WTP is an extraordinary, innovative project that would enable India to deal with the world on even grounds. It would also allow International Buyers and Investors to reach Rajasthan and come in close contact with each other. WTP would provide International Business facilities under one roof, thus, making it a focal point of world trade in South Asia and making Jaipur, the International Trade Capital of the Country. WTP would be open to all, irrespective of the industry they belong to.  Gems and Jewellery  Handicrafts and Textiles  Banking and Insurance sectors  Men/Women apparel  Kids zone  Bridal wear  BPO sectors  Consultancy, etc The World Trade Park, announced by R.F. Properties, will be built in the heart of the city. The foundation stone for the World Trade Park, a business- cum-shopping centre was laid in 2005. It will have offices, a convention centre, retail outlets, exhibition halls, a five-star hotel, a multiplex, trade lobbies, an art gallery and a "computer-controlled" parking for 1,100 vehicles, park will be built on a 20,000 sq yard site which would be built on over 700,000 square feet of area.

This building would have lots of attractive facilities:  Buyer's embassy of 1.50 lacs sqft of exhibition hall.  1500 persons Auditorium and Convention Center.  Electronic Trading Facilities of Stocks and Export Enquiries.  Corporate office, rather serviced offices.  Five Star Luxury Facility Hotel.  Retail Showrooms of International and National Brands.  Food Court with cuisines from 15 countries.  Physical Fitness and Health Club.  Club Lounge & 2 Screen multiplex.  Trade Lobbies & Art Gallery and Museum.  1100 Computerized Car Parking System  Associate WTP trade offices in London, Paris, New York, Italy and Germany, shortly.  Computer Controlled Building Management System (BMS).  Building Support System (BSS).  World Trade Park will be an eco-friendly building with water conservation techniques, energy conservation techniques and automatic sensors for power saving, centrally air-conditioned, Wireless LAN and IT friendly environment.

Architectural Brilliance:  It will have 32 escalators and 28 high speed lifts.  Separate freight and service elevators.  1000 ft long metal arm structure with brushed stainless steel conceived as roots of trade tower.  Underwater Restaurant.  Club Cars for pickup.  Travellators.  A floating executive lounge and business center.  Two large lobbies of 10,000 sqft.  400 sqft of occupants would enjoy facilities of more than 4000 sqft of business facility. Quotes from famous souls: Anoop Bartaria, chairman of the WTP “World Trade Park is destined to be the icon of the Indian Real Estate. Apart from being the most Advanced Building it will be the platform for the people to grow leaps and bound in their businesses. I and my team will leave no stones unturned to fulfill the aspirations and set standards for the world to follow.” Shahrukh Khan, Cine star “World trade park would be an ideal destination for international events and I wish to come here again and again.

When a building experiences earthquake vibrations its foundation will move back and forth with the ground. These vibrations can be quite intense, creating stresses and deformation throughout the structure making the upper edges of the building swing from a few mm to many inches dependent on their height size and mass. This is uniformly applicable for buildings of all heights, whether single storeyed or multistoreyed in high-risk earthquake zones. A building needs to be slightly flexible and also have components, which can withstand or counter the stresses caused in various parts of the building due to horizontal movements caused by earthquakes. Thus the structure in which such marked changes in dimensions takes place abruptly shall be provided with expansion on joints at the section where such changes occurs. Expansion joints shall be so provided that necessary Movement occurs with a minimum resistance at the joints.

