-1

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od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;
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'DuaeY 1343-ckEpS ?f OD;wefc;l vjynfah eYaygh? 'Dw&m;yGJusif;
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rS 0w,fvdkYvnf; r&dSbl;/
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w&m;"r®u bm½kyf"mwfawG? bmemrf"gwfawG? bmy&rwfawGeJY
b,fvBkd u;D ajymaeae? 'gawGrygbJeYJ ajymaeae? cifAsm;wdu
Yk awmh

-2-

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

w&m;&JU tESpfom&udk csdKNrdefNyD;aeMuNyD;om;oluawmh w&m;"r®
oHMum;ae&&ifudkyJ . ./ OD;Zif;wdkYuvnf; 'DvdkMunf;El; ESpfodrfh
wwfNyD;om; olwpfa,mufudk pum;ajym&&if OD;Zif;wdkYpdwfxJrSm
vnf;yJ aysmfaysmfyg;yg;yJ tmawGYygw,fvdkY ajymcsifygw,f/

]]od'¨daygufrS}}
'Dvdkr[kwfyJeJY w&m;"r®taMumif;udk bmrSem;vnfwwf
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ajymMu&w,f/ tJ'v
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bl;/ 'ghaMumifh vlwdkif;? vlwdkif;vnf;yJ od'¨daygufzdkYudk trsm;BuD;

-3-

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

pdwfapmNyD;awmh xm;Muw,f/ 'um? 'umrwdkY wu,fvdkYrsm;
tm;vHk;od'¨dawG aygufaeMuw,fqdk&if qif;&J'ku©qdkwm 'um?
'umrwdkYqDrSm &dSOD;rSmvm;? (r&dSawmhygbl; bk&m;)/ od'¨dawGu
trsm;BuD;aygh/ bmod'¨dawG ayguf&rvJqdk&ifjzifh tckacwfrSm
Mum;zl;aeMurSmyg/ um,od'¨dawG? yd,od'¨dawG? "eod'¨dawG? tm
[m&od'¨dawG tJonfvdk od'¨dawGrsm;aygufaeMur,fqdk&if 'um?
'umrwdkY qif;&Jp&mrsm; &dSOD;awmhrvm;? (r&dSawmhygbl; bk&m;)/
r&dSawmhbl;/
tJawmh usKyfwdkYwawG[m od'¨daygufwJhpcef;awmh vkyfrS
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&od'ad¨ wG wynfah wmfwYkd w&m;uaygufEikd &f UJ vm;? wynfah wmfwYkd
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tJ'gawGuom 'Do'd ad¨ wGukd aygufapEdik w
f ,fvYkd Mum;bl;ygvm;vdYk
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S ,f/ wu,fusawmh cifAsm;wdw
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jzifh bk&m;w&m;awGcsnf;yJyg/ Oyrm wcsdKU Ak'¨H o&PH *pämrd? "r®H

-4-

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

o&PH *pämrd? oHCH o&PH *pämrdeJY tif;qHawG xnfhvdk xnfh?
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b*0g tp&dSojzifh 'DvdkawGvnf; xnfhcsifxnfhw,f/ ajymr,f
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f w
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-5-

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

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bk&m;)/ 'g tm[m&od'v
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taMumif;jyKNy;D oday;Mu/ tapmydik ;f wke;f uvnf; bke;f Bu;D av;u

-6-

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

vnf; ajymoGm;w,f/ oów'd|d rvkyMf ueJY Oapä''d|d rvkyMf ueJ/Y
aoNy;D aemuf jzpfw,fr,lMueJY aoNy;D aemuf rjzpfb;l r,lMueJv
Y Ykd
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vnf;raygufb;l ? "eod'v
d¨ nf;raygufb;l ? um,od'v
d¨ nf; rayguf

-7-

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

bl;? tm[m&od'¨dvnf;raygufbl;/ bmod'¨drS raygufbl;qdk&if
cifAsm;wdYk 'kua© wmhb,favmufNird ;f yghr,fxifNy;D vkyaf eae Nird ;f Edik f
yghrvm;? (rNird ;f Edik yf gbl; bk&m;)/ 'ghaMumif'h u
k N© ird ;f atmif cifAsm;wdYk
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J m;wm/
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-8-

