1.

Introduction
Water is essential for socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Properly managed water resources are a critical component of growth, poverty reduction and equity. The livelihoods of the poorest are critically associated with access to water services. With higher rates of urbanization, increasing demand for drinking water will put stress on existing water sources. Feeding a planet of 8 billion by 2030 will require producing more food with less water and through improved water efficiency in agriculture. Energy demand will more than double in poor and emerging economies in the next 25 years and hydropower will need to be a key contributor to clean energy production. Floods and droughts will continue to threaten farmer livelihoods and lowland economies. Besides the needs for these human activities we have to ensure that the environmental water flows required to maintain ecosystems are also maintained.

India is rich in water resources, being endowed with a network of great rivers & vast alluvial basins to hold groundwater. Conditions, however, vary widely from region to region. Whereas there are some chronically drought affected areas, there are others which are frequently subject to damage by floods.On the whole, under the pressure of rapid population growth, the available resources of water are being developed & depleted at a fast rate & the situation seriously underlines the need for taking up integrated plans for water conservation & utilization for every agro-ecological area to meet the increasing demands of irrigation, water harvesting, human & livestock consumption,expanding industry, hydro-electric power generation, recreation,navigation & other uses.

Physical Basis for Water Resources Management

It is important to understand the physical basis of a catchment before looking at water governance and other issues related to water management. Within a catchment, water is found in a series of interconnected “reservoirs”. These reservoirs include surface water (overland flow, stream-flow, lake, and floodplain wetlands), groundwater, and atmospheric water sources. WRMRCDP focuses on two of these reservoirs – surface water and groundwater resources. Surface water and groundwater continually move between reservoirs, and both within and between catchments. Activities undertaken in any individual reservoir can have extensive impacts on other reservoirs within the system, and failing to recognise these impacts in advance can result in unforeseen consequences. Early recognition of the interconnected nature of catchment processes improves the likely success of water development projects, increasing the potential for such projects to become economically and environmentally sustainable. Three interconnected components of the hydrological environment are analysed within this literature review. These three components are: fluvial and groundwater processes (surface and subsurface interactions), longitudinal variations, and catchment processes (including lateral processes and floodplains). Understanding the mechanisms underlying these three components is vital to ensuring the sustainability of Cambodia‟s future water management strategies.

2. water resources are divisible into two distinct categories :
2.1 surface-water resources ground-water resources.

2.2

Each of these categories is a part of the earth's water circulatory system,called the hydrologic cycle, & is ultimately derived from precipitation,which is rainfall plus snow. They are interdependent & frequently the loss of one is the gain of the other. The brief description of the run-off cycle,which is a part of the hydrologic cycle,will help us to understand the origin & the interdependence of these two categories of water resources.

Surface-water resources.
The most reliable method to assess the surface-water resources is through an accurate & continual study of water flows through rivers & streams over a period of years. The run-off records of the various river systems in India are incomplete & therefore, the assessment of the water resources from actual gauged discharge records is not possible for the whole country. However, the rainfall records are available for a long period & attempts have, therefore, been made to roughly assess the water resources on the concept that the natural run-off (assuming that there is neither any upstream development from the surface or ground-water resources nor any increment or decrement in the ground-water storage) is equal to the total volume of precipitation minus the volume of water lost into the atmosphere through evapo-transpiration. Dr A. N. Khosla, an eminent engineer, evolved the following relationships in the run-off as the function of rainfall & temperature, assuming that the temperature is the main determinant of evapo-transpiration : Rm = Pm - Lm....(1) Lm = 0.481 Tm ....(2) in which

Rm=monthly run-off. cm Pm=monthly rainfall,cm Lm=monthly evaporation losses,cm Tm=mean monthly temperature,degree centigrade. On the basis of this relationship, he estimated the mean annual natural run-off (normally referred to as the surface-water resources) of the six water-resources regions of the country as 167.23 mham. The region-wise distribution is given in Table 1.

TABLE 1 Average Total Mean annual Name of CatchmentAverage annual precipitation(mtemperature(degreerunBasin area(m ha) precipitation(cm) ha m) centigrade) off(m ha m) Indus Basin 35.40 56 19.82 12.6 7.94 Ganga Basin 97.60 111 108.34 16.8 48.96 Brahmaputra 50.62 122 61.76 8.2 38.08 Basin West-flowing 49.16 122 59.98 25.5 31.06 Rivers East-flowing 121.03 100 131.92 26.1 41.19 Rivers Loni&Ghaggar 16.80 39 4.87 26.2 .. Basin Total 370.61 549 386.69 .. 167.23 Later, based on the specific analysis of the stream-flow data from 80 sources, carried out by the Central Water & Power Commision, the Irrigation Commission (1972) has worked out the water resources of the country at 178 mham. This figure includes, besides surface run-off, ground-water run-off (effluent discharge) which is contributed by the ground-water storage as the base flow of the rivers(as shown later the present figure of ground water run-off is roughly assessed at about 45 mham) as well as the sub-surface run-off contributed by rainfall & seepage from surface-water resources, but excludes whatever influent recharge(tank storage) that may have taken place from the flood flows. The above estimate represents the average annual river flow. All this flow cannot be utilised owing to the highly variable character of the flow & other limitations imposed by the physiographic factors. The concentration of flow in a four month period necessitates the construction of storage works, if the flood flows passing to the sea are to be utilised. However, suitable sites for the construction of storage dams are limited. The utilisablequantum also depends on the availability of suitable sites for the diversion of water, the quality of water being suitable, the proximity of water to the land fit for

cultivation & the dependability of flow. In India, the irrigation projects are usually designed for 75 percent dependability, so that the designed quantity of water is available for at least 75 percent of the year. In view of the limitations imposed by these considerations, the total utilisable flow has been estimated at 66.6 mham, by the Irrigation Commission(1972).

Region-wise details of the total available & the utilisable surface-water resources are given in Table 2.

TABLE 2 S.NoName of Basin 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Average annual run-off(in mham) Indus Basin 7.70 Ganga Basin 51.00 Brahmaputra Basin 54.00 West-flowing 28.80 rivers East-flowing rivers 34.80 Luni&Ghaggar 1.70 Basin Total 178.00 Utilisable flow 4.93 18.50 1.23 6.92 33.80 1.22 66.60

With further growth of irrigation, it is likely that sub-surface flow contributing to the total annual run-off may appreciably increase, thus augmenting the present availability of surface-water resources.This increase, however, maybe compensated for by the anticipated reduction in the ground-water run-off owing to the continued development of the ground-water resources. It is therefore, visualised that the total surface-water resources may remain, more or less, steady at the same level as at present.

Ground-water resources.The assessment of ground-water resources is much more

difficult, as it involves the evaluation of the various hydrologic components within the framework of a complex geological environment. There are as yet numerous gaps in the available information & the stage has not reached when any precise basin-wise assessment of the resource can be made except in highly generalised terms. An attempt was made by the Central Working Group (constituted for working out the Fourth Five-Year Plan proposals for Minor Irrigation in 1968) to work out the rainfall contribution of ground-water recharge by classifying the geological formations in India

into 7 categories & assuming, on the basis of the best-informed judgement, different percentage factors for the ground-water recharge for these various categories. The categories & the percentage factors assumed are indicated in Table 3.

