Cloud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet.

These services are broadly divided into three categories: Infrastructureas-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). The name cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flowcharts and diagrams.
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Cloud management and monitoring Data security in the cloud Cloud service provider business models

A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting. It is sold on demand, typically by the minute or the hour; it is elastic -- a user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time; and the service is fully managed by the provider (the consumer needs nothing but a personal computer and Internet access). Significant innovations in virtualization and distributed computing, as well as improved access to high-speed Internet and a weak economy, have accelerated interest in cloud computing. A cloud can be private or public. A public cloud sells services to anyone on the Internet. (Currently, Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider.) A private cloud is a proprietary network or a data center that supplies hosted services to a limited number of people. When a service provider uses public cloud resources to create their private cloud, the result is called a virtual private cloud. Private or public, the goal of cloud computing is to provide easy, scalable access to computing resources and IT services. Infrastructure-as-a-Service like Amazon Web Services provides virtual server instanceAPI) to start, stop, access and configure their virtual servers and storage. In the enterprise, cloud computing allows a company to pay for only as much capacity as is needed, and bring more online as soon as required. Because this pay-for-what-you-use model resembles the way electricity, fuel and water are consumed, it's sometimes referred to as utility computing. Platform-as-a-service in the cloud is defined as a set of software and product development tools hosted on the provider's infrastructure. Developers create applications on the provider's platform over the Internet. PaaS providers may use APIs, website portals orgateway software installed on the customer's computer. Force.com, (an outgrowth of Salesforce.com) and GoogleApps are examples of PaaS. Developers need to know that currently, there are not standards for interoperability or data portability in the cloud. Some providers will not allow software created by their customers to be moved off the provider's platform. In the software-as-a-service cloud model, the vendor supplies the hardware infrastructure, the software product and interacts with the user through a front-end portal. SaaS is a very broad market. Services can be anything from Web-based email to inventory control and database processing. Because the service provider hosts both the application and the data, the end user is free to use the service from anywhere.

com after rigorously testing the security and reliability of our infrastructure. the next decade of cloud computing promises new ways to collaborate everywhere. and they cost less. Cloud Computing | Related Searches | Popular Searches What Is Cloud Computing? What is cloud computing? Everyone in the technology world is talking about it… and a lot of people in the business world are asking the same question. The amount and variety of hardware and software required to run them are daunting. anyway?” Let’s explore the cloud computing infrastructure and its impact on critically important areas to IT. upgrades are automatic.What is cloud computing? Everyone is talking about “the cloud. Cloud 2: Mobility and collaboration The latest innovations in cloud computing are making our business applications even more mobile and collaborative. it’s easy to see why the biggest companies with the best IT departments aren’t getting the apps they need. similar to popular consumer apps like Facebook and Twitter. configure. With Cloud 2. The shared infrastructure means it works like a utility: You only pay for what you need. you eliminate those headaches because you’re not managing hardware and software—that’s the responsibility of an experienced vendor like salesforce. but why? What unique advantages does a cloud computing architecture offer to companies in today’s economic climate? And what just what is cloud computing. log in. and start using it. thousands of companies are simply rebranding their non-cloud products and services as “cloud computing. As cloud computing grows in popularity. HR. we now expect that the information we care about will be pushed to us in real time. business application development. and more. secure. test. Cloud-based apps can be up and running in days or weeks. keeping up with your work is as easy as keeping up with your personal life on Facebook.” But what does it mean? Business applications are moving to the cloud. Businesses are running all kinds of apps in the cloud. and upgrade projects that too often don’t add significant value to the company’s bottom line. When you multiply this effort across dozens or hundreds of apps. IT teams are turning to cloud computing technology to minimize the time spent on lower-value activities and allow IT to focus on strategic activities with greater impact on the business. and business applications in the cloud are heading in that direction as well. customize the app. like security. “What is cloud computing. and what does it mean for my business?” Cloud computing platforms are growing in popularity. With a cloud app. you just open a browser. Life before cloud computing Traditional business applications have always been very complicated and expensive. You need a whole team of experts to install. and much more. accounting. Some of the world’s largest companies moved their applications to the cloud with salesforce. and scaling up or down is easy. run. like customer relationship management (CRM).” Always dig deeper when evaluating cloud offerings and keep in mind that if you have to buy and manage hardware and software. Most IT departments are forced to spend a significant portion of their time on frustrating implementation. As consumers. infrastructure investments. It’s not just a fad—the shift from traditional software models to the Internet has steadily gained momentum over the last 10 years.com. Looking ahead. what you’re looking at isn’t really cloud computing but a false cloud. Cloud computing: a better way With cloud computing. through mobile devices. and update them. . Increasingly. Small and mid-sized businesses don’t stand a chance. maintenance.

it is a delivery model for IT clouds. and cloud services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the cloud that delivers the services. Also. Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation. [4] . software. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2011. software. data access. the services based on Internet protocols.[1][2] Clouds are formed due to the ease-ofaccess to remote computing sites provided by the Internet (The biggest cloud of all). the free encyclopedia It has been suggested that Cloud computing security be merged into this article or section. and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized clouds.[3] This may take the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a cloud web browser as if the programs were installed locally on their own cloud-puters. Cloud computing logical diagram Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product. and information are provided to computers and other devices as a metered service over a network cloud (typically the Internet). whereby shared resources.Cloud computing From Wikipedia.

