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Power Sector Development in India
2 3 3 4 5 7 7 8 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 2 1 5 1 7 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0
1.1 Advantages of Hydro Power 1.2 Need for Hydro Share Correction 1.3 Investment Step up
2.0 Hydro Development
2.1 Initiatives Taken by the Government for Hydro Power Development 2.2 First Hydroelectric Survey of India (1953-59) 2.3 Reassessment of Hydroelectric Potential (1978-87) 2.4 Categorisation of Hydroelectric Potential: Ranking Study
3.0 Feasibility Studies
3.1 Identification of Projects for PFRs 3.2 The Next Step 3.3 Contents of Preliminary Feasibility Reports 3.4 Preparation of Preliminary Feasibility Reports of Hydroelectric Projects- the Methodology and Responsibility of each 3.5 Consultants 3.6 Summary of PFRs Entrusted to the Consultants 3.7 ReviewMechanism
4.0 Implementation of Projects
Annex -I Annex -II
Regionwise/ Statewise Breakup of Ranking Study Statewise/ Consultant wise Breakup of Schemes for Preparation of PFRs
1.0 Power Sector Development in India
Harnessed energy has become a symbol of growth and instrument for development. Electric power particularly the hydro is among the cleanest end use energy inputs for economic activity, domestic and civic conveniences, climate control, communication and technology. The Ministry of Power has set an objective of providing “Power for all by 2012”. This will entail electrification of all villages by 2007 and of all households by 2012. The infrastructure would need the availability of assured and quality power at affordable price through reliable and adequate generation, transmission and distribution facilities. Power generation in India began more than a century ago in 1898 when the first hydro power unit was set up at Darjeeling. When India attained freedom in 1947, the country had an installed capacity of 1,360 MW. The present installed generating capacity in the country is 1,07,973 MW. The share of hydro with 26,910 MW capacity is about 25%. Thermal accounts for maximum share of 71% with 76,607 MW. It comprises of 63,801 MW from Coal, 11,633 MW from Gas and 1,173 MW from Diesel. The share of Nuclear is about 2.5% with 2,720 MW while Wind accounts for the balance 1,736 MW. The attainment is significant. However what we achieved in over 50 years will need to be attained now in nearly 10 years.
Shares in Installed Capacity - March, 2003 The present annual energy requirement in 2002-03 was 5,45,674 MU, of which only 4,97,589 MU were available, leaving a shortfall of 8.8%. While the peaking requirement was 81,492 MW in 2002-03, a peak of 71,547 MW only could be met, leaving a shortage of 12.2%. The 16th Electric Power Survey (EPS) carried out by the Central Electricity Authority has projected a peak demand of 1,15,705 MW and an energy requirement of 7,19,097 MU by the end of 10th Plan while the requirement by the end of 11th Plan has been projected as 9,75,222 MU and 1,57,107 MW respectively. Accordingly at the end of the 10th Plan, an additional capacity of 55,158 MW is needed. However it is likely that a capacity addition of 41,110 MW would only be feasible during the period keeping in view the financial level of the power sector and preparedness of projects. The effort is to close the deficit by the end of the 11th Plan to ensure “Power for all by 2012”. The Indian power system requirement had been assessed to need a hydro power and thermal/nuclear power mix in the ratio of 40:60 for flexibility in system operation depending on typical load pattern. The present ratio is 25:75 which needs to be corrected immediately to meet peak load requirements as well as system and frequency stability. 2
The estimated hydro potential in the country is 1,50,000 MW (corresponding to 84,044 MW at 60% load factor) out of which only 26,910 MW amounting to 18% of the total potential has been harnessed. While 14,393 MW hydro capacity is planned to be added in 10th Plan, action has been taken to ensure that more than 20,000 MW of hydro capacity is added during the 11th Plan period.
Advantages of Hydro Power
Hydro power is a renewable, economic, non polluting and environmentally benign source of energy. Hydro power stations have the inherent ability for instantaneous starting, stopping, load variations etc. and help in improving reliability of power system. There is no fuel cost during the life of the station as hydro power generation is a non consumptive use of water. The benefits of hydro power as a clean, environment friendly and economically attractive source of energy have now been sufficiently recognised. The need for its accelerated development also comes from its capability of enhanced system reliability and economics of utilization of resources.
Need for Hydro Share Correction
At the time of Independence, the share of hydro in the total installed capacity was around 37% which continued to rise, crossing 50% in the year 1963. The share of hydro, however, started declining thereafter. Until the late seventies, the share of hydro remained above 40%, considered to be the ideal hydro-thermal mix for meeting the demand in an efficient manner. However, ever since the eighties, the share of hydro has started declining sharply and at present, the share of hydro constitutes only about 25% of the overall installed capacity of the country. 3
Investment Step up
In view of the various geological risks and engineering difficulties that are encountered in the development of hydroelectric power projects, private sector development has been slow in spite of good enthusiasm and incentives. Consequently, hydro power development has been taken up primarily through the public sector in the 10th & 11th Plans. The Central public sector outlay for hydro power development has been enhanced from Rs. 12,306 Crs. to Rs. 25,839 Crs. and Budgetary support from Rs. 9,284 Crs. to Rs. 17,511 Crs. during the 10th Plan as compared to that in the 9th Plan.
Gross budgetary Support (GBS) and Plan Outlay (Rs. Crs.)