The details as to the length of structure where expansion joints have to be provided can be determined after taking into consideration various factors, such as temperature, exposure to weather, the time and the season of the laying of concrete etc. Normally structures exceeding 45m in length are designed with one or more expansion joints, however in view of large number of factors involved in deciding the locations, spacing and nature of expansion joints, the provision of expansion joints in reinforced cement concrete structures should be left to the discretion of

designer. Bureau Of Indian Standards clearly gives in its code IS 4326 that a Separation Section is to be provided between buildings. Separation Section is defined as `A gap of specified width between adjacent buildings or parts of the same building, either left uncovered or covered suitably to permit movement in order to avoid hammering due to earthquake `. Further it states that ` For buildings of height greater than 40 meters, it will be desirable to carry out model or dynamic analysis of the structures in order to compute the drift at each storey, and the gap width between the adjoining structures shall not be less than the sum of their dynamic deflections at any level.` Thus it is advised to provide adequate gap between two buildings greater than the sum of the expected bending of both the buildings at their top, so that they have enough space to vibrate. In the case of high-rise multi storeyed residential and commercial complexes expansion joints are provided when the length of the building exceeds a length specified by code. This expansion joint is provided for relieving stresses caused due to expansion or contraction of construction material owing to temperature changes. At this point the buildings are totally separated and a gap of 1 to 2" is provided which is filled with a flexible material. However this is causing a major problem i.e. the deflection of these independent buildings during earthquake is much more in high rise buildings than the expansion joint and since at this point these buildings are separate and of varying size they would swing and hammer with each other and weaken the buildings. Structural components around the expansion joint would be severely damaged and there shall be a chain reaction of forces in the total structure for which the structure has not been designed.


Landscaping is both science and art, and requires good observation and design skills. A good landscaper understands the elements of nature and construction, and blends them accordingly. A sustainable landscape is designed to be both attractive and in balance with the local climate and environment and it should require minimal resource inputs. Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor and public spaces to achieve environmental, socio-behavioral, and/or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and geological conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions . Landscape engineering or landscaping is the application of mathematics and science to shape land and waterscapes. It can also be described as green engineering, but the design professionals best known for landscape engineering are landscape architects. Landscape engineering builds on the engineering strengths of declaring goals, determining initial conditions, iteratively designing, predicting performance based on knowledge of the design, monitoring performance, and adjusting designs to meet the declared goals. It builds on the strengths and history of reclamation practice Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including: 1. gardening, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beautiful environment within the landscape. 2. natural elements such as landforms, terrain shape and elevation, or bodies of water;

3. human elements such as structures, buildings, fences or other material objects created and/or installed by humans


Landscape Contractors use various tools and machinery to construct a garden, including large equipment. Landscape Contracting is: a profession that involves the art and technology of landscape and garden project planning, construction . Landscape contractors work in collaboration with clients, landscape designers, landscape architects, Garden designers, architects, general contractors, artisans, specialty construction trades, plant nursery growers, and municipal building inspectors, and trade supply stores and manufacturer. Contractor at world trade park : raghuveer singh

Factors in designing include objective qualities; such as the climate and microclimates; topography and orientation, site drainage and groundwater recharge; municipal and resource building codes, soils and irrigation, human and vehicular access and circulation, recreational amenities (ie: sports and water), furnishings and lighting, native plant habitat botany when present, property safety and security, construction detailing, and other measurable considerations

LANDSCAPING AT WORLD TRADE PARK: World trade park is a good example of landscaping . Landscaping is being done at in the rear and back side of world trade park .This landscaping includes construction of guard room for parking ticket facility in basement, fountain ,outside parking, gardening etc.

Chamber at rear side

Ticket checking counter for basement parking

CONSTRUCTION OF LANDSCAPING : Construction of landscaping includes following steps : EXCAVATION OF SAND : Excavation of sand is being according to given layout by architect of landscaping structure.If the sand is more compacted or not easy in excavation it should be made wet by using water for atleast 3 to 4 hours .The excavation of sand should be more wide than the given layout for soling and plain cement concrete . SOLING : Soling is generally used for providing a firm base to plain cement concrete . It is essential component of foundation .Soling is made by using stones in which small stones are inserted to provide key joints. In soling generally we use stones of height 9 inches . PLAIN CEMENT CONCRETE : Concrete is a composite construction material composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of gravels or crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water, and chemical admixtures. Plain cement concrete is laid down on soling which is used to tie all stones used in soling and for providing a plain surface .Plain cement concrete is made by cement , sand and concrete ( 1 part cement ,3 part sand ,6coarse aggregate ).Plain cement concrete generally have strength of M10 or M15 BRICK WORK : Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar to build up brick structures such as walls. Solid brickwork is made of two or more layers of bricks with the units running horizontally (called stretcher bricks) bound together with bricks

