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CHAPTER 1 1.1 Introduction:
Micro controller based speaking system for deaf and dumb is designed to give the signs, which are preloaded in the device. It is a micro controller based device, which gives the alert sounds just by pressing the control buttons by proper potentiometer value, which are given some redefined messages like asking for water, washroom etc., here the person can just press the control button which indicates the sign of water (example) then the device sounds the same with some output volume.

Micro controller is the heart of the device. It stores the data of the needs of the person. So that it can make use of the data stored whenever the person uses the device. This device helps the deaf and dumb people to announce their requirements. By this the person who is near can understand their need and help them. This saves the time to understand each other and ease in communication. This device is designed to provide with a greater advantage producing voice based announcement for the user i.e. the user gets the voice which pronounces his need as and when it is required. The main aim of the project is to provide a user-friendly interaction with the deaf and dumb people. It is highly sensitive and reliable for the dumb people and it is also very easy to operate. The basic firmware for the microcontroller is written in Embedded C language and compiled using PIC complier. The compiler generates the Hex code for the microcontroller and the Hex code is stored /programmed in flash memory of micro controller.

1.2 Project Overview:
An embedded system is a combination of software and hardware to perform a dedicated task. Some of the main devices used in embedded products are Microprocessors and Microcontroller Microprocessors are commonly referred to as general purpose processors as they simply accept the inputs, process it and give the output. In contrast, a microcontroller not only accepts the data as inputs but also manipulates it, interfaces the data with various devices, controls the data and thus finally gives the result.

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The “Speaking Micro Controller for Deaf and Dumb” using PIC16F72 microcontroller is an exclusive project which is used to help the deaf and dumb people to announce their requirements using voice module APR9600. The main aim of the project is to provide a user-friendly interaction for the deaf and dumb people with other persons.

1.3 Thesis:
The thesis explains the implementation of “Speaking Micro Controller for Deaf and Dumb” using PIC16F72 microcontroller. The organization of the thesis is explained here with: Chapter 1 Presents introduction to the overall thesis and the overview of the project. In the project overview, a brief introduction of APR9600 voice module and its applications are discussed. Chapter 2 Presents the topic embedded systems. It explains the about what is embedded

systems, need for embedded systems, explanation of it along with its applications. Chapter 3 Presents the hardware description. It deals with the block diagram of the project

and explains the purpose of each block. In the same chapter the explanation of microcontroller, APR9600 voice module, power supplies and LED‘s are considered. Chapter 4 Presents the software description. It explains the implementation of the project using PIC C Compiler software. Chapter 5 presents the project description along with APR9600 module interfacing to microcontroller. Chapter 6 presents the advantages, disadvantages and applications of the project. Chapter 7 presents the results, conclusion and future scope of the project.

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CHAPTER 2 EMBEDDED SYSTEMS:
2.1 Embedded Systems:
An embedded system is a computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. By contrast, a general-purpose computer, such as a personal computer (PC), is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Embedded systems are controlled by one or more main processing cores that are typically either microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP). The key characteristic, however, is being dedicated to handle a particular task, which may require very powerful processors. For example, air traffic control systems may usefully be viewed as embedded, even though they involve mainframe computers and dedicated regional and national networks between airports and radar sites. (Each radar probably includes one or more embedded systems of its own.) Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance. Some embedded systems are mass-produced, benefiting from economies of scale. Physically embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players, to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. Complexity varies from low, with a single microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. In general, "embedded system" is not a strictly definable term, as most systems have some element of extensibility or programmability. For example, handheld computers share some

even systems which don't expose programmability as a primary feature generally need to support software updates. but they allow different applications to be loaded and peripherals to be connected. . A modern example of embedded system is shown in fig: 2. Hiring a programmer for an extra month is cheap in comparison. flash memory (7).1:A modern example of embedded system Labeled parts include microprocessor (4). On a continuum from "general purpose" to "embedded". Moreover. RAM (6). programming for an embedded system is like programming PC 15 years ago. Fig 2. large application systems will have subcomponents at most points even if the system as a whole is "designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions". Spending an extra dollar a unit in order to make things easier to program can cost millions.4 elements with embedded systems such as the operating systems and microprocessors which power them. The hardware for the system is usually chosen to make the device as cheap as possible. This means the programmer must make do with slow processors and low memory. In many ways. while at the same time battling a need for efficiency not seen in most PC applications.Embedded systems programming is not like normal PC programming. and is thus appropriate to call "embedded".1. Below is a list of issues specific to the embedded field.

released in 1961. On a major embedded project.5 2. When the Minuteman II went into production in 1966. the Apollo guidance computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project as it employed the then newly developed monolithic integrated circuits to reduce the size and weight. An early mass-produced embedded system was the Autonetics D-17 guidance computer for the Minuteman missile. . but were far too large and expensive for most kinds of tasks performed by embedded computers of today. permanent equipment damage can occur.2 Tools: Embedded development makes up a small fraction of total programming. Debugging tools are another issue.1. Special hardware such as JTAG ports can overcome this issue in part. via solid state devices. unlike the PC world where 1 instruction set rules. the concept of programmable controllers evolved from traditional electromechanical sequencers. At the project's inception. It was built from transistor logic and had a hard disk for main memory. at some point you will almost always find a compiler bug of some sort. One of the first recognizably modern embedded systems was the Apollo Guidance Computer. Over time however.1. if you stop on a breakpoint when your system is controlling real world hardware (such as a motor). This means that the tools are more expensive. the D-17 was replaced with a new computer that was the first high-volume use of integrated circuits. However. to the use of computer technology. developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. you can't always run a debugger on it. and less developed. computers were sometimes dedicated to a single task. As a result. There's also a large number of embedded architectures. and the Unix world where there's only 3 or 4 major ones. It also means that they're lower featured. This makes fixing your program difficult. 2. people doing embedded programming quickly become masters at using serial IO channels and error message style debugging.1 History: In the earliest years of computers in the 1930–40s. Since you can't always run general programs on your embedded processor.

It also means you can't afford to leak memory.1.6 2. For the same cost savings reasons.4 Real Time Issues: Embedded systems frequently control hardware. 2.1. For example.3 Resources: To save costs. and optimize only when necessary. Of course. embedded systems frequently have the cheapest processors that can do the job. so that leaks can be found and eliminated more easily. This means your programs need to be written as efficiently as possible. embedded systems usually have the least memory they can get away with. rather than the reverse). This is made even more difficult by the lack of resources available. or even damage hardware such as motors.2 Need For Embedded Systems: .use reasonably efficient algorithms to start. this won't happen too often. normal profilers won't work well. and to be able to put off/skip low priority tasks such as UI in favor of high priority tasks like hardware control. and must be able to respond to them in real time. you will frequently sacrifice processor time for memory. or avoided altogether. 2. Embedded applications generally use deterministic memory techniques and avoid the default "new" and "malloc" functions. When dealing with large data sets. due to the same reason debuggers don't work well. issues like memory cache misses that never matter in PC programming can hurt you. Memory is also an issue. That means their algorithms must be memory efficient (unlike in PC programs. These resources either need to be emulated in software. Other resources programmers expect may not even exist. Luckily. Failure to do so could cause inaccuracy in measurements. most embedded processors do not have hardware FPUs (Floating-Point Processing Unit). Almost all embedded systems need to be able to prioritize some tasks over others.