2.0 Hydro Development
2.1 Initiatives taken by the Government for Hydro Power Development
To encourage greater participation by Indian and foreign entrepreneurs in hydroelectric power generation, a number of measures have been taken by the Government for increasing the hydro capacity :
a) Policy Liberalisation
To accelerate capacity addition in the Power Sector, a policy to encourage greater participation by private entrepreneurs in India and abroad in electric power generation has been announced. The Government has issued notifications for hydro projects incorporating several incentives to private developers which broadly cover incentives for better availability of machines, for generation of extra energy above design energy, compensation for hydrological risks, etc.
i) Policy on Hydro Power Development
A Hydro Policy was announced in Aug.1998 for the development of hydro power incorporating several enabling steps and measures. The Hydro Policy among other things lays emphasis on basin wise development, evolving consensus on inter-state issues, mitigation of geological risks, simplified procedure for transfer of clearances, promoting joint venture arrangements etc. Main features of the policy are as under:
· Additional budgetary support for ongoing and new Hydro Projects under Central PSUs. · Creation of Power Development Fund by levying cess on electricity generated in the country. · Basin-wise Development of hydro Potential. · Advance action for Capacity Addition in the 10th Plan & beyond. · Emphasis on Survey & Investigations. · Resolution of Inter-State issues. · Renovation, Modernisation & Uprating of existing hydro stations. · Promoting Small & Mini Hydel Projects. · Simplified Procedures for Transfer of Clearances by CEA. · Rationalisation of Hydro Tariff by allowing premium on sale rate during peak period. · Realistic estimates of completion cost considering geological surprises. · Promoting Hydel Projects with Joint Ventures. · Selection of Developer through MOU/Bidding route. · Govt. Support for Land Acquisition, Resettlement and Rehabilitation, Catchment Area Development etc.
Some of the measures announced by Govt. of India have already been introduced which include Simplified Procedures for transfer of Techno-Economic Clearances, Streamlining of Clearance process and introduction of Three-Stage Clearance approach for development of hydro Projects in Central Sector/ Joint Ventures etc. The CERC has approved 5% hydro development surcharge on annual fixed charges for central hydro power generation. 5
Three Stage Clearance Procedure
The Government has also approved a Three Stage Clearance procedure for hydro projects to be executed by the CPSUs in consultation with the Ministries of Finance and Environment and Forests. Under Stage-I, the CPSUs will incur expenditure on survey, investigation and preparation of a pre-feasibility report. Under Stage-II, the CPSUs will undertake activities relating to detailed investigation and preparation of Detailed Project Report. During this Stage, pre-construction activities and infrastructure development including land acquisition will also be undertaken. Under Stage-III, investment sanction will be accorded through the PIB/ CCEA.
The investment policy has been made more attractive from time to time and provides for (i) Debt:Equity ratio up to 4:1 (ii) 100% foreign equity participation (iii) liberalized rates of depreciation in respect of assets (iv) import of equipment for power projects at concessional customs duty (v) 16% rate of return on equity (vi) Generating companies can sell power on the basis of a suitably structured two part tariff - one part to cover fixed costs and the other to cover variable costs at a prescribed level of performance. Since hydroelectric projects have lower internal rate of return compared to the thermal and gas based projects, the Government has notified new norms for incentives where the availability factor threshold has been reduced from 90% to 85%. Similarly, the sale rate of secondary energy has been notified at the same rate as primary energy. The procedures relating to transfer of clearances from State Government to Central Public Sector Undertakings and State Government to Private Sector have been simplified. Under the revised guidelines, clearance is automatically transferred to the new agency if the scope of work has not changed and CEA only examines the revised cost and financial package of the new proposal before transferring the clearance. Ceiling limits of capital costs upto which techno-economic clearance of CEA is not required has been enhanced, inter-alia, for hydro projects. According to the present notification issued under Section 29 of the Electricity (Supply) Act, 1948, hydro projects are covered by the following limits : Rs. 250 Crores for projects awarded through the MOU route. Rs. 1,000 Crores for projects awarded through competitive bidding. Rs. 2,500 Crores for projects whose tariff is determined by the CERC/ SERCs. All hydro-electric projects utilizing water of inter-state rivers shall be submitted to CEA for its concurrence (irrespective of capital cost).
Creation of Power Utilities in Central Sector
Government has taken many steps and measures to boost Hydro Power Development. Hydro power corporations in the central sector and the joint sector (central and state) National Hydro-electric Power Corporation (NHPC), North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation (NEEPCO), Nathpa-Jhakri Power Corporation (NJPC) renamed as Satluj Jal Vidut Nigam Limited (SJVNL) and Tehri Hydro Development Corporation (THDC) have been created. Besides, National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. (NTPC) has also been authorised to take up hydro projects (Kol Dam). Narmada Hydro Development Corporation (NHDC), a joint venture of NHPC and MP Govt. has been constituted to implement Indirasagar (1000 MW) and Omkareshwar (520 MW) HE projects.
First Hydroelectric Survey of India (1953-59)
The first systematic Hydro Electric Survey of India was undertaken by the erstwhile Central Water & Power Commission (CW&PC) during1953-59. According to this survey, Hydro Electric Potential of the country was assessed as about 42 Million kW from a total of about 250 schemes. The results of the first survey proved useful in chartering the course of hydroelectric development of the country for about two decades.
2.3 Reassessment of Hydroelectric Potential (1978-87) · The Reassessment Studies (1978-87) of Hydro Electric Potential were undertaken by Central Electricity Authority (CEA) on the advice of Planning Commission which had expressed concern over the lack of availability of up to date data regarding hydro electric potential of the country. · Planning Commission had opined that in view of the spurt in fuel cost and technical advancements made in hydro project construction, some of the hydel schemes not considered economically attractive in the fifties would have since become viable. · The country’s power system had experienced tremendous growth and regional grid networks increased the energy utilization capability. · Very useful hydrological, meterological and other related data was also available consequent to large-scale development of water resources in the country during fifties & sixties.