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

awmh cifAsm;wdkY t&d,opömw&m;awGyJ/ jrwfpGmbk&m;u "r®cE¨m
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kd mudak jymwm? opöm&dw
S ,f
qdkwm b,fvdk[mudkajymwm rodMubl;vm;? (odygw,f bk&m;)/

-9-

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

wpfa,mufeJY wpfa,muf 'um? 'umrwdkUu vdrfaeMur,f?
qJaeMur,f? *Hk;wdkufaeMur,f? owfaeMur,f? jzwfaeMur,f?
cdk;aeMur,f? qdk;aeMur,fqdk&if 'gopöm&dSwmvm;? opömazmuf
wmvm;? (opömazmufwmyg bk&m;)/ [kww
f ,f? opömazmufwm/
wu,fvrYkd sm; 'um? 'umrwdu
Yk wpfa,mufuw
kd pfa,muf rSerf eS f
uefuefav;vnf; ajymw,f? tusdK;&dSatmifvnf;ajymw,f?
em;axmifcsifatmifvnf;ajymw,f tpp'Dvdkav;rsm;ajymNyD;
wu,fu
h kd aumif;rGeaf eatmif 'um? 'umrwdu
Yk wpfa,mufukd
wpfa,muf oufoufnm§ n§m az;az;rr ulun
l n
D D 'Dvakd exkid Mf u
w,fq&kd if 'g opömazmufwmvm;? opöm&dw
S mvm;? (opöm&dw
S myg
bk&m;)/ tJ'g t&d,opömyJ/
ckeu bkef;BuD;ajymoGm;ovdk bm½kyfawGvdkY bmemrfawG
vdkYqdkwm tvum; . . / tvkyfydkawG vkyfaeMuwm/ 'grodvdkY
tvkyyf akd wG vkyaf eMuwm/ raeYuwifyJ OD;Zif;wdYk a0'emav;u
b,fEh ,
S hf a0'em cHpm;wmav;ujzpf&wmwke;f vdYk usKyu
f kd ar;w,f
Asm/ a0'emu©E¨m a0'emav;u b,fhES,fhaMumifh cHpm;wmjzpf&
wmwkef;/ usKyfvnf; ajzvkduf&wmwpfcgwnf;udk tmayguf
rwwfy/J ajz&if;ajz&if;eJY usKyu
f b,fvjkd zpfvmwke;f qdak wmh ae
prf;ygOD;AsmvdYk cifAsm;usKyu
f kd 'gawGbmhaMumifah r;ae&wmwke;f vdYk
usKyfu ar;csifaeNyDvdkY 'Dvdkajymvdkuf&w,fAsm/ olbmjzpfvdkY ar;
wmwkef; rodbl;/ usKyfrodbl;? wu,fusawmh olvnf; rod
bl;/ igbmjzpfvYkd ar;rdwmwke;f vdYk olrodb;l / olrodovdk usKyu
f
vnf; ar;csiw
f ,f? cifAsm; 'g bmtwGurf sm;ar;&wke;f / tvum;
usKyfjzifh armvSNyD/ usKyfjzifh bmtusdK;&dSatmif ajzae&wmudk
r[kwb
f ;l ? cifAsm;ar;vdYk ajzae&wmvd/Yk cifAsm;u bm tusKd ;&drS ,f

- 10 -

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

xifvdkY ar;wmvJvdkY usKyfjzifh 'Dvdkajymrdw,f/ 'Dy&rw¬opömeJY
pyfvsO;f vdaYk ygh/ qdv
k w
kd m cifAsm;wdeYk m;½Iyo
f mG ;atmif 'gBu;D roGi;f
awmhygbl;/

