r

0

= r

n

; and this, by multiply with (r

k1

+ r

k

) ,becomes

2 (r

k1

+ r

k

) R

k

_

(r

k1

+ r

k

)

2

sin

A

k

2

and by passing to the sum, we obtain the relation

2

n

k=1

(r

k1

+ r

k

) R

k

_

n

k=1

(r

k1

+ r

k

)

2

sin

A

k

2

_

_

n

k=1

(r

k1

+ r

k

)

_

2

n

k=1

sin

A

k

2

_

4

_

n

k=1

r

k

_

2

ncos

n

:

Therefore, we have

n

k=1

(r

k1

+ r

k

) R

k

_

2 sec

n

n

_

n

k=1

r

k

_

2

:

But, it follows that

n

k=1

(R

k

+ R

k+1

) r

k

=

n

k=1

(r

k1

+ r

k

) R

k

which means that, we obtain the inequality of statement.

26 Nicu¸sor Minculete

References

[1] Abi-Khuzam, F. F., A Trigonometric Inequality and its Geometric Applications,

Mathematical Inequalities & Applications, 3(2000), 437-442.

[2] B¼ atine¸tu, D. M., An Inequality Between Weighted Average and Applications (Ro-

manian), Gazeta Matematic¼ a seria B, 7(1982).

[3] Botema, O., Djordjevi´c R. Z., Jani´c, R. R., Mitrinovi´c, D. S. and Vasi´c, P. M.,

Geometric Inequalities, Groningen,1969.

[4] Dinc¼ a, M., Generalization of Erdös-Mordell Inequality (Romanian), Gazeta Matem-

atic¼ a seria B, 7-8(1998).

[5] Lenhard, H.-C., Verallgemeinerung und Verscharfung der Erdös-Mordellschen Ungle-

ichung für Polygone, Arch. Math., 12(1961), 311-314.

[6] Minculete, N. and Gobej, A.,Geometric Inequalities of Erdös-Mordell Type in a Con-

vex Polygon (Romanian), Gazeta Matematic¼ a Seria A, nr. 1-2(2010).

[7] Minculete, N., Geometry Theorems and Speci…c Problems (Romanian), Editura Eu-

rocarpatica, Sfântu Gheorghe, 2007.

[8] Mitrinovi´c, D. S., Peµcari´c, J. E. and Volenec, V., Recent Advances in Geometric

Inequalities, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1989.

[9] Ozeki, N., On P. Erdös Inequality for the Triangle, J. College Arts Sci. Chiba Univ.,

2(1957), 247-250.

[10] Vod¼ a, V. Gh., Spell Old Geometry (Romanian), Editura Albatros,1983.

"DIMITRIE CANTEMIR" UNIVERSITY

107 BISERICII ROMÂNE, 500068 BRA¸ SOV, ROMANIA

E-mail address: minculeten@yahoo.com

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMETRY

Vol. 1 (2012), No. 1, 27 - 40

CARDINAL FUNCTIONS AND

INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS

MIRCEA E. ¸ SELARIU, FLORENTIN SMARANDACHE and

MARIAN NI¸ TU

Abstract. This paper presents the correspondences of the eccentric

mathematics of cardinal and integral functions and centric mathematics,

or ordinary mathematics. Centric functions will also be presented in the

introductory section, because they are, although widely used in undulatory

physics, little known.

In centric mathematics, cardinal sine and cosine are de…ned as well as the

integrals. Both circular and hyperbolic ones. In eccentric mathematics, all

these central functions multiplies from one to in…nity, due to the in…nity of

possible choices where to place a point. This point is called eccenter o(:, -)

which lies in the plane of unit circle UC(O, 1 = 1) or of the equilateral unity

hyperbola HU(O, a = 1, / = 1). Additionally, in eccentric mathematics there

are series of other important special functions, as acr0, /cr0, dcr0, rcr0,

etc. If we divide them by the argument 0, they can also become cardinal

eccentric circular functions, whose primitives automatically become integral

eccentric circular functions.

All supermatematics eccentric circular functions (SFM-EC) can be of vari-

able excentric 0, which are continuous functions in linear numerical eccen-

tricity domain : ¸ [÷1, 1], or of centric variable c, which are continuous for

any value of :. This means that : ¸ [÷·, +·].

