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World of Mathematics

Viet Hoang Quoc


March 31, 2012
Abstract
This article is dedicated to my dear family, my parents: Hung Hoang
Manh, Chuan Nguyen Thi and my brother: Dung Hoang Manh. Without
their tremendous encouragement and support, this article could not have
been published.
Problem 1 (Uzbekistan NMO 2011 2-round) Let x, y be real numbers. Find
the minimum of
f(x, y) = |x y| +
_
(x + 2)
2
+ (y 4)
2
Solution 1 I will try to present the problem in an algebraic way. However, the
exists a solution using geometry that we should hopefully gure it out soon.
Let
_
a = x + 2
b = 4 y
Thus, the function becomes
g(a, b) = |a + b 6| +
_
a
2
+ b
2
Using AM-GM inequality of the form
_
a
2
+ b
2

|a + b|

2
Therefore, we obtain
g(a, b) h(a, b) = |a + b 6| +
|a + b|

2
Hence, it suces to minimize the function of two variables h(a, b). Now let
t = a + b
Thus, h(a, b) = F(t) = |t 6| +
|t|

2
1
The function of 2 variables becomes the function of only one variable t. This is
the exact idea we are looking for in minimizing or maximizing the expression of
2 or more variables. We temporarily called this method Reducing variables.
Now, we consider 3 cases
t 0 F(t) = 6 t
t

2
= 6
_
1 +
1

2
_
t 6
0 < t 6 F(t) = 6 t +
t

2
= 6 +
_
1
1

2
_
t > 6
t 6 F(t) = t 6 +
t

2
= t
_
1 +
1

2
_
6 3

2
Therefore, it is clear that the minimum occurs i t = 6 or a + b = 6. We
combine with the use of AM-GM inequality above to conclude that g(a, b) attains
the minimum at a = b = 3 or x = y = 3.
Problem 2 (11626.Cezar Lupu, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)
Let x
1
, x
2
and x
3
be positive numbers such that x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= x
1
x
2
x
3
. Treating
indices modulo 3, prove that
3

1
1
_
x
2
k
+ 1

3

1
1
x
2
k
+ 1
+
3

1
1
_
(x
2
k
+ 1)(x
2
k+1
+ 1)

3
2
Solution 2
3

1
1
_
x
2
k
+ 1

3

1
1
x
2
k
+ 1
+
3

1
1
_
(x
2
k
+ 1)(x
2
k+1
+ 1)
Let
_

_
a =
1
x
1
b =
1
x
2
c =
1
x
3
Thus, it implies that ab + bc + ca = 1. Note that a
2
+ 1 = a
2
+ ab + bc + ca =
(a + b)(a + c). We transform the left hand side inequality into

cyc
a
_
(a + b)(a + c)

cyc
a
2
(a + b)(a + c)
+

cyc
ab
(a + b)
_
(a + b)(a + c)
2
or

cyc
a(b + c)
_
(a + b)(a + c)

cyc
a
2
(b + c) +

cyc
ab
_
(a + c)(b + c)
Let
_

_
x = a

b + c
y = b

a + c
z = c

a + b
Therefore, the above inequality becomes
(x + y + z)
_
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ 2abc x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ xy + yz + zx
By squaring both sides, we obtain the left hand side as follows
LHS = (x + y + z)
2
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ 2abc)
= (x + y + z)
2
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
) + 3abc(x + y + z)
2
Also, by doing exactly the same way, the right hand side looks like
RHS = (x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ xy + yz + zx)
2
= (x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)
2
+ 2(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)(xy + yz + zx) + (xy + yz + zx)
2
= (x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
)(x + y + z)
2
+ (xy + yz + zx)
2
Thus, it suces to show that
2abc(x + y + z)
2
(xy + yz + zx)
2
Again, by carefully expand the LHS and RHS, we have
LHS = 2abc
_