]]od'¨daygufatmif vkyfenf;}}
opömqdw
k muawmhjzifh vlwpfa,mufu vlwpfa,mufukd
b,fyHkb,fenf; opömapmifhw,f? b,fyHkb,fenf; opömazmuf
w,fqdkwm odMuovm;? rodMubl;vm;? (odMuygw,f bk&m;)/
tJ'gtwdkif;rSwfyg? 'gyJ/ jrwfpGmbk&m;w&m;a[mw,fqdkwm bm
twGufrS r[kwfbl;/ tJ'Dopömuav; apmifhapmifhpnf;pnf;eJY cif
Asm;wdkYwawG aeEdkifMu? xdkifEdkifMuzdkYtwGufyJajymwmAs/ wu,f
vdkYrsm; cifAsm;wdkUwawGu udk,feJYxd&wJh vlwpfa,mufeJY wpf
a,mufrmS opöm&d&S aSd v;eJY aexdik o
f mG ;Mu&if yd,od'ad¨ vmufawmh
tenf;qHk; raygufEdkifMuavmufbl;vm;Asm? (aygufEdkifygw,f
bk&m;)/ bmjzpfvv
Ykd /J ud,
k t
hf ay:opöm&dw
S o
hJ u
l kd awG&Y &if cifAsm;wdYk
aysmfovm;? ysif;ovm;? (aysmfygw,f bk&m;)/ aysmfw,fAs/ udk,fh
tay: opöm&dSwJholudk awGY&&if aysmfw,fAs/ tJ'Dawmh bmjzpf
ovJ/ ud,
k o
hf pöm&dw
S o
hJ u
l kd cPcPawGUcsiw
f ,fAs/ 'g cspv
f v
Ykd m;?
rkef;vdkYvm;? (cspfvdkYyg bk&m;)/ tJ'g yd,od'¨daygufwm/ cifrsm;wdkY
yd,od'¨d aygufatmifvyk ef nf; odvm;? (odygNyD bk&m;)/ opöm&d&S
rSmvm;? opömysuf&rSmvm;? (opöm&dS&rSmyg bk&m;)/
wu,frsm; vlawGu ud,
k u
hf ykd aJ wGUcsiaf ew,f ud,
k ahf wG&Y
jrif&&if 0rf;omw,fvdkYqdk&if udk,frSm pD;yGm;wdkY? BuD;yGm;wdkY tpp
ynmenf;vdkYyJjzpfjzpf twwfenf;vdkYyJjzpfjzpf t&if;tESD;enf;
vdkYyJjzpfjzpf csdKUwJhaew,fqdkOD;awmhawmifrS udk,fhtay:arwåm

- 11 -

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

xm;wJh olursm;w,fvq
Ykd &kd ifjzifh ud,
k v
f yk o
f rQtvkyaf wG[m ysuf
jym;zdUk jzpfovm;? atmifjrifzUkd jzpfovm;? (atmifjrifzjYkd zpfygw,f
bk&m;)/ tJ . .cifAsm;wdYk 'Dvrkd sm; atmifjrifzjYkd zpfw,frsm;qd&k ifu
awmh pD;yGm;a&;awGvnf; aumif;vmrSmjzpfwt
hJ wGuf "eod'¨daum
raygufEdkifavmufaybl;vm;? (aygufEdkifygw,f bk&m;)/ "eod'¨d
vnf;aygufrSmAs/
b,f . .vlawGu ukd,fcspfaeNyDqdkuwnf;u b,fol
wpfa,mufwav;av;uae raumif;MuHOD;awmhawmifrS ukd,fh
raumif;MuHwJholudk udk,fuodNyD;om;jzpfaeNyD? vmajymukefNyD/
'grSr[kwv
f &Ykd &Sd ifvnf; [m . .'Dvu
l awmhaumif;w,fumG ? rif;'D
vlYawmh 'DvdktMuHrrSm;eJY[? bm[eJY udk,fhraumif;MuHr,fvludk
ab;u tvdktavsmufzsufr,f/ 'Dvdkqdkawmh udk,frsm; cH&p&m&dS
ao;vm;? (r&dSygbl; bk&m;)/ b,fvdkrS rcH&awmhbl;? 'kwfeJY "g;
awmifrubl; aoewfawmifyD;w,fvdkY usKyfuajymcsifw,f/
aoewfyD;wmrSm trsKd;rsKd;&Sdw,fAs/ aoewfyD;wmrSm
aoewfeyYJ pfvu
kd w
f t
hJ cgrSm usnq
f u
H xGuo
f mG ;ayr,fh usnq
f u
H
vluo
kd mG ;rrSeyf eJ YJ vGo
J mG ;wJah oewfy;D enf;um;vdYk Mum;bl;l Muovm;
rMum;bl;Mubl;vm;? (rMum;bl;ygbl;bk&m;)/ tJ'gaoewfyD;
enf;wpfrsdK;/ 'DhxufrSpGrf;wJh aoewfyD;enf;usawmh b,fES,f
jzpfwek ;f qdk twGi;f xJu ,rf;awmihu
f udk rD;rul;bl;wJ/h ud,
k rhf rSef
,Hw
k ifrubl;/ rD;udrk cwfvYkd ]]'dik ;f }} vdu
Yk kd rjrnfb;l wJAh s/ tJovdak o
ewfyD;enf;vnf;&Sdw,fvdkY Mum;bl;Muovm;? (Mum;bl;ygw,fbk
&m;)/ tqifhtwef;u uGmw,faemf/ ckuuawmhxGufawmhvm
ao;? ud,
k rhf rSeb
f ;l / tckaoewfy;D enf;uawmh xGuu
f rkd xGub
f ;l /
usnfqHudkurxGufbl;/ rD;rul;bl;/