TABLE 3 S.NumberRock type formation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hard-rock formations & the Deccan traps Consolidated rocks(sandstone) River alluvia Indo-Gangeticalluviam Coastal alluvia Western Rajasthan sand dune Intermontane valleys Assumed percentage rainfall contributing to ground-water recharge 10 5-10 15-20 20 10-15 2 15-20

On the above basis, the average contribution to ground-water recharge in the country as a whole works out at 10 percent of the total rainfall. Since then, some more reliable regional estimates (though still based on short-cut generalised methods) have been made by the state ground-water organisations, & it is felt that the figure of 10 percent contribution, on the average, maybe somewhat conservative. A figure of 12.5 percent is considered to be more realistic. Reckoning that the total annual volume of rainfall is about 400 mham, on the basis of a mean rainfall of 120 cm over the geographical area of 328 mham, the mean rainfall contribution to the ground-water recharge comes to 50 mham. As mentioned before, the under-ground aquifers are supplemented from sources other than rainfall, seepage from canals, water-courses, field channels ,ponds, tanks, return flow from irrigation in the fields& the influent recharge from rivers. As assessed later, the total volume of surface water presently utilised for irrigation is about 23.5 mham. It is visualised that about 35 percent of this total volume diverted for irrigation would pass as deep percolation to ground-water storage. Hence, the addition to the ground-water recharge on this account maybe taken as about 8.2 mham. The total volume of groundwater presently used for irrigation is estimated at about 10.5 mham. Since in the case of ground-water used for irrigation, the loss in the long conveyance systems is not involved & the efficiency of irrigation is somewhat better, it may be more realistic to assume a figure of 25 percent as the deep percolation contributing to ground-water recharge. The addition to ground-water recharge on this account will thus be 2.75 mham. The total contribution to ground-water recharge from these sources may thus be taken as 10.95(say 11) mham.

Assuming that about 4 mham, maybe the influent recharge from the flood flows, the total mean availability of ground-water resources at present maybe reckoned as about 65 mham. It is roughly visualised to be accounted for as below: 1. Withdrawal use: i. Irrigation 10.5 mham ii. Other uses 1.5 mham iii. Total 12.00 mham 2. Loss due to evapo-transpiration from the water table 3. Ground-water rainfall (effluent recharge to rivers & streams) Total 65.00 According to the assessment of the National Commission on Agriculture, the contribution from surface-water resources to the ground-water recharge is likely to increase to about 35 mham on the full development of irrigation-25 mham from seepage from canals, tanks etc. & 10 mham as influent recharge (to be increased as a result of special measures for induced recharge). Adding the contribution of rainfall, the total ultimate ground-water resources may be of the order of 85 mham. Reckoning that about 50 mham will be lost as ground-water run-off &evapo-transpiration, the ultimate usable ground water resources may be assessed at 35 mham. The above assessment does not include the additional supplies that may temporarily be obtained by the mining of water in certain regions.

8.00 mham 45.00 mham

Water resources are utilized mainly for three purposes : 1. Irrigation, 2. Industrial use & 3. Domestic water supply, urban as well as rural Irrigation is by far the major consumer of water resources

3. FACTORS AFFECTING WATER RESOURCES
The water resources of a region,conceived as a dynamic phase of the hydrologic cycle, are influenced by the following three major groups of factors:

3.1 CLIMATIC FACTORS
A. Rainfall : its intensity,duration & distribution. B. Snow C. Evapo-transpiration

3.2 PHYSIOGRAPHIC FACTORS
A. Basic characteristics. 1. Geometric factors: drainage area,shape,slope & stream density. 2. Physical factors: land use, surface infiltration conditions soil types,etc. B. Channel characteristics: carrying capacity & storage capacity.

3.3 GEOLOGICAL FACTORS
A. Lithologicincluding composition, texture, sequenceof rock types & the thickness of rock formations. B. Structural, including chief faults & folds that interrupt the uniformity of occurence of rock types or sequence of rock types also beds, joints, fissures, cracks,etc. C. Hydrologic characteristics of the aquifers permeability, porosity, transmissivity, storability,etc .

.

4. WaterrequirementsofIndia

Traditionally,Indiahasbeenanagriculture-based economy. Hence,development ofirrigationtoincreaseagricultural productionformakingthecountryself-sustained andfor povertyalleviationhasbeenofcrucialimportance forthe planners.Accordingly,theirrigationsectorwasassigned averyhighpriorityinthe5yearplans.Giantschemes like theBhakraNangal,Hirakud, DamodarValley,Nagarjunasagar,Rajasthan Canalproject,etc.weretakenuptoincrease irrigationpotentialand maximizeagriculturalproduction.

4.1 Domesticuse Community watersupplyisthemostimportantrequirement anditisabout5%ofthetotalwateruse.About7 km3of surfacewaterand18km3 ofgroundwaterarebeingused forcommunitywatersupplyinurbanandrural areas.Along withtheincreaseinpopulation,anotherimportant change fromthepointofviewofwatersupply ishigher rate of urbanization.Accordingtotheprojections,thehigheris theeconomicgrowth,thehigherwouldbeurbanization.It isexpectedthatnearly61%ofthepopulation willbeliving inurbanareasbytheyear2050inhigh-growthscenario asagainst48%inlow growthscenario. Differentorganizations andindividualshavegivendif- ferentnorms forwatersupply incitiesandruralareas.The figure adopted bytheNCIWRD9was 220litre percapita per day (lpcd) for classIcities. For the citiesotherthan classI,thenormsare165fortheyear2025and220lpcd for the year2050.Forruralareas,70lpcdand150lpcdhave beenrecommendedfortheyears2025and2050.Based onthesenormsandprojectionofpopulation, itisestimatedthatby2050,waterrequirements peryearfordo- mesticusewillbe90km3 forlowdemandscenarioand 111km3 for highdemand scenario. It isexpected that about70%ofurbanwaterrequirement and30%ofrural waterrequirementwillbemetbysurfacewatersources and theremainingfromgroundwater.

4.2 Irrigation

Theirrigated areainthecountrywasonly22.6million hectare(Mha)in1950– 51.Sincethefoodproductionwas muchbelowtherequirement ofthecountry,dueattention waspaidforexpansion ofirrigation. Theultimateirrigation potentialofIndiahasbeenestimatedas140 Mha.Outof this,76 Mhawouldcomefromsurfacewaterand64Mha fromgroundwater sources.Thequantumofwaterusedfor irrigation bythelastcenturywasoftheorderof300 km3of surfacewaterand128 km3ofgroundwater, total428 km3. Theestimates indicatethatbytheyear2025,thewater requirementforirrigationwouldbe561 km3 forlow-de- mandscenarioand611km3forhigh-demandscenario.These requirementsarelikelytofurtherincreaseto628km3 forlowdemandscenarioand807km3forhigh-demandscenario by2050.

