This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
com Ph: +9607765507
heart disease and certain types of cancer. Comment [SVR22]: Number of deaths per hundred people in a year Comment [SVR23]: functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Comment [SVR24]: The branch of psychology that deals with the design. or white adipose tissue (WAT). 3. Comment [SVR9]: Harmful Comment [SVR10]: Lipids consisting of one glycerol attached to three fatty acid tails Comment [SVR11]: A waist to hip ratio above 0. The use of diet pills among 15-17 year olds has doubled in a five-year period. Comment [SVR21]: Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by excessive weight loss. Comment [SVR1]: Lose Comment [SVR2]: Laborious / very hard work Comment [SVR3]: A regulated system or schedule Comment [SVR4]: A diet that enjoys temporary popularity Comment [SVR5]: An unusually successful hit with widespread popularity and huge sales Comment [SVR6]: BMI greater than 30 Comment [SVR7]: BMI greater than 25 Comment [SVR8]: National Health Services in the UK provides free medical facilities (at the point of delivery – funded by tax payers) and manages the health care system in the UK. Comment [SVR15]: Extreme or excessive concern with something Comment [SVR16]: Old people Comment [SVR17]: Related to the mental and emotional state of a person Comment [SVR18]: Relating to the ideas. simply chill out in the fridge for a couple of hours a day. body dissatisfaction is now appearing at increasingly younger ages. 2.80 for women and above 0. Recent findings have suggested that specialised fat stores known as brown adipose tissue (BAT). 7.Scientific article for use with Question 7 A source of ‘thinspiration’ – media. Author. In a study by University of Central Florida. WAT located around the abdomen (giving rise to the ‘apple’ body shape) is considered more dangerous than fat stored around the hips and thighs as it is strongly correlated with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-five years ago. 8. Maldives. and social behavior of a society Comment [SVR19]: Concerning the appreciation of beauty or good taste Comment [SVR20]: Prevalence is a measurement of all individuals affected by the disease within a particular period of time. The media and body image 4. which are activated by the cold. Obesity really is a big problem – currently in the UK almost two-thirds of adults and one-third of children are overweight or obese. try the latest fad diet (anyone for cabbage soup?). 6. Around one in three would change a physical attribute. Neuroscientists at Brigham Young University in Utah examined subconscious feelings about body image through fMRI analysis of the brains of healthy men and women who were assessed psychometrically as being confident with their bodies. Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden. irrational fear of gaining weight and a distorted body self-perception. staffordv@yahoo. there has been an 80% rise in the number of young girls admitted to hospital with anorexia in England with a mortality rate of between 10–20 per cent. aptitude. This fat. administration. the average fashion model was only 8% thinner than the average woman. More worryingly. Male’. so too has the prevalence of eating disorders and dieting. as depicted by the media. is located underneath the skin and around the internal organs and stores excess energy in the form of triglycerides. . as have others. can help control body weight and may be a target for new anti-obesity therapies. 5. In the past decade. This negative effect is frequently reported to be both strong and immediate. take the newest blockbuster weight-loss pill or . As body dissatisfaction rises in increasingly younger children. The treatment of obesity is estimated to cost the NHS £4.95 for men may put these individuals at risk for a number of diseases Comment [SVR12]: Diabetes mellitus type 2 or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) – is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose due to insulin resistance Comment [SVR13]: 40 years Comment [SVR14]: Physical or bodily structure.2 billion per year. Hoping to shift a few pounds? You could subject yourself to a gruelling exercise regime. nearly half of the 3 to 6 year-old girls said they worried about being fat. customs. Publisher and consultant. and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence. and personality traits. such as their weight. body image and dieting – but can your own body fat make you thin? 1. It is typically expressed as a percentage or proportion of the population affected by the condition of disease within a particular period of time. . appearance. Over the past four decades women in industrialised countries have become wider.com Ph: +9607765507 2 . A review of 25 studies entitled ‘The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction’ concluded. The methods used by an increasing proportion of girls and women to alter body shape are more than mere stylistic exercises in aesthetics. that ‘body image was significantly more negative after viewing thin media images. Today that figure has risen to 23%. yet the ideal female physique. Female preoccupation with physique and body dissatisfaction does not appear to diminish across the age spans and is now even exhibited by pensioners. Analysing the brain activation patterns of females being exposed to media images is now illuminating the biological landscape of body dissatisfaction. or development: the physique of an athlete. Body dissatisfaction has serious implications for female health and is a major risk factor for a variety of disorders. has become thinner. Obesity is defined as a surplus of body fat which is detrimental to health. Yet body dissatisfaction is more than a psychological and cultural issue.