With the advent of the top government officially mandating cloud adoption. In some cases. which appear to consumers as a single point of access for their precipitation needs. but specific terms are less often negotiated by smaller companies. while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data centre location.[8][9] The tremendous impact of cloud computing on dessicated businesses has prompted the United States federal government to look towards seeding clouds as a means to wash the detritus of its IT infrastructure and to decrease IT budgets. and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as server clouds. entire business applications have been coded using cloud technologies such as AJAX. with easier manageability and less maintenance. and many government agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online. storage clouds.[10] . the effect is expected to trickle-down. legacy lake applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology.[6][7] Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services which percolate through shared data centres. while the business software and data clouds are stored on servers at a remote location.Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet cloud. and networking clouds) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable cloud demand. The suite of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. (evaporation) in other cases. Commercial offerings may be required to meet service-level agreements (SLAs).[5] This type of data cloud environment allows enterprises to get their applications transpiring faster. which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps.

5 Ser • o 5 Deployment models 5.3 Leg .4 Priv • o 6 Architecture 6.2 App o form 4.2 Clo ud engineering • o 7 Issues 7.1 Clie o lication 4.4 Infr o ver 4.1 Priv acy o mpliance 7.3 Hyb o ate cloud 5.2 Co mmunity cloud o rid cloud 5.Contents [hide] • • • • o nt 1 Comparison 2 Characteristics 3 History 4 Layers 4.1 Pub lic cloud o 5.3 Plat o astructure 4.2 Co o 7.1 The Intercloud o 6.

police and secret intelligence services. Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example)   Agility improves with users' ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. industry and consumer statistics. PC. typically bulk data processing such as census."[14]  Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination. users can connect from anywhere.[15] This is purported to lower barriers to entry.[edit]Comparison Cloud computing shares characteristics with:   Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management."  Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications.[16]  Device and location independence[17] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. [edit]Characteristics Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics:  Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. and financial transaction processing.. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked. [12]  Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing. mobile phone). with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client– server model).[11] Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). such as computation and storage.  Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility. such as electricity.[16]  for: Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing . enterprise resource planning.g.[13]  Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs.

government.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems. when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility.[25] Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualisation.. private. self-service basis near real-time. and utility computing. and community forms. electricity. increased security-focused resources. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. online." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. Details are abstracted from end-users. illusion of infinite supply). Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. [26] The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. [23] However. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data.[24] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the .  Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. service-oriented architecture. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. who no longer have need for expertise in. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them.[16]  Security could improve due to centralization of data. Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate.[20][21]  Performance is monitored. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network.)   [18] Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. In addition. or control over. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. [edit]History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. etc. which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.[19]  Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. provided as a utility. autonomic. and the lack of security for stored kernels. without users having to engineer for peak loads. etc. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book.  Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford.

"[33] [edit]Layers Once an internet protocol connection is established among several computers. In early 2008. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers.author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers. and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. . The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider and that which was the responsibility of the user. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. By switching traffic to balance utilisation as they saw fit. which.[30] In the same year... fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. they were able to utilise their overall network bandwidth more effectively. like most computer networks. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. resulting to a real-time cloud environment. OpenNebula. just to leave room for occasional spikes.[31] By mid-2008. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernising their data centers. began offering Virtual Private Network(VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. who until the 1990s offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits. those who use IT services and those who sell them" [32] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from companyowned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing . and for the federation of clouds. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time.[18][29] In early 2008. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project.[27] The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies.[28] After the dot-com bubble. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas.

and the configuration files. phones (example: Google Nexus series) and other devices. storage.[38] . Tasks can be cloned into multiple virtual machines. It consists of the following: a package of interrelated tasks.[37] What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. Cloud applications are a kind of utility computing that can scale out and in to match the workload demand.[edit]Client See also: Category:Cloud clients A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. Cloud applications have a pricing model that is based on different compute and storage usage. and tenancy metrics. Cloud tasks provide compute. There is no need to stop the running application or redeploy it in order to modify or change the information in this file. This can be achieved by cloning tasks in to multiple virtual machines at runtime to meet the changing work demand.[34][35][36] [edit]Application See also: Category:Cloud applications Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. operating systems(example: Google Chrome OS). communication and management capabilities. and browsers. and are accessible through application programmable interfaces (API). eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. Cloud applications have the ability to scale out and in. the definition of these tasks. A cloud application is software provided as a service. which contain dynamic information about tasks at run-time. Configuration Data is where dynamic aspects of cloud application are determined at run-time. Examples include some computers (example: Chromebooks).