running transverse to the wall (called "header" bricks). Each row of bricks is known as a course. The pattern of headers and stretchers employed gives rise to different bonds such as the common bond (with every sixth course composed of headers), the English bond, and the Flemish bond (with alternating stretcher and header bricks present on every course). Brick masonary is made on plain cement concrete according to given design ,shape and layout . It may be half brick or full brick wall accroding to requirement of object being made by brick masonary . In brick masonary as a binder we use mortar . Mortar is a mixture of sand and Portland cement, mixed with water to a workable consistency. It is applied with a bricklayer's trowel, and sets solid in a few hours. There are many different mixes and admixtures used to make mortars with different performance . Mortar is made by cement and sand in the ratio 1 part cemet , 6 part sand which is used in thickness of 2 cm .

PLASTER: Plaster is a building material similar to mortar or cement. Like those materials, plaster starts as a dry powder that is mixed with water to form a paste which liberates heat and then hardens. Unlike mortar and cement, plaster remains quite soft after setting, and can be easily manipulated with metal tools or even sandpaper. These characteristics make plaster suitable for a finishing, rather than a load-bearing material. On the brick masonary wall plaster is made of mortor ( 1 part cement , 4 part sand )for half brick wall and of mortor (1 part cement ,6 part sand ) for 1 brick wall . WATER PROOFING: Water proofing is made for those landscaping objects in which water is used like fountain etc. Water poofing is made by spray of crystallization product called protekta base with low pressure pump followed by water curing for 2 to 3 times at interval of 2 hrs CURING : Curing should be done after massonary construction and after plaster for atleast 7 days this increase the strength of structure. TOOLS USED :

MATERIAL USED FOR CONSTRUCTION OF LANDSCAPING : WATER : Combining water with a cementitious material forms a cement paste by the process of hydration. The cement paste glues the aggregate together, fills voids within it, and allows it to flow more freely. Less water in the cement paste will yield a stronger, more durable concrete; more water will give an freer-flowing concrete with a higher slump. Impure water used to make concrete can cause problems when setting or in causing premature failure of the structure. SAND: Generally sand used for construction work is sand obtained by sea or river shores . it shoud be dry and free from stones and any type of impurities . In plaster work sand should be used after seiving. AGGREGATE: Fine and coarse aggregates make up the bulk of a concrete mixture. Sand, natural gravel and crushed stone are mainly used for this purpose. Recycled aggregates (from construction, demolition and excavation waste) are increasingly used as partial replacements of natural aggregates, while a number of manufactured aggregates,

including air-cooled blast furnace slag and bottom ash are also permitted. Decorative stones such as quartzite, small river stones or crushed glass are sometimes added to the surface of concrete for a decorative "exposed aggregate" finish, popular among landscape designers. STONES: Good quality stones from the nearby query should be used . They should be strong and hard . BRICKS: Modular brick : • Face Dimension • 228x115 mm • Thickness • 75 mm • Mortar Joint • 3/8"

     

Stretcher: a brick laid horizontally, flat with the long side of the brick exposed on the outer face of a wall. Header: a brick laid flat with the short end of the brick exposed. Soldier: a brick laid vertically with the narrow ("stretcher") side exposed. Sailor: a brick laid vertically with the broad side exposed. Rowlock: a brick laid on the long, narrow side with the small or "header" side exposed. Shiner: a brick laid on the long narrow side with the broad side exposed .