- 12 -

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

aemufxyfaoewfy;D enf;uav;uawmh wpfcgwnf;vuf
uaeNy;D awmh vufuarmif;udk ukwv
f u
Ykd rkd &bl;/ olv
Y ufBu;D udu
k
awmifhNyD;awmhukwfvdkYr&bl;/ 'gvnf;aoewfryD;bl;vm;? (yD;yg
w,fbk&m;)/ uJ..wpfckxufwpfck tqifhtwef;jrifhw,f/ [dk
vlu aoewfeJYypfcsifpdwfawmhaygufw,f? olYvufuukwfvdkYr
&bl;/ armif;uku
d w
k v
f rYkd &bl;l / yD;vku
d w
f jhJ zpfjcif;/ tckusKyw
f aYkd o
ewfy;D enf;uawmh wu,fu
h b
kd ,fyb
kH ,fenf;jzpfw,fq&kd if ypfcsif
taumif;qHk;aoewfyD;enf; r[kwf
pdwfudkraygufwm/ uJ..taumif
vm;Asm? ([kwfygw,fbk&m;)/ cifAsm;wdkYudkcspfae&if ypfcsifpdwf
qkw
d m aygufyghrvm;Asm? (raygufygbl;bk&m;)/ wu,fu
h kd cifAsm;wdYk
um ,od'yd¨ ;D wm/ wu,fu
h ckd ifAsm;wdYk aoewfy;D wm/ ypfcsipf w
d u
f kd
raygufbl;/ cifAsm;wdkYudkcspfaeNyDqdkuwnf;u/cifAsm;wdkYu opöm
r&Sd&if cifAsm;wdkYudkcspfyghrvm;? (rcspfygbl;bk&m;)/ rcspf&if yD,
od'ad¨ yguf&UJ vm;/ yD,od'rd¨ rS ayguf&if um,od'd¨ Ny;D yghrvm;? (ryD;
ygbl;bk&m;)/ cifAsm;wdkY ryD;bl;As/

]]jrwfpGmbk&m;a[mcJhwm vlawGopöm&dSzdkYyJ}}
tJ'aD wmhcifAsm;wdYk wu,fvrYkd sm; cifAsm;wdu
Yk ud,
k ef aYJ wGU
&? qH&k ? BuKH &wJo
h al wGtay:rSm opöm&d&S aSd eMuxdik Mf u&if yD,od'd¨
vnf;ayguf um,od'¨dvnf;ayguf "eod'¨dvnf;ayguf tm[m&
od'v
d¨ nf;ayguf tukeaf yguf? od't
d¨ ukeyf ;D / 'Dvykd ;D cJ&h if cifAsm;wdYk
qif;&JrSmvm;? csrf;omrSmvm;? (csrf;omrSmyg bk&m;)/ cifAsm;wdkY
csrf;omatmif a[m'Dopöm&dSwJhvkyfief;udk vkyfMu/ usKyw
f aYkd jym
&rvm;? rajym&bl;vm;? (ajym&rSmyg bk&m;)/ tJ'o
D pöm&dw
S v
hJ yk if ef;