————————————–

Keywords and phrases: C-Circular , CC- C centric, CE- C Eccentric,

CEL-C Elevated, CEX-C Exotic, F-Function, FMC-F Centric Mathemat-

ics, M- Matemathics, MC-M Centric, ME-M Excentric, S-Super, SM- S

Matematics, FSM-F Supermatematics FSM-CE- FSM Eccentric Circulars,

FSM-CEL- FSM-C Elevated, FSM-CEC- FSM-CE- Cardinals, FSM-CELC-

FSM-CEL Cardinals

(2010) Mathematics Subject Classi…cation: 32A17

28 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu

1. INTRODUCTION: CENTRIC CARDINAL SINE FUNCTION

According to any standard dictionary, the word "cardinal" is synonymous

with "principal", "essential", "fundamental".

In centric mathematics (CM), or ordinary mathematics, cardinal is, on

the one hand, a number equal to a number of …nite aggregate, called the

power of the aggregate, and on the other hand, known as the sine cardinal

:i:c(r) or cosine cardinal co:c(r), is a special function de…ned by the centric

circular function (CCF). :i:(r) and co:(r) are commonly used in undulatory

physics (see Figure 1) and whose graph, the graph of cardinal sine, which is

called as "Mexican hat" (sombrero) because of its shape (see Figure 2).

Note that :i:c(r) cardinal sine function is given in the speciality litera-

ture, in three variants

:i:c(r) =

(

1, for r = 0

:i:(r)

r

, for r ¸ [÷·, +·] ¸ 0

(1)

=

:i:(r)

r

= 1 ÷

r

2

6

+

r

4

120

÷

r

76

5040

+

r

8

362880

+ 0[r]

11

=

+1

X

n=0

(÷1)

n

r

2n

(2: + 1)!

÷ :i:c(

¬

2

) =

2

¬

,

d(:i:c(r))

dr

=

co:(r)

r

÷

:i:(r)

r

2

= co:c(r) ÷

:i:c(r)

r

,

(2) :i:c(r) =

:i:(¬r)

¬r

(3) :i:c

a

(r) =

:i:(

x

a

)

x

a

It is a special function because its primitive, called sine integral and denoted

oi(r)

Centric circular cardinal

sine functions

Modi…ed centric circular

cardinal sine functions

Figure 1: The graphs of centric circular functions cardinal sine, in 2D, as

known in literature

Cardinal functions and integral functions 29

Figure 2: Cardinal sine function in 3D Mexican hat (sombrero)

oi(r) =

Z

x

0

:i:(t)

t

dt =

Z

x

0

:i:c(t) dt (4)

= r ÷

r

3

18

+

r

5

600

r

7

35280

+

r

9

3265920

+ 0[r]

11

= r ÷

r

8

3.3!

+

r

5

5.5!

÷

r7

7.7!

+ ÷. . .

=

+1

X

n=0

(÷1)

n

r

2n

(2: + 1)

2

(2:)!

, \r ¸ R

can not be expressed exactly by elementary functions, but only by expansion

of power series, as shown in equation (4). Therefore, its derivative is

(5) \r ¸ R, oi

0

(r) =

d(oi(r))

dr

=

:i:(r)

r

= :i:c(r),

an integral sine function oi(r), that satis…es the di¤erential equation

(6) r )

000

(r) + 2)

00

(r) + r )

0

(r) = 0 ÷ )(r) = oi(r).

The Gibbs phenomenon appears at the approximation of the square with

a continuous and di¤erentiable Fourier series (Figure 3 right I). This op-

eration could be substitute with the circular eccentric supermathematics

functions (CE-SMF), because the eccentric derivative function of eccentric

variable 0 can express exactly this rectangular function (Figure 3 N top) or

square (Figure 3 H below) as shown on their graphs (Figure 3 J left).

1 ÷cos

x=2

_

1sin(x=2)

2

,

¦r, ÷¬, 2.01¬¦

1

2

÷4r

P

Si :c[2¬(2/÷1)r],

¦/, :¦¦:, 5¦¦r, 0, 1¦

30 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu

1

2

dcr[(0,

2

), o(1, 0)]

Gibbs phenomenon for

a square wave with : = 5

and : = 10

Figure 3: Comparison between the square function, eccentric derivative

and its approximation by Fourier serial expansion

Integral sine function (4) can be approximated with su¢cient accuracy.