BRICK TYPES : There are two main types of clay bricks: pressed and wire cut. Pressed bricks usually have a deep frog in one bedding surface and a shallow frog in the other. Wire cut bricks usually have 3 or 4 holes through them constituting up to 25% of the total volume of the brick. Some „perforated‟ bricks have many smaller holes. CEMENT : Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage. It is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, and plaster. English masonry worker Joseph Aspdin patented Portland cement in 1824; it was named because of its similarity in colour to Portland limestone, quarried from the English Isle of Portland and used extensively in London architecture. It consists of a mixture of oxides of calcium, silicon and aluminium. Portland cement and similar materials are made by heating limestone (a source of calcium) with clay, and grinding this product (called clinker) with a source of sulfate (most commonly gypsum).

LOCATION AT WTP: A1 rear side

MATERIAL: All materials of construction like cement, aggregate, sand, water etc and reinforcement of proper sizes.

REINFORCEMENT: Strength deformed bars of grade Fe:415 conforming to IS code. Sizes used here are16mm dia bars at the top of beam and 25mm dia bars at the bottom of the beams. 8mm dia bars are used as stirrups(rings at a distance of 125mm)

GRADE OF CONCRETE: Grade of concrete used shall be M25 conforming to IS456. Since the load account over this slab is negligible, therefore, we use M25 (1:1:2) and no preliminary test is required for this.

WATER-CEMENT RATIO: Proper water-cement ratio shall be allowed to obtain better slump & workability.

Actual ratio shall be decided with approval of the Engineer-in-charge. Only measured quantity of water shall be used in the mix.

MIXING OF CONCRETE The machine used for mixing concrete is known as mechanical concrete mixer. For this slab construction we use drum mixer which consist of a revolving drum with blades inside it. All the materials of the desired proportioned mix are fed ino the hopper of the drum and then drum is being rotated at a particular speed until we get uniform mix.

PROCEDURE: Firstly, proper shuttering (temporary supporting structure) is required for supporting the laying of concrete till it gets matured. We use steel shuttering in slab work and decking consists of plywood or timber planks. Beam formwork is fabricated on ground level first and then hoisted and placed in position with the slab form above in order to make the top leveled. After shuttering, steel reinforcement is provided at the bottom to resist the tensile forces as per designed by engineer. This slab is provided continuous over the beams monolithically. A few bottom steel bars are bent up to the top at the supports. Longitudinal bars are provided along the length of the slab to take up temperature stresses at a distance of 10 mm.

Transversal bars are provided above this at a distance of

8 mm. After

this, these bars are tied up at each joint by thin wires & hence it is two way slab since reinforcement is provided in both the directions. The concreting of slabs and beams is done simultaneously after fixing the designed reinforcement in position and erecting the formwork. Before pouring concrete, the shuttering and reinforcement should be thoroughly checked for desirable qualities and shutters are well-watered. The slab is concreted in one operation for the full depth and to achieve uniform thickness. Compaction of concrete should be started immediately after placing it in position and its purpose is to eliminate the air bubbles and to achieve high density. This will ensure higher strength. In this slab construction we had done hand compaction carried out with rods. This will required high water cement ratio. Finally, curing of concrete and removal of form work should be carried out carefully. The top surface is kept rough to create proper bond with any type of floor finish desired.

The primary purpose of vacuum process of dewatering is to lower the original water-cement ratio in the concrete and thus, facilitate quicker setting and high early strength. Lowered water-cement ratio automatically leads to a noticeable improvement in almost each of the concrete properties. Vacuum dewatering process removes surplus water always present in the concrete. This is done using the Vacuum Equipment comprising of Suction Mat Top Cover, Filter pads and Vacuum Pump. The process starts immediately after surface vibration.

Specifications for VDC: 1. Material: All materials of construction like cement, aggregate, sand, water etc. 2. GRADE OF CONCRETE: Minimum grade of concrete used shall be M15 conforming to IS456. Only Design Mix Concrete shall be used. For other details like proportioning, batching, mixing, placing, curing etc. 3. WATER-CEMENT RATIO: Water-cement ratio upto 0.65 shall be allowed to obtain better slump & workability. Actual ratio shall be decided with approval of the Engineer-in charge. Only measured quantity of water shall be used in the mix.