- 13 -

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

qdkwm[m jrwfpGmbk&m; av;q,fhig;ESpf av;q,fhig;0gywfvHk;
w&m;awGa[moGm;wm bma[mwke;f ar;&if vlawGopöm&dzS Ykd a[m
wmyJ/ tJawmhcifAsm;wdu
Yk opöm&d&S aSd evdu
k Mf ur,fq&kd if *dP
k o
f rm;
vdkYac:wJh bmrod nmrod? £dwdydaom b*0gav;avmufodwJh
oluav;awGvyk af y;wJh vufzUJG xuf? a[m'Db&k m; av;q,fih g;0g
umvywfvHk;a[mMum;cJhwJh w&m;csKyfjzpfwJh vlwpfa,mufu vl
wpfa,muftay:rSm opöm&SdwJhvkyfief;udkvkyfwmeJY ruGmaybl;
vm;Asm? (uGmygw,fb&k m;)/ uGmw,f/ tJ'aD wmh cifAsm;wdYk [d.k .
*dP
k ;f vdaYk c:wJh txufvrf;yk*Kd¾ vaf wGajymwJh pum;avmuf cifAsm;
wkdY&yfem;NyD; raeaeMueJY/ txufvrf;yk*¾dKvfawG ajymMuwmu
*dkPf;qdkwJhtwdkif; yifrudkra&mufbl;/

]]opöm&Sd&r,fh 10-csuf}}
yifrqdkwmu vlwpfa,mufu vlwpfa,muftay:rSm
vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm;opöm&Sdwm yifr/ *dkPf;qdkwmu vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm;
olu opömr&SEd idk af o;bl;/ opöm&S&d rSmawGu tcsuaf ygif;b,fEpS f
csufavmuf&SdovJvdkYqdkawmh ajymMuygpdkY? q,fcsuf&Sdw,fvdkY
qdMk uygpd/Yk q,fcsufvHk;jynfhatmif opöm&SdEdkifNyDvdkYqdk&if 'g..
vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm;opöm&Sdwm/ 'Dvrkd [kwyf eJ cYJ ifAsm;wdu
Yk wpfcsuf
avmufyJ opöm&SEd ikd af o;w,fvq
Ykd &kd if vH;k vH;k vsm;vsm;opöm&Sw
d m
r[kwfao;bl;/ tJ'Dawmh 'g..tpdwftydkif;uav;yJ opöm&Sd
wmjzpfwt
hJ wGuf yifropöm&Sed nf;um;av;r[kwb
f ;l / 'g ..*kP
d ;f
*Popöm&Sdenf;um;vdkY ajym&rvm;? rajym&bl;vm;? (ajym
&rSmygbk&m;)/
tJ..*dP
k ;f qdw
k yhJ *k Kd¾ vaf wGvnf; tJ't
D wdik ;f yJ/ rif;uao

- 14 -

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

&nfao&uf raomufygbl;vdkY tmrcH? opömqdk/ rif;u olYom;
r,m; rrSm;ygbl;vdkY opömcH/ tcsufuav;wpfcsuf? ESpfcsuf? oHk;
csu?f av;csuaf vmufawmif;cHw,f/ 'ghaMumifrh v
Ykd Ykd 'g tJo
h avmuf
uav; opömapmif&h wJrh u
l av;ayghAsm/ opömu apmif&h rSmu tm;
vH;k q,fcsu&f w
dS ,fq&kd if wpfcsuyf aJ pmifw
h ,f? ESpcf suyf aJ pmifw
h ,f?
oH;k csuyf aJ pmifw
h ,f/ 'g yifrajym&rvm;? *dP
k ;f ajym&rvm;? (*dP
k ;f
ajym&rSmyg bk&m;)/
tJo
h avmuf *dP
k ;f qdw
k yhJ *k Kd¾ vaf wGu ref;xm;? rIwx
f m;wJ?h
vkyfxm;wJh 'DvufzGJUuav;? rEÅmefuav;avmufuawmifrS
um,od'u
d¨ kd yD;apwwfygao;w,f? yd,od'u
d¨ kd yD;apwwfygao;
w,f? "eod'u
d¨ kd yD;apwwfygao;w,fq&kd if vH;k vH;k vsm;vsm; opöm
w&m;awGudk jynfh0oGm;atmif usifhoHk;wJhyk*¾dKvfqdk&if 'Dod'¨dawG
wu,fNyD;rSmvm;? tvum;NyD;rSmvm;? (wu,fNyD;rSmyg bk&m;)/
'gcifAsm;wkdY ,HkMuaemf/ usKyfajymwJhpum;awGudk &SufNyD;awmhudk
wu,f,HkMu/ wu,fNyD;rSm/ wu,fod'd¨NyD;rSm/ cifAsm;wdkY em;
rvnfEikd af vmufwhJ tuGuu
f aeNy;D awmh ausmaf jymaewm r[kwf
bl;/ cifAsm;wdkYem;vnfEdkifavmufwJh tuGufxJuudk usKyfuajym
aewm/ ayghayghwefwefuav;udk OD;Zif;wdkY w&m;a[mrvdkY pdwf
ul;NyD;ajymaewm/ av;av;yifyifBuD;awG aeYvnfuajymvdkuf&
wm em;eJYrqHjzpfygha&mhr,f usKyfwdkY 'um'umrawG/