The maximum di¤erence is less than 1%, except the area near the origin.

By the CE-SMF eccentric amplitude of eccentric variable 0

(7) 1(0) = 1.57 acr[0, o(0.6, 0)],

as shown on the graph on Figure 5.

Sin

R

r, ¦r, ÷20, 20¦

Sin

R

(r + 1j)

¦r, ÷20, 20¦, ¦j, ÷3, 3¦

Figure 4: The graph of integral sine function Si(r) N compared with the

graph CE-SMF Eccentric amplitude 1, 57acr[0, o(0, 6; 0)] of eccentric

variable 0H

Cardinal functions and integral functions 31

Figure 5: The di¤erence between integral sine and CE-SMF eccentric

amplitude 1(0) = 1, 5acr[0, o(0, 6; 0] of eccentric variable 0

2. ECCENTRIC CIRCULAR SUPERMATHEMATICS CARDINAL

FUNCTIONS, CARDINAL ECCENTRIC SINE (ECC-SMF)

Like all other supermathematics functions (SMF),they may be eccentric

(ECC-SMF), elevated (ELC-SMF) and exotic (CEX-SMF), of eccentric vari-

able 0, of centric variable c

1;2

of main determination, of index 1, or secondary

determination of index 2. At the passage from centric circular domain to

the eccentric one, by positioning of the eccenter o(:, -) in any point in the

plane of the unit circle, all supermathematics functions multiply from one to

in…nity. It means that in CM there exists each unique function for a certain

type. In EM there are in…nitely many such functions, and for : = 0 one will

get the centric function. In other words, any supermathematics function

contains both the eccentric and the centric ones.

Notations :crc(r) and respectively, ocrc(r) are not standard in the lit-

erature and thus will be de…ned in three variants by the relations:

(8) :crc(r) =

:cr(r)

r

=

:cr[0, o(:, :)]

0

of eccentric variable 0 and

(8’) ocrc(r) =

ocr(r)

r

=

ocr[c, o(:, :)]

c

of eccentric variable c.

(9) :crc(r) =

:cr(¬r)

¬r

,

of eccentric variable 0, noted also by :crc

(r) and

(9’) ocrc(r) =

:cr(¬r)

¬r

=

ocr[c, o(:, :)]

c

,

of eccentric variable c, noted also by ocrc

(r)

(10) :crc

a

(r) =

:cr

x

a

x

a

=

:cr

,

32 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu

of eccentric variable 0, with the graphs from Figure 6 and Figure 7.

(10’) ocr

a

(r) =

ocr

x

a

x

a

=

ocr

a

a

a

a

Sin

ArcSin[s Sin()]

¦:, 0, +1¦, ¦0, ¬, 4¬¦

Sin

ArcSin[s Sin()]

¦:, ÷1, 0¦, ¦0, ÷¬, ¬¦

Sin

ArcSin[s Sin()]

¦:, 0, 1¦, ¦0, ÷¬, ¬¦

Figure 6: The ECCC-SMF graphs :crc

1

[0, o(:, -)] of eccentric variable 0

Sin

+ArcSin[s Sin()]

¦:, 0, 1¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, 4¬¦

Sin

ArcSin[0.1s Sin()]

¦:, ÷10, 0¦, ¦0, ÷¬, ¬¦

Sin

ArcSin[0.1s Sin()]

¦:, 0.1, 0¦, ¦0, ÷¬, ¬¦

Figure 7: Graphs ECCC-SMF :crc

2

[0, o(:, -)], eccentric variable 0

Cardinal functions and integral functions 33

3. ECCENTRIC CIRCULAR SUPERMATHEMATICS

FUNCTIONS CARDINAL ELEVATED SINE AND COSINE

(ECC- SMF-CEL)

Supermathematical elevated circular functions (ELC-SMF), elevated sine

:c|(0) and elevated cosine cc|(0), is the projection of the fazor/vector

r = rcr(0) rad(0) = rcr[0, o(:, -)] rad(0)

on the two coordinate axis A

S

and 1

S

respectively, with the origin in the

eccenter o(:, -), the axis parallel with the axis r and j which originate in

O(0, 0).