cyc
x
2
+ 2

cyc
yz
_
= 2abc
_

cyc
a
2
(b + c) + 2

cyc
bc
_
(a + c)(a + b)
_
RHS = (xy + yz + zx)
2
=

cyc
(xy)
2
+ 2

cyc
x
2
yz
=

cyc
(ab)
2
(b + c)(a + c) + 2

cyc
a
2
bc(b + c)
_
(a + c)(a + b)
It is enough to show that
abc
_

cyc
a
2
(b + c)
_
+4

cyc
a(bc)
2
_
(a + c)(a + b)

cyc
(ab)
3
+3(abc)
2
+2

cyc
a
2
bc(b+c)
_
(a + c)(a + b)
3
It is quite clear from Schur inequality that
abc
_

cyc
a
2
(b + c)
_

cyc
(ab)
3
+ 3(abc)
2
Hence, we need to show
4

cyc
a(bc)
2
_
(a + c)(a + b) 2

cyc
a
2
bc(b + c)
_
(a + c)(a + b)
or
2

cyc
bc
_
(a + c)(a + b)

cyc
a(b + c)
_
(a + c)(a + b)
There are several ways to show the boxed inequality above. The rst way is to
use sum of square method as shown
A =

cyc
(a(b + c) 2bc)
_
(a + c)(a + b)
=

cyc
_
(ab bc)
_
(a + c)(a + b) + (cb ab)
_
(a + c)(b + c)
_
=

cyc
b(a c)

a + c
_

a + b

b + c
_
=

cyc
b

a + c (a c)
2

a + b +

c + b
Thus, we are done for the rst part.
3

1
1
x
2
k
+ 1
+
3

1
1
_
(x
2
k
+ 1)(x
2
k+1
+ 1)

3
2
The inequality is equivalent to

cyc
a
2
(b + c) +

cyc
ab
_
(a + c)(b + c)
3
2
(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)
or we reduce it to
2

cyc
ab
_
(a + c)(b + c)

cyc
a
2
(b + c) + 6abc
However, this inequality is true using the AM-GM mentioned above, that is
2

cyc
ab
_
(a + c)(b + c)

cyc
ab(2c + a + b)
=

cyc
a
2
(b + c) + 6abc
4
Problem 3 (J218. Mathematical Reection) Prove that in any triangle
with sides of lenghts a; b; c, circumradius R, and inradius r, the following
inequality holds:

ab
a + b c
+

bc
b + c a
+

ca
c + a b
1 +
R
r
Proposed by Cezar Lupu, University of Pittsburgh, USA, and Virgil Nicula,
Bucharest, Romania
Solution 3 We might nd the following identities useful
R =
abc
4A
where A denotes the area of the triangle with sides a, b and c.
r =
2A
a + b + c
16A
2
= (a + b + c)(a + b c)(b + c a)(c + a b)
Therefore, the original inequality becomes

cyc

ab
a + b c
1 +
2abc
(a + b c)(b + c a)(c + a b)
By multiplying both sides by the postive term (a + b c)(b + c a)(c + a b),
we need to show that

cyc

ab(a + c b)(b + c a) (a + b c)(b + c a)(c + a b) + 2abc


Note that

ab(a + c b)(b + c a) =

ab
_
c
2
(a b)
2
_
Thus, it suces to show that

cyc
a
2

bc +

cyc
a
3

cyc
ab(a + b) +

cyc

ab(a b)
2
We now turn our attention to the popular method Sum of Square that I shall
demonstrate below.
We have the following identities
a
3
+ b
3
ab(a + b) = (a b)
2
(a + b)
a
2
(b + c) 2a
2

bc = a
2
(

b

c)
2
Therefore, we need to show that

cyc
a
2
(

c)
2
+ 2

cyc

bc(b c)
2

cyc
(a + b)(a b)
2
5
or

cyc
(

c)
2
_
a
2
+ 2

bc(

b +

c)
2
(b + c)(

b +

c)
2
_
0
or

cyc
(

c)
2
_
a
2
(

b +

c)
2
(

c)
2
_
0
or

cyc
(

c)
2
_
a
2
(b c)
2
_
0
The last inequality is true so we are done for now.
Problem 4 (O219. Mathematical Reection) Let a, b, c, d be positive real
numbers that satisfy
1 c
a
+
1 d
b
+
1 a
c
+
1 b
d
0
Prove that
a(1 b) + b(1 c) + c(1 d) + d(1 a) 0
Proposed by Gabriel Dospinescu, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France
Solution 4 We rewrite the condition as follows
1
a
+
1
b
+
1
c
+
1
d