]]opömb,fESpfyg; ysufMuovJ}}
tav;qH;k pum;awG ajymNy;D oGm;ygNy/D ayghayghav;udk usKyf
wdkU pum;ajym&atmif? at;at;aq;aq;'g/ tJovdk "eod'd¨?
yd,od'?¨d um,od'?¨d t[m&od'q
¨d w
kd hJ 'Do'd a¨d wGaygufomG ;atmif

- 15 -

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

opöm&SdMuvdkdY ajym&rvm;? rajym&bl;vm;? (ajym&rSmyg bk&m;)/
b,fvakd wG opöm&S&d rSmwke;f / opömw&m;awGu b,fEpS yf g;&Sw
d ek ;f
qdw
k mh opöm&Sw
d m Munfv
h u
kd o
f w
d ,f? opömysuw
f m Munfv
h u
dk &f if
odygw,fAsm/ usKyw
f Ykd opömb,fEpS yf g;ysuMf uowke;f / b,fEpS yf g;
opömysufEkdifowkef;qdk&if ud k , f e J Y o H k ; yg;ysuf E k d i f w ,f / wum
wumrwdYk ud,
k ef YJ b,fEpS yf g;ysuEf ikd w
f mwke;f ? (oH;k yg;ysuEf ikd yf gw,f
bk&m;)/ oH;k yg;ysuEf idk w
f ,f/ wu,fvYkd wpfa,mufukd wpfa,muf
olt
Y ouf&iS rf u
I kd remvdNk y;D oumv? pdwq
f ;kd Ny;D oumv olu
Y kd rjrif
csifwmeJY usKyfwdkYu owfypfvdkufr,f? jzwfypfvdkufr,fqdk&iif
'um'umrwdkY opöm&Sdwmvm;? opömysufwmvm;? (opömysufwm
yg bk&m;)/ opömysufw,f/
olYypönf;udk udk,fuaeNyD; cdk;r,fqdk&ifaum opöm&Sw
d m
vm;? opömysufwmvm;? (opömysufwmyg bk&m;)/ opömysufwm/
wu,fvdkY usKyfwdkUu tm½Hkig;yg;awGudk odyfNyD;vdkufpm; vGef
usL;awG vkyfaer,fqdk&ifaum opöm&Sdwmvm;? opömysufwm
vm;? (opömysufwmyg bk&m;)/ opömysufwm/ rvkyfMueJY 'um
'umrwdkY/ 'gawGawmhjzifh wdkYrvkyfawmhbl;a[hvdkY rqHk;jzwfoifh
bl;vm;? (qHk;jzwfoifhygw,f bk&m;)/ qHk;jzwfoifhw,f/
OD;Zif;wkdY EIwfeJYopömysufwmvnf;yJ oHk;rsKd;awmif&Sdw,f/
vd r f a jymw,f wpfa,mufudkwpfa,muf/ qJ a jymw,f wpf
a,mufudk wpfa,muf/ *Hk;wkdufajymw,f wpfa,mufudk wpf
a,muf/ tusdK;r&Sd t,kwå? tewåeJY twif;tzsif; pum;awG
ajymaew,f/ 'gqd&k if vlwpfa,mufu vlwpfa,mufukd 0pDopöm
apmifhw,f ajym&rvm;? 0pDopömzsufw,f ajym&rvm;/ (opöm
zsuw
f ,fajym&rSmyg bk&m;)/ opömzsuw
f m/ wu,fvYkd 'D0pDopöm