So when implementing a new form of control. so that "writing your own software" becomes a very trivial task indeed. using the simple shell provided by the embedded operating system (e.7 The uses of embedded systems are virtually limitless. 2. • An in-circuit debugger (ICD). From an implementation viewpoint. The main elements that make embedded systems unique are its reliability and ease in debugging. Many embedded computers even come with extensive libraries. Producing a custom-made chip to handle a particular task or set of tasks costs far more time and money. and FPGA chips have become much cheaper. it's wiser to just buy the generic chip and write your own custom software for it. Embedded systems are often required to provide Real-Time response. because every day new products are introduced to the market that utilizes embedded computers in novel ways. . microcontrollers.2. providing full control over all aspects of the microprocessor. From simplest to most sophisticate they can be roughly grouped into the following areas: • Interactive resident debugging. there is a major difference between a computer and an embedded system. hardware such as microprocessors. This allows the operation of the microprocessor to be controlled externally. but is typically restricted to specific debugging capabilities in the processor. a hardware device that connects to the microprocessor via a JTAG or Nexus interface.g. Forth and Basic) • External debugging using logging or serial port output to trace operation using either a monitor in flash or using a debug server like the Remedy Debugger which even works for heterogeneous multi core systems. • An in-circuit emulator replaces the microprocessor with a simulated equivalent. In recent years.1 Debugging: Embedded debugging may be performed at different levels. depending on the facilities available.

2. • Unless restricted to external debugging. undersea cables. navigational beacons. with a logic analyzer. FPGA. Therefore the software is usually developed and tested more carefully than that for personal computers. and start or stop its operation. bore-hole systems. view the code running in the processor. the programmer can typically load and run software through the tools. for instance. A common problem with multi-core development is the proper synchronization of software execution.8 • A complete emulator provides a simulation of all aspects of the hardware. and unreliable mechanical moving parts such as disk drives. which requires very low-level debugging. allowing all of it to be controlled and modified and allowing debugging on a normal PC.2 Reliability: Embedded systems often reside in machines that are expected to run continuously for years without errors and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs. An increasing number of embedded systems today use more than one single processor core. 2. Specific reliability issues may include: • The system cannot safely be shut down for repair. the embedded system design may wish to check the data traffic on the busses between the processor cores. Because an embedded system is often composed of a wide variety of elements. co-processor). Examples include space systems. the debugging strategy may vary. . In such a case. debugging a software(and microprocessor) centric embedded system is different from debugging an embedded system where most of the processing is performed by peripherals (DSP. For instance. The view of the code may be as assembly code or source-code. or it is too inaccessible to repair. and automobiles. switches or buttons are avoided. at signal/bus level.

funds transfer and market making. so that a compromised software component cannot interfere with other subsystems.9 • The system must be kept running for safety reasons. reactor control systems. and also soft errors in the hardware: • Watchdog timer that resets the computer unless the software periodically notifies the watchdog • • • Subsystems with redundant spares that can be switched over to software "limp modes" that provide partial function Designing with a Trusted Computing Base (TCB) architecture[6] ensures a highly secure & reliable system environment • An Embedded Hypervisor is able to provide secure encapsulation for any subsystem component.3 Explanation of Embedded Systems: 2. engines on single-engine aircraft. improving reliability. This encapsulation keeps faults from propagating from one subsystem to another. safety-critical chemical factory controls. • Immunity Aware Programming 2. This may also allow a subsystem to be automatically shut down and restarted on fault detection. to recover from errors—both software bugs such as memory leaks. Examples include aircraft navigation. "Limp modes" are less tolerable. • The system will lose large amounts of money when shut down: Telephone switches. factory controls. A variety of techniques are used. automated sales and service. sometimes in combination.3. Often backups are selected by an operator. bridge and elevator controls. train signals.1 Software Architecture: . or privileged-level system software.

These kinds of systems are used if event handlers need low latency and the event handlers are short and simple. “nop” (stands for no operation). Later. When a task is idle. these tasks are executed by the main loop.10 There are several different types of software architecture in common use. the software simply has a loop. but this task is not very sensitive to unexpected delays. and each task gets its own environment to “run” in. usually called “pause”. This is the level at which the system is generally . • Cooperative Multitasking: A non-preemptive multitasking system is very similar to the simple control loop scheme. “wait”. Sometimes the interrupt handler will add longer tasks to a queue structure. or by a serial port controller receiving a byte. etc. This method brings the system close to a multitasking kernel with discrete processes. An interrupt could be generated for example by a timer in a predefined frequency. “yield”. except that adding new software is easier. The loop calls subroutines. it calls an idle routine. except that the loop is hidden in an API. • Interrupt Controlled System: Some embedded systems are predominantly interrupt controlled. or adding to the queue-interpreter. • Simple Control Loop: In this design. by simply writing a new task. each of which manages a part of the hardware or software. Usually these kinds of systems run a simple task in a main loop also. a low-level piece of code switches between tasks or threads based on a timer (connected to an interrupt). after the interrupt handler has finished. The programmer defines a series of tasks. This means that tasks performed by the system are triggered by different kinds of events. • Primitive Multitasking: In this type of system.The advantages and disadvantages are very similar to the control loop.

such as message queues.2 Stand Alone Embedded System: . smaller systems often cannot afford the overhead associated with a generic real time system. it introduces more or less of the complexities of managing multiple tasks running conceptually in parallel. it is common for organizations to buy a real-time operating system. The hardware and all the software in the system are available to.3. Exokernels communicate efficiently by normal subroutine calls. allowing the application programmers to concentrate on device functionality rather than operating system services. etc.11 considered to have an "operating system" kernel. at least for large systems. and extensible by application programmers. As any code can potentially damage the data of another task (except in larger systems using an MMU) programs must be carefully designed and tested. semaphores or a nonblocking synchronization scheme. Depending on how much functionality is required. and fail when they are slow. Because of these complexities. and access to shared data must be controlled by some synchronization strategy. network interfaces. due to limitations regarding memory size. The usual arrangement is that the operating system kernel allocates memory and switches the CPU to different threads of execution. requirement the embedded systems are divided into three categories: 2. • Microkernel’s And Exokernels: A microkernel is a logical step up from a real-time OS. performance. In general. functionality. and/or battery life. Based on performance. microkernel’s succeed when the task switching and inter task communication is fast. User mode processes implement major functions such as file systems.

These systems which will not cause damage when they are not operated at considerable time period those systems comes under soft realtime embedded systems.12 These systems takes the input in the form of electrical signals from transducers or commands from human beings such as pressing of a button etc.3. • Soft Real Time embedded systems: These embedded systems follow a relative dead line time period i..3 Real-time embedded systems: Embedded systems which are used to perform a specific task or operation in a specific time period those systems are called as real-time embedded systems...e... air conditioner etc.. • • Hard Real-time embedded systems: These embedded systems follow an absolute dead line time period i. Eg: consider a system in which we have to open a valve within 30 milliseconds. if the task is not done in a particular time that will not cause damage to the equipment. 2. 2.e.4 Network communication embedded systems: .if the remote control takes a few milliseconds delay it will not cause damage either to the TV or to the remote control.3. So in such cases we use embedded systems for doing automatic operations. processing it and giving output is done in standalone mode. If this valve is not opened in 30 ms this may cause damage to the entire equipment. process them and produces desired output. Eg: Consider a TV remote control system . There are two types of real-time embedded systems. if the tasking is not done in a particular time period then there is a cause of damage to the entire equipment. This entire process of taking input. Such embedded systems comes under stand alone embedded systems Eg: microwave oven..

3. Fig 2. to another computer with internet connection throughout anywhere in the world. videos etc.2 show the network communications in embedded systems. • Consider a web camera that is connected at the door lock.5 Different types of processing units: . it captures the image of a person and sends to the desktop of your computer which is connected to internet. Whenever a person comes near the door. • Consider a web camera that is connected to the computer with internet can be used to spread communication like sending pictures.13 A wide range network interfacing communication is provided by using embedded systems.. This gives an alerting message with image on to the desktop of your computer.. images. and then you can open the door lock just by clicking the mouse.2: Network communication embedded systems 2. Fig: 2.