a
c
+
c
a
+
b
d
+
d
b
The good news is that we can write the nal outcome in a nicer way
a(1 b) + b(1 c) + c(1 d) + d(1 a) 0
is equivalent to
a + b + c + d ab + bc + cd + da = (b + d)(a + c)
or
1
a + c
+
1
b + d
1
Now, the following trick comes to eect (just if you can see how). We will
complete the proof if we can show that
_
a
2
+ c
2
ac
+
b
2
+ d
2
bd
__
1
a + c
+
1
b + d
_

1
a
+
1
b
+
1
c
+
1
d
or
a
2
+ c
2
ac(a + c)
+
a
2
+ c
2
ac(b + d)
+
b
2
+ d
2
bd(a + c)
+
b
2
+ d
2
bd(b + d)

a + c
ac
+
b + d
bd
Notice that
a + c
ac

a
2
+ c
2
ac(a + c)
=
2ac
ac(a + c)
=
2
a + c
6
Thus, the inequality becomes
a
2
+ c
2
ac(b + d)
+
b
2
+ d
2
bd(a + c)

2
a + c
+
2
b + d
or
(b d)
2
bd(a + c)
+
(a c)
2
ac(b + d)
0
The last inequality is true so our proof is completed.
Problem 5 (S220.Mathematical Reection) Let a, b, c be nonnegative real
numbers. Prove that
3
_
a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3

1
2
(ab(a + b) + bc(b + c) + ca(c + a))
_
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
ab bc ca
Proposed by Mircea Lascu and Marius Stanean, Zalau, Romania
Solution 5 Amazingly, after taking the 6
th
power from both sides and write
them as Sum of Square, we obtain the following true inequality
_

cyc
8ab(a b)
4
_
+ 5(a b)
2
(b c)
2
(c a)
2
0
Notice that the following inequality, regarded as one of the best estimations in
the modern approach to higher order of the variables
(a b)
2
(b c)
2
(c a)
2
=
_

cyc
a
4
(b
2
+ c
2
)
_
2abc(a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
)
_
2

cyc
a
3
c
3
_
+2abc
_

cyc
ab(a + b)
_
6(abc)
2
Comment
The solution looks short but it did take me ages to do calculation on the draft
paper. The moral lesson is that although these computations may seem rather
tedious and lengthy, it does not matter anymore because you are doing Mathe-
matics!
Now, if we set one variable to be zero, we have the following nice inequality for
2 varables
2(a
3
+ b
3
) ab(a + b) 2(a
2
+ b
2
ab)
_
a
2
+ b
2
ab
Problem 6 Let 0 < x, y, z < 1 and denote u = z(1 y) , v = x(1 z) and
w = y(1 x). Prove that
(1 u v w)
_
1
u
+
1
v
+
1
w
_
3
7
Solution 6 We may rewrite the left hand side as follows
((1 x)(1 y)(1 x) + xyz)
_
1
z(1 y)
+
1
x(1 z)
+
1
y(1 x)
_
We may consider individual term of the above expression to have a better view
(1 x)(1 z)
z
=
1 x
z
+ x 1
and
xyz
z(1 y)
=
xy
1 y
Thus, we collectively need to prove that

cyc
1 x
z
+

cyc
_
xz
1 x
+ z
_
6
or

cyc
1 x
z
+

cyc
z
1 x
6
However, this is simply AM-GM for 2 or (6?) positive numbers. The proof is
completed.
Problem 7 Let a, b and c be side-lengths of a triangle. Prove that