If the eccentric cosine and sine are the coordinates of the point \(r, j),

by the origin O(0, 0) of the intersection of the straight line d = d +' d^ ac\,

revolving around the point o(:, -), the elevated cosine and sine are the same

coordinates to the eccenter o(:, -); ie, considering the origin of the coordi-

nate straight rectangular axes Ao1 /as landmark in o(:, -). Therefore, the

relations between these functions are as follows:

(11)

r = ccr(0) = A + : co:(-) = cc|(0) + : co:(-)

j = 1 + : :i:(-) = :cr(0) = :c|(0) + : :i:(-)

Thus, for - = 0, ie o eccenter o located on the axis r 0, :cr(0) = :c|(0),

and for - =

2

, ccr(0) = cc|(0), as shown on Figure 8.

On Figure 8 were represented simultaneously the elevated cc|(0) and the

:c|(0) graphics functions, but also graphs of ccr(0) functions, respectively,

for comparison and revealing :cr(0) elevation Eccentricity of the functions

is the same, of : = 0.4, with the attached drawing and :c|(0) are - =

2

, and

cc|(0) has - = 0.

Figure 8: Comparison between elevated supermathematics function and

eccentric functions

34 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu

Figure 9: Elevated supermathematics function and cardinal eccentric

functions cc|c(r) J and :c|c(r) I of : = 0.4

Figure 10: Cardinal eccentric elevated supermathematics function

cc|c(r) J and :c|c(r) I

Elevate functions (11) divided by 0 become cosine functions and cardinal

elevated sine, denoted cc|c(0) = [0, o] and :c|c(0) = [0, o], given by the

equations

(12)

8

>

<

>

:

A = cc|c(0) = cc|c[0, o(:, -)] = ccrc(0) ÷

: co:(:)

0

1 = :c|c(0) = :c|c[0, o(:, -)] = :crc(0) ÷

: :i:(:)

0

with the graphs on Figure 9 and Figure 10.

Cardinal functions and integral functions 35

4. NEW SUPERMATHEMATICS CARDINAL ECCENTRIC

CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS (ECCC-SMF)

The functions that will be introduced in this section are unknown in math-

ematics literature. These functions are centrics and cardinal functions or

integrals. They are supermathematics eccentric functions amplitude, beta,

radial, eccentric derivative of eccentric variable [1], [2], [3], [4], [6], [7] cardi-

nals and cardinal cvadrilobe functions [5].

Eccentric amplitude function cardinal acr(0), denoted as

(r) = acr[0, o(:, -)], r = 0,

is expressed in

(13) acrc(0) =

acr(0

0

=

acr[0, o(:, :)]

0

=

0 ÷arc:i:[: :i:(0 ÷:]

0

and the graphs from Figure 11.

Sin()

, ¦:, 0, 1¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, +4¬¦

Figure 11: The graph of cardinal eccentric circular supermathematics

function acrc(0)

The beta cardinal eccentric function will be

(14) /crc(0) =

/cr(0)

0

=

/cr[0o(:, :)]

0

=

arc:i:[: :i:(0 ÷:)]

0

,

with the graphs from Figure 12.

Figure 12: The graph of cardinal eccentric circular supermathematics

function /crc(0) (¦:, ÷1, 1¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, 4¬¦)

36 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu

The cardinal eccentric function of eccentric variable 0 is expressed by

(15) rcrc

1;2

(0) =

rcr(0)

0

=

rcr[0, o(:, :)]

0

=

÷: co:(0 ÷:) ±

p

1 ÷:

2

:i:(0 ÷:)

0

and the graphs from Figure 13, and the same function, but of centric variable

c is expressed by

(16) 1crc(c

1;2

) =

1cr(c

1;2

)

c

1;2

=

1cr[c

1;2

o(:, :)]

c

1;2

=

p

1 + :

2

÷2: co:(c

1;2

÷:)

c

1;2

sCos()+

_

1[s Si n()]

2

,

¦:, 0, 1¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, 4¬¦

sCos()

_

1[s Si n()]

2

,

¦:, ÷1, 0¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, 4¬¦

sCos()

_

1[s Si n()]

2

,

¦:, 0, 1¦, ¦0, ÷4¬, 4¬¦

Figure 13: The graph of cardinal eccentric circular supermathematical

function rcrc

1;2

(0)

And the graphs for 1crc(c1), from Figure 14.