The scope of the Reassessment Studies also included Assessment of Gross Theoretical Potential, Secondary Energy contribution and Identification of possible sites for Pumped Storage development in addition to assessment of economic potential and computation of annual energy contribution in dependable and average flow conditions. The Reassessment Study completed in 1987 revealed that the Hydro Electric Power Potential of the country was of the order of about 84 million kW from a total of 845 schemes as against 42 million kW from 250 schemes identified at the time of the first survey. 56 sites for development of Pumped Storage Schemes with total likely installed capacity of about 94,000 MW were also identified in various regions of the country.
River Basin-wise Hydroelectric Power Potential Identified in Reassessment Studies
River Basin No. of Schemes Potential at 60% load factor (MW) Date of Completion of Study
Indus Brahmaputra Ganga Central Indian River West Flowing Rivers of Southern India East flowing Rivers of Southern India
10 9 26 2 12 4 5 3 9 4 10 4
19,988 34,920 10,715 2,740 6,149 9,532
March,1983 January, 1984 August, 1984 June, 1985 November,1985 April, 1986
(equivalent Installed capacity-1,50,000 MW)
Pumped Storage Scheme sites
Categorisation of Hydroelectric Potential: Ranking Studies
To give necessary fillip for development of the balance Hydroelectric schemes, CEA undertook Ranking Studies to determine inter-se priority for their development. The objective of this exercise was to facilitate identification of the projects for implementation in order of their priority so that hydro development could be taken up in appropriate sequence.
2.4.1 Projects Identified
With a view to prioritise the large number of identified schemes to harness vast untapped hydro resources in the order of their attractiveness for implementation, ranking studies were carried by CEA and 399 schemes were prioritised under categories A, B & C. Category-’A’ schemes were considered more attractive than Category-‘B’ schemes and Category-‘B’ schemes being more attractive than Category‘C’ schemes. The studies were carried out in consultation with Ministry of Environment & Forest, Central Water Commission, Geological Survey of India, National Remote Sensing Agency, Survey of India etc. The Ranking Study gives inter-se prioritisation of the projects which could be considered for further implementation including their survey & investigation so that hydro power development is effected in an appropriate sequence. The Ranking Study was completed in 2001-02.
2.4.2 Process of Ranking Study
Ranking Study generally involved sophisticated desk studies of all secondary topographical and hydrological data. For this purpose latest topo sheets were obtained from Survey of India. In addition, Satellite imageries were also obtained from NRSA for Indus Basin. Ten major aspects pertaining to development of the identified projects, which play vital role in the implementation of the hydro projects were adopted in the criteria considered for ranking study. For each of the criteria, certain marks with weightage ranging from minimum of 6 to maximum of 15 were allotted. These aspects are R&R Aspects, International Aspects, Inter-state Aspects, Potential of the Scheme, Type of Scheme, Height of Dam, Length of Tunnel/Channel, Accessibility to Site, Status of the Project, Status of 8
Upstream or Downstream Hydel Development. These criteria were discussed in detail at a Consultation Forum involving various organisations from different spheres involving technical/ commercial/ financial institutions/ confederations/ associations/ utilities/ experts and bodies. On the basis of the Marks obtained, schemes were ranked into A, B and C categories as below:
Category Total Marks
A B C
80 & above 60 to 79 40 to 59
The River Basin-wise summary of categorisation of the schemes ranked by CEA is given below:
River Basin-wise Summary of Categorisation of the Schemes Ranked by CEA Sl. No. River system Category A Nos MW Category B Nos MW Category C Nos MW Nos. Total MW
1 2 3 4 5 6
Indus Ganga Central Indian East Flowing West Flowing Brahmaputra
1 1 2 0 3 1 1 1 5 2
4088 2023 23 8 1412 3 5 7800
5 1 5 4 9 2 6 1 0 9 7
8811 9616 1425 6469 98 5 42574
1 7 1 1 2 1 4 1 9
6080 60 0 16 8 8 8 1508 12954
7 9 7 5 1 3 3 9 2 5 18 6
18979 12239 1894 7969 2501 63328
State-wise break up of results of Ranking Studies is given in Annex.-I
3.0 Feasibility Studies
Based on the preliminary ranking study, the Preliminary Feasibility Reports (PFRs) of selected schemes are being prepared incorporating the general description of the schemes, essential drawings, engineering aspects, approximate estimated cost and economic evaluation.
3.1 Identification of Projects for PFRs
Ranking study carried out by CEA covered 399 Hydro Electric Potential sites with total installed capacity of about 1,07,000 MW. The results of the Ranking study were discussed at length in a consultation process initiated by Ministry of Power and CEA with various state agencies, CPSUs & other organizations. As a follow up of the ranking studies, it was considered appropriate that for development of balance hydro projects in a systematic manner, shelf of viable projects needs to be made available so that the same could be offered for development to prospective entrepreneurs in India and abroad. Two rounds of discussions were held in CEA to elicit the views of state authorities/ CPSUs regarding their programme and preparedness to take up hydro power development. Separate consultations were also held with states possessing vast untapped hydro electric potential namely Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir. Based on deliberations during the above meetings, it was considered appropriate that Preliminary Feasibility Reports (PFRs) of selected hydro electric projects may be taken up so that feasibility of the scheme considered in ranking studies could be established. In the first instance, PFR formulation of 162 HE schemes has been taken up. Schemes, identified by State Authorities/CEA for which S&I are either in initial stages or are yet to be taken up have been considered for PFR formulation. Schemes for which DPRs have either been prepared or returned, are generally not included under the proposed studies. Schemes for which S&I is in advance stage and DPRs are likely to be formulated shortly, have also not been included in the proposed study. The schemes to be studied for PFRs have a likely installed capacity above 50 MW.