all situations you've been through and all images you've ever seen. . ‘The impact of television appears especially profound. In this study the healthy women looked at images of models in skimpy bikinis. Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden. ‘corpulence’ or ‘heavy’ were accompanied by increased activation in the amygdala. . Western media imagery may have a negative impact upon body image and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. The percentage of subjects with pathologically high scores on a test for disordered eating more than doubled from 12. and may also be responsible for gender differences in susceptibility to eating disorders. some very thin.7% to 29. I want their size’. In men the response was the reverse. Related findings are also reported from Hiroshima University where healthy women and those with eating disorders were presented with morphed images of themselves and that of another woman. without signs and symptoms that are detectable by physical examination or laboratory test. I want their body. Yet dieting is increasingly being found to be a major biological event. Comment [SVR27]: : Fail or let down Comment [SVR28]: The subconscious mind stores all of your previous life experiences. Some images were overweight. Dieting among teenagers who started to watch television increased dramatically to include two in every three girls and the rate of self-induced vomiting to control their weight. 17. Merely imagining that they might be overweight seemed to lead women to question their sense of self. Comment [SVR29]: Short Comment [SVR30]: A disease or injury. 15. which had been rated as non-existent before television arrived. your memories. In 1995 television arrived and within three years everything changed. the mPFC showed in all of the women. Even the printed word elicits similar neurological reactions. The authors believe that the mPFC is responsible for the gender differences in the processing of words concerning body image. In Fiji.9. A British study has found that more than one in four adults in the UK is trying to lose weight ‘most of the time’ either due to body dissatisfaction or genuine obesity. Maldives. It is known that when humans engage in serious self-reflection. staffordv@yahoo. As visual media of thin female physiques reaches further across the globe the neurological alterations cited above may be increasing among large sections of a population and at younger ages.2% and three-quarters of the study population reported that they felt ‘too big or fat’. activity increases in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). words such as ‘obesity’. It is suspected that this increased activation can betray subconscious thoughts. The pre-frontal cortex and the amygdala (implicated in processing emotional reactions such as fear.com Ph: +9607765507 3 Comment [SVR25]: Looking within ourselves to learn more about our fundamental nature and purpose. while the left side of the mPFC (associated with decision making and rational thought) became inactive. In a landmark study. 12. Comment [SVR26]: The anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain. It is a limbic system structure that is involved in many of our emotions and motivations. I just admire them. 16. 10. When presented with overweight images. your beliefs. 13. men showed no significant mPFC activation while processing either type of equivalent male image. even though they claimed afterward that the test was boring or meaningless. 14. threat. Dieting has been rare. The girls openly cited thin female characters in American programmes as inspirations for changing their bodies. However. 11. The researchers describe the ‘dramatic increase’ in disordered eating. Male’. Comment [SVR31]: Transformed by a computer Comment [SVR32]: An almond shaped mass of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain. in some cases paradoxically leading to disease. a multidisciplinary team from Harvard Medical School travelled to Fiji to evaluate the impact of the introduction of television on body satisfaction and disordered eating in adolescent girls. The study ‘Gender differences in brain activity generated by unpleasant word stimuli concerning body image’ found that in women. causing significant metabolic alterations. On viewing each image the women were told to imagine that it was them. anxiety and emotional responses to pain) were ‘significantly activated’ in healthy women in response to their own fat-image’. Author.3 per cent of that population. you skills. Comment [SVR33]: Brings out or creates Comment [SVR34]: Bulkiness or largeness of body Comment [SVR35]: Lack of ability to resist Comment [SVR36]: Relating to or caused by disease Comment [SVR37]: The condition of being so stimulated Comment [SVR38]: Very great or intense Comment [SVR39]: A seemingly contradictory statement that may nonetheless be true . even in traditional societies in which eating disorders have been thought to be rare’. while going thin – as Fijians refer to weight loss – is a cause for concern. The researchers concluded that there are ‘sub-clinical’ issues with body image among healthy women and a much finer line between women with and without eating disorders than previously thought. not admiration. the ideal body weight for females has always been very full. Comments included ‘I feel fat . leaped to 11. Publisher and consultant.