4.3 Hydroelectricpower
ThehydropowerpotentialofIndiahasbeenestimatedat84,044MWat60%loadfactor.Attheti meofindepend- ence,theinstalledcapacityofhydropowerprojectswas508 MW.Bytheendof1998,theinstalledhydropower capacitywasabout22,000MW.Thestatusofhydropower development inmajorbasinsishighlyuneven.According to anestimate,Indiahas plansto develop60,000 MW additionalhydropowerby the twelfthfive-yearplan. It includes 14,393MW during the tenth five-year plan (2002–2007); 20,000MWduring eleventh(2007–2012) and26,000 MWduringthetwelfth(2012–2017)five-year plans.Apotentialoftheorderof10,000 MWisavailable fordevelopment ofsmallhydropowerprojectsintheHi- malayanandsub-Himalayan regionsofthecountry. Therefore, itisnotonlydesirablebutalsoapressing need oftimetodrawamasterplanfordevelopmentofsmall,me- diumand largehydroschemesforpower generation.

4.4 Industrialwaterrequirement
Rough estimates indicatethatthepresent wateruseinthe industrial sectorisoftheorderof15km3.Thewater useby thermalandnuclearpower plants withinstalled capacities of40,000 MWand1500MW(1990figures)respectively, isestimatedtobeabout19 km3.Inviewofshortageof water,theindustriesareexpected toswitch overtowater- efficienttechnologies.Ifthepresentrateofwaterusecon- tinues, thewaterrequirement forindustries in2050would be103 km3;thisislikelytobenearly81km3 ifwater- saving technologiesareadoptedonalargescale.

5. WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
5.1Integratedwaterresources managementinbasins
TheGWPdefinesintegratedwater resourcesmanagementasaprocessthat"promotesthe co-ordinateddevelopmentandmanagementofwater,landandrelatedresources,inorderto maximisetheresultanteconomic andsocial welfareinanequitablemannerwithout compromisingthesustainability ofvitalecosystems"3.Attheriverorlakebasinandaquifer level,IWRMcanbedefinedasaprocessthatenablestheco-ordinatedmanagementofwater, landandrelatedresourceswithinthelimits ofabasinsoastooptimiseandequitablyshare theresulting socioeconomicwell-beingwithoutcompromisingthelong-termhealthofvital ecosystems.

TheIWRMapproachatthenationalleveldoesnotconflictwiththeIWRMapproachatthe basinlevel,infact, theyarecomplementary.AcomprehensivenationalframeworkforIWRM isessentialforbothnationalandtransboundarybasinmanagement.

Withinthelimits ofabasin,itisnotaneasytasktointegratelandusesandwater management.Thisisbecauselandmanagement,whichcoversplanning,forestry,industry, agricultureandtheenvironment,isusuallygovernedbypoliciesnotconnectedtowater policy andismanagedbymanydifferentpartsofanadministration.

Basinmanagementasaniterative process
Policymaking,planningandmanagementmightbeconsideredasaseriesofsequential stepsinbasinmanagement.Thefirststepistodrawupbroadpolicy goals(wherewewantto getto).Thenextstepsaretospecify watermanagementproblemstobesolved(identify

issues),listpotentialstrategies(howwearegoingtogetthere),evaluateeachofthese, selectastrategyor combinationofstrategies,implementthestrategy,evaluatethe outcomes,learnfromtheseoutcomesandreviseour plantomakeitworkbetterinthe future.Thestepsformacycle.Ofcourse,inpracticethiscyclemaybeinterruptedbyexternal forces,butthe'learning-by-doingmanagementcycle'(Box2.A)helpsusincorporatewhat we learnintheprocessofplanningandmanagingwater andtakeinto accountnewinformation asitcomestohand.Thismeanswecanadapthowwemanagewater tochanging circumstances, forexamplepoliticalchanges,naturalcatastrophesandchangesin demography.

Basinmanagersmaywonderwhere tostartwithanintegratedapproach,whototargetand atwhat level. Asimpleandeffectivewaytofindoutwhere totargetactioninitiallyisto identifyentrylevels:

1. Locallevel(sub-basinplan,localaquifermanagementplan,localwater allocationplanin water userdistricts,localgovernmentplan). 2. Implementation level(basinorprovincialscalemanagementplan). 3. Policylevel(nationalandinternationalprocessesfordeveloping water policies, treaties,andlaws).

Example2.2illustrateshowthecurrentMekongRiverbasinstrategytargetsdifferentlevelsto integratewater resourcesmanagementthroughoutthebasin.

Example2.2.MekongRiverbasin:introducingIWRMatlocal,implementation andpolicylevels The frameworkfortheMekongRiverCommissionStrategicPlan2006-2010isintegratedwater resourcesmanagement(IWRM).OneofthekeymanagementprinciplesintheStrategyisto engagewithstakeholdersatlocal,implementationandpolicy levels.

Local level TheMekongRiverCommission(MRC)workswiththeNationalMekongCommitteesinLaoPDR, Thailand,Cambodia andVietNamtofosterparticipation. Itdoesthisbyeducatingandraising awarenessamongstakeholders.TheMRCStakeholderParticipationandCommunication Plan setsoutapproachestoengagewithawiderangeofstakeholdergroupsatlocalandnational levelsIImplementation level Attheprojectlevel,MRCpoliciesallowthosewhowillbeaffectedbyaprojecttoinfluence decisionsonprojectplans,implementationandmonitoring. NTEGRATEDWATERRES

Attheprogrammelevel,planningintheBasinDevelopmentProgrammeisparticipatory.And, tomonitortheoverallworkprogramme,MRCinvitespartners(through aformalMemorandum ofUnderstanding) toparticipateasobserversatits JointCommittee andCouncilmeetings. MRCdevelopmentpartnersarealsoactively engagedinMRCdecisionmakingthrough governancemeetings.

Policylevel ManyactorsintheMekongRegionwishtocontributetoMRCgoalsandbeproactive in policymaking.In2008,theMRCinitiatedaregionalconsultationtocomeupwithgeneral principlesforstakeholderinvolvementattheMRClevelandapolicy onstakeholder involvementinMRCGovernanceBodies.Thiswillbroadenpoliticaldecisionmakingprocesses andownership, strengthenregionalco-ordination betweenstakeholdersandtheMRC,and fosteraccountability.

Moreinformationat:http://www.mrcmekong.org

Itisimportanttorecognise,though,thatentrylevelswilldependonthenatureofthespecific basin(Examples2.3,2.4),particularly: „ whetherthebasiniswithinonecountryorseveralcountries; „ thescaleofplanningandmanagement(transboundary,national,local); „ thestageofdevelopmentofthebasinmanagementorganisation; „ thestageofdevelopmentinthebasin,forexampleasregardstheeconomy, infrastructure; „ themainwater managementchallenges,forexamplepopulationpressure,sanitation, food production, health,floodanddroughtprotection; and „ thesocial,economic,politicalandinstitutional environment.

Example2.3.India:startingintegratedwaterresources managementatthedistrict level InIndia,DistrictCollectorsareCentralIndianGovernmentappointeesinchargeofthe governanceofadistrictinastate.Atthislevel,theremaybeanopportunityforacollectorto prepareadistrictlandandwater managementplanforabasininthedistrict.Thiswillspecify what actionwillbetakenacrossthebasintointegratewater resourcesmanagement.The actionswillharmonisewithstateandnationalwater policies,anoverallbasinmanagement strategy,anddevelopment,povertyreduction,andhealthandirrigationefficiencygoalsat differentlevels.