3.2 The Next Step
The Preliminary Feasibility Reports will provide information on hydroelectric schemes which are yet to be developed and enable their prioritisation for further action for implementation. The PFRs would also provide useful information to prospective developers for taking up detailed Survey & Investigation and DPR formulation. Results of studies would thus facilitate development of balance hydro electric potential in the country in order of the viability/ attractiveness. After completion of studies for PFRs, action for taking up detailed S&I and DPR preparation would be initiated for schemes considered viable. This is considered essential to generate a shelf of projects which could be taken up for execution during 11th and 12th Plans and beyond.
3.3 Contents of the Preliminary Feasibility Reports
The Preliminary Feasibility Report (PFR) of hydroelectric projects would be prepared for various rivers/ basins/ sub-basins based on which further work on the projects would be taken up. The different
aspects to be covered under PFRs are as below :General Project Features
· Salient features of the project
· General Information about the area, river basin/ sub-basin · Power Scenario & Existing Installations · Necessity of the project and related aspects.
· Description of Project including river system · Socio-economic & other aspects.
Topographic & Geo-technical Aspects
· Regional, Topographical & Geo-technical features of Project Area · Topographical / Geo-technical aspects for locating component structures of the project · Seismicity
· Water Availability, Studies based on available meterological/ hydrological data of project/ adjoining area · Sedimentation Studies. · Design Flood Studies.
Conceptual Layout and Planning
· Conceptual layout of various project components viz. Diversion/ Storage structure, Water conductor system, Power house, Tail race, etc. · Preliminary design features to arrive at broad parameters of the project components. · Preliminary Drawings showing Project Component and Features
Power Potential Studies
· Power Potential Studies considering various alternative scenarios and project features. · Optimization Studies for selection of installed capacity, Size and No. of generating Units.
· Appraisal of Existing Power Evacuation facilities. · Proposed Evacuation Arrangement to the nearest facility
· Brief description of Environmental impacts of the project on Forestry, Land use, Wild life, etc. · R&R Aspects · Mitigation measures.
· Identification of broad infrastructure requirement for implementation of the project.
Construction Planning & Schedule
· General Approach for construction planning for execution of Project Components. · Construction Schedule.
· Preliminary Cost Estimates for Civil, Hydro-mechanical, Electro-mechanical works, etc.
· Power Evacuation Facility.
· Power and energy benefits and financial evaluation of the project. · Tariff computation.
Preparation of Preliminary Feasibility Reports of Hydroelectric Projects - the Methodology and Responsibility of each
Preliminary Feasibility Reports of hydroelectric projects are to be prepared by Consultant and shall coverthe following activities :-
A) Feasibility Report
1. General Report 2. Water Availability 3. Vetting/ review of Water Availability by CWC. 4. Map/ Toposheet studies. 5. Geology 6. Geo-physical investigations. 7. Conceptual planning. 8. Vetting/ review of Conceptual planning by CEA. 9. Project Components Identification 10. Preliminary Layout - vetting by CEA/ CWC 11. Preliminary Structure Outline Drawings of various structure (Typical drawings) 12. Power Potential and Sizing of Power Plant. 13. Vetting/ review of Power Potential and Sizing of Power Plant by CEA. 14. Power Evacuation - Vetting/ review of Power Evacuation by CEA. 15. Infrastructure requirement. 16. Cost Estimates (Civil & Hydro-Mechanical, Electromechanical) 17. Economic Evaluation
B) Initial Environmental Studies
1. Digitization of the maps (toposheets) with permission of SOI. 2. Satellite imageries as required from NRSA. 3. Processing of satellite data for the area of interest by the Consultant.The procedure adopted for processing will be : * Multi-spectral LISS (23.5 m resolution) and Single Band PAN (5.8 m resolution) data. * Land use classification for the area will be carried out after geo-referencing the satellite data. Land use classification consisting of the following classes : · Vegetation crown, Cover (Tree canopy) · Built-up Areas / Rocky Outcrops etc. · Agricultural Land (Land on which Agriculture is being practiced currently) · Vegetation Density classification (Low, Medium, High) · Water Bodies · Barren land · Any other peculiar Land use category, as per local scenario · Land use pattern · Vegetation cover/ density · Approximate population density The Initial Environmental Study would also take into account boundaries of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserves as any other aspect relevant to the environment in interaction with MOEF.
C) Preparation of PFR
1. Preparation of draft PFR 2. Vetting of Draft PFR (by CEA) 3. Finalization of PFR incorporating comments of CEA 12
Preliminary Feasibility Reports shall be based on available data/ details pertaining to topography, geology, hydrology etc., preliminary field appraisal and geophysical investigation.
3.4.2 Broad Scope of Works of Consultant
Responsible for preparation of Preliminary Feasibility Reports of HE projects involving the conceptual design based on water availability and topographical studies, preparation of project layout incorporating various projects components such as dam/ diversion structure, intake, desilting chamber, water conductor system (HRT, surge shaft, pressure shaft), power house and tail race structure etc., preparation of outline drawings for civil structures, associated hydro mechanical & electro mechanical equipments and power evacuation arrangements. The scope of work would also cover assessment of required infrastructure, environmental study, construction material survey, cost estimate, funds/ financing and financial analysis of the project. The consultant would take overall single point responsibility for all aspects of the feasibility studies/ PFRs.