DVD players. VCD players. printer etc… ... all these are built on a single chip.1 Consumer applications: At home we use a number of embedded systems which include microwave oven. input output ports etc. analog to digital converters etc. The numbers of external components that are connected to it are very less according to the application. camera etc….4. They are used in major applications with a number of tasking requirements. • Among these Microcontroller is of low cost processor and one of the main advantage of microcontrollers is. 2. • Microprocessors are more powerful than microcontrollers.4..4 APPLICATIONS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEMS: 2. serial communication. remote control. hard disk. digital signal processing. so the power consumption is also very high when compared to microcontrollers. modem. • Digital signal processing is used mainly for the applications that particularly involved with processing of signals 2.2 Office automation: We use systems like fax machine. the components such as memory. microcontroller. serial communication interfaces. But the microprocessor requires many external components like memory.14 The central processing unit (CPU) can be any one of the following microprocessor..

5: Printing machine 2. Industrial automation: Today a lot of industries are using embedded systems for process control. pressure.15 Fig2. and basing on these monitored levels we do control other devices. Fig2.3.voltage.4.. we can send information to a centralized monitoring station. humidity .6: Robot . In industries we design the embedded systems to perform a specific operation like monitoring temperature. current etc..4: Fax machine Fig2.

. Reset button.16 CHAPTER 3: HARDWARE DESCRIPTION 3.1. 3.1 Introduction: In this chapter the block diagram of the project and design aspect of independent modules are considered. Regulated power supply (RPS). 2. Micro controller (16F72).1: FIG 3. Block diagram is shown in fig: 3.1: Block diagram of speaking microcontroller for deaf and dumb\ The main blocks of this project are: 1. Crystal oscillator. 4.1.

2 Microcontrollers 3. These integrated circuits contained both processor and peripherals. Further increasing of the volume of the package resulted in creation of integrated circuits. 6. LED indicator.2 Micro controller: Fig: 3. timers and other. This development has made it possible to store hundreds of thousands of transistors into one chip. Microprocessors and microcontrollers are widely used in embedded systems products. That is how the first chip containing a microcomputer.1.17 5. RAM and number of I/O ports in microcontrollers makes them ideal for many applications in which cost and space are critical. or what would later be known as a microcontroller came about. A microcontroller has a CPU in addition to a fixed amount of RAM. I/O ports and a timer embedded all on a single chip. The fixed amount of on-chip ROM. APR9600 voice module. 7. input-output lines. and the first computers were made by adding external peripherals such as memory. Potentiometer (POT).2. . ROM. That was a prerequisite for production of microprocessors. Microcontroller is a programmable device.1 Introduction to Microcontrollers: Circumstances that we find ourselves in today in the field of microcontrollers had their beginnings in the development of technology of integrated circuits. 3.

The development tools such as assembler and simulator are freely available on the internet at www. These devices have been very successful in 8-bit microcontrollers.end PIC Architectures: Microchip PIC microcontrollers are available in various types. the microcontroller consisted of a simple processor executing 12-bit wide instructions with basic I/O functions.2. There are basically four families of PIC microcontrollers: PIC12CXXX 12/14-bit program word PIC 16C5X 12-bit program word PIC16CXXX and PIC16FXXX 14-bit program word PIC17CXXX and PIC18CXXX 16-bit program word The features. These devices are known as low-end architectures.microchip. Currently they are some of the most popular microcontrollers.com. The main reason is that Microchip Technology has continuously upgraded the device architecture and added needed peripherals to the microcontroller to suit customers' requirements. Low . selling over 120 million devices each year. 3. The PIC families of microcontrollers are developed by Microchip Technology Inc.18 The microcontroller used in this project is PIC16F72. When PIC microcontroller MCU was first available from General Instruments in early 1980's. They have limited program . pin description of the microcontroller used are discussed in the following sections.2 Description: Introduction to PIC Microcontrollers: PIC stands for Peripheral Interface Controller given by Microchip Technology to identify its single-chip microcontrollers.

Some of the low-end device numbers are 12C5XX 16C5X 16C505 Mid range PIC Architectures: Mid range PIC architectures are built by upgrading low-end architectures with more number of peripherals. PIC microcontroller has four optional clock sources. 4. Some of the mid-range devices are 16C6X 16C7X 16F87X Program memory type is indicated by an alphabet. . A watch dog timer (user programmable) resets the processor if the software/program ever malfunctions and deviates from its normal operation. C = EPROM. Instruction set simplicity: The instruction set consists of just 35 instructions (as opposed to 111 instructions for 8051). Speed: Harvard Architecture. it causes PIC to reset. 1. 2.19 memory and are meant for applications requiring simple interface functions and small program & data memories. RISC architecture. 3. 1 instruction cycle = 4 clock cycles. Brown-out-reset means when the power supply goes below a specified voltage (say 4V). Power-on-reset and brown-out reset. RC = Mask ROM Popularity of the PIC microcontrollers is due to the following factors. more number of registers and more data/program memory. hence malfunction is avoided. F = Flash.

3. Architecture of PIC microcontroller Fig. This facilitates instruction fetch and the operation on data/accessing of variables simultaneously. Programmable timers and on-chip ADC. Powerful output pin control (25 mA (max. 9.3. Up to 12 independent interrupt sources. 7. EPROM/OTP/ROM/Flash memory option. all PIC microcontrollers offer the following features: • • RISC instruction set with around 35 instructions _9 Digital I/O ports On-chip timer with 8-bit prescaler. 5.) 8. 6. . CPU Architecture: The CPU uses Harvard architecture with separate Program and Variable (data) memory interface.Architecture of PIC microcontroller Basically.20 • • • • Low power crystal Mid range crystal High range crystal RC oscillator (low cost).) current sourcing capability per pin. I/O port expansion capability.

max resolution is 200 ns PWM max. max resolution is 12.21 • • • • • • • Power-on reset Watchdog timer Power saving SLEEP mode Direct. and relative addressing modes External clock interface RAM data memory EPROM (or OTP) program memory Peripheral features: • • High sink/source current 25mA Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler can be incremented during sleep via external crystal/clock • • • • • • • Timer2:8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register prescaler and post scalar. Compare.5ns Compare is 16-bit. PWM (CCP) module Capture is 16-bit. indirect. Capture. resolution is 10-bit 8-bit 5 channel analog-to-digital converter Synchronous serial port (SSP) with SPI (Master/Slave) and (Slave) Some devices offer the following additional features: .

SMD is an abbreviation for Surface Mount Devices suggesting that holes for pins to go through when mounting aren't necessary in soldering this type of a component.2. It is most frequently found in a DIP28 type of case but can also be found in SMD case which is smaller from a DIP.22 • • • • • • • • • Analogue input channels Analogue comparators Additional timer circuits EEPROM data memory Flash EEPROM program memory External and timer interrupts In-circuit programming Internal oscillator USART serial interface 3.3 Pin diagram: Pin description: PIC16F72 has a total of 28 pins. . DIP is an abbreviation for Dual In Package.

RA4 – port A pin 4 7. Others are already for specific functions. RA2 – port A pin 2 5. These are the pin functions. 1. RA0 – port A pin 0 3. OSC1 – connect to oscillator 10. RA3 – port A pin 3 6. RA1 – port A pin 1 4. MCLR – to reset the PIC 2.23 Pins on PIC16F72 microcontroller have the following meaning: There are 28 pins on PIC16F72. OSC2 – connect to oscillator . RA5 – port A pin 5 8. Most of them can be used as an IO pin. VSS – ground 9.

port B pin 5 27. RB6 . GSM modem dial up modem – connect to RC6 and RC7 – the serial communication interface using RS232 protocol. VDD – power supply 21.connect to any pin declared as output. VSS . RB3 .port B pin 4 26.port B pin 0 22. RC3 – port C pin 3 15. 6. For more detail function for each specific pin please refer to the device datasheet from Microchip.port C pin 7 19. Potentiometer and sensor – connect to analogue input pin such as RA0. LCD – connect to Port B pin. . RC1 – port C pin 1 13. RC5 . RB2 .24 11.port C pin 4 16.port B pin 7 By utilizing all of this pin so many application can be done such as: 1. RC7 . LDR.port B pin 2 24. RB0 . 2. LED – connect to any pin declared as output. RC4 .ground 20.port C pin 5 17.port C pin 6 18.port B pin 1 23. 4. RB5 . 3. RB1 . RB4 .port B pin 3 25. Relay and Motor . External EEPROM – connect to I2C interface pin – RC3 and RC4 (SCL and SDA) 5.port B pin 6 28. RC6 . RC0 – port C pin 0 VDD – power supply 12. RC2 – port C pin 2 14. RB7 .