Wealsoneedtorecognisethat,where theyexist,basinorganisationsareatdifferentstages

ofdevelopment.Theyarealsoconstantlyevolvingasnewlawsarepassedand responsibilitiesandmandateschange.Thishandbookhelpsbasinmanagersunderstand managementframeworks.Basinmanagerscanworkwithintheseframeworks (Box2.B,Figure 1)tore-organiseexistingbasinorganisationsorinitiativestobecomemorefocusedonthe IWRMapproach. AHANDBOOK FORINTEGRATEDWATERRESOURC

Example2.4.YucatanPeninsula,Mexico:integratinggroundwaterresources managementattheregional level TheYucatanPeninsulaismadeupofthreestates,Campeche, QuintanaRooandYucatan.The MexicanNationalWaterLaw2004designatestheNationalWaterCommission(CONAGUA)as thefederalauthorityresponsible forwater resourcesmanagement.TheYucatanPeninsula BasinOrganisationrepresentstheYucatanPeninsulaonCONAGUA.TheBasinCouncil,incoordinationwithstakeholders: „developsaRegionalActionPlanfortheYucatanPeninsulaaquifer; „networkswater informationsystems; „ensuresparticipationofwater users;and „inco-ordination withthelocalauthorities,hascreated42water culturecomplexesin municipalitieswhichencourageefficient useofwater anddiscouragepollution.

Moreinformationat:http://www.conagua.gob.mx

Box2.B.Basinmanagementframework
Policy/National Implementation Operational

Typeofbasin organization Transboundary(e.g.) Commission

National,inter-state basin(e.g. commission,authority, association) Sub-basin managementplanor strategy,largesubwatershedorsubaquiferorlake managementplan

Local(e.g.landand water management group)

Basinmanagement strategiesandplans

Transboundarybasin management agreementorplan; transboundarycompact; national basinmanagement plan

Locallandandwater managementplan, stormwater managementplan, localplanningscheme (administeredby local government)

Levelofdecision- making Highestpolitical decision- Province,state, Villageco-operative, makinglevel, district,territory(or national farm,factory,forest, transboundaryagreement insmall states) localgovernment, s waterusedistrict Naturalresource system(seeFigure1) Partofageographical zone,suchasariver, lakeoraquiferbasin Regionalorlocal ecologicalsystemofa lake,rivervalley within abasin, orsub-aquifer withinanaquifer province Areaswithrelatively uniformecologicaland hydrological conditions

Source:Hooper2005, p.120, adaptedfrom Newson1992

AHANDBOOK FORIEGRATEDWATERRESOURCESMANAGEMENTINBASINS

Figure1.Diagrammaticrepresentation of macro-,meso-andmicro-levelnatural waterresourcesystemsinabasinmanagementframework.Amacro-levelsystemdealswith partofageographicalzone,suchasariver,lakeoraquiferbasin.Ameso-levelsystemdeals witharegionalorlocalecologicalsystemofalake,rivervalleywithinabasin,orsub-aquifer withinanaquiferprovince.Amicrolevelsystemdealswitharelativelyuniformecological andhydrologicalunit.

Source:Hooper2005

Akeyissueishowthebasinadministrationfitswithandrelatestootheradministrative levels– national,provincial,district,community.Thisneedstoberesolvedinordertoavoid duplicationandconfusion ofresponsibilitieswithotheradministrativebodies. Whatisneededisaclearlegalframeworkthatspecifiestherolesandresponsibilities, rights andobligationsofstakeholders,thelevelsofdecentralisation,andtheprocessesand meansforgoodwater governance.Example2.5showshowbasinorganisationsinFrancefit insuchaframework.

5.1 Groundwatermanagement
Toprotecttheaquifersfromoverexploitation, aneffective groundwater management policyorientedtowardspromo- tionofefficiency, equityandsustainability isrequired. Agricultural holdingsinIndiaarehighlyfragmentedand theruralpopulationdensityislarge.Theexploitation of groundwater resourcesshouldberegulatedsoasnotto exceedtherechargingpossibilities, aswellastoensure socialequity.Thedetrimentalenvironmental consequences of overexploitation of groundwater need to be effec- tivelyprevented bytheCentral andStateGovernments. Overexploitation ofgroundwatershouldbeavoided,especiallynearthecoaststopreventingressofseawater into freshwateraquifers.Clearly,ajointmanagement approach combininggovernment administration withactivepeople participationisapromisingsolution .

Incriticallyoverexploited areas,bore-welldrilling should beregulated tillthewatertableattains thedesired elevation.Artificialrechargemeasuresneedtobeurgently implemented intheseareas.Amongstthevariousrecharge techniques17, percolationtanks are least expensive in termsofinitialconstruction costs.Manysuchtanks alreadyexistbutavastmajorityofthesestructures have siltedup.Insuchcases,cleaningofthebedofthetank willmakethemreusable.Promotionofparticipatory action inrehabilitatingtanksforrechargingwouldgoalongway inaugmentinggroundwater supply.Duetodeclining water table,thecostofextractionofgroundwater hasbeenincreasingovertimeandwellsoftengodry.Thisposesserious financial burdenonfarmers. Hence,specialprogrammesneedtobedesigned tosupportthesefarmers. Finally, the roleof governmentwillhaveto switchfromthatof a controllerofgroundwater development tothatofafacili- tatorofequitableandsustainabledevelopment. Shah18 mentionsthatthreelarge-scale responses togroundwater depletion inIndiahaveemergedinrecentyearsinanun- coordinated manner, and each presents an element of whatmightbeitscoherentstrategyofresources govern- anceasfollows:

Energy–irrigation nexus: Throughout South Asia, the„groundwaterboom‟wasfiredduringthe1970sand90sby government supporttotubewellsandsubsidiestoelectricity supplied by state-owned electricity utilities to farmers. Theinvidiousenergy–irrigation nexusthatemergedasare- sultandwreckedtheelectricity utilities andencouraged wasteofgroundwater arewidelycriticized. However, hidden inthisnexusisauniqueopportunityforgroundwatermanag- erstoinfluence theworkingofthecolossalanarchythatis India‟sgroundwatersocio-ecology.Evenwhilesubsidizingelectricity,manystategovernmentshavebegunrestrictingpowersupplytoagriculturetocuttheirlosses. TheInternational WaterManagement InstituteResearch hasshownthatwithintelligentmanagement ofpower supplyto agriculture,energy–irrigationnexuscan be a powerful tool for groundwater demand managementin livelihoodsupportingsocio-ecologiesto create tradable povertyrightsingroundwater.Mexicofinallyhadtoturn toelectricity supplymanagement toenforceitsground- waterconcessions19. Inter-basin transferstorechargeunconfined alluvialaqui- fers:InwesternIndia‟s unconfined alluvialaquifers, itis being increasinglyrealized that groundwater depletion canbecountered onlybyimporting surfacewater,Arizona- style.TheJiangsuprovince ineasternChina hasimplementeditsownlittleinter-basin watertransfer from Yangzeetocountergroundwater depletionintheNorthern part.Similarly,oneofthemajorusesGujarathasfound forwateroftheSardarSarovarProjectonNarmadariveristorecharge the depletedaquifersofNorth Gujaratand Kachchh.A keyconsiderationbehind India‟s proposed mega-scheme tolinkitsnorthernriverswithpeninsular riverstooistocountergroundwater depletioninwestern and southernIndia.