com Ph: +9607765507 4 . Media and evolutionary adaptation 23. Indeed. This is a key health and fertility indicator and core feature of feminine beauty. reasoning. Heterosexual human females maintain/adapt physical appearance in accordance with sexual dimorphism – the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex. one appears more attractive when contrasted with a person less attractive and less attractive when contrasted with one of greater attractiveness. while devaluing efforts to obtain less energy-rich. 22. This change in dietary preferences is accompanied by a ‘withdrawal-like state seen in drug dependence. In terms of evaluating one’s own attractiveness. high-reward foods. show highly significant recruitment of neural circuits (CRF system) involved in stress reactions and promote the ‘compulsive selection’ of unhealthy food and the under eating of healthy foods. primates and humans. Comment [SVR56]: In accordance with a system of classification Comment [SVR57]: Selection driven by the competition for mates Comment [SVR58]: Circumference of the waist in inches compared to the circumference of the hips Comment [SVR59]: Linked or Associated Comment [SVR60]: the process by which an organism detects and interprets information from the external world by means of the sensory receptors Comment [SVR61]: Capable of success or continuing effectiveness Comment [SVR62]: That which comes to be known. impaired immunity.5kg over two-year periods among normal weight individuals is strongly linked to ‘a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and death’.’ Weight cycling averaging only 2. The waist-hip ratio of any physique is very strongly correlated to male perception of female attractiveness across all cultures and throughout history. cognition and related performance as a result of previous exposure to a stimulus of lesser or greater value in the same dimension (e. more subcutaneous fat and fat deposits mainly around the buttocks. Intermittent ‘yo-yo’ dieting is increasingly practised in response to body dissatisfaction. women are most highly satisfied with their own body image when exposed to images of females wider than themselves. fluctuate Comment [SVR48]: Neurons never function in isolation.18. It is released in response to stress. Prolonged exposure to high levels. and aid in fat. and increased intra abdominal fat – all of which contribute to chronic disease states such as heart disease. the more likely it is you cycle again. The contrast effect is the enhancement or diminishment of perception. The study also found that monitoring calories increased perceived stress and concluded: ‘Dieting may be deleterious to psychological well-being and biological functioning’. Comment [SVR52]: To make suitable to or fit for a specific use or situation Comment [SVR53]: Severe or intense. It is generally ineffective in achieving weight loss and the reasons for failure are becoming clearer. Male’. Comment [SVR41]: Persistent or long-lasting Comment [SVR42]: Harmful Comment [SVR43]: Pertaining to the mind or to mental phenomena Comment [SVR44]: A physical. luminescence). Its functions are to increase blood sugar. males and females of the same species are different in appearance. Until recently these self-evaluations of body attractiveness involved comparisons with a relatively small number of other women. protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Publisher and consultant. Author. Cortisol is important for regulating changes in behaviour and functions such as glucose metabolism and the inflammatory process. 25. In females.’ 21. ‘This eating pattern leads to a vicious circle. It has been recently reported that restricting calories to 1200 kcal per day increases the total output of cortisol in females. low-reward foods’. Maldives. upon decreasing the substance's dosage or discontinuing its use. 26. suppress the immune system. Comment [SVR40]: a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland. staffordv@yahoo. thighs and hips are central to sexual selection. diabetes and cancer.g. The brains of rats alternating between healthy and sweet (unhealthy) food. 20. Comment [SVR51]: a physical or psychologic state in which a person displays withdrawal symptoms if drug use is halted suddenly. however. this behaviour may shift food-seeking toward energy-dense. Contrast effects are ubiquitous throughout human and non-human animal perception and cognition. Exposure to visual images depicting attractive females is found to alter women’s perception of their own sexual attractiveness and mating viability through a cognitive comparison process referred to as the ‘contrast effect’. 