Thus. Pin direction can be changed during the course of work which is particularly fitting for one-line communication where data flow constantly changes direction. Setting a bit in TRISB register defines the corresponding port pin as input. or on which we can set the desired combination of zeros and ones. the right combination of zeros and ones must be written in TRIS register.25 Ports: Term "port" refers to a group of pins on a microcontroller which can be accessed simultaneously. The appropriate register for data direction is TRISB. Physically. In order to define a pin as input or output pin. By selecting one of the functions the other one is disabled. while TRISA and TRISB pin direction registers are located in bank. port A has TRISA. which is in the same time the fourth bit of port A and an external input for free-run counter. and resetting a bit in TRISB register defines the corresponding port pin as output. Every port has its proper TRIS register. or read from them an existing status. Microcontroller uses them in order to monitor or control other components or devices. then that pin is an input pin. . An illustration of this is the fifth bit T0CS in OPTION register. it's an output pin. port is a register inside a microcontroller which is connected by wires to the pins of a microcontroller. Ports represent physical connection of Central Processing Unit with an outside world. If the appropriate bit of TRIS register contains logical "1". according to the needs of a device that's being developed. and port B has TRISB. Selection of one of these two pin functions is done in one of the configuration registers. Due to functionality. and if the opposite is true. some pins have twofold roles like PA4/TOCKI for instance. PORTA and PORTB state registers are located in bank 0. PORTB have adjoined 8 pins. All port pins can be designated as input or output.

26 Each PORTB pin has a weak internal pull-up resistor (resistor which defines a line to logic one) which can be activated by resetting the seventh bit RBPU in OPTION register. If rows on the keyboard are connected to these pins. each push on a key will then cause an interrupt.) This interrupt option along with internal pull-up resistors makes it easier to solve common problems we find in practice like for instance that of matrix keyboard. These 'pull-up' resistors are automatically being turned off when port pin is configured as an output. RB7:RB4 can cause an interrupt which occurs when their status changes from logical one into logical zero and opposite. Four pins PORTB. A microcontroller will determine which key is at hand while processing an interrupt It is not recommended to refer to port B at the same time that interrupt is being processed. Only pins configured as input can cause this interrupt to occur (if any RB7:RB4 pin is configured as an output. . an interrupt won't be generated at the change of status.

6. 3. and 4 are designated input. . Whether RA4 will be a standard input or an input for a counter depends on T0CS bit (TMR0 Clock Source Select bit). it is possible to read the pins RA2. The corresponding register for data direction is TRISA at address 85h. Like with port B. and pins 5. 1. RA3. This pin enables the timer TMR0 to increment either from internal oscillator or via external impulses on RA4/T0CKI pin. and 7 output.27 PORTA and TRISA: PORTA have 5 adjoining pins. 2. setting a bit in TRISA register defines also the corresponding port pin as input.It is important to note that PORTA pin RA4 can be input only. and to set logical zero or one to pins RA0 and RA1. On that pin is also situated an external input for timer TMR0. RA4. Example shows how pins 0. and clearing a bit in TRISA register defines the corresponding port pin as output. After this.

3. The term is most commonly applied to electrical energy supplies. one for data and the other for program. and even after its installment if eventual changes in program or process parameters should occur. . less often to mechanical ones. Data memory: Data memory consists of EEPROM and RAM memories. Program memory: Program memory has been carried out in FLASH technology which makes it possible to program a microcontroller many times before it's installed into a device. EEPROM is not directly addressable. EEPROM memory with GPR and SFR registers in RAM memory make up the data block. but is accessed indirectly through EEADR and EEDATA registers. there is a strict procedure for writing in EEPROM which must be followed in order to avoid accidental writing.28 Memory organization: PIC16F72 has two separate memory blocks. GPR registers can be accessed regardless of which bank is selected at the moment. EEPROM memory consists of 256 eight bit locations whose contents are not lost during loosing of power supply. RAM memory for data occupies space on a memory map from location 0x0C to 0x4F which comes to 68 locations. while FLASH memory makes up the program block. 3.1 Introduction: Power supply is a supply of electrical power. Locations of RAM memory are also called GPR registers which is an abbreviation for General Purpose Registers. As EEPROM memory usually serves for storing important parameters (for example. A device or system that supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads is called a power supply unit or PSU. of a given temperature in temperature regulators) . The size of program memory is 1024 locations with 14 bits width where locations zero and four are reserved for reset and interrupt vector.3 REGULATED POWER SUPPLY 3.

29 and rarely to others. typically involving converting AC line voltage to a well-regulated lower-voltage DC for electronic devices.A power supply may include a power distribution system as well as primary or secondary sources of energy such as • Conversion of one form of electrical power to another desired form and voltage. 3. Low voltage. such as computers and household electronics.3.2 Regulated Power Supply . low power DC power supply units are commonly integrated with the devices they supply.2 Block Diagram: Fig 3.3. Chemical fuel cells and other forms of energy storage systems. • • • • Batteries. Solar power. Generators or alternators.

Voltage regulator(IC 7805). Bridge rectifier (diodes).3. Resistor. .30 Fig 3. Transformer. Capacitor. For transforming energy we use transformers.3 Circuit diagram of Regulated Power Supply with Led connection The components mainly used in above figure are • 230V AC mains. LED (light emitting diode). The detailed explanation of each and every component mentioned above is as follows: • • • • • • Transformation: The process of transforming energy from one device to another is called transformation.

31 Transformers: A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors without changing its frequency. This is called MUTUAL INDUCTION and forms the basis of the transformer.If a load is connected to the secondary. Fig 3. the lines of force move outwards from the coil. .3. With the 50 Hz AC mains supply. and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. this will happen 50 times a second. This varying magneticfield induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. If another coil is placed adjacent to the first coil then. This effect is called mutual induction. a voltage is induced in the second coil. the lines of force move inwards. This field is made up from lines of force and has the same shape as a bar magnet. an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. the moving lines of force will "cut" the turns of the second coil.4: Step-Down Transformer The voltage induced in the secondary is determined by the TURNS RATIO. As it does this. If the current is reduced. as the field moves out or in. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core. If the current is increased.

This is to prevent some types of interference being fed from the equipment down into the mains supply. Another example is if the primary has 5000 turns and the secondary has 500 turns.32 For example. Assuming a perfect transformer. DC has a steady current and therefore a steady field and there would be no induction. then the primary must supply 24 watts. and it releases more voltage at the output side. Some transformers have an electrostatic screen between primary and secondary. Since the primary would induce power. or in the other direction. Transformers are sometimes used for IMPIDENCE MATCHING. into this core. the coils are wound on a metal CORE. Step down transformer: Incase of step down transformer. If a 24-watt lamp is connected across a 24 volt secondary. and secondary winding is having less number of turns because of that it accepts less number of flux. Transformers to work at higher frequencies have an iron dust core or no core at all.To aid magnetic coupling between primary and secondary. called EDDY CURRENTS. the secondary will have half the primary voltage. If the primary voltage is 240 volts then the secondary voltage will be x 10 smaller = 24 volts. primary windings are every less compared to secondary winding. Step Up transformer: In case of step up transformer.We can use the transformers as step up or step down. the power provided by the primary must equal the power taken by a load on the secondary. which has a constantly changing current and moving field. This means that it is made up from metal sheets insulated from each other. and releases less amount of voltage. Battery power supply: . Because of having more turns secondary winding accepts more energy. the core is LAMINATED. if the secondary has half the primary turns. Primary winding induces more flux than the secondary winding. then the turn’s ratio is 10:1. Note that the transformer only works on AC.