Mass-based rechargemovement:Inmany partsofhard- rock India,groundwaterdepletionhas invokedwildfire community-based massmovementforrainwaterharvestingandrecharge,whichinterestinglyhasfailedtotake offinunconfined alluvialaquifers. Itisdifficulttoassess thesocialvalueofthismovement partlybecause „formal hydrology‟and„popularhydrology‟ havefailedtofinda meetingground.Scientistswant checkdamssited near recharge zones; villagers wantthemclosetotheirwells. Scientistsrecommendrechargetubewellstocounterthe siltlayerimpeding recharge; farmersjustdirectfloodwa- tersintotheirwellsafterfiltering.Scientists worryabout upstream– downstream externalities;farmerssayeveryone lives downstream.Scientistssay the hardrockaquifers have toolittle storage tojustifytheprolific growth inrechargestructures;peoplesayarecharge structure is worthwhileiftheirwellsprovideeven1000 m3 oflife- savingirrigation/ha intimesofdelayedrain.Hydrologists keepwritingtheobituaryoftherechargemovement;but themovement hasspreadfromeasternRajasthantoGujarat, thencetoMadhya Pradesh andAndhraPradesh. Protago- niststhinkthatwithbetter planning ofrecharge structures and largercoverage, decentralized recharge movement canbeamajorresponsetoIndia‟sgroundwater depletion because itcanensurethatwatertablesinpockets ofin- tensiveusereboundclosetopredevelopment levelsatthe endofthemonsoon season everyyeartheyhaveagood monsoon, whichisatleasttwiceinfiveyears.Theysurmise thatthisisnotimpossible because eventoday,India‟sto- talgroundwater extraction isbarely5%ofitsannualpre- cipitation.

Shahmentionsthefollowingworkablesolutionsfor managementofgroundwaterresources: Banning privatewellsisfutile; crowd themoutby improvingpublic watersupply. Regulatingfinalusersisimpossible; facilitatemediat- ing agenciestoemerge,and regulatethem. Pricing agriculturalgroundwateruse isinfeasible;instead, useenergypricingandsupplytomanage agricultural groundwaterdraft. Noalternative toimprovedsupplysidemanagement: betterrain-water capture andrecharge,importedsur- facewaterinlieu ofgroundwaterpumping. Growtheeconomy, takepressureoffland,andfor- malizethewatersector.

5.2 Watershedmanagement
Foranequitableandsustainablemanagement ofshared waterresources, flexible,holisticapproachofIntegrated WaterResourcesManagement (IWRM)isrequired,which cancatertohydrological variations intimeandspaceand changesinsocio-economic needsalongwithsocietalvalues. Watershed istheunitofmanagement inIWRM,where surfacewaterandgroundwater areinextricablylinkedand relatedtolanduseandmanagement. Watershed manage- mentaimstoestablisha workableandefficientframeworkfortheintegrateduse,regulationanddevelopment oflandandwaterresourcesinawatershed forsocio-eco- nomicgrowth.Localcommunitiesplayacentralrolein theplanning,implementationandfundingofactivities within participatory watersheddevelopment programmes.Inthese initiatives,peopleusetheirtraditionalknowledge, availableresources,imagination andcreativity todevelopwa- tershedand implementcommunitycenteredprogramme. Currently,manyprogrammes, campaignsandprojectsare underwayindifferentpartsofIndiatospreadmassawareness andmobilize thegeneralpopulation inmanagingwater resources.Someofthesearebeingimplemented bythe Central/StateGovernments, whileothershavebeentaken upbyvariousNon-Governmental Organizations(NGOs). Forexample,Hariyali(meaning„greenery‟)isa watershedmanagement project,launchedbytheCentralGov- ernment, whichaimsatenabling theruralpopulation to conserve waterfordrinking,irrigation, fisheriesandafforestationaswellasgenerateemployment opportunities. Theproject isbeingexecuted bytheGramPanchayats(villagegoverningbodies)withpeople‟sparticipation; the technical supportisprovided bytheblock(sub-district) administration. Anothergoodexampleofwaterconserva- tioneffortsisthe„Neeru-Meeru‟ (WaterandYou)programmelaunchedin May 2000 by the Governmentof AndhraPradesh.Duringthelastthreeyears,anadditionalstoragespaceofmorethan18,000 lakhm3 hasbeencre-atedbyconstructingvariouswater-harvesting structures suchaspercolation tanks,dugoutponds,checkdams,etc. throughpeoples‟participation. TarunBharatSangh(Young IndiaAssociation) orTBSisanNGOwhichpromotes sustainablewatermanagement throughrainwaterharvestinginRajasthan.Since1986,TBShashelpedinbuilding orrestoringnearly10,000waterharvesting structuresin AlwarandneighbouringdistrictsintheAravallihillsof northeastern Rajasthan.Thecentralmessage ofTBSisthat goodwatermanagement requiresgoodlandmanagement. Emphasisisalsoputonprotectingforests.Theeffortsof villagers arevisible intheformofrising water tableand regenerated forestsontherockyslopesofAravallihills. Despitesomeoftheabovesuccessstories,sofarthereis noappreciableimprovement onwatershedresourcesutili- zationatnationallevel.Undoubtedly, coordinated water- shed developmentprogrammesneed to be encouraged andawarenessaboutbenefitsoftheseprogrammesmust be createdamong the people.

5.3 Rainwaterharvesting
Rainwater harvesting istheprocess tocapture andstore rainfallforitsefficientutilization andconservation to controlitsrunoff,evaporation andseepage.Someofthe benefitsofrainwaterharvestingare: Itincreaseswateravailability Itchecks thedecliningwatertable Itisenvironmentallyfriendly Itimprovesthequalityofgroundwaterthroughdilu- tion,mainlyoffluoride,nitrate,and salinity,and Itpreventssoilerosionandflooding,especiallyinthe urban areas. Eveninancientdays,peoplewerefamiliar withthemethods ofconservation ofrainwaterandhadpractisedthemwith success. Differentmethods ofrainwaterharvesting were developedtosuitthegeographical andmeteorological conditions oftheregioninvarious partsofthecountry. Traditionalrainwaterharvesting,whichisstillprevalent inrural areas,isdone byusingsurface storage bodieslike lakes,ponds, irrigation tanks,temple tanks,etc.Forexample,Kul(diversion channels)irrigationsystem which carrieswaterfromglaciers tovillages ispractisedinthe SpitiareaofHimachal Pradesh.Inthearidregions ofRa- jasthan, rainwaterharvesting structureslocallyknownas Kund(acoveredundergroundtank),areconstructed near thehouseoravillagetotackledrinkingwaterproblem. InMeghalaya, Bamboo RainwaterHarvestingfortapping ofstreamandspringwaterthrough bamboo pipestoirrigate plantations iswidely prevalent. The systemis so per- fected thatabout18–20litresofwater entering thebam- boopipesystemperminuteistransported overseveral hundredmeters. Thereisaneedtorechargeaquifersandconserverainwater through waterharvesting structures. Inurbanareas,rain- waterwillhavetobeharvested usingrooftopsandopen spaces.Harvesting rainwaternotonlyreducesthepossibility offlooding,butalsodecreasesthecommunity‟s dependence ongroundwaterfordomesticuses.Apartfrombridging thedemand– supplygap,rechargingimprovesthequality ofgroundwater, raisesthewatertableinwells/borewells andprevents flooding andchoking ofdrains.Onecanalso saveenergyto pumpgroundwateras watertable rises. Thesedaysrainwaterharvestingisbeingtakenupona massive scaleinmanystatesinIndia.Substantial benefits ofrainwaterharvesting existinurbanareasaswaterde- mandhas alreadyoutstrippedsupply inmostofthecities.