19. fierce Comment [SVR54]: Sexually oriented to persons of the opposite sex Comment [SVR55]: Physical or behavioral differences associated with sex. in the way many dieters do. they are organized into circuits that process specific kinds of information Comment [SVR49]: Uncontrollable Comment [SVR50]: Those side effects experienced by a person who has become physically dependent on a substance. weight. Adaptively. as through perception. or intuition. chemical. There are possible implications for humans who diet in this way. can lead to higher blood pressure. or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension and may be a factor in disease causation Comment [SVR45]: A phenomenon that naturally accompanies or follows something Comment [SVR46]: Alternately stopping and starting Comment [SVR47]: to change repeatedly from one position to another. knowledge Comment [SVR63]: Increase Comment [SVR64]: Decrease Comment [SVR65]: Emitting Light Comment [SVR66]: Seeming to be everywhere at the same time Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden. height. 24. suppressed thyroid function. Stress has been linked to over-consumption of calorie-rich foods and concomitant weight gain in rodents. can lead to addiction. The more you cycle this way.
UCPs facilitate the transfer of anions from the inner to the outer mitochondrial membrane and the return transfer of protons from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. It was previously thought that in humans BAT regresses by approximately one year of age and loses its heat-generating properties. It is also called as norepinephrine Comment [SVR74]: Cell of the adipose tissue specialized for storage of fat Comment [SVR75]: Rapid cell division Comment [SVR76]: Gets used up or disappears Comment [SVR77]: One who fells trees and transports the timber to a mill. For example in the 1980s it was demonstrated that people who work outdoors in extremely cold conditions (in this case lumberjacks in Norway) have deposits of BAT around their neck arteries which were thought to warm blood flowing to the head. UCP-1 is mainly produced in BAT. less well known type of fat is BAT. or progress of Comment [SVR80]: Having similarity in size. BAT is commonly found between the shoulder blades and around the internal organs and blood vessels. It is particularly important for babies to be able to produce heat via BAT as they have a large body surface area and therefore lose heat more easily. Hence. 33. turned out to be BAT. and relative position of corresponding parts Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden. Usually. action.com Ph: +9607765507 5 . including humans. BAT is activated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and thyroid hormones. Comment [SVR78]: A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer Comment [SVR79]: To prevent the free movement. as by speeding up the heartbeat and causing contraction of the blood vessels. From an oncologist’s perspective this technique is hampered by the fact that other metabolically active tissues such as the brain and heart. UCP-1 disrupts respiration at the electron transport chain level and prevents the production of some ATP. are labelled in addition to the tumour. also referred to as the mitochondrial proton leak. Although they still contain lipid. 32. shape. Comment [SVR72]: The two most important thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) Comment [SVR73]: A hormone secreted by the adrenal gland and by the endings of sympathetic nerves. Brown fat cells contain large numbers of mitochondria (the energy-producing organelles within cells) which are packed with a specialised protein: uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). once inside cells 18F-FDG only undergoes the first step of metabolism and becomes ‘trapped’. Maldives. which also absorb large amounts of glucose. Brown adipocytes (fat cells) are structurally very different from white fat cells. The SNS is activated by exposure to cold temperatures and the ingestion of high-calorie foods. a symmetrical area of glucose uptake commonly seen on scans around the neck and shoulders. The size of these BAT ‘nests’ correlated with the length of time the participants worked in the cold. if fat and ‘yo-yo’ diets are so bad. But. is it really possible for your existing stores to help you burn calories and become a potential anti-obesity drug target? Brown adipose tissue 28. staffordv@yahoo. originally thought to be muscle. the main energy substrate in living organisms. its emissions can then be detected. It is present in most small mammals and the newborns of larger animals. In mammals the other. Publisher and consultant. Male’. However. They are also unable to shiver. In a specialised type of positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. Females