When the battery is charging. A battery consists of multiple electrochemical cells connected to provide the voltage desired. The electrolyte is not involved in the electrode reaction. During the charging process. The lead-acid storage battery may be used. this type of battery has a 2. When fully charged.5. This battery is rechargeable it consists of lead and lead/dioxide electrodes which are immersed in sulfuric acid. The nickelcadmium batteries have many benefits. 6.5: Hi-Watt 9V Battery The most commonly used dry-cell battery is the carbon-zinc dry cell battery. Fig: 3. During the discharge of a carbonzinc battery.06-2.5 V.14 V potential (A 12 volt car battery uses 6 cells in series). nickel oxide is oxidized to its higher oxidation state and cadmium oxide is reduced. and magnesium dioxide is reduced at the carbon electrode. the lead is converted to lead sulfate and the sulfuric acid is converted to water.5 shows Hi-Watt 9V battery Fig 3. 45. This battery cell is completely sealed and rechargeable. 3. making the voltage constant over the span of the batteries long service life. portability and reliability. and 90.33 A battery is a type of linear power supply that offers benefits that traditional line-operated power supplies lack: mobility. Dry-cell batteries are made by stacking a carbon plate. a layer of electrolyte paste. They can be stored both charged and uncharged.3. The most common dry-cell batteries have one of the following voltages: 1. 22. the lead sulfate is converted back to lead and lead dioxide A nickelcadmium battery has become more popular in recent years. the zinc metal is converted to a zinc salt in the electrolyte.3. During discharge. and a zinc plate alternately until the desired total voltage is achieved.5. These actions establish a voltage of approximately 1. 9. They .

Fig: 3. Almost all rectifiers comprise a number of diodes in a specific arrangement for more efficiently converting AC to DC than is possible with only one diode. the difference between the term diode and the term rectifier is merely one of usage. and other components.e. . A device that it can perform the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter. Rectifiers: A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). vacuum tube diodes. mercury arc valves. a process known as rectification. Rectifiers may be made of solid-state diodes.3. high current availabilities. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. constant voltage. the term rectifier describes a diode that is being used to convert AC to DC. vacuum tube diodes and copper (I) oxide or selenium rectifier stacks were used.6 shows pencil battery of 1. When only one diode is used to rectify AC (by blocking the negative or positive portion of the waveform).3. i. For rectification purpose we use rectifiers.5V. Fig 3.6: Pencil Battery of 1.5V Rectification: The process of converting an alternating current to a pulsating direct current is called as rectification.34 have a long service life.. Before the development of silicon semiconductor rectifiers. and the ability to be recharged.

3.35 Bridge full wave rectifier: The Bridge rectifier circuit is shown in fig: 3. Input Output Fig 3.8. The ac input voltage is applied to the diagonally opposite ends of the bridge. For the negative half cycle of the input ac voltage. The conducting diodes will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the load current flows through RL. Thus a bi-directional wave is converted into a unidirectional wave. The Bridge rectifier circuit is shown in the figure. The picture of DB 107 is shown in fig: 3.7. The load resistance is connected between the other two ends of the bridge.7: Bridge rectifier: a full-wave rectifier using 4 diodes DB107: Now -a -days Bridge rectifier is available in IC with a number of DB107.3. whereas diodes D2 and D4 remain in the OFF state.3. In our project we are using an IC in place of bridge rectifier. . D1 and D3 remain OFF. diodes D1 and D3 conduct. The circuit has four diodes connected to form a bridge. The conducting diodes D2 and D4 will be in series with the load resistance RL and hence the current flows through RL in the same direction as in the previous half cycle. For the positive half cycle of the input ac voltage. diodes D2 and D4 conduct whereas. which converts an ac voltage to dc voltage using both half cycles of the input ac voltage.

36 Features: • • • • • • • • Good for automation insertion. Introduction to Capacitors: The Capacitor or sometimes referred to as a Condenser is a passive device. Polarity symbols molded on body. which perform signal-processing functions. Ideal for printed circuit board. Reliable low cost construction utilizing molded. In its basic form a capacitor consists of two parallel conductive plates . Filters: Electronic filters are electronic circuits. Weight: 1. Glass passivated device. Mounting position: Any. and one which stores energy in the form of an electrostatic field which produces a potential (static voltage) across its plates. specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal. Surge overload rating . to enhance wanted ones.0 gram.30 amperes peak. Filtration: The process of converting a pulsating direct current to a pure direct current using filters is called as filtration.

a current flows charging up the plates with electrons giving one plate a positive charge and the other plate an equal and opposite negative charge. .10 respectively.3.3. This flow of electrons to the plates is known as the Charging Current and continues to flow until the voltage across the plates (and hence the capacitor) is equal to the applied voltage Vcc.9 and 3.37 that are not connected but are electrically separated either by air or by an insulating material called the Dielectric. When a voltage is applied to these plates. The construction of capacitor and an electrolytic capacitor are shown in figures 3. At this point the capacitor is said to be fully charged and this is illustrated below.

3.9:Construction Of a Capacitor Capaticor Fig 3.10:Electrolytic Regulation: .3.38 Fig 3.

LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices. For applications requiring negative input.It is not possible to obtain a voltage lower than the stated rating. 6V. ultraviolet . It converts a varying input voltage into a constant ‘regulated’ output voltage. but it is in fact a very complex integrated circuit. LED: A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source.4. Using a pair of ‘voltage-divider’ resistors can increase the output voltage of a regulator circuit. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. Voltage regulators are very robust.39 The process of converting a varying voltage to a constant regulated voltage is called as regulation. Voltage Regulator: A voltage regulator (also called a ‘regulator’) with only three terminals appears to be a simple device. Fig 3. Voltage Regulators are available in a variety of outputs like 5V. but modern versions are available across the visible. 12V and 15V. In both cases. The LM78XX series of voltage regulators are designed for positive input. Reverse polarity destroys the regulator almost instantly.3. and are increasingly used for lighting. 9V.11: Voltage Regulator 3. the LM79XX series is used. For the process of regulation we use voltage regulators. early LEDs emitted lowintensity red light. the regulator will cut off before any damage occurs. These can withstand over-current draw due to short circuits and also over-heating. You cannot use a 12V regulator to make a 5V power supply. The only way to destroy a regulator is to apply reverse voltage to its input.

2: Parts of a LED Working: The structure of the LED light is completely different than that of the light bulb. and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. The light-emiTtting semiconductor material is what determines the LED's color. improved robustness.4. they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. The internal structure and parts of a led are shown in figures 3. longer lifetime. Amazingly. electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. the LED has a simple and strong structure. They . Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.4. smaller size. faster switching. and greater durability and reliability.40 and infrared wavelengths. When a diode is forward biased (switched on).2 respectively.4.4. with very high brightness.1: Inside a LED Fig 3. releasing energy in the form of photons.1 and 3. Fig 3. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2). The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. However.

41

also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional light sources in automotive lighting (particularly indicators) and in traffic signals. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. The electrical symbol and polarities of led are shown in fig: 3.4.3.

Fig 3.4.3: Electrical Symbol & Polarities of LED LED lights have a variety of advantages over other light sources: • • • • • • • • High-levels of brightness and intensity High-efficiency Low-voltage and current requirements Low radiated heat High reliability (resistant to shock and vibration) No UV Rays Long source life Can be easily controlled and programmed

42

Applications of LED fall into three major categories:

Visual signal application where the light goes more or less directly from the LED to the human eye, to convey a message or meaning.

Illumination where LED light is reflected from object to give visual response of these objects.

Generate light for measuring and interacting with processes that do not involve the human visual system.