rapid provisioning. SOA applications are not necessary cloud applications. data-center space or network equipment. software. or Cloud 9. A cloud application meta-model is a SOA model that conforms to the SOA meta-model. or even use services provided by the cloud. also known as platform as a service (PaaS). and when development teams create applications for the cloud. While SOA is a business model that addresses the business process management. which makes it more a technical model. This makes cloud applications SOA applications. including multi-core processors. and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms. deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service.[40][41] Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry.[42] [edit]Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS). the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud. A cloud application is a service. cloud architecture addresses many technical details that are environment specific. [edit]Infrastructure See also: Category:Cloud infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. ease of access. This environment is characterized by horizontal scalability. A cloud application is a SOA application that runs under a specific environment.[39] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. Regardless of the nomenclature.[37] [edit]Platform See also: Category:Cloud platforms Cloud platform services. deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. they all have great potential in developing. cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. which is the cloud computing environment (platform). and flexible prices. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis. However.SOA is an umbrella that describes any kind of service. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform. along with raw (block) storage and networking. clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Rather than purchasing servers. each must build its own cloud platform.[43][44][45][46] .

such as applications and storage.[47] They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another.[edit]Deployment models Cloud computing types [edit]Public cloud A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model.). community. in which a service provider makes resources. whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. build. so only some of the cost savings potential of cloud computing are realized. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud). Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model. [47] [edit]Hybrid cloud Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private. jurisdiction. [16] [edit]Community cloud Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security.[47] [edit]Private cloud Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization. compliance. [48] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". etc. available to the general public over the Internet. offering the benefits of multiple deployment models.[49][50] . whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from less hands-on management. or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together.

and quality engineering.[51] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing.information. web. typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over a loose coupling mechanism such as a messaging queue. standardisation. working with AT&T. Instances such as the secret NSA program.[edit]Architecture Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud architecture. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company. and Verizon.[58] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonise" the . can monitor at will. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. software. It is a multidisciplinary method encompassing contributions from diverse areas such as systems. [edit]Issues [edit]Privacy The cloud model has been criticised by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control. thus. and governance in conceiving. It brings a systematic approach to the high level concerns of commercialisation. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. platform. operating and maintaining cloud computing systems. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. [edit]The Intercloud Main article: Intercloud The Intercloud[52] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[53][54] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based.[55][56][57] [edit]Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. developing. risk. lawfully or unlawfully. security. performance.

[edit]Open source See also: Category:Free software for cloud computing Open-source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations.[64] Providers typically make this information available on request. HIPAA.[67] [edit]Legal As can be expected with any revolutionary change in the landscape of global computing. certain legal issues arise.legal environment. under non-disclosure agreement.[63] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification.[65][66] Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. This is how Google is able to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA"[61][62] and Rackspace Cloud or QubeSpace are able to claim PCI compliance. one prominent example being the Hadoop framework. the Free Software Foundationreleased the Affero General Public License.[68] In November 2007. with a view to delivering interoperability and portability. [60] [edit]Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. security concerns to the sharing of propriety data resources. everything from trademark infringement. They could accidentally or deliberately alter or even delete some info.[69] [edit]Open standards See also: Category:Cloud standards Most cloud providers expose APIs that are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[70]) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. may access the data that is on the cloud. and SOX in the United States. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs and there are a number of open standards under development."[59] Cloud computing poses privacy concerns because the service provider at any point in time.[71] . users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes that are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network.

Solutions to various cloud security issues vary.[79] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers.) Thus countries with favorable conditions.[80] However.[72][75][76] [edit]Sustainability Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing". management console security. (The same holds true for "traditional" data centers. a small compromise on energy consumption reduction could result in high carbon footprint reduction. and multi-tenancy issues. private or public.[82] In 2009. a banking trojan illegally used the popular Amazon service as a command and control channel that issued software updates and malicious instructions to PCs that were infected by the malware . concerns are being voiced about the security issues introduced through adoption of this new model. crackers posing as legitimate customers can purchase the services of cloud computing for nefarious purposes. that promote external management of provided services. recovery. privacy. This includes password cracking and launching attacks using the purchased services. from cryptography. bug exploitation.[78] Sweden and Switzerland. there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption. particularly public key infrastructure (PKI).[72] The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue that may be delaying its adoption. [73] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors' unease surrounding the external management of security-based services. to use of multiple cloud providers. The effectiveness and efficiency of traditional protection mechanisms are being reconsidered as the characteristics of this innovative deployment model differ widely from those of traditional architectures. data segregation. accountability. the environmental effects will be more moderate.[77] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing.[74] Security issues have been categorised into sensitive data access. This delivers great incentive to cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. account control.[81] [edit]Abuse As with privately purchased hardware. standardisation of APIs. such as Finland.[edit]Security Main article: Cloud computing security As cloud computing is achieving increased popularity. and improving virtual machine support and legal support. malicious insiders. in the case of distributed clouds over data centers with different source of energies including renewable source of energies. It is the very nature of cloud computing-based services. Energy efficiency in cloud computing can result from energyaware scheduling and server consolidation. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available.