3.4.3 Associated Organisations
i) Central Electricity Authority (CEA)
Central Electricity Authority (CEA), an attached office of the Ministry of Power and a Statutory Body of the Govt. of India constituted under Section 3(1) of the Electricity (Supply) Act, 1948, has been associated with hydro power development in the country for last five decades. CEA has contributed significantly to the development of Hydro power and possesses comprehensive expertise like hydro power planning, power potential studies, project appraisal, design and engineering, construction monitoring etc. CEA also facilitates various organisations in design and engineering of the projects, wherever asked for. With its vast expertise and huge data bank, CEA has been over-viewing the entire power sector in statutory/ regulatory as well as developmental roles. Besides, it is also rendering technical assistance in Water Resources Development of neighbouring countries of Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar etc. for mutual benefits. Having completed the first hydro potential survey during 1953-59 and re-assessment of hydro potential during 1978-87, CEA carried out ranking study for 399 potential sites (1,07,000 MW) in Oct., 2001. 13
Role of CEA during PFR preparation is outlined below :
· To facilitate the Consultants by making available the requisite input data for studies. · Review/ vetting of conceptual planning. · Review/ vetting of Power Potential studies and Sizing of Power Plant. · Information on the nearest grid/substation. (based on power system studies) · Vetting of Power evacuation arrangement.
ii) Central Water Commission (CWC)
CWC, an attached office of the Ministry of Water Resources, has been undertaking the works of Survey & Investigation for various Water Resources Development projects, such as Hydro-electric, Irrigation, Flood control and Multi-purpose River Valley projects since 1971-72. CWC alongwith CEA have prepared DPRs for a number of HE Projects in India and neighbouring countries of Bhutan and Nepal. For carrying out survey & investigation, CWC has a number of field offices and is having full back-up of specialised Design Directorates located in New Delhi. The role/ responsibility of CWC during PFR preparation is outlined below:
· To make available the requisite input data to the Consultants · Review/ vetting of water availability · Vetting of Preliminary layout of the project
iii) Geological Survey of India (GSI)
The Geological Survey of India (GSI), one of the oldest Central Government Departments, caters to the requirements of various organisations for engineering geological services for different types of projects all over the country and abroad. It has been the pioneering agency in the field of systematic engineering geological investigations since the inception of this kind of work in the country in the early fifties. Regional and Operational Centres of the GSI are spread over the whole of country. These engineering geological units of GSI have a strong back-up of allied and peripheral specialized services (Geological Mapping, Landslide, Seismo-tectonics, Environmental Geology, Remote Sensing, Petrology, Geo-physics, Geo-chemistry, Drilling etc.), which are considered crucial for a meaningful engineering geological assessment of any project. In addition, all the engineering geological units of the Deptt. are well equipped with geo-technical laboratories, basically for determination of lab-based rock and soil strength parameters. On request from owner agencies, the Deptt. takes up geological investigations of the projects after including them in its Annual Programmes. For preparation of PFRs, GSI would provide inputs on Regional and site specific geological aspects in respect of main civil structures of HE projects.
iv) Survey of India (SOI)
SOI is one of the oldest Central Government Departments catering to the requirements of various organisations for services in the field of Surveys. It is a pioneer agency in the field of carrying out systematic surveys since inception. Survey of India would facilitate the Consultants in the following areas of PFRs preparation.
· Maps/topo sheets covering the area of identified HE projects and its catchment. · Permission for undertaking digitization work of maps/topo sheets.
v) National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA)
NRSA, an organisation of Department of Space, Govt. of India is the apex organisation for study of Satellite based Remote Sensing Data in the country. 14
The Water Resources Group of NRSA is fully equipped to make use of space technology using satellite and aerial remote sensing and plays an important role in aerial mapping and scientific assessment of ground condition at a speed which none of other survey methods can provide. This technology is ideally suited for inaccessible mountainous regions where majority of balance hydro potential sites are located. CEA has made use of the satellite based evaluation of land use data of NRSA for carrying out Preliminary Ranking Study of Indus Basin in 2001. For the purpose of preparation of PFRs of Hydro Electric Projects the consultants would make use of Satellite Imageries and data for studies of Environmental and R & R aspects etc.
vi) Indian Meteorological Department (IMD)
IMD monitors the rainfall for the whole country at sub-division and districts level on near real time mode. IMD prepares rainfall statistics for 35 meteorological sub divisions comprising 424 meteorological Distts. of the country. For the purpose of preparation of PFRs, inputs in the form of rainfall data from rain gauge station network in the concerned river basin of the project would be obtained by consultants from IMD.
National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Ltd. (NHPC)
The National Hydroelectric Power Corporation is Schedule ‘A’ Enterprise of the Government of India with authorized share capital of Rs. 100,000 million. NHPC has emerged as a major organization for hydro power development in India, with capabilities to undertake all the activities from conceptualization to commissioning in relation to setting up of hydro projects. With an investment base of over Rs.1,58,000 million, it is ranked amongst top companies in the country in terms of investment. NHPC has been granted ISO-9001 certificate for its quality systems and ISO - 14001 for environment standard in Corporate office. NHPC has installed capacity of 2,175 MW. It plans to add about 19,000 MW during 10th and 11th Plan periods. It has also executed projects on deposit / turnkey basis. NHPC is registered as Consultant in area of hydro power with World Bank, Asian Development Bank, African Development Bank etc.