today are exposed to evolutionarily novel stimuli that deceive cognitive and neurological processes whose function developed to evaluate other females. unusual Comment [SVR68]: Give a false impression Comment [SVR69]: UCPs separate oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis with energy dissipated as heat. this led to an unexpected discovery. a radioactive form of glucose which is taken up by metabolically active tissues. Comment [SVR71]: The part of the autonomic nervous system that tends to act in opposition to the parasympathetic nervous system. adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This type of scan is usually used to detect tumours as cancer cells take up large quantities of glucose to fuel their growth. 30. a logger. As some females use a typical media physique to establish norms as points of comparison it has for many become a case of ‘keeping up with the Boneses’. energy acquired from the uptake of free fatty acids and glucose from the circulation is lost as heat. Comment [SVR67]: Strikingly new. rather than being stored. 31. It regulates the function of the sweat glands and stimulates the secretion of glucose in the liver. Unlike glucose. 29. Comment [SVR70]: ATP consists of adenosine — composed of an adenine ring and a ribose sugar — and three phosphate groups (triphosphate). which is the normal mechanism of generating body heat. the active form of thyroid hormone) within BAT which stimulates the production of UCP-1. except in very rare circumstances. it is stored in many small droplets rather than in one large mass. Author. patients are injected with 18Ffluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). where it acts as a neurotransmitter both centrally and peripherally. The sympathetic nervous system is activated especially under conditions of stress. BAT is able to regulate both core body temperature and body weight by increasing energy expenditure. is produced by the chemical process of respiration which takes place in mitochondria. hence. Recent advances in imaging have challenged the view that BAT is neither present nor functional in most adult humans.27. The release of noradrenaline by the SNS stimulates brown adipocyte proliferation and local production of tri-iodothyronine (T3.
A less dangerous potential alternative was highlighted in 2005 when researchers found that fucoxanthin. 38. Three studies published recently used the technique of PET with 18F-FDG to determine the physiological relevance of BAT in adult humans. Numerous attempts have been made to find a wonder drug which increases energy expenditure and burns fat. By affecting respiration in a similar way to UCP-1 (para 28). you lose weight. the compound which gives seaweed its brown colour. This distribution is different to that seen in rodents. Body weight is determined by the fine balance between calories consumed and energy expended – if you burn more calories than you eat. removing it from the genome Comment [SVR84]: A cell from which white fat cells are formed Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden. or. very high levels of thyroid hormones or drugs which stimulate the SNS were administered in an attempt to stimulate BAT but both had unpleasant side effects. This phenomenon was demonstrated in mice engineered to produce high levels of PRDM16 protein in their white fat stores. predominantly above the collar bones and around the neck. It is expressed at much higher levels in BAT compared to WAT and ‘knocking out’ PRDM16 in BAT causes abnormal tissue development and a loss of heat-producing capacity. on average. which resulted in BAT formation. detection rates were higher in the colder winter months than in the summer. 37. Although fucoxanthin is available to buy online as a slimming aid. Interestingly.com Ph: +9607765507 6 . Comment [SVR81]: Being in accord with or characteristic of the normal functioning of a living organism Comment [SVR82]: Used Comment [SVR83]: Turning the gene off. Maldives. The probability of detecting BAT depended on the outdoor temperature at the time of scanning. increased the production of UCP-1 in WAT from a previously low level. Author. BAT was identified more readily in young women than older men. It would be useful if these stores could be increased and new BAT tissue formed. 40. it might be of limited use in obese people who have smaller BAT stores to begin with. This reduced the amount of abdominal fat in rodents. So if BAT is present and active in adult humans. As expected. This causes the cells to express characteristics of BAT such as an increase in UCP-1. blood disorders and death due to uncontrollable heat production. to boost calorie-burning capacity. DNP was banned in 1938 when thousands of people reported side effects such as blindness. a highly toxic industrial chemical. 