- 16 -

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

zsuw
f mawGukd OD;Zif;wdu
Yk a&Smif&mS ;vdu
k rf ,fq&kd if a[m ..EIwef YJ
opöm&Sdw,f/ 'g OD;Zif;wdkYu ajym&r,f/
wcg pdwef q
YJ &kd ifvnf;yJ 'um 'umrwdu
Yk wpfa,mufukd
wpfa,muf BuD;yGm;aeMu&if remvdkbl;vdkY/ olBuD;yGm;? pD;yGm;
jzpfaewmawGudk udk,fuaeNyD;awmh udk,fh[mjzpfcsifw,fvdkY/
wu,fvYkd ud,
k 'hf u
k a© &mufapr,f[
h m jzpft;kH awmhawmifrv
S nf;yJ
tif; ..'guawmhjzifh aumif;r,fxifw,fw/Ykd 'Dvrkd sK;d om pdwu
f ;l
pdwo
f ef;awG xkwaf eMur,fq&kd if 'g[m opömysuw
f m r[kwv
f m;
'um? 'umrwdkU? ([kwfygw,fbk&m;)/
tJ'DopömysufwmawGudk a&Smif&Sm;vdkufNyDvdkYqdk&if tHr,f
av; olYtpD;tyGm;jzifh igwdkYu 0rf;omygw,fAsm/ a[m usKyfwdkY
ol Bu;D yGm;aewmudk wku
Yd 0rf;omygw,fAs/ wu,fvYkd olu
Y kd vdak e
w,fq&kd ifawmifrS wdu
Yk n
l ED idk &f if ulnv
D u
kd cf siyf gao;w,fq&kd if
'um? 'umrwdkY 'g opöm&Sd&m ra&mufaybl;vm;? (a&mufygw,f
bk&m;)/ tJovdk opöm&S&d rSm/ 'Dvrkd sm;opöm&Srd ,fq&kd if tapmydik ;f
wkef;uajymwJh od'd¨awG raygufEkdifbl;vm;Asm? (aygufEdkifygw,f
bk&m;)/ udk,hfudk csr,fqdk&ifom vludk rcifwmygAs/ ukd,hfudk ]r}
r,fvdkYxif&if? r]r}bl;qdkawmifrS 'Dvluawmh udk,fhysufpD;atmif
b,fE,
S rhf S rcsb;l vdYk ,HMk unf&&if 'Dvu
Yl ckd ifygw,f/ rcifwwfMu
bl;vm;? (cifwwfMuygw,fbk&m;)/
vl[m tazmfiwfygw,f/ b,folrqdkyg? tazmfiwfyg
w,f/ rdwfeJY? aqGeJY? o[meJY aecsifMuwJh olcsnf;yJygAs/ 'Dawmh
'Dvdkaecsif&JUom;eJY bmjzpfvdkY olwdkYraeMuowkef;qdk&if ckeajymcJh
ovdkyJ? avmbawG? a'goawG bmawG opömysufwmawG trsKd;
rsKd;awGeJY aESmuf,SufNyD;aevdkYrdkYvdkY 'DvlawGuaeNyD;oumv wcg

- 17 -

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

wnf; ukd,hfudk csr,fxifvdkYrkdY udk,fuaeNyD;awmh rcifcsifwm?
raygif;csifwmyg/
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'Dvu
l awmh ud,
k u
hf rkd csb;l / tifrwef½;kd om;w,f/ tifrwefuykd J
wpfcgwnf; apmifph nf;w,f/ opöm&Sw
d ,fvYkd qd&k if 'um'umrwdYk
rcifcsifMubl;vm;? (cifcsifMuygw,f bk&m;)/ cifcsifMuygw,f/
tJovdyk J ud,
k v
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Ykd igu
om ysupf ;D atmif rcsb;l vdq
Yk &kd if r]r}Edik Of ;D awmhawmifrS olwu
Ykd
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Yk &kd if olwu
Ykd ud,
k u
hf kd rcifaybl;
vm;Asm? (cifygw,f bk&m;)/ 'Dvkdrsm;cif&if yd,od'¨d raygufbl;
vm;? (aygufygw,f bk&m;)/ yd,od'¨daygufNyD/