4. CONCRETE LAYING: Concrete laying pattern shall be decided in consultation with the Engineer-in-Charge and with his approval. The maximum width of a slab strip shall not generally exceed 4 meters and minimum number of construction joints shall be used. Alternate slab strips shall be sequentially laid. Any damage to the already finished top surface shall be avoided. At construction joints no overflow of mortal or slurry on the already hardened surface shall be allowed while concreting the intermediate slab strip. Such construction joints shall be marked with a thread in a straight line while the concrete is still green. Continuity of reinforcement shall be maintained while laying concrete in slab strips. Edges at expansion joints shall be protected and proper arrangement of shear-transfer shall be provided standard 5. DOUBLE BEAM SCREED BOARD VIBRATOR: Screed vibrator is used for the leveling as well compaction of concrete it consists of high quality steel bar (4.2 meter) with spacing of 250 MM in between. Special water protective vibrator motor is mounted in the center which produces 1830 N centrifugal force which is most ideal for compaction of green concrete. They

are also available in different sizes from 2 meter to 5.5 meter.

6. VACUUM PUMP: This is the core of the system. A continuous discharge vacuum pump is complete self contained unit. The unit is mounted on a transportation trolley, 24 sq. meter freshly laid concrete can be Dewatered in one single operation with one set mat. The pump is powered by 7.5 H.P. 3 Phase electric motor.

7. FILTER, SUCTION AND TOP MAT: Suction mat is placed directly on the green concrete after vi bro screed operation is over. A Special high class nylon filter is fixed on plastic mats which acts a filter during the vacuum operation

filter mats in different sizes are provided with the system, Top mat is provided the junction box and is De-watering placed on top of filter mat for the purpose of sealing special synthetic cloth is used in the top mat it comes in standard sizes of 4x6 meter.

8. POWER FLOATER: It is surface grinding equipment powered by 3 H.P. Electric motor through gear box with floating RPM of 130. It grinds the surface to make it wear resistance.


It is surface finishing equipments powered by 3H.P. electric motor through gear box troweling RPM of 135. It polishes the surface after floating operation and 3 to 4 passes are required for giving fine finish to the floor. 10. CURING: However, all care shall be taken to avoid any stain any permanent stain on the surface. Any stain or permanent marking on the top surface shall be removed by approved means. 11. APPROACH WORKING PLATFORM & FORM WORK: The Contractor shall arrange all arrange all approaches, scaffolding, working platforms etc. for carrying out the entire operation safely and in a work-man-like manner. The working area shall be nearly maintained and all the facilities required by the Engineer-in-Charge for proper supervision of the work shall be provided. 12. TESTING OF FINISHED FLOOR: Contractor shall arrange for core cutting and testing of finished concrete over and above other field tests. Cores shall be taken after 28 days of concreting and tested as per relevant IS Codes. Core test results shall be compared with the normal cube test results taken from the same concrete. The average compressive strength of cores shall be minimum 40% higher than that of normal cube (15cm x 15cm x 15xm) test results. Minimum three cores for each day's work in the initial stages and as decided later by the Engineer-inCharge shall be taken. The floor shall be properly rectified after

cutting the cores with concrete of same mix using the same cement as earlier used and finished smoothly to match with the existing surface. The cut surface of the floor-concrete shall be coated with proper epoxy-based bonding compound before laying concrete to avoid shrinkage cracks or, alternatively, a non-shrink compound shall be added with concrete. Contact us for buying the vacuum dewatering set.