3.5: APR9600 voice Module:

3.5.1. Description: APR9600 multi-section sound recorder/replay IC and experimental board:

APR9600 is a low-cost high performance sound record/replay IC incorporating flash analogue storage technique. Recorded sound is retained even after power supply is removed from the module. The replayed sound exhibits high quality with a low noise level. Sampling rate for a 60 second recording period is 4.2 kHz that gives a sound record/replay bandwidth of 20Hz to 2.1 kHz. However, by changing an oscillation resistor, a sampling rate as high as 8.0 kHz can be achieved. This shortens the total length of sound recording to 32 seconds. Total sound recording time can be varied from 32 seconds to 60 seconds by changing the value of a single resistor. The IC can operate in one of two modes: serial mode and parallel mode. In serial access mode, sound

43

can be recorded in 256 sections. In parallel access mode, sound can be recorded in 2, 4 or 8 sections. The IC can be controlled simply using push button keys. It is also possible to control the IC using external digital circuitry such as micro-controllers and computers. The APR9600 has a 28 pin DIP package. Supply voltage is between 4.5V to 6.5V. During recording and replaying, current consumption is 25 mA. In idle mode, the current drops to 1  The APR9600 experimental board is an assembled PCB board consisting of an APR9600 A. IC, an electret microphone, support components and necessary switches to allow users to explore all functions of the APR9600 chip. The oscillation resistor is chosen so that the total recording period is 60 seconds with a sampling rate of 4.2 kHz. The board measures 80mm by 55mm.

3.5.2. APR9600 Experimental board:

5V to 6. During recording and replaying.44 1. A typical connection of the chip is given in Figure 2 (This is the circuit diagram of the module). APR9600: Pin-out of the APR9600 is given in Figure 1.3. The analogue voltage is then written into non-volatile flash analogue RAMs. It has a 28 pin DIP package. current consumption is 25 mA.5. An AGC circuit is included in the preamplifier.5V. the extent of which is controlled by an external capacitor and resistor. Supply voltage is between 4. the signal can be fed directly into the IC through ANA IN pin (pin 20). APR9600 circuit diagram: . sound is picked up by the microphone.peak. In idle mode. 3. Pin functions of the IC are given in Table 1. During sound recording. The sound signal passes through a filter and a sampling and hold circuit. If the voltage level of a sound signal is around 100 mV peak to. A microphone pre-amplifier amplifies the voltage signal from the microphone. the current drops to 1 A.

2 kHz. The module consists of an APR9600 chip. the length of recording time is decreased. a mode selection switch (-RE.MSEL1. an electrets microphone.45 2. APR9600 module: The circuit diagram of the module is shown in Figure 2. An 8-16 . Table 3 gives the details. The oscillation resistor is chosen so that the total recording period is 60 seconds with a sampling rate of 4. MSEL2 and – M8) and 9 keys (-M1 to –M8 and CE). Users can change the value of the ROSC to obtain other sampling frequencies. It should be noted that if the sampling rate is increased. support components.

46 Ohm speaker is to be used with the module. Press CE to stop playing the sound track. on-board keys M1 to M8 and CE are by-passed. the particular sound track will be played continuously. Recording will terminate if –M1 is released or if the recording time exceeds 7. The maximum length of the 8 tracks is 7. Parallel mode recording and replaying: Record sound tracks: This is an example of recording 8 sound tracks. Similarly.5. You can now speak to the microphone. Users can select different modes using the mode selection switch. The module is measured 80mm  55mm. 3. press the same key again or press CE key will terminate the current sound track. Toggle –M1 to –M8 (press key and release) causes a particular sound track to replay once. In this cased. Replay sound tracks: Now make RE=1 (switched to Left-hand side of the mode selection switch) while keep other switches at the same location. press –M2 to -M8 to record other sound tracks.5 seconds. –M8=1 (left-hand side). RE=0 (right-hand side). Press –M1 continuously and you will see BUZY LED illuminates. C and B) can connect to other switches or external digital circuits. Press other key while a sound is being played causes a new sound track to be played. . Connection points (0-8. MSEL2=1 (lefthand side). Using the APR9600 module 3. If a key from –M1 to -M8 is pressed continuously. The mode switch should have the following pattern: MSEL1=1(switched to left-hand side of the mode selection switch). INTEC DATA SHEETS APR9600 sound recording module Intec Associates Ltd.5 seconds. While the sound is playing.4.

Press –M1 again and again to record 2nd.47 3. 3rd. This mode is rather similar to the above sequential sound recording. RE=0 (right-hand side). but the accumulated length of all sound tracks will not exceed 60 seconds. Record sound tracks with forward control: This is an example of recording sound tracks with forward control. Press and hold –M1 down and you will see BUZY LED illuminates. MSEL2=0 (right-hand side). RE=0 (right-hand side). MSEL2=0 (right-hand side). The mode switch should have the following pattern: MSEL1=0(switched to right-hand side of the mode selection switch).5. Serial mode recording and replaying Record sound tracks sequentially: This is an example of recording sequential sound tracks. Press CE first to reset the sound track counter to zero. Toggle –M1 (press key and release) causes the 1st sound track to be played once. –M8=0 (right-hand side). You can now speak to the microphone.5. The mode switch should have the following pattern: MSEL1=0(switched to right-hand side of the mode selection switch). Each sound track may have different lengths. 4th and other consecutive sound tracks. the sound track counter does not increment itself to the next sound track location. Press CE first to reset the sound track counter to zero. Toggle –M1 again and again will play the 2nd. Recording will terminate if –M1 is released or if the recording time exceeds 60 seconds (in this case you will run out the memory for your next sound track). To move to the next sound track. 3rd. Replay sound tracks sequentially: Now make RE=1 (switched to Left-hand side of the mode selection switch) while keep other switches at the same location. The only difference is that after –M1 is pressed and released. –M2 . –M8=1 (left-hand side). 4th and other consecutive sound tracks. Press CE to reset the sound track counter to zero.

3.48 should be toggled. For better sound replay quality. Application tips Tips for better sound replay quality: 1. For even better sound replay quality. Use a good quality 8 Ohm speaker with a cavity such as speakers for computer sound systems. Replay sound tracks with forward control: Now make RE=1 (switched to Left-hand side of the mode selection switch) while keep other switches at the same location. speak with a distance to the on-board microphone and speak clearly. the sound track counter is incremented and the next sound can be played. . Toggle –M1 again and again will still play the 1st sound track. It can be adjusted by users to suit their specific requirements. If Audio Line In is used. Sampling rates The sampling rate is determined by the value of the OSC resistor (R8 in the circuit diagram). Once –M2 is toggled. the amplitude of input signal should be < 100 mV p-p. 5. sound will be recorded at the same sound track location. use microphone input or Audio Line In input. So if –M1 is not toggled again and again without toggling –M2. 4. Toggle –M1 (press key and release) causes the 1st sound track to be played once. Do not use a bare speaker which gives you degraded sound. 2. INTEC DATA SHEETS APR9600 sound recording module Intec Associates Ltd. Also keep the background noise as low as possible. Press CE to reset the sound track counter to zero.