Corporate Mission of NHPC is to harness the vast hydro, tidal, wind and geo-thermal potential of the country by covering all aspects of investigation, planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance to produce pollution free and inexhaustible power.
ii). Water and Power Consultancy Services (India) Ltd. (WAPCOS)
WAPCOS is a premier International Consultancy Undertaking of the Government of India. Since 1969, the Organisation has been providing Engineering Consultancy Services including Field Investigations, preparation of Project Reports, Tender Documents with Specifications and Detailed Project Engineering during construction and commissioning stages. WAPCOS carries out studies at the Reconnaissance, Pre-feasibility, Feasibility and Detailed Project Report levels in respect of Micro, Mini, Small, Medium and Major Hydro-electric projects. It has received National as well as International acclaim for consultancy expertise, with successful operations in over 35 countries world-wide as well as throughout India. In recognition of consistent excellence in performance, Government of India has accorded on WAPCOS the status of “Mini Ratna”.
iii) Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Ltd. (SJVNL)
The Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Ltd. (formerly Nathpa Jhakri Power Corporation Ltd.) was incorporated on May 24, 1988 as a joint venture of the Govt. of India (GOI) and the Govt. of Himachal Pradesh (GOHP) to Plan, Investigate, Organise, Execute, Operate and Maintain Hydro-electric power projects in the 15
Satluj basin in Himachal Pradesh. Present authorised share capital of SJVN is Rs 4500 crores. The equity-sharing ratio of GOI and GOHP is 3:1 respectively. In addition to financial assistance from the World Bank, SJVNL is also being supported by a Consortium of European Banks and the Power Finance Corporation. The 1500 MW, Nathpa Jhakri Hydro-electric Power Project (the largest underground Hydro-electric Power Project in the country) is the first project undertaken by SJVNL which on commissioning will generate 6950 MU annually and would provide 1500 MW of valuable peaking power to the Northern Grid. SJVNL is also planning to take up the execution of more projects in Satluj river basin in Himachal Pradesh during the 10th and 11th Plan periods.
iv) Karnataka Power Corporation Limited (KPCL)
KPCL is a Govt. of Karnataka Undertaking and succeeds the Mysore Power Corporation Limited of 1970 (a successor to the Hydro Electric Construction Department of Mysore State). From an installed capacity of 746 MW (1970) to 4003 MW (2001); from a revenue of Rs. 1.3 million (1971) to Rs. 19430 million (2001) it has been a long, rewarding journey for KPCL. KPCL has attained widespread experience in HE planning, investigation, design, execution and effective operation of large power projects. KPCL has a dedicated workforce of 7700 professionals who share the vision of KPCL to give more power to Karnataka/ India. KPCL is also offering its services for development of various Irrigation and Power Projects from concept to commissioning through its Consultancy and Engineering Services Division.
v) North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Ltd. (NEEPCO)
North Eastern Electric Power Corporation Ltd. (NEEPCO) was incorporated on 2nd April, 1976 as a wholly owned Govt. of India Enterprise under Ministry of Power to Plan, Promote, Investigate, Survey, Design, Construct, Generate, Operate and Maintain power stations in the N.E. Region. NEEPCO with its concerted and vigorous efforts has remained the most dependable power utility in meeting the power requirement of N.E. Region. NEEPCO is meeting more than 50% of the power requirement of N.E. Region. The Corporation has successfully started exporting surplus power outside the N.E. Region. NEEPCO has completed 4 nos. of hydro electric projects aggregating to 730 MW and 3 nos. of HE Projects aggregating to 685 MW are under implementation. In addition, NEEPCO is taking up 7 nos. of new HE Projects aggregating to 2240 MW for execution. NEEPCO have also completed 2 nos. gas based thermal projects aggregating to 375 MW and 1 no. gas project of 280/ 500 MW is under development.
vi) Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board (HPSEB)
The HPSEB was formed in the year 1971 in accordance with the provision of Electricity Supply Act (1948). Earlier electric supply of the state of Himachal Pradesh in 1948 was available only in the Capitals of the erstwhile princely states and the connected load at the time was less than 500 kW. The first electrical division was formed in Aug., 1953 under the Public Works Department. Subsequently a department of M.P.P. & Power was formed in April, 1964 after realizing the need for exploiting the substantial hydel potential available in the river basins. After the formation of the HPSEB in the year 1971, all functions of the Department of Multi-purpose projects, Power such as generation, execution of hydro electric projects except function of flood control and minor irrigation were transferred to the Board. Since then HPSEB has made long strides in executing the targets entrusted to it and at present is fully competent in organisation and has the requisite infrastructure to take up execution of Power Projects. 16
vii) Uttaranchal Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited (UJVNL)
UJVNL is a wholly owned corporation of the Government of Uttaranchal and was set up for managing hydro power generation at existing power stations and development, promotion of new hydro projects with the purpose of harnessing, the known and yet to be known, hydro power resources of the State. Today, UJVNL operates hydro power plants ranging in capacity from 0.2 MW to 240 MW totalling up to 1124.26 MW. UJVNL have recently resumed construction of Maneri Bhali St.-II (304 MW) for completion in 10th Plan. UJVNL have taken up work of preparation of uprated and bankable DPRs of Pala Maneri (416 MW), Bowla Nand Prayag (132 MW), Arakot Tiuni (70 MW) and Tiuni Palasu (42 MW). UJVNL is committed to develop its huge hydro power resources in an early and efficient manner for economic well-being and growth of the State and its people. With rising hydro power generation and improving efficiencies in distribution of electricity, UJVNL also hopes to offer energy at stable prices for eco-friendly industrial development.
3.6 Summary of the PFRs entrusted to the Consultants
Name of Organisation No. of Schemes Total Installed Capacity (MW)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
WAPCOS NP HC NEEPCO HPSEB SJVNL KPCL UJVNL
7 1 4 3 1 8 1 0 2 5 1 3
17419 21345 4915 1685 2065 80 3 2301
Statewise and Consultantwise details of schemes are given at Annex -II.