5.4 Floodmanagement
Amongallnaturaldisasters,floodsarethemostfrequent tobefacedinIndia.Floods intheeastern partofIndia,viz. Orissa,WestBengal, Biharand Andhra Pradeshin therecentpast,arestrikingexamples. According totheinforma- tionpublished bydifferentgovernment agencies, the tangible andintangible lossesduetofloodsinIndiaare increasing atalarmingrate.AsreportedbytheCentral Water Commission (CWC)undertheMinistryofWaterResources, Government ofIndia,theannualaverageareaaffectedby floods is7.563 Mha. This observationis based on the datafortheperiod1953–2000publishedinIWRS,with variabilityrangingfrom1.26Mhain1965to1.75Mhain1978.Onanaverage floodshaveaffected about33million personsduring1953to2000.Thereiseverypossibility thatthisfiguremayincreaseduetorapidgrowthofpopula- tionandincreasedencroachments ofthefloodplainsfor habitation,cultivationandotheractivities. ThemaincausesoffloodsinIndiaareinadequate capac- ity withinriver bankstocontain high flows,river bank erosionandsiltingofriverbeds.Theadditional factorsare aslandslidesleadingtoobstructionofflowandchange oftherivercourse,retardation offlowduetotidaland backwater effects,poornaturaldrainageintheflood-prone area,cyclone andassociated heavyrainstormsorcloud bursts,snowmeltandglacialoutburstsanddambreakflows. Afterthedisastrousfloodsof1954anationalprogrammeoffloodmanagementwaslaunched.TheG overnment of Indiahastakenanumberofstepsforfloodmanagement. AsstatedbyMohapatra andSingh13,someoftheimportant policiesonfloodmanagement include:policystatement (1954),highlevelcommittee onflood(1957),policystate- ment(1958),ministerial committee onfloodcontrol(1964), ministerscommittee onfloodandfloodrelief(1972);workinggroupsonfloodcontrolforfive-year plans;RashtriyaBarhAyog14,National WaterPolicy(1987),National Commission forIntegrated WaterResourceDevelopment (1996),Regional Task Force (1996),andNational Water Policy1.Thecommitteesandcommissionsconstitutedby the governmenthave given valuable recommendationson differentissuesofflood management.Various typesofstruc- turalandnonstructural measureshavebeentakenuptore- ducethedamages inthefloodplains.Thestructuralmea- sures,suchastheconstruction ofembankments, levees, spurs,etc.havebeenimplementedinsomeofthestates.The totallengthofconstructed embankmentsis16,800km and drainagechannelsareof32,500km.Atotalof1040towns and4760villages arecurrentlyprotected against flood. Barringoccasionalbreachesin embankments,thesehavepro- videdreasonableprotection toanareaofabout15.07Mha. Alargenumberofreservoirs havebeenconstructedand thesereservoirshaveresulted inreduction ofintensityof floods.

5.5 Droughtmanagement
Thedrought-prone areaassessedinthecountryisofthe orderof51.12 Mha.Theplanningandmanagement ofthe effectsofdrought appeartohavealowpriority duetoas- sociatedrandomness anduncertaintyindefiningthestart andendofdroughts.Further,mostofthedroughtplan- ningandmanagement schemesaregenerallylaunchedaf- terpersistingdroughtconditions.Thetraditionalsystem ofdroughtmonitoringandestimating lossesbycropcutting needs replacementwith real time remotesensing,GIS, GPSandmodellingtechniques forensuring transparency andquickresponse. Scopeoflossesmaybe extended to groundwater depletion, damagetoperennialtrees,planta- tions, orchardsand depletion in fertility of livestock. Food,fodder,agricultural inputsandwaterbanksmaybe established invulnerable areasinsteadoftheirstorage in surplusregionstoavoidtransportbottlenecksduringthe drought.Robustandrainfallindependent off-farmlivelihoodopportunitiesmaybetargetedinthedroughtmitigation strategy.Conjunctive useofsurfaceandgroundwater, aquiferrechargeand watershedmanagementwithcommunityparticipation isanotherimportant policyparadigm shifttobeinternalizedfully. Afternormalrainfallresumes thereisarapiddecrease of government andpublicinterestindroughtplanningschemes. Mostofthetimetheexecutionofthedroughtmanagementschemeisbasedontheadministrative units,while planning ofwaterresourcesisbased onbasinscale. Therefore,anintegratedbasindevelopment approach is requiredtobedevelopedandimplemented forpreparing thedroughtmanagement planbefore,duringandafterthe occurrenceofthedrought.Inthisregard,thereisaneed for the development of the decision support systems (DSS)forthemonitoringandmanagement ofthedrought onbasinscaleutilizingtheadvancedcapabilities ofremote sensing,geographical informationsystemandknowledge- basedsystems.TheDSSshouldalsoprovidesupportto thedecisionmakersforproviding theinformation atdif- ferent spatial andtemporal scales. Itwould helpthemin takingtherequiredmanagement measuresinthedroughtproneareasfordifferentadministrative units.Inthe drought-prone areas,publicationcampaignmaybelaunched for waterconservationwith the help of electronic and printmedia.Necessary stepsmaybetakenatpolitical, administrative andtechnicallevelstoencouragepeople participation inthedroughtmanagement foroptimum utilization oftheavailablewatersupplytomeetthede- mands.Strengthening ofR&Dandcapacitybuildingin termsofemerginginformationtechnologies andissuesof damagesisalsocalledupontobringinresilience inthe droughtcoping strategies.

5.6 Waterconservation
Waterconservation impliesimproving theavailabilityof waterthroughaugmentationbymeansofstorageofwater insurfacereservoirs, tanks,soilandgroundwater zone.It emphasizes theneedtomodifythespaceandtimeavailabilityofwatertomeetthedemands. Thisconceptalso highlights theneedforjudicioususeofwater.Thereisa greatpotentialforbetterconservation andmanagement of waterresources initsvarious uses.Onthedemandside,a varietyofeconomic,administrative andcommunity-based measurescanhelpconservewater.Also,itisnecessary to controlthegrowthofpopulation sincelargepopulation is puttingmassivestressonallnaturalresources.Sinceagriculture accounts forabout69%ofallwater withdrawn,thegreatestpotentialforconservation liesin increasingirrigationefficiencies.Justa10%improvement inirrigationefficiency couldconserveenough waterto double theamountavailablefordrinking. InIndia,sprinklerirrigationis being adopted in Haryana,Rajasthan, UttarPradesh,Karnataka,GujaratandMaharashtra. The useofsprinklerirrigationsavesabout56%ofwaterfor thewinter cropsofbajraandjowar, whileforcotton,the savingisabout30%ascomparedtothetraditionalgravityirrigation.Animportantsupplementtoconservation is tominimize thewastageofwater.Inurbanwatersupply, forexample, almost 30%ofthewateriswasted dueto leakages,carelessness, etc.whilemostmetrocitiesface deficitinsupplyofwater.Itis,therefore,imperative to preventwastage.Inindustriesalso,thereisascopefor economy intheuseofwater. Prices ofwaterforalluses should befixed,keepinginminditseconomic value,controlofwastage,andtheabilityofuserstopay.Aswater isbecoming scarcer, pricing willbeanimportant factorin avoidingwastageand ensuringoptimaluse.