39. can it be targeted to help people lose weight? 36. In the past. suggesting there may be age and sex differences. lean participants had more active BAT than overweight and obese participants. Male’. staffordv@yahoo. exposure to cold temperatures (in this case dipping your foot in icy water) increased BAT activity. When PRDM16 is artificially over-expressed in the precursors of white fat cells it changes their fate and induces them to become brown fat cells instead. Dinitrophenol (DNP). The recent identification of BAT in humans suggests that it is a potential target tissue for antiobesity therapies. 35. suggesting BAT may help protect against obesity. All demonstrated that BAT is present in adults (shown by 18F-FDG uptake). PRDM16 is a protein which is thought to control the development of brown adipose tissue. DNP caused energy generated in mitochondria to be lost as heat rather than being stored as fat. became popular in the 1930s when it was reported to cause dramatic weight loss by increasing metabolism by up to 50%. no studies in humans have yet been carried out. Publisher and consultant. However. Additionally.34. where BAT stores are mainly located between the shoulder blades.
When overweight women were randomly assigned to a moderate-fat. to what extent can body dissatisfaction induce epigenetic changes which activate psychiatric disorders such as anorexia nervosa? Harvard Medical School molecular biologists examining epigenetic alterations of the dopaminergic system in major psychiatric disorders. 45. leptin and interleukin-6 together with CD68 expression. osteoclasts. However. activated platelets.and hypo-DNA methylation changes of the regulatory regions play critical roles in defining the altered functionality of genes in major psychiatric disorders. and prevention of mental and emotional disorders Comment [SVR103]: The modification of a strand of DNA after it is replicated. surroundings Comment [SVR90]: To initiate or increase the production of (an enzyme or other protein) at the level of genetic transcription Comment [SVR91]: Low energy diet Comment [SVR92]: Regardless Comment [SVR93]: Passing through the phospholipid bilayer in the cell membrane Comment [SVR94]: Protein and carbohydrate complex Comment [SVR95]: A protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes. However. Comment [SVR104]: Genes involved in dopamine synthesis Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden. and large lymphocytes Comment [SVR99]: A hormone secreted by adipose tissue Comment [SVR100]: processes by which heritable modifications in gene function occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA Comment [SVR101]: The neurons which synthesise and secrete dopamine. Since methylation of cytosines in particular regions of a gene can cause that gene's suppression. this winter try turning down the central heating and embracing the cold weather and maybe the pounds will fall off! Gene expression 43. So. it must be noted that the effectiveness of any weight loss therapy is limited as the body has many compensatory mechanisms in place to ensure your weight stays constant. 46. Author. In addition. and stimulates synthesis of plasma proteins (as fibrinogen) Comment [SVR98]: A type I transmembrane protein present on monocytes. believe that environmental factors can influence DNA methylation patterns and hence alter gene expression. Recent reports provide compelling evidence that both hyper. activates and induces proliferation of T cells.41. DNA methylation is one of the methods used to regulate the expression of genes. 48. staffordv@yahoo. TNMD gene expression in human fat tissue was down-regulated during diet-induced weight loss. resistin mRNA expression was increased. In both breast and abdominal tissue. Recent findings have shown that BAT is active and present in adult humans and demonstrated that it may be a target for future anti-obesity treatments. in which a methyl (CH3) group is added to any cytosine molecule that stands directly before a guanine molecule in the same chain. with a 65% decrease after 18 weeks of dieting. leading to increased energy expenditure and weight loss. Although brown and white fat cells are very different. induces maturation of B cells and growth of myeloma cells. moderate-carbohydrate diet or a low-fat. it was recently discovered that brown fat cells arise from the same progenitor as muscle cells. Decreased body fat content of patients with anorexia nervosa was accompanied by a reduction in mRNA coding for fat synthesis. Comment [SVR96]: A peptide hormone that is produced by fat cells and plays a role in body weight regulation by acting