Figure 14: The graph of cardinal eccentric radial circular

supermathematics function Rexc(0)

An eccentric circular supermathematics function with large applications,

representing the function of transmitting speeds and/or the turning speeds of

all known planar mechanisms is the derived eccentric dcr

1;2

(0) and 1cr(c

1;2

),

functions that by dividing/reporting with arguments 0 and, respectively, c

Cardinal functions and integral functions 37

lead to corresponding cardinal functions, denoted dcrc

1;2

(0), respectively

1crc(c

1;2

) and expressions

(17) dcrc

1;2

(0) =

dcr

1;2

(0)

0

=

dcr

1;2

[0, o(:, :)]

0

=

1 ÷

scos(")

1s

2

sin

2

(")

0

(18)

1crc(c

1;2

) =

1cr(c

1;2

)

c

1;2

=

1cr¦c[c

1;2

o(:, :)]¦

c

1;2

=

p

1 + :

2

÷2: co:(c

1;2

÷:)

c

1;2

the graphs on Figure 15.

Figure 15: The graph of supermathematical cardinal eccentric radial

circular function dexc

1

(0)

Because 1cr(c

1;2

) =

1

dex

1;2

()

results that 1crc(c

1;2

) =

1

dexc

1;2

()

:i¡(0)

and co¡(0) are also cvadrilobe functions, dividing by their arguments lead

to cardinal cvadrilobe functions :i¡c(0) and co¡c(0) obtaining with the ex-

pressions

(19) co¡c(0) =

co¡(0)

0

=

co¡[0o(:, :)]

0

=

co:(0 ÷:)

0

p

1 ÷:

2

:i:

2

(0 ÷:)

(20) :i¡c(0) =

:i¡(0)

0

=

:i¡[0o(:, :)]

0

=

:i:(0 ÷:)

0

p

1 ÷:

2

co:

2

(0 ÷:)

the graphs on Figure 16.

Figure 16: The graph of supermathematics cardinal cvadrilobe function

cc¡c(0) J and :i¡c(0) I

38 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu

It is known that, by de…nite integrating of cardinal centric and eccentric

functions in the …eld of supermathematics, we obtain the corresponding

integral functions.

Such integral supermathematics functions are presented below. For zero

eccentricity, they degenerate into the centric integral functions. Otherwise

they belong to the new eccentric mathematics.

5. ECCENTRIC SINE INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS

Are obtained by integrating eccentric cardinal sine functions (13) and are

(21) :ic(r) =

Z

x

0

:crc(0) d0

with the graphs on Figure 17 for the ones with the eccentric variable r = 0.

Figure 17: The graph of eccentric integral sine function sie

1

(r)N and

sie

2

(r)H

Unlike the corresponding centric functions, which is denoted oic(r), the

eccentric integral sine of eccentric variable was noted :ic(r), without the

capital o, which will be assigned according to the convention only for the

ECCC-SMF of centric variable. The eccentric integral sine function of cen-

tric variable, noted oic(r) is obtained by integrating the cardinal eccentric

sine of the eccentric circular supermathematics function, with centric vari-

able

(22) ocrc(r) = ocrc[c, o(:, -)],

Cardinal functions and integral functions 39

thus

(23) oic(r) =

Z

x

0

ocr[c, o(:, -]

c

,

with the graphs from Figure 18.

Figure 18: The graph of eccentric integral sine function sie

2

(r)

6. C O N C L U S I O N

The paper highlighted the possibility of inde…nite multiplication of car-

dinal and integral functions from the centric mathematics domain in the

eccentric mathematics’s or of supermathematics’s which is a reunion of the

two mathematics. Supermathematics, cardinal and integral functions were

also introduced with correspondences in centric mathematics, a series new

cardinal functions that have no corresponding centric mathematics.

The applications of the new supermathematics cardinal and eccentric

functions certainly will not leave themselves too much expected.

References

[1] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Eccentric circular functions, Com. I Conferin¸ta Na¸tional¼ a de Vibra¸tii

în Construc¸tia de Ma¸sini, Timi¸soara , 1978, 101-108.