5.7 Eco-hydrologicalapproachtowaterresources management
Theeco-hydrological approachtowaterresourcesman- agementconsiders thewaterflowdomain andwateruse domainforcategorizing thewaterasgreenandblues.The green water concept refers tothewater usedingrowthof economic biomass,i.e.rainfed food,timber, fuel-wood, pastures,etc.aswellastheecosystemsbiomassgrowth, i.e.plantsandtreesinwetlands,grasslands, forests,etc. Thebluewaterconcept referstoeconomic useofwaterin society, i.e.irrigation, industryanddomesticusesaswell water flowrequired for ecosystem functions such as aquaticfreshwater habitatsetc.Greenandbluewaterappro- aches indicatethatthereisplenty ofwateraround andthe conventionalblue watercrisis is misleading. However, almostallwaterisinvolvedinsecuring ecosystem service whichsupports humanlivelihoods andprovides usresil- ience tocope with shocks. Thewater crisisistherefore differentin characternot primarilyaboutdirecthuman use,

but just balancingwaterbetweenhumansand nature.

5.8 Demandmanagementforurbanareasandindustries
Demand managementfor urban areas and industries is another strategy whichcouldbeadopted toreducedemands inurbanwatersupplyorhouseholds andindustries.How- ever,beforetakingsuchmeasures itisnecessary tostudythe actualsavingsthemeasures willresultinbasedonpractical data.Suchinformationwillhelpinplanningcurtailment ofhousehold demand duringdrought periods. Similarly, another strategyistogofordemandreduction approaches intheindustry duringperiodsofscarcity. Apart fromen- suringleakagecontrol,watertechnology toensureefficient useofcooling andprocess waterandnecessary pollution controlmechanisms. Asoundwaterbudgeting inindustry canreducethewaterdemandtoaconsiderable extent.The waterconservationandreusestrategies should beplanned atthetimeofsettingupofanewindustrytobuildinthe conservation andreuserequirements fromthebeginning. Studiesarerequiredtodevelopproduction functionsrelatingindustrialpoliciesto (i) (ii) (iii) availabilityofresourceinputs likewater,energy,etc. technology ofproduction, wastewaterdischargeconstraint, etc.fordevisingmeas- ures ofreducingwaterdemandsintheindustry

(1) Water-Resources Management and Effective Use

Managing Water Resources

Planing and Running general water resources policy which is base on the information of water supply and demand from the point of view of the whole Syria areas should be expected. However, no system of the basic statistics of the water resources endowment and consumption has been established. Consequently, we will cooperate to make a system of collecting and maintaining information which is based on general water resources management.

Water Resources Information Center in Ministry of Irrigation
 

Professionals: between June, 2002 and June, 2005, by the method of partly consignment of business activities. Grant Aid: providing observation equipment for water resources, E/N sum total of 850 million yen. Planing of education by using Japan Overseas Cooperation Agency's assignment of international students of Ministry of Education and the assignment of the long term education. Supplying Safe Water We have supplied safe water stably by upgrading pipe lines and providing new pumps for depression of water in relation to water leakage with depression of pip lines and new housing land development in the capital area of Damascus, that is, Damascus city and the suburb. In addition, we will support new origins of water and rehabilitation of the existing water supply facilities to manage depression of water in summer particularly. Plan of maintaining water supply pipes in Damascus city by Grant Aid of 1.49 billion yen for three years. Experts of water leakage, Senior Volunteers dispatched. Plan of water supply development in the Damascus suburb by Grant Aid of 2.39 billion yen within the first term and the second. Using Water Resources Effectively in Agriculture Agriculture consumes more than 80 percentage of water supply. How to use them effectively is the big problem of the water resources and agriculture. Consequently, we will support to upgrade and spread techniques of saving water and irrigation. In addition, we will support to agricultural experiments and research with the cooperation of ICARDA to develop techniques and seeds suitable for the natural conditions in each area. Spreading saving water and irrigation by professionals.

 

The term: from October, 2004 for three years. Planting in the pilot areas, Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers of rural development. Education in the third countries about water resources management. Education in the third countries for the Middle East countries by ICARDA Education for Afghan

(2) Economic and Social System Modernization

Modernizing aAgricultural Technology ModernizingAgriculturalTechnologyIncluding developing livestock system, shortage of animal doctors who can handle livestock disease in a right way in the fields causes low productivity. Consequently, we will try to upgrade the education in the faculty of veterinary science, and upgrade the practical technique and faculty of the animal doctors including those who graduated from the universities. Moreover, we will try upgrade the animal health environment for protection by livestock technique. Plan of upgrading clinical diagnosis for livestock by professionals
 

between January, 2004 and December, 2005 in the faculty of veterinary science,Bath University. Veterinary science by Senior Volunteers for two years since October, 2002 in Dairy Corporation. Modernizing Seeds Production Increasing food and upgrading agricultural productivity give us an important problem. This means that suppliers need to provide the good quality of seeds stably. We have provided equipment fro stable production of seeds of wheat and potato so far. We will provide technical cooperation continuously to stabilize the above equipment. Supplying the fine quality of seeds stably with Grant Aid by the experts and seniorvolunteers in eeedsincrease corporation

 

Plan of upgrading productivity of seeds with Grant Aid in 2001, 2002, E/N, totally 900 million yen Experts of potato tissue culture dispatched between May, 2002 and May, 2005. In addition, Senior Volunteers planned in the fields of maintenance, breeding, etc.

Modernizing Industry Solving unemployment and supplying job opportunities are expected in the field of industry. Including modernizing the national divisions, private companies need development. For the above targets, we will provide support of modernizing textile division which is a priority and cooperation which Japan Overseas Cooperation Agency has done with, such as product management, quality control, export know-how, etc for factories of small enterprises. Plan of building up the textile schools with Grant Aid by senior volunteers
 

Plan of providing equipment for Damascus Textile Industry Schools with Grant Aid of 380 million yen. In the fields of spinning, dyeing, clothing design, Senior Volunteers dispatched. Support for small enterprises, such as Damascus Industrial Chamber of Commerce, Aleppo Industrial Chamber of Commerce

Damascus Industrial Chamber of Commerce: in the fields of upgrading the quality of paper products and upgrading the organization of the Chamber of Commerce Senior Volunteers dispatched. Aleppo Industrial Chamber of Commerce: in the field of textile products marketing, etc. , senior volunteers dispatched. Maintaining Socio-Economic Foundation Modernizing industries and maintaining the socio-economic foundation suitable for free markets should be expected quickly. Consequently, we will promote maintaining mainly the enormously undeveloped fields, such as logistics, urban functions, Information Computer Technology, including urban development to solve the depression of the urban functions which is derived from permanent traffic jam, maintaining the infrastructure such as power plan, power experts education to improve the electricity gap between supply and demand. Modernizing logistics in Ministry of Transportation Experts with development investigation propose how to upgrade logistics. Investigating whole urban plan in the capital city, Damascus by Experts with Development Investigation.Making the master plan for using land and maintaining all facilities to maintain the functional city preparing for the future. Stable Supply of Power in Power Distribution Corporation Experts: advising the power policy, estimating the plan for new power plants

Education for the maintenance personnel of thermal power plants in Jandaar Power tTechnology Education Center by Senior Volunteers.