6.5. low fidelity 3½-inch speaker. The speaker moves in accordance with the variations of an electrical signal and causes sound waves to propagate through a medium such as air or water.5.speaker The speaker is an inexpensive. Speaker: Fig 3. To adequately .6. Terminology description: The term "loudspeaker" may refer to individual transducers (known as "drivers") or to complete speaker systems consisting of an enclosure including one or more drivers.7. 3. loudspeakers (and other electro acoustic transducers) are the most variable elements in a modern audio system and are usually responsible for most distortion and audible differences when comparing sound systems.5. A loudspeaker (or "speaker") is an electro acoustic transducer that converts an electrical signal into sound.49 3. After the acoustics of the listening space. typically found in small radios.

optimized for the highest audible frequencies. a "filter network".8. tweeters (high frequencies). Home stereos use the designation "tweeter" for the high frequency driver. woofers (low frequencies). mid-range speakers (middle frequencies). separates the incoming signal into different frequency ranges and routes them to the appropriate driver. particularly for higher sound pressure level or maximum accuracy. In two-way systems there is no mid-range driver. while professional concert systems may designate them as "HF" or "highs". The terms for different speaker drivers differ. most loudspeaker systems employ more than one driver. The drivers are named subwoofers (for very low frequencies). called a crossover. A loudspeaker system with n separate frequency bands is described as "n-way speakers": a two-way system will have a woofer and a tweeter. When multiple drivers are used in a system. 3. a three-way system employs a woofer.50 reproduce a wide range of frequencies. Speaker driver design: Cut away view of a dynamic loudspeaker. Individual drivers are used to reproduce different frequency ranges. a mid-range. and sometimes super tweeters. depending on the application. and a tweeter.5. so the task of reproducing the mid-range sounds falls upon the woofer and tweeter. .

a light dimmer uses a potentiometer to control the switching of a TRIAC and so indirectly control the brightness of lamps. it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat.51 Potentiometer: A potentiometer (colloquially known as a "pot") is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. Potentiometers operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers. For example.[1] If only two terminals are used (one side and the wiper). volume controls on audio equipment). Instead they are used to adjust the level of analog signals (e.g. for example. and as control inputs for electronic circuits. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment. Fig: Diagram of potentiometer . in a joystick. Potentiometers are rarely used to directly control significant power (more than a watt).

This is the most common use of pots.52 Theory of operation: The potentiometer can be used as a voltage divider to obtain a manually adjustable output voltage at the slider (wiper) from a fixed input voltage applied across the two ends of the pot. assume . The voltage across RL can be calculated by: If RL is large compared to the other resistances (like the input to an operational amplifier). the output voltage can be approximated by the simpler equation: As an example.

however. depending on the load. Potentiometer construction: . the load resistance is often not known and therefore simply placing a variable resistor in series with the load could have a negligible effect or an excessive effect. however. while variable resistors have a maximum resistance where some current will always flow. always a small amount of contact resistance. the output voltage VL will be approximately: Due to the load resistance. . . One of the advantages of the potential divider compared to a variable resistor in series with the source is that. and Since the load resistance is large compared to the other resistances. dividers are able to vary the output voltage from maximum (VS) to ground (zero volts) as the wiper moves from one end of the pot to the other. In addition. it will actually be slightly lower: ≈ 6.53 . There is.623 V.

In a linear slider pot. not semi-circular as in a rotary potentiometer. giving a non-linear relationship between resistance and turn angle. On panel pots. The resistive element.54 Fig: Diagram of internal construction of potentiometer Construction of a wire-wound circular potentiometer: The resistive element (1) of the shown device is trapezoidal. a sliding control is provided instead of a dial control. It is used as a position transducer. or more complete revolutions. One form of rotary potentiometer is called a String potentiometer. "Multi turn" potentiometers also exist. carbon particles in plastic. Besides graphite. It is a multi-turn potentiometer operated by an attached reel of wire turning against a spring. 20. The resistive element is a rectangular strip. though multi turn pots are usually constructed of a conventional resistive element wiped via a worm gear. the wiper is usually the center terminal of three. this wiper typically travels just under one revolution around the contact. is flat or angled. A potentiometer is constructed with a resistive element formed into an arc of a circle. with a terminal at one or both ends. For single-turn pots. materials used to make the resistive element include resistance wire. The wiper is connected through another sliding contact to another terminal. where the resistor element may be helical and the wiper may move 10. . The wiper (3) rotates with the axis (4). Due to the large opening slot or the wiper. and a sliding contact (wiper) traveling over that arc. this type of pot has a greater potential for getting contaminated. The vertical position of the axis is fixed in the body (2) with the ring (7) (below) and the bolt (8) (above). and a ceramic/metal mixture called cermets. although other materials may be used. providing the changeable resistance between the wiper contact (6) and the fixed contacts (5) and (9). and is commonly made of graphite.

. This produces a durable track with stable electrical resistance throughout its working life.55 Potentiometers can be obtained with either linear or logarithmic relations between the slider position and the resistance (potentiometer laws or "tapers"). A log pot can also be simulated with a linear pot and an external resistor. The tracks are made by screen printing the paste onto a paper based phenolic substrate and then curing it in an oven. but the letter code definitions are variable over time and between manufacturers. A letter code ("A" taper. but use two regions of different resistance (but constant resistivity) to approximate a logarithmic law. "B" taper. A high power wire wound potentiometer. Any potentiometer may be connected as a rheostat. lubricant and carbon – the constituent that provides the conductive/resistive properties. etc.) may be used to identify which taper is intended. Logarithmic taper potentiometers are often used in connection with audio amplifiers. True log pots are significantly more expensive. The curing process removes all solvents and allows the conductive polymer to polymerize and cross link. Most (cheaper) "log" pots are actually not logarithmic. Manufacturers of conductive track potentiometers use conductive polymer resistor pastes that contain hard wearing resins and polymers. solvents.

The above schematic diagram speaking microcontroller for deaf and dumb explains the interfacing section of each component with micro controller and APR9600 voice module.1 schematic diagram of PIC16F72 microcontroller: In this chapter.56 CHAPTER 4: PROJECT DESCRIPTION 4. schematic diagram and interfacing of PIC16F72 microcontroller with each module is considered. regulated power supply is . Fig 4. Crystal oscillator connected to 9th and 10th pins of micro controller.1: schematic diagram of speaking microcontroller for deaf and dumb.

e. the purpose of external crystal oscillator is to speed up the execution part of instructions per cycle and here the crystal oscillator having 20 MHz frequency.2 Interfacing crystal oscillator and reset button with micro controller: Fig:4. The 1st pin of the microcontroller is referred as MCLR i. master clear pin or reset input pin is connected to reset button or power-on-reset.57 connected to micro controller and also the LED’s connecting to micro controller through resistors.. The detailed explanation of each module interfacing with microcontroller is as follows: 4. The two pins of oscillator are connected to the 9th and 10th pins of micro controller. .2 explains crystal oscillator and reset button which are connected to micro controller.

2: Crystal and reset button interfacing with PIC microcontroller .58 Fig 4.

3 Interfacing APR 9600 voice module with micro controller Fig 4.3: Diagram of APR9600 voice module interfacing with PIC microcontroller .59 4.

4 LED interfacing with PIC16F72 LED stands for Light Emitting Diode and these are connected to micro controller through resistors. .60 4.

61 .

62 Fig 4.4: LED interfacing with PIC microcontroller .

few cables. Express PCB is a software tool to design PCBs specifically for manufacture by the company Express PCB (no other PCB maker accepts Express PCB files). but it does have several limitations.1 Express PCB: Breadboards are great for prototyping equipment as it allows great flexibility to modify a design when needed. and survive a shake test. Not only is a proper PCB neater but it is also more durable as there are no cables which can yank loose. however the final product of a project. It has a poor part library (which we can work around) . It is very easy to use.for compilation part Proteus 7 (Embedded C) – for simulation part 5. It can be likened to more of a toy then a professional CAD program. ideally should have a neat PCB.63 CHAPTER 5: SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION This project is implemented using following software’s: • • • Express PCB – for designing circuit PIC C compiler .

However.2 The Interface: When a project is first started you will be greeted with a yellow outline. Express PCB does not have a nice print layout. and extract them into your Express PCB directory. 5. Fig: 4. crop the PCB to the correct size before starting. This yellow outline is the dimension of the PCB.1. move them to their final position and then crop the PCB to the correct size. setup the units for “mm” or “in” depending on how you think. and click “see through the top copper layer” at the bottom. 5. So before any project is started head over to Audio logic and grab the additional parts by morsel.64 It cannot import or export files in different formats It cannot be used to make prepare boards for DIY production Express PCB has been used to design many PCBs (some layered and with surfacemount parts. Click View -> Options. At this point start the program and get ready to setup the workspace to suit your style. Typically after positioning of parts and traces. ppl.1 Preparing Express PCB for First Use: Express PCB comes with a less then exciting list of parts. Print out PCB patterns and use the toner transfer method with an Etch Resistant Pen to make boards. in designing a board with a certain size constraint. and tangent.1. Here is the procedure to design in Express PCB and clean up the patterns so they print nicely.1 show the toolbar in which the each button has the following functions: . In this menu. The standard color scheme of red and green is generally used but it is not as pleasing as red and blue. However.