[2] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Eccentric circular functions and their extension, Bul .¸ St. Tehn. al I.P.T.,

Seria Mecanic¼ a, 25(1980), 189-196.

[3] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Supermathematica, Com.VII Conf. Interna¸tional¼ a. De Ing. Manag. ¸si

Tehn.,TEHNO’95 Timi¸soara, 9(1995), 41-64.

[4] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Eccentric circular supermathematic functions of centric variable,

Com.VII Conf. Interna¸tional¼ a. De Ing. Manag. ¸si Tehn.,TEHNO’98 Timi¸soara, 531-

548.

[5] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Quadrilobic vibration systems, The 11

th

International Conference on

Vibration Engineering, Timi¸soara, Sept. 27-30, 2005, 77-82.

[6] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Supermathematica. Fundaments, Vol.II, Ed. Politehnica, Timi¸soara,

2007.

[7] ¸ Selariu, M. E., Supermathematica. Fundaments, Vol.II, Ed. Politehnica, Timi¸soara,

2011 (forthcoming).

40 M. ¸ Selariu, F. Smarandache and M. Ni¸tu

Received: December, 2011

POLYTEHNIC UNIVERSITY OF TIMI¸ SOARA, ROMANIA

E-mail address: mselariu@gmail.com

UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO-GALLUP, USA

E-mail address: smarand@unm.edu

INSTITUTUL NA¸ TIONAL DE CERCETARE - DEZVOLTARE

PENTRU ELECTROCHIMIE ¸ SI MATERIE CONDENSAT

¼

A

TIMI¸ SOARA, ROMANIA

E-mail address: nitumarian13@gmail.com

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOMETRY

Vol. 1 (2012), No. 1, 41 - 45

A GENERALIZATION OF THE ISOGONAL POINT

PETRU I. BRAICA and ANDREI BUD

Abstract. In this paper we give a generalization of the isogonal point in

terms of concurrency, starting with the ideea of "breaking" the equilateral

triangles constructed on the sides of one triangle, rotating them with the

same acute angle and compressing with the same ratio the broken sides.

1. Introduction

We will denote by c

2

the euclidean space.

De…nition 1.1. For A ¸ c

2

…xed and c ¸ (÷¬; ¬), we call rotation of

center A and angle c of 1 ¸ c

2

, the point . = 1

x;

(1 ), having the following

properties:

(i) :(]1 A7) = c;

(ii)

÷÷÷

A1 =

÷÷÷

A7.

De…nition 1.2. Let O ¸ c

2

a …xed point and / ¸ R¸¦0¦. We call homothety

with center O and ratio / an application:

H

0;k

: c

2

÷÷ c

2

: H

0;k

(') = '

0

with the following properties:

(1) H

0;k

(O) = O;

(2) If ' ,= 0, then the points O, ', '

0

are collinear;

(3) If / 0, then '

0

¸ [O', and if / < 0, then O ¸ [''

0

];

(4) O'

0

= [/[ O'.

————————————–

Keywords and phrases: Triangle, isogonal point

(2010)Mathematics Subject Classi…cation: 51M04, 51M25, 51M30

42 Petru I. Braica and Andrei Bud

2. Main Results

If we consider an arbitrary triangle ¹1C and the points C

a

= (H

A;k

·

1

A;

)(1), C

b

= (H

B;k

· 1

B;

)(¹), ¹

b

= (H

B;k

· 1

B;

)(C), ¹

c

= (H

C;k

·

1

C;

)(1), 1

c

= (H

C;k

· 1

C;

)(¹), 1

a

= (H

A;k

· 1

A;

)(C) with / ¸ R

**¸ and c ¸ (÷¬; ¬) …xed.
**

Lemma 2.1. If C

0

, 1

0

are points in the interior of the triangle ¹1C with

´¹1C

0

~ ´¹C1

0

and CC

0

¨ ¹1 = ¦C

1

¦, also 11

0

¨ ¹C = ¦1

1

¦, then

the following identity is true:

1¹

0

¹

0

C

=

sinC sin(1 +j)

sin1 sin(C +j)

,

with j

not

= :(]¹1C

0

) = :(]¹C1

0

).