a b
a + b
+
b c
b + c
+
c a
c + a

<
1
16
Solution 7 Note that we have the following equality
a b
a + b
+
b c
b + c
+
c a
c + a
=
(a b)(b c)(a c)
(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)
Thus, we need to show that
16|(a b)(b c)(c a)| < (a + b)(b + c)(c + a)
Without loss of generality, we may assume that a = max{a, b, c}. Moreover,
using the triangle inequality |a b| < c and |a c| < b, it suces to show that
16bc|b c| < (a + b)(b + c)(c + a)
We assume further that b c in order to break the absolute value sign. Thus,
the inequality is equivalent to
16bc(b c) < (a + b)(b + c)(c + a)
8
At this stage, it is enough to use AM-GM for 2 numbers to nish o the problem
as follows
8b(2c)(b c) 2b(b + c)
2
Therefore, it is nice if we can show
2b(b + c) < (a + b)(a + c)
Nevertheless, this inequality is true due to the above assumptions. Hence, we
nish the proof here.
Problem 8 (Vietnam National Olympiad 2012 Problem 2) Let a
n
and
b
n
be two arithmetic sequences of numbers, and let m be an integer greater than
2. Dene P
k
(x) = x
2
+ a
k
x + b
k
, k = 1, 2, , m. Prove that if the quadratic
expressions P
1
(x), P
m
(x) do not have any real roots, then all the remaining
polynomials also dont have real roots.
Solution 8 We have
a
k
= a
1
+ (k 1)d
1
b
k
= b
1
+ (k 1)d
2

1
= a
2
1
4b
1
< 0

2
= a
2
m
4b
m
< 0
Therefore, we have the following conditions
_
_
_
a
2
1
< 4b
1
(a
1
+ (m 1)d
1
)
2
< 4 (b
1
+ (m 1)d
2
)
Thus, we need to show that
(a
1
+ (k 1)d
1
)
2
< 4(b
1
+ (k 1)d
2
) k {1, 2, . . . , m}
or
a
2
1
+ 2a
1
d
1
(k 1) + (k 1)
2
d
2
1
< 4b
1
+ 4(k 1)d
2
(k 1)(2a
1
d
1
+ (k 1)d
2
1
4d
2
) < 4b
1
a
2
1
2a
1
d
1
4d
2
+ (k 1)d
2
1
<
4b
1
a
2
1
k 1
2a
1
d
1
4d
2
<
4b
1
a
2
1
k 1
(k 1)d
2
1
From the condition above, we also derive the similar structure
2a
1
d
1
4d
2
<
4b
1
a
2
1
m 1
(m 1)d
2
1
9
It is enough to show that
4b
1
a
2
1
m 1
(m 1)d
2
1
<
4b
1
a
2
1
k 1
(k 1)d
2
1
This is true since m k.
Problem 9 (Number theory) Let a, b be two positive integers. Show that if
A = (2011a + 2012b)(2012a + 2011b) is divisible by 3 then A must have at least
one perfect square divisor.
Solution 9 We will show that A is divisible by 9 as follows
Since A is written in a product form and 3 is a prime, we have 2011a + 2012b
is divisible by 3 or (2012a + 2011b) is divisible by 3. Wlog, suppose that 3 is
a factor 2011a + 2012b, we would like to show that (2012a + 2011b) is also a
multiple of 3. However, this job is done easily with a little help of modulo. It
all boils down to |a b| is divisible by 3 and thus, we complete the proof here.
Problem 10 (Italy ITAMO 2002) Prove that if m = 5
n
+3
n
+1 is a prime
then 12 divides n.
Solution 10 Firstly, we need to show that 4 divides n and then using this to
show that 3 also divides n.
If 2 does not divide n then m is divisible by 3.
Thus, 2 divides n and as a consequence, m = 5
2k1
+ 3
2k1
+ 1 where n = 2k
1
.
We continue the problem in this fashion that if k
1
= 2k
2
+1 then m is divisible
by 5.
Therefore, k
1
= 2k
2
. Now, n = 4k
2
. If k
2
= 3k
3
1 then m is divisible by 7.
We are done for now.
Problem 11 (IMO Shortlist 2001) Let a, b, c be positive real numbers with
a + b + c = abc + 2. Show that
max{a, b, c} 1
Valentin Vornicu
Solution 11 Let
_

_
x = a 1
y = b 1
z = c 1
10
WLOG, suppose that a = max{a, b, c}. This implies that x y z.
Suppose further that x < 0. Thus,
0 > x y z
From the given condition, we have
x + y + z + 3 = (x + 1)(y + 1)(z + 1) + 2
xyz = xy yz zx
1 =
1
x
+
1
y
+
1
z
Using Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, we have
1
x
+
1
y
+
1
z