on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and burn fat stored in adipose tissue Comment [SVR97]: an interleukin that is produced by various cells (as macrophages. cytoplasmic granules. The chronic dieting of anorexia nervosa is also accompanied by genetic changes in adipose tissue. it was commonly assumed that they originate from the same precursor. fibroblasts. A disturbed expression of dopaminergic genes has now been identified in eating disorders. macrophages. increasing the expression of PRDM16 in muscle cells causes them to differentiate into brown fat cells. Can early or prolonged body dissatisfaction also leave epigenetic marks on DNA? Comment [SVR85]: An originator. significantly reduced expression of genes is observed in the lipid metabolism and glycolytic pathways following dietary energy restriction. Maldives. Some psychological distress is now found to leave changes in DNA structure for genes that control our stress response. 44. T cells. Tenomodulin (TNMD) is a transmembrane glycoprotein. a founder Comment [SVR86]: The cell changes its structure and function by expressing different genes Comment [SVR87]: Negative feedback mechanisms keep conditions in the body constant and oppose changes Comment [SVR88]: A specific response of a certain organism to a specific stimulus or group of stimuli Comment [SVR89]: The circumstances or conditions that surround one. high carbohydrate hypoenergetic diet for 10 weeks a total of 52 genes were expressed differently in adipose tissue as a result of the intervention. 42. Male’. Nutrition and diet induced changes in gene expression are now increasingly reported. a neurotransmitter Comment [SVR102]: The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis. 47. This was irrespective of the type of diet. As in white fat cell precursors. Alternatively. Such changes can be especially problematic in individuals with genetic susceptibilities to specific diseases. and tumor cells) and that acts as a pyrogen. Publisher and consultant. Therefore a drug which increases PRDM16 in either white fat cell precursors or muscle cells could be a potential future anti-obesity therapy – it may increase BAT stores. whereas white fat cells emerge from an independent source. which could then be transplanted into humans. treatment. mast cells. But in understanding the link between exposure to visual media of thin female physiques and the onset of eating disorders. Many genes can be regulated by changes in behaviour and environment. PRDM16 could be used to transform stem cells into brown fat cells in a test tube.com Ph: +9607765507 7 . including glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism. the proteins adiponectin. It turns genes off.
ie. ‘is committed to reflecting the diversity of the UK audience . 55. While most concern has surrounded thin fashion models. some think that: ’ The media is a causal risk factor for body dissatisfaction. the incorporation and active exclusion of media physiques according to their degree of risk to young female viewers. Male’. If only 5% of these deaths could hypothetically be attributed mainly to the effects of exposure to thin media physiques. it raises the question of whether assertive guidance should in future emanate from the Department of Health as opposed to the Department for Culture. female physique is yet another biological parameter which could be considered an aspect of diversity. raising awareness of use and extent of digital manipulation of images through use of a kite mark’. staffordv@yahoo. There has been a decided shift in position by scientists and prominent medical bodies in considering media images as being causative. suggestions that media images are causative are deflected by the rationalisation that ‘the media merely reflects society and are being used as a scapegoat for body dissatisfaction and eating disorders’. The Royal College of Psychiatrists has issued a ‘Statement on the influence of the media on eating disorders’ (2010). shape.000 have anorexia and with a 10% mortality rate. age . approximately 14. Yet matters have become much worse. In other areas of child and public health. Author. exposure to causative risk factors for disease is ultimately controlled through legislation. actresses and innocuous newsreaders who form the backdrop to the visual lives of girls and women. Comment [SVR118]: Harmless Comment [SVR119]: Everything that you can see behind the main thing you are looking at Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden. on radio and online. 