Proof. We have

1

1

¹

1

1

C

=

o

4BB

0

C

o

4BAB

0

=

1C 1

0

C sin(C +j)

¹1 ¹1

0

sin(¹+r)

=

sinC sinj sin(¹+r)

sin¹ sinr sin(C +j)

,

where r

not

= :(]1¹C

0

) = :(]C¹1

0

) (see Figure 1).

Similarly, we have

C

1

¹

C

1

1

=

o

4ACC

0

o

4CC

0

B

=

¹C

0

¹C sin(¹+r)

1C

0

1C sin(1 +j)

=

sinj sin1 sin(¹+r)

sinr sin¹ sin(1 +j)

.

Now, using the Ceva’s Theorem, in the triangle ¹1C, one obtains

¹

0

C

1¹

0

=

1

1

C

1

1

¹

C

1

¹

C

1

1

=

sin1 sin(C +j)

sinC sin(1 +j)

.

**Theorem 2.1. Let us consider now an arbitrary triangle ¹1C and the
**

points C

a

= (H

A;k

· 1

A;

)(1), C

b

= (H

B;k

· 1

B;k

)(¹), ¹

b

= (H

B;k

·

1

B;

)(C), ¹

c

= (H

C;k

· 1

C;

)(1), 1

c

= (H

C;k

· 1

C;

)(¹), 1

a

= (H

A;k

·

1

A;

)(C), with / ¸ R

**, c ¸ (÷¬; ¬) …xed. Using this points, de…ned above,
**

we consider the following intersections: 11

c

¨ CC

b

= ¦1

a

¦, ¹1

a

¨ 1C =

¦1

A

¦, 11

a

¨ ¹¹

b

= ¦1

c

¦, C1

c

¨ ¹1 = ¦1

C

¦, CC

a

¨ ¹¹

c

= ¦1

b

¦, 11

b

¨

A generalization of the isogonal point 43

¹C = ¦1

B

¦. The concurrency of the cevians ¹1

A

, 11

B

, C1

C

takes place

in the point T

;k

.

Proof. Applying Lema 2.1 one obtains:

11

A

1

A

C

=

sinC sin(1 +c)

sin1 sin(C +c)

C1

B

1

B

¹

=

sin¹ sin(C +c)

sinC sin(¹+c)

¹1

C

1

C

1

=

sin1 sin(¹+c)

sin¹ sin(1 +c)

.

Now, evaluating the product

11

A

1

A

C

C1

B

1

B

¹

¹1

C

1

C

1

= 1

and from the reciprocal of Ceva’s Theorem, we have the concurrency in T

;k

(see Figure 2).

Corrolary 2.1. For c = 60

**one obtains the …rst Torricelli point, and for
**

c = ÷60

**one obtains the second Torricelli point, replacing / = 1.
**

Corrolary 2.2. For / = 1,(2 cos c), one obtains: C

a

= C

b

; 1

a

= 1

c

;

¹

c

= ¹

b

¸ and the ¹1C

a

, 1¹

b

C, C1

a

¹ are similar isosceles triangles and

the Theorem of Kiepert takes place.[1].

Corrolary 2.3. From Lemma 2.2 one obtaines that the geometrical locus

of the intersection point CC

0

¨ 11

0

is the line ¹¹

0

, where

1¹

0

,¹

0

C =

sinC sin(1 +j)

sin1 sin(C +j)

.

44 Petru I. Braica and Andrei Bud

Theorem 2.2. Let us consider now an arbitrary triangle ¹1C and the

following points C

a

= (H

A;k

· 1

A;

)(1), C

b

= (H

B;k

· 1

B;

)(¹), ¹

b

=

(H

B;k

· 1

B;

)(C),¹

c

= (H

C;k

· 1

C;

)(1), 1

c

= (H

C;k

· 1

C;

)(¹), 1

a

=

(H

A;k

· 1

A;

)(C) with / ¸ R

**, c ¸ (÷¬; ¬) …xed. Using this points, we
**

consider the following intersections: ¦Q

a

¦ = CC

a

¨11

a

, ¦Q

b

¦ = ¹¹

b

¨CC

b

,

¦Q

c

¦ = 11

c

¨ ¹¹

c

, ¹Q

a

¨ 1C = ¦Q

A

¦, 1Q

b

¨ ¹C = ¦Q

B

¦, CQ

c

¨ ¹1 =

¦Q

C

¦. The concurrency of lines ¹Q

A

, 1Q

B

, CQ

C

takes place in the point

T

;k

.