Promoting Information Communication Technology

Network Engineers (Senior Volunteers) will be dispatched to the ministries to support the construction of LAN; Computer engineers (Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers will be dispatched to support home pages design. We have made networks and grown up administrators by the opportunities of education by country individually and local education so far. Promoting Tourism The sector of tourism has 7 % of General Development Production, 3 % of employment, foreign money income of a billion dollars in a year. Syria has the large quantity of historical and cultural heritages, but loss of infrastructure for tourism and invitation for international tourists. Consequently, to obtain foreign money instead of petroleum and affect employment, we will provide technical cooperation in the field of tourism. Tourism Experts of touristic promotion in Ministry of Tourism

  

museum engineer (Senior Volunteers) in Ministry of Culture, Museum of Aleppo. fix of documents by Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers in Ministry of Culture, Documentation Center. Managing museum by education by area individually.

9.Conjunctiveuseofsurfaceandgroundwater

LargecanalinfrastructurenetworkforprovidingirrigationhasbeentheprimegoaloftheGovernment ofIndia, sincethefirstfive-year plan,whichcontinueduptoseventh five-year plan.Insomeoftheirrigation projectcommands suchasSardaSahayakinUP,GandakinBihar,Chambal inRajasthan,NagarjunaSagarinAndhraPradesh,Ghata-prabhaand Malaprabhain Karnatakaetc., problemsof waterlogging arebeingfaced.Themainreasonforexcessiveuseofsurfacewaterascomparedtogroundwateris itsmuchlowerpriceforirrigationascompared tothecost incurredinusinggroundwater. Waterlogging problems couldbeovercomeifconjunctive useofsurfaceand groundwater ismade.Groundwater utilizationforirrigation inwaterlogged areascanhelptolowerthegroundwater tableandreclaimtheaffectedsoil.Overexploitation of groundwater inareaslikeMehsana, inGujarat;partsof MeeurtandVaranasi districtsinUttarPradesh, Coimba- toreinTamilNaduandKarnaldistrictinHaryanaetc. haveresultedinminingofgroundwater20. Manyresearch workershavefocusedthecausesofwaterlogging21. Sev- eralgroundwater flowmodelling studieshavefocusedon assessing thewaterlogged areasandmeasures tocontrol

problemsofwaterloggingandsalinization.

Itisdesir- ablethattheirrigationneedsforfulfilling cropwaterre- quirementsshouldbesatisfied byjudicious utilizationof availablecanalwaterinconjunctionwithgroundwaterso astokeepthewatertablewithintheacceptablerange. Thus,theoptimalconjunctive useoftheregion‟ssurface andgroundwater resourceswouldhelpinminimizingthe problemsofwaterloggingand groundwatermining.

10.Applicationsofdecisionsupportsysteminwater resources

Recently,newadvances incomputertechnology haveen- abledwidespread improvement inwaterresourcesplan- ningandmanagement.Oneofthenewtrendsinsolutionof watermanagement problemshasbeentoaggregateseveral modelsintointegrated software,i.e.aknowledgebased Decision SupportSystem(DSS)thatfocusesontheinterac- tion between theuseandthedata,modelsandcomputers. Rapidlyadvancingcomputational ability,developmentof user-friendly softwareandoperatingsystems,andincreased accesstoandfamiliarity withcomputers amongdecision makers aretheimportant reasons forthisgrowth inthe fields ofboth researchandpractice.Automatingtheprocess withaDSScouldeffectively improve thewaterresources planningand management. Theaimhasbeentocreateasystem inwhichthemechanicsoflinkingonecomponentwithanotherarelargely transparent totheuser.Althoughtimeandeffortisre- quiredincustomizing thesystemforaparticular riverbasin,itsusehasbeendesigned tobeassimpleaspossible. Communicationisbymeansofauserfriendlyinterface,whichmakes extensive useofhypertext forguidance and colourgraphicsinpresentingtheresults.Akeyboardis notnormallyrequiredsinceallthefacilitiesareaccessed bytouching theappropriateiconrepresentingtheparticu- larcomponent. Moreover, thecontrols for operating a model willbefamiliar inasmuchthattheiconsmimica video-recorder, viz.play,pauseandstop.Inthisway,the personresponsible fortheactualprojectisabletomake rationaluseofthesystemwithoutanin-depthknowledgeof modellingtechniques.Under the Ministry of Water Re- sources,Government ofIndia,aWorldBankfundedHy- drologyProject Phase-II is likely to commence soon. InthisprojectthedevelopmentandapplicationsofDSS forwaterresources planningisoneofthemajorcompo- nents.

11.Peopleparticipationandcapacitybuilding

Formaking thepeopleofvarioussections ofthesociety awareaboutthedifferentissuesofwaterresourcesman-agement,aparticipatory approachmaybeadopted.Mass communication programmes maybelaunchedusingthe moderncommunication meansforeducatingthepeople aboutwaterconservationandefficientutilizationofwa- ter.Capacitybuildingshould beperceived astheprocess wherebyacommunityequipsitselftobecomeanactive andwell-informed partnerindecisionmaking.Theproc- essofcapacity building mustbeaimed atbothincreasing access towaterresources andchanging thepowerrelationshipsbetweenthestakeholders.Capacitybuildingis notonlylimitedtoofficials andtechnicians butmustalso includethegeneralawareness ofthelocalpopulation regardingtheirresponsibilitiesinsustainablemanagement ofthewaterresources. Policydecisionsinanywaterre- sourcesprojectshouldbedirected toimprove knowledge, attitudeandpracticesaboutthelinkagesbetweenhealth andhygiene,providehigherwatersupplyservicelevels andtoimproveenvironment throughsafedisposalofhu- manwaste.Sustainablemanagement ofwaterrequires decentralized decisionsbygivingauthority,responsibility andfinancialsupporttocommunities tomanagetheir naturalresourcesand therebyprotecttheenvironment.

Refrencess: Seckler, D. 1996. The new era of water resources management. Research Report 1. Colombo,Sri Lanka: Internastional Irrigation Management Institute (IIMI).  http://www.jica.go.jp/syria/english/activities/02.html  www.inbo-news.org | www.gwpforum.org  waterresources.rajasthan.gov.in  wrmin.nic.in/(ministry of water resources)  www.asce.org/ (american society of civil engineers)  www.spriger.com

ESMANAGEMENTINBASINS

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