Precautions while laying VDC:
 FORM WORK Construction of floor begins with careful preparation. Before casting MS Channel are generally used us form works. They act as a stopper, also as support for pulling the screed board vibrator.  SCREED VIBRATION (SWISS VACUUM DE-WATERING PROCESS START) Needle vibration never gives a nearly level surface, but when this type of vibration is combined with screed vibration the concrete surface becomes level and smooth screed vibration insures over all compaction of concrete.  VACUUM PROCESS The surplus water is extracted out of the concrete by the vacuum pump. Vacuum De-watering lowers the water ratio in the concrete by 15-25% which meres as the compressive strength and wear resistance of the concrete. Vacuum process takes only 5 minute per inch thickness of the concrete slab. The Concrete is driven and

compacted so tightly that a man can walk on the fresh concrete directly after it is vacuum treated.  FLOATING The floating operation takes place immediately after the vacuum De-watering & after mixing and grinding of cement takes place. The Cement particles are split apart and mixed with the sand particles which gives a very strong and wear resistance surface.  TROWELING In order to further improve the wear resistance and fine finish, the concrete surface is power troweled. STORAGE Storage of materials itself has important role. Various points should be kept in mind:  Materials should be stored with utmost care.

 Glass should be stored in casings.  Cements should be stored in building or a godown in which the walls, roof and floor are not completely weatherproof.  Reinforcement are arranged in a manner without rusting.

DEFINITION The term „SHUTTERING‟ or „FORMWORK‟ includes all forms, moulds, sheeting, shuttering planks, walrus, poles, posts, standards, leizers, V-Heads, struts, and structure, ties, prights, walling steel rods, bolts, wedges, and all other temporary supports to the concrete during the process of sheeting. FORM WORK Forms or moulds or shutters are the receptacles in which concrete is placed, so that it will have the desired shape or outline when hardened. Once the concrete develops adequate strength, the forms are removed. Forms are generally made of the materials like timber, plywood, steel, etc. Generally camber is provided in the formwork for horizontal members to counteract the effect of deflection caused due to the weight of reinforcement and concrete placed over that. A proper lubrication of shuttering plates is also done before the placement of reinforcement.

CLEANING AND TREATMENT OF FORMS All rubbish, particularly chippings, shavings and saw dust, was removed from the interior of the forms (steel) before the concrete is placed. The form work in contact with the concrete was cleaned and thoroughly wetted or treated with an approved composition to prevent adhesion between form work and concrete. Care was taken that such approved composition is kept out of contact with the reinforcement. DESIGN The form-work should be designed and constructed such that the concrete can be properly placed and thoroughly compacted to obtain the required shape, position, and levels subject. ERECTION OF FORMWORK The following applies to all formwork: a) Care should be taken that all formwork is set to plumb and true to line and level. b) If formwork is held together by bolts or wires, these should be so fixed that no iron is exposed on surface against which concrete is to be laid. c) Formwork is so arranged as to permit removal of forms without jarring the concrete. Wedges, clamps, and bolts should be used where practicable instead of nails. d) The oil film sandwiched between concrete and formwork surface not only helps in easy removal of shuttering but also prevents loss of

moisture from the concrete through absorption and evaporation. The use of oil, which darkens the surface of the concrete, is not allowed. Oiling is done before reinforcement is placed and care taken that no oil comes in contact with the reinforcement while it is placed in position. The formwork is kept thoroughly wet during concreting and the whole time that it is left in place. VERTICALITY OF THE STUCTURE All the outer columns of the frame were checked for plumb by plumbbob as the work proceeds to upper floors. Internal columns were checked by taking measurements from outer row of columns for their exact position. Jack were used to lift the supporting rods called props. Props: Props come in a range of sizes, and they all have a course adjustment by placing a steel pin in one of a series of holes. The fine adjustment is via a threaded end and collar. The threads a square cut and design for load bearing and easy cleaning. At the bottom here is a photo of a rather rusty Acrow prop's adjustment collar. The swivel bar is used to lift the prop when there is no load and usually when the lifting gets harder or when stripping the formwork then the collar usually gets belted loose with a hammer.