9
x y z
This gives
(x + y + z) 9
or
a + b + c + 6 0
This yields the contradiction since a, b, c > 0.
Thus, x 0 or a 1.
Problem 12 (Inequality from a contest) Let x, y 0 , Prove that : x
2
y
2
(x
2
+
y
2
2) (x + y)(xy 1).
Solution 12 Let S = x + y and P = xy. The immediate result is that S
2

4P S 2

P. WLOG, we may x P = xy.


It suces to show that
P
2
(S
2
2P 2) S(P 1)
or
P
2
S
2
(P 1)S 2P
2
(P + 1) 0
Now, we consider
f(S) = P
2
S
2
(P 1)S 2P
2
(P + 1) for S 2

P
We have
f

(S) = 2P
2
S + 1 P 4P
2

P + 1 P 5
5
_
4
27
P
5
P > 0
11
Therefore, f(S) is increasing for S 2

P. Now, it is enough to check that


f(2

P) 0
or
4P
3
+ 2

P(1 P) 2P
3
+ 2P
2
This is left as an exercise for readers who are interested in completing the solu-
tion.
Problem 13 For a, b, c > 0, prove that
b
2
+ c
2
b + c
+
c
2
+ b
2
c + b
+
a
2
+ b
2
a + b
3
a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
a + b + c
Magazine Gazeta Matematica B,11,year 1995,author:Ion Bursuc
Renement
For a, b, c > 0 , prove that

cyc
a
2
+ b
2
a + b
+
6abc
_
min
_
(a b)
2
, (b c)
2
, (c a)
2
_
(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)(a + b + c)

3(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
)
a + b + c
Solution 13 For the renement one, we might expand everything out, there-
fore, we need to show that (with the assumption that (ab)
2
= min{(ab)
2
, (b
c)
2
, (c a)
2
})

cyc
a
2
(b
3
+ c
3
) + 6abc(a b)
2

cyc
a(b
4
+ c
4
)
or
6abc(a b)
2

ab(a b)
2
(a + b)
Therefore, we give an estimation for the right hand side

cyc
ab(a b)
2
(a + b) (a b)
2
_

cyc
ab(a + b)
_
6abc(a b)
2
Thus, the proof is complete.
Problem 14 (Korea National Olympiad 2012) Let x, y, z be positive real
numbers. Prove that
2x
2
+ xy
(y +

xz + z)
2
+
2y
2
+ yz
(z +

xy + x)
2
+
2z
2
+ zx
(x +

yz + y)
2
1
Solution 14
Firstly, we have the following estimation using Cauchy-Schwarz inequality for 3
positive real numbers
y + z +

xz
_
(x + y + z)(2z + y)
12
Thus, the following inequality holds
2x
2
+ xy
(y +

xz + z)
2

2x
2
+ xy
(x + y + z)(2z + y)
It suces to show that
x(2x + y)
y + 2z
+
y(2y + z)
z + 2x
+
z(2z + x)
x + 2y
x + y + z
or
2(x + y + z)
_
x
y + 2z
+
y
z + 2x
+
z
x + 2y
_
2(x + y + z)
or
x
y + 2z
+
y
z + 2x
+
z
x + 2y
1
This is single-handedly the result from Cauchy-Schwarz inequality.
The following problems appear in the Mathematical Reection Magazine Issue
2 2012.
Problem 15 Let a, b be real numbers such that sin
3
a
4
3
cos
3
a b
1
4
. Prove
that
3
4
sin a cos a b +
1
6
Proposed by Titu Andreescu, University of Texas at Dallas, USA
Solution 15 We have the following identities for triple angle of cos a and sin a
cos(3x) = 4 cos
3
(x) 3 cos(x)
sin(3x) = 3 sin(x) 4 sin
3
(x)
This is equivalent to
cos
3
(x) =
cos(3x) + 3 cos(x)
4
sin
(
3x) =
3 sin(x) sin(3x)
4
13