• The place component: tool allows you to select a component from the top toolbar and then by clicking in the workspace places that component in the orientation chosen using the buttons next to the component list. square holes and surface mount pads.3 Design Considerations: Before starting a project there are several ways to design a PCB and one must be chosen to suit the project’s needs. . and manipulate parts. • The Insert Corner in trace: button does exactly what it says. • The remove a trace button is not very important since the delete key will achieve the same result. • • The zoom to selection tool: does just that. When this tool is selected the top toolbar will show buttons to move 5. • The place trace: tool allows you to place a solid trace on the board of varying thicknesses.65 Fig 5. When this tool is selected the top toolbar will give you a large selection of round holes. It allows you to move traces to the top / bottom copper layer.1: Tool bar necessary for the interface • The select tool: It is fairly obvious what this does. clicking on a trace will insert a corner which can be moved to route around components and other traces. and rotate buttons. When this tool is selected. The components can always be rotated afterwards with the select tool if the orientation is wrong. The top toolbar allows you to select the top or bottom layer to place the trace on.1. The place pad: button allows you to place small soldier pads which are useful for board connections or if a part is not in the part library but the part dimensions are available.

2 PIC Compiler: PIC compiler is software used where the machine language code is written and compiled. more difficult to etch on a DIY board. relays. check with the components to make sure you can get to its pins with a soldering iron. After compilation. It should be noted that if a trace is running on the top layer. and similar parts which don’t have axial leads can NOT have traces on top unless boards are plated professionally. Ground-plane or other special purposes for one side: When using a double sided board you must consider which traces should be on what side of the board. put power traces on the top of the board. but much harder to design for large projects. jumping only to the bottom if a part cannot be soldiered onto the top plane (like a relay). and vice. it should be avoided if the signal travelling over the traces is sensitive (e. A double sided board is more expensive to produce professionally. Large capacitors. If a lot of parts are being used in a small space it may be difficult to make a single sided board without jumpiring over traces with a cable. and keeps the ground signal as simple as possible. However. The TPA6120 datasheet specifies not to run a ground plane under the pins or signal traces of this chip as the capacitance generated could effect performance negatively.versa. While there’s technically nothing wrong with this.g. Some projects like power supplies or amps can benefit from having a solid plane to use for ground. and in amps it minimizes the distance between parts and their ground connections. or a double sided board. audio signals). 5. the machine source code is converted into hex code which is to be . but makes the layout of components a lot smaller and easier. Single sided boards are cheaper to produce and easier to etch. Generally. In power supplies this can reduce noise.66 Single sided. or double sided: When making a PCB you have the option of making a single sided board. care must be taken with stubborn chips such as the TPA6120 amplifier from TI.

PCB is for 12-bit opcodes. and PCH have some limitations. The PCB. PCB. In PIC. It’s important that you know C language for microcontroller which is commonly known as Embedded C. all three compilers are covered in this reference manual. PCM. high-level language. This allows developers to quickly design applications software in a more readable. PIC compiler also supports C language code. As we are going to use PIC Compiler. All normal C data types are supported along with pointers to constant arrays. PCM is for 14bitopcodes. hence we also call it PIC C. PCM. and also because of the way the compilers optimize the code. If you know assembly. When compared to a more traditional C compiler. Due to many similarities. As an example of the limitations. and arrays of bits. Features and limitations that apply to only specific microcontrollers are indicated within. fixed point decimal. input/output operations. writing a C program is not a crisis. The compilers can efficiently implement normal C constructs. In case of embedded C. This can be done with the help of simple while (1) or for (.h> // header file for PIC 16F72// . These compilers are specifically designed to meet the unique needs of the PIC microcontroller. function recursion is not allowed. So you have to make sure that your program or main file should never exit.. and bit twiddling operations. We have to add header file for controller you are using. otherwise you will not be able to access registers related to #include <16F72. in which all your application specific work will be defined. you do not have any operating system running in there.) loop as they are going to run infinitely. we will have a main function. and PCH is for 16-bit opcode PIC microcontrollers. PIC C is not much different from a normal C program. and PCH are separate compilers. This is due to the fact that the PIC has no stack to push variables onto.67 dumped into the microcontroller for further processing.

3 Program Code: The program code which is dumped in the microcontroller of our project is shown below.h> #include <APR9600. .h> #use delay (clock=20M) void main() { int final.68 5. output_high(PIN_C2). #include <16f72. delay_ms(1000).

//read POT setting . play_voice(1). output_high(PIN_C2). //Play Intro voice message while(1) { final = Read_ADC(). delay_ms(1000). output_low(PIN_C2). delay_ms(1000).69 output_low(PIN_C2). delay_ms(1000).

//devide ADC value into 4 equal parts (Max ADC value is 255 for 8bit ADC) if (final == 0) { output_high(pin_C2). if(!input(pin_C0)) { play_voice(3).70 final = final/55. if(!input(pin_C0)) { play_voice(2). } . } } else if (final == 1) { output_high(pin_C3).

if(!input(pin_C0)) { play_voice(5). } } else if (final == 3) { output_high(pin_C5). } } . if(!input(pin_C0)) { play_voice(4).71 } else if (final == 2) { output_high(pin_C4).

} } . output_low(pin_C5). } } delay_ms(500). output_low(pin_C6). if(!input(pin_C0)) { play_voice(6). output_low(pin_C3).72 else if (final == 4) { output_high(pin_C6). output_low(pin_C2). output_low(pin_C4).

3. .73 CHAPTER 6: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages: 1. Low power consumption. Can store upto eight alerts in voice circuit. 5. Dynamic user input. Disadvantages: Recording of alert messages should be done in noise free environment. 2. 4. Storage of alerts in non volatile memory. Efficient and low cost design.

CHAPTER 7: RESULTS 7.1 Result: .74 Applications: This system can be practically implemented in real time to express the basic needs of deaf and dumb people.

7. which comes with option of recording more alert messages. 7. Secondly. We can record the voices in the mobile phone and can fulfill their needs and requirements and make a user-friendly interaction with other people using a mobile phone.2 Conclusion: Integrating features of all the hardware components used have been developed in it. This project can be extended using high efficient voice circuit. It is highly sensitive and reliable for the dumb people and it is also very easy to operate it.3 Future Scope: Our project “Speaking Micro Controller for deaf and dumb” is mainly intended to help the deaf and dumb people in expressing their basic needs through voice message system. using highly advanced IC’s with the help of growing technology. thus contributing to the best working of the unit. the project has been successfully implemented. This project uses a voice circuit in which the alert messages for basic needs will be stored. REFERENCES: . The micro controller is programmed in such a way that when the person presses a button the alert message specified for that button will be announced. This saves the time to understand each other and ease in communication. Presence of every module has been reasoned out and placed carefully. which is interfaced to the micro controller. Thus the project has been successfully designed and tested. This device helps the deaf and dumb people to announce their requirements.75 The project “speaking microcontroller for deaf and dumb” is designed such that the It provides help for the deaf and dumb people to announce their requirements using voice module APR9600.

76 The sites which were used while doing this project: 1. www.Jones. APR9600 VoiceModule.howstuffworks. . 5. Interfacing and System Design.com 3.com 2. Mazidi and Mazidi –Embedded Systems. PCB Design Tutorial –David. www. 4. Embedded C –Michael.wikipedia.L.Pont. 2. www. 3.com Books referred: 1.com 4. PIC Microcontroller Manual – Microchip. Programming.allaboutcircuits. 6.J. Raj kamal –Microcontrollers Architecture.Murata. www.microchip.

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