STRIPPING TIME OR REMOVAL OF FORMWORK Forms were not struck until the concrete has attained a strength at least twice the stress to which the concrete may be subjected at the time of removal of form work. Form work was removed in such a manner as would not cause any shock or vibration that would damage the concrete. Before removal of props, concrete surface was exposed to ascertain that the concrete has sufficiently hardened. Where the shape of element is such that form work has re-entrant angles, the form work was removed as soon as possible after the concrete has set, to avoid shrinkage cracking occurring due to the restraint imposed. As a guideline, with temperature above 20 degree following time limits should be followed: Structural Component Age Footings: 1 day Sides of beams, columns, lintels, wall: 2 days Underside of beams spanning less than 6m: 14 days

Underside of beams spanning over 6m: 21 days Underside of slabs spanning less than 4m: 7 days Underside of slabs spanning more than 4m: 14 days Flat slab bottom: 21 days

BRICKWORK Brickwork is masonry done with bricks and mortar and is generally used to build partition walls. In our site, all the external walls were of concrete and most of the internal walls were made of bricks. English bond was used and a ration of 1:4 (1 cement: 4 coarse sand) and 1:6 were used depending upon whether the wall is 4.5 inches or 9 inches. The reinforcement shall be 2 nos. M.S. round bars or as indicated. The diameter of bars was 8mm. The first layer of reinforcement was used at second course and then at every fourth course of brick work. The bars were properly anchored at their ends where the portions and or where these walls join with other walls. The in laid steel reinforcement was completely embedded in mortar.

The quality of bricks can be assessed based on following, which is prevalent in many sites. • Visual check – Bricks should be well burnt and of uniform size and color. • Striking of two bricks together should produce a metallic ringing sound. • It should have surface so hard that can‟t be scratched by the fingernails. • A good brick should not break if dropped in standing position from one meter above ground level. • A good brick shouldn‟t absorb moisture of more than 15-20% by weight, when soaked in water For example; a good brick of 2 kg shouldn‟t weigh more than 2.3 to 2.4 kg if immersed in water for 24 hours.

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN BRICK MASONRY WORK • Bricks should be soaked in water for adequate period so that the water penetrates to its full thickness. Normally 6 to 8 hours of wetting is sufficient. • A systematic bond must be maintained throughout the brickwork. Vertical joints shouldn‟t be continuous but staggered. • The joint thickness shouldn‟t exceed 1 cm. It should be thoroughly filled with the cement mortar 1:4 to 1:6 (Cement: Sand by volume) • All bricks should be placed on their bed with frogs on top (depression on top of the brick for providing bond with mortar).

• Thread, plumb bob and spirit level should be used for alignment, verticality and horizontality of construction. • Joints should be raked and properly finished with trowel or float, to provide good bond. • A maximum of one meter wall height should be constructed in a day. • Brickwork should be properly cured for at least 10 days

Plaster protects structure from temperature variations; external attacks of sulphates, chlorides, etc. Plaster also provides smooth & aesthetic surface on RCC & Brickwork surface. The proportion of mortar used at site for ceiling coat is 1:4 and wall coat is 1:3. A plaster of 10 mm is done at ceiling and a plaster of 12.5mm is done at wall. Various precautions to be taken while the work of plastering is going on are:•Preferably use cements which releases low heat of hydration. •Use optimum water at the time of mixing. •Do not use dry cement on the plaster surface. •At the junction of Brickwork & RCC, chicken mesh or fiber mesh may be •Wet the surface before plastering and cure the surface for at least 10 to 12

The purpose of a floor is to provide a horizontal sanitary surface to support strength and stability, resistance to dampness, good appearance, and freedom

Following are the common floor finishes – Cement concrete flooringIt consists of 1:1.5:3 cement concrete laid to cement punning. It has got good wearing properties and can be easily cleaned ½”.

Tile flooringIt consists of ceramic, vitrified, terrazzo and cement tiles. Vitrified and Ceramic tiles have gained popularity over mosaic tiles because tiles are quite strong. In ground floor the cement concrete floor is to be on 7.5 cm base of lime consist of cement concrete it shall be allowed to set for about 7 days. In hours of laying the base. In first floor or upper floor if c.c. floor is to be laid green. Before laying the c.c. floor the surface shall be cleaned, wetted and broken bricks are laid before the laying of mortar and there by the Tiles.