52. For example. negative effect and eating pathology’. This is far greater than the number of women in the UK killed each year through domestic violence (approximately100) or from heterosexually contracted HIV/AIDS (38) per annum. . any mark of quality assurance Comment [SVR107]: A measure of the number of deaths in a given population Comment [SVR108]: A defense mechanism by which your true motivation is concealed by explaining your actions and feelings in a way that is not threatening Comment [SVR109]: a person or group made to bear the blame for others Comment [SVR110]: Accurate or correct Comment [SVR111]: A proposed or enacted law Comment [SVR112]: Inclined to bold or confident assertion Comment [SVR113]: Originate from Comment [SVR114]: An example or instance used to justify later similar occurrences Comment [SVR115]: A system of reasoning Comment [SVR116]: Considered Comment [SVR117]: sSticking to an incredibly low-calorie diet on a permanent basis. 56. 51.000 will die.’ At the same time. Traditionally.4m females currently have an eating disorder. . There is a lack of reality-based imagery’. There is good reason for these strong reactions as few realise the sheer prevalence and mortality rate of anorexia nervosa. the British Medical Association’s Board of Science and Education demanded ‘a more responsible editorial attitude towards the depiction of extremely thin women as role models’. 50. In their ‘Summary and Call for Action’. body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms. ‘The media has a role in both providing a social context for the development and maintenance of eating disorders . for example. cessation of the use of underweight models . an ongoing issue is the de-selection of females whose biological characteristics include grey hair and/or wrinkles on all electronic media networks in most Western industrialised countries. Of these. . the biological sciences have now provided a deeper understanding of the precise role of media physiques in these pathologies. .Conclusions 49. 1. shape. 140. 54. Comment [SVR105]: The process of spreading to a larger area or greater number Comment [SVR106]: Official mark indicating approval by the British Standards Institution. this equates to 700 deaths. . in its output on TV. As thin media physiques are now a biologically based medical issue. . . In the UK. 53. Maldives. more generally. The BBC. greater risk may lie in the more everyday ambient images of ‘permarexic’ – visibly unhealthily thin – children’s television presenters. they demand the ‘use of role models throughout the mass media that cover a diversity of weight. age . . There is already a precedent for media policy and legislation based upon the biological characteristics of people represented on television screens. . Media and Sport. achieved by propagating unobtainable body ideals and the acceptability of dieting leading to lowered mood. for instance.’ Implementing this policy will require a newfound enlightenment towards images deemed harmful. . A decade ago. Both the BMA and the RCP have called for media physiques ‘that cover a diversity of weight. Publisher and consultant. However. there is racial diversity and gender legislation. Following this logic.com Ph: +9607765507 8 .
a minimum standard of risk acceptability would have to be established based upon visual physique parameters such as waist-hip ratio and dress size. Author. a product of Pearson Education Ltd. 58. be happy to rectify any errors or omissions and include any such rectifications in future editions. Alternatively. Maldives.57. Publisher and consultant. Forty years after the debut of body politics. a roughly accurate proportion of female media images of an average UK dress size 16 could be ensured. staffordv@yahoo. Comment [SVR120]: One of a set of measurable factors Comment [SVR121]: Female Refer to possible questions and answers PDF provided. Email me if you cannot get your hands on it…… All the best for your exams…… Stafford Compiled by Stafford Valentine Redden. biology is explaining more precisely why fat is a feminine issue. Vol 57. At a practical level. This relationship has grown increasingly dysfunctional. This may seem an extraordinary form of social medicine but the evidence suggests that ‘a lack of reality based imagery’ in media is causing health problems in a very large number of women and young girls. if notified. And so it appears that while men eat food. Edexcel. Male’. (Aric Sigman). Vol 57. No 2 June 2010 p77–79 (ISSN 0006–3347) Copyright ©2011 by the National Academy of Sciences Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material. Acknowledgments ‘A source of thinspiration – the biological landscape of media. will. body image and dieting’. No 3 October 2010 p117–121 (ISSN 0006–3347) ‘Can your fat make you thin?’ (Kylie Beale). women have a relationship with food.com Ph: +9607765507 9 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.