]]½dk;½dk;av; opöm&dS&dSaevdkufzdkYygyJ}}
cifAsm;wdkY yd,od'¨d wjcm;oGm;r&SmMueJY/ yd,od'¨dqdkwm
wpfrsdK;BuD;vnf; vkyfae&wmr[kwfbl;/ udk,fu ½dk;½dk;aevdkuf
zdkYyJ/ ½dk;½dk;aevdkufzdkYqdkwm opöm&dS&dSav;aevdkufzdkYyJ/ 'Dt"dygÜ ,f
a&mufovm;? ra&mufbl;vm;? (a&mufygw,f bk&m;)/ 'gvnf;
odcw
J ,f/ wu,fvo
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k f
Nyq
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hf kd rcifb;l vdYk r&daS wmhb;l ? ud,
k hf
awGU&if 0rf;omwJholBuD;yJ jzpfukefawmhrSmyJAs? tJ'gqdk yd , od '¨d
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D u
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l rS
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,od'¨daum raygufb;l vm;Asm? (aygufygw,f bk&m;)/ um,od'd¨
vnf; aygufwmyJ/ um,od'o
d¨ m aygufrmS vm;vdaYk r;awmh atmf
. .'DvdkBuD;awmif aexdkifoGm;NyDqdkuwnf;u pD;yGm;awG? BuD;yGm;

- 18 -

od'¨daygufr,fhw&m;

awGuvnf; jzpfawmhwmaygh/ vlawG pD;yGm;awG? Bu;D yGm;awG rjzpf
w,fqdkwm ckeuajymovdkyJ taygif;r&dS? o[mr&dSqdkwJh[mrsdK;
awGaMumifhAs/
tJawmh taygif;eJY o[meJY wu,fhudk owfowfrSwfrSwf
aeEdkifoGm;NyDqdk&if opöm&dS&dSaexdkifoGm;NyDvdkUqdk&if pD;yGm;vnf;jzpf
awmhwmyJ/ 'Dvq
kd akd wmh 'Dvrl mS 'Do'd ad¨ wGtm;vH;k Ny;D ajrmufayguf
ydik Nf y;D awmhaeNyv
D q
Ykd &kd if qif;&Jp&mrsm; &dOS ;D rSmvm;? (r&daS wmhygb;l
bk&m;)/ r&dSawmhbl;/ 'Dawmh cifAsm;wdkYu 'gudk acsmacsmBuD;
oabmaygufMuNyDqdk&if opömysufw,fvdkYqdkwJh rw&m;wmawG
udkawmh um,uHeJY rw&m;wm? 0pDuHeJY rw&m;wm? EIuf0pDeJY
rw&m;wm? pdwful;? pdwfoef;vdkYac:wJh raemuHeJY rw&m;wm?
'Drw&m;wmawGukd wdaYk &Smifr,f/ 'Drw&m;wmawGuakd wmhjzifh bm
ay;& ay;& wdkYa&Smifr,f/ cifAsm;wdkY qHk;jzwfoifhovm;? (qHk;jzwf
oifhygw,f bk&m;)/
b,ftcsed u
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awmhjzifh idkae&atmif 'Dum,uHudk rSm;csifcsif? rSm;csifpdwfjzpf
csifjzpf? idkae&atmif 'D0pDuHudk rSm;csifwJhpdwfawG ay:csifay:
aeyap? idkae&csif idkae&yap raemuHawmhjzifh igwdkY rrSm;apbl;?
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aeawmhr,fvYkd qH;k jzwfcsucf swt
hJ aeeJY oH;k Burd af vmuf av;av;
eufeuf om"kac:ay;Muyg/
om"k . .om"k . .om"kyg bk&m;/