Proof. We make the following notations: , = :(]C

a

1¹) = :(]C

b

¹1) =

:(]1

a

C¹) = :(]1

c

¹C) = :(]¹

c

1C) = :(]¹

b

C1).

Applying Lemma 2.1 one obtains:

1Q

A

Q

A

C

=

sinC sin(1 +,)

sin1 sin(C +,)

CQ

B

Q

B

¹

=

sin¹ sin(C +,)

sinC sin(¹+,)

¹Q

C

Q

C

1

=

sin1 sin(¹+,)

sin¹ sin(1 +,)

.

Now, applying again the reciprocal of the Ceva’s Theorem, one obtains the

required concurrency in the point T

;k

(See Figure 3).

Remark 2.1. The corrolary 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 takes place also for Theorem

2.2.

Remark 2.2. The barycentric coordinates for the points T

k;

and T

k;

can

remain an open problem.

Remark 2.3. For / = 1, Theorem 2.1 become Theorem 1.1 from [4].

A generalization of the isogonal point 45

References

[1] Barbu, C., Fundamental Theorems of Triangle Geometry (Romanian), Ed. Unique,

Bac¼ au, 2008.

[2] Nicolescu, L. and Bosko¤, V., Practical Problems of Geometry (Romanian), Ed.

Tehnic¼ a, Bucure¸sti, 1990.

[3] Mathematical Gazette (Romanian), Bucharest.

[4] Braica, P. and Pop, O. T., An Extension of Torricelli’s Theorem (Romanian).

Received: February 2, 2012.

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL "GRIGORE MOISIL"

MILENIULUI 1, 440037 SATU MARE, ROMANIA

E-mail address: petrubr@yahoo.com

ICHB BUCURE¸ STI, ROMANIA

E-mail address: and_rei_95@yahoo.com

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of the paper.

Further information about the journal can be found at:

http://ijgeometry.com/

Technical Editors

EVELIN BARBU

CONSTANTIN CIOFU

Cover Design

CONSTANTIN CIOFU

AIMS AND SCOPE

International Journal of Geometry publishes high quality original re-

search papers and survey articles in areas of euclidean geometry, non - euclid-

ean geometry and combinatorial geometry. It will also occasionally publish,

as special issues, proceedings of international conferences (co)-organized by the

Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Vasile Alecsandri National

College of Bacau and Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau.

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

Manuscripts should be written in English, following the style of our journal

in what concerns the technical preparation of the papers. The manuscripts must

be prepared electronically in LATEX macro package, and should be submitted

either in two paper copies and .tex …le on a ‡oppy diskette, or by E-mail (the

.tex-…le will be accompanied by .pdf …le). The style "ijgeometry.sty" and also

an example of its usage may be found on the web site of the journal (address

below). On the title page author should include the title of the article, au-

thor’s name (no degrees), author’s a¢liation, e-mail addresses, mailing address

of the corresponding author and running head less than 60 characters. The

manuscript must be accompanied by a brief abstract, no longer than 200-250

words. It should make minimal use of mathematical symbols and displayed

formulas. Mathematics Subject Classi…cation with primary (and secondary)

subject classi…cation codes and a list of 4-5 key words must be given. Biblio-

graphic references should be listed alphabetically at the end of the article. The

author should consult Mathematical Reviews for the standard abbreviations of

journal names. References should be listed in alphabetical order; the following

reference style should be used:

[1] Andreescu, T. and Andrica, D., Complex Numbers from A to . . . Z,

Birkhauser Verlag, Boston-Berlin-Basel, 2005.

[2] Andrica, D. and Barbu, C., A Geometric Proof to Blundon’s Inequalities,

Mathematical Inequalities & Applications, 15 (2011), 180-192.

Reprints

The (…rst) author of each published paper will receive the .pdf reprint

of the paper.

Further information about the journal can be found at:

http://ijgeometry.com/

Technical Editors

EVELIN BARBU

CONSTANTIN CIOFU

Cover Design

CONSTANTIN CIOFU

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