3.7 Review Mechanism
The institutional arrangement for reviewing the progress of PFRs preparation would be as under:
3.7.1 Coordination Committee
The Coordination Committee, headed by Member (Hydro), CEA with representatives from organisations responsible for providing the input data viz. CEA, CWC, GSI, SOI & NRSA to the Consultants would be set up. The committee would ensure mutual data exchange and oversee formulation of PFRs. The committee would also undertake monthly review of the inputs to be given to various consultants and formulate the programme for making available the data in a systematic manner so as to complete the PFRs in scheduled time frame.
3.7.2 Advisory Committee
An Advisory Committee headed by Chairman, CEA with representatives from CEA, CWC, GSI, MOEF, IMD, SOI & NRSA would be set up. The committee would undertake quarterly review of the progress of the PFRs and formulate the programme for completion of PFRs in schedule time frame after considering feed back from 17
Consultants, and report the same to the Ministry of Power. Following would be the monitoring mechanism for preparation of PFRs.
· Consultants to submit monthly progress reports to CEA. · Chairman, CEA would hold monthly reviews. · Quarterly reviews by Secretary (Power). 3.7.3 Deliverables/ Outputs with Schedules
The work of PFRs preparation is to be completed in a period of 18 months with effect from April, 2003 in an evenly distributed manner to ensure that the last draft report is submitted by the end of July, 2004 and the final reports of all the schemes are submitted by Sept., 2004.
4.0 Implementation of Projects
Advance action taken under this initiative will enable implementation of these projects during 11th and 12th Plans period (years 2007-2017). Implementation agencies viz. PSUs, State utilities and other organizations will be identified to develop these projects.
REGIONWISE/ STATEWISE RESULTS OF PRELIMINARY RANKING STUDY
Category Region/ State NORTHERN A Nos MW B Nos. MW C Nos. MW Total Nos. 45 35 64 1 145 5 13 13 1 32 6 17 13 5 41 5 7 3 21 36 22 11 7 10 89 6 145 399 MW 9513 9492 11329 39 30373
Jammu & Kashmir Himachal Pradesh Punjab Haryana Rajasthan Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh
Sub Total (NR) WESTERN
1 2 1 3 1
4114 1726 3 9
3 2 1 9 5 0 101
6218 2593 9003 17814
1 3 4 1 18
3295 2785 60 0 6680
Madhya Pradesh Chhattisgarh Gujarat Maharashtra Ga o
Sub total (WR) SOUTHERN
3 4 4 11 -
13 4 31 3 32 4 816 -
2 9 9 20
13 0 1851 1563 3517
2182 1905 55 4388 2460 2357 1127 288 6232 889
Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Tamilnadu
Sub Total (SR) EASTERN
4 1 1
75 6 3 5 9 0
2 1 3 5 20
1695 1562 54 4 3801
3 8 4
70 6 53 8 18 9
Jharkhand Bihar Orissa West Bengal Sikkim
Sub Total (ER) NORTH EASTERN
2 2 1 0
23 2 13 3 1982
2 7 1 1
40 8 1667 1371
1 1 2
16 8 2505 2691
1667 2638 3353 8547 2159 2241 388 1392 49126 2064 57370 106910
Meghalaya Tripura Manipur Assam Nagaland Arunachal Pd Mizoram
Sub Total (NER) ALL INDIA
2 3 3 2 3 1 41 98
18 7 15 3 27 4 11 1 5047 5718 15641
1 6 5 3 4 5 5 3
1316 35 3 18 0 21 5 38999 14 9
4 3 1 4 3 3
65 6 1771 3 3 1030 5080 1870
WAPCOS No. of Schemes IC (MW) No. of Schemes IC (MW) IC No. (MW) of Schemes No. of Schemes IC (MW) IC (MW) No. of Schemes No. of Schemes IC (MW) NEEPCO HPSEB SJVNL KPCL UJVNL Total No. of Schemes IC (MW)
STATEWISE /CONSULTANTWISE BREAKUP OF SCHEMES FOR PREPARATION OF PRELIMINARY FEASIBILITY REPORTS
IC No. (MW) of Schemes
1 2 4 6 2 9 3 9 4 2 6 3 7 1 17419 1 8 1870 4915 4073 1 0 1188 3 90 7 1685 2 1490 47 0 1780 2065 25 0 5 5 1621 80 3 80 3 1 0 1685 2 2065 50 8 1 3 1 3 3500 1 5 3945 6 0 -
20 3 2301
4 2 4 1 2 1 3 5 2 9 3 9 1 3 4 1 0 19 3 3 12 6
76 0 25690 50 8 3750 2981 80 3 25 0 1780 47 0 1490 6 0 90 7 1188 1680 6374 1870 50560
Jammu & Kashmir
1 Meghalaya 0
1 Madhya Pradesh 1
1 Nagaland 2
1 Orissa 3
1 Sikkim 4
1 Uttaranchal 5
1 Mizoram 6
List of Schemes for PFRs by WAPCOS
Sl.No Name of the Scheme State River Basin IC(MW)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 0 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 9 5 0 5 1
Dummagudem Singareddi Pondugala Hutong Kalai Nugur-II Nugur-I Kotri Duniadhin Ratle Ujh Kwar Kiru Shamnot Bichlari Barapole-II Perinjakutty Kunghara Ghargaon Samda Kasari-I Kadvi Kumbhi-i Hiranyakeshi-II Pranhita Wainganga Nungliban Khongnem Chakha-II Pabaram Sushen Umjaut Umduna Kynshi-II Umiam Umtru-VI Nongkolait Mawblei Storage Kyanshi Storage I Umangot Storage Baljori Khartoli Lumti Talli Harsil Dam Nelang Jadh Ganga Karmali Gangotri Kalika Dantu MapangBogudyar
Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Chattisgarh Chattisgarh Chattisgarh Chattisgarh Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Kerala Kerala Maharashtra Maharashtra Maharashtra Maharashtra Maharashtra Maharashtra Maharashtra Maharashtra Maharashtra Manipur Manipur Manipur Meghalaya Meghalaya Meghalaya Meghalaya Meghalaya Meghalaya Meghalaya Meghalaya Meghalaya Orissa Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal
Godavari Godavari Krishna Luhit Luhit Indravati Indravati Godavari Sone Chenab Ravi Chenab Chenab Chenab Chenab Varahi - Kuttiyadi Perinjakutty Godavari Godavari Godavari Kasari Vama Krishna Vedganga Pranhita/Maharashtra Godavari Barak & Others Barak & Others Barak & Others Barak & Others Barak & Others Barak & Others Barak & Others Kalang Barak & Others Barak & Others Barak & Others Barak & Others Baitarni Sarda Bhagirathi Jadhganga Jadhganga Jadhganga Bhagirathi Sarda Sarda
30 6 20 5 9 5 90 5 2550 20 7 10 6 7 0 8 0 55 1 9 6 40 4 25 9 20 0 7 5 8 5 10 2 15 1 15 0 9 5 25 1 25 1 10 7 45 0 30 1 10 5 8 5 9 0 22 3 10 5 8 5 9 5 15 7 15 4 10 8 10 0 25 9 25 6 33 9 15 0 30 5 10 9 10 1 10 9 7 0 10 4 15 8
List of Schemes for PFRs by WAPCOS
Sl.No Name of the Scheme State River Basin IC(MW)
5 2 5 3 5 4 5 5 5 6 5 7 5 8 5 9 6 0 6 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 6 6 7 6 8 6 9 7 0 7 1
Sela Urthing Sirkari Bhyol Rus Bagar Sobala Jhimrigoan Sirkari Bhyol Bogudiyar Chhanger Chal Rishi Ganga II Bokang Bailing Deodi Rishi Ganga I Jalem Tamak Malari Jhelam Devasari Dam Khasiyabara GarbaTawaghat Gohana Tal Garjia Dam Kakjam Lunglang Storage Boinu Storage Bhaironghati
Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Mizoram Mizoram Mizoram Uttaranchal
Sarda Sarda Sarda Sarda Sarda Rishiganga Sarda Rishiganga Rishiganga Dhauliganga Dhauliganga Pindar Sarda Sarda Birahiganga Sarda Barak&Others Barak&Others Barak&Others Bhagirathi
15 6 15 4 15 4 20 4 15 4 6 5 15 4 6 5 15 1 10 5 9 0 7 8 20 8 15 9 9 5 25 9 55 4 60 9 65 3 6 0
List of Schemes for PFRs by HPSEB
Sl.No Name of the Scheme State River Basin IC(MW)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0
Jangi Thopan Gharopa Luhri Gondhala Khoksar Bardang Chhatru Seli Sach Khas Tidong-I
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh
Sutlej Beas Sutlej Chenab Chenab Chenab Chenab Chenab Chenab Sutlej
40 1 8 5 45 2 9 0 8 0 15 4 10 4 10 5 7 0 9 0
List of Schemes for PFRs by SJVNL
Sl.No Name of the Scheme State River Basin IC(MW)
Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh
45 2 1640
List of Schemes for PFRs by NHPC
Sl.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 0 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 4 0 4 1 4 2 4 3 NameoftheScheme Hegio Emini Amulin Agoline Rigong Kurung Dam-II Tato-II Oju-II Attunli Naba Emra-II Etalin Naying Oju-I Niare Emra-I Minnying Elango Duimukh Storage Mirak Hirong Malinye Mihumdon Demwe Kurung Dam-I Hatian Chenari Karkit Kanyunche Khalsi Takmaching Dumkhar Basania Panan Namlum Dikchu Rangyong Lingza Rukel Rongni Storage Jedang Ringpi Teesta St. I Sae tt Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Madhya Pradesh Sikkim Sikkim Sikkim Sikkim Sikkim Sikkim Sikkim Sikkim Sikkim Sikkim RiverBasin Subansiri Dihang-Dibang Dihang-Dibang Dihang-Dibang Dihang-Dibang Subansiri Dihang-Dibang Subansiri Dihang-Dibang Subansiri Dihang-Dibang Dihang-Dibang Dihang-Dibang Subansiri Subansiri Dihang-Dibang Dihang-Dibang Dihang-Dibang Subansiri Dihang-Dibang Dihang-Dibang Dihang-Dibang Dihang-Dibang Dihang-Dibang Subansiri Jhelum Jhelum Indus Indus Indus Indus Indus Narmada Tista Tista Tista Tista Tista Tista Tista Tista Tista Tista
IC(MW) 20 5 25 9 25 3 25 3 10 3 15 1 30 6 2580 15 7 1290 80 7 3045 45 9 1925 1405 25 7 15 9 10 8 10 7 10 6 10 8 35 3 15 4 3000 20 0 25 1 45 7 10 9 15 0 10 7 7 5 10 3 6 0 20 3 15 7 9 0 15 7 10 6 9 0 9 5 15 8 10 6 30 2
List of Schemes for PFRs by NEEPCO
Sl.No Name of the Scheme State River Basin IC(MW)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8
Bhareli Lift Dam-II Bhareli Lift Dam-I Kapak Leyak Badao Pakke Seba Chanda Kimi Kameng Bichom-II Papu Talong Utung Tenga Bichom Storage-I Yangnyu Stor. Tizu Dikhu Dam
Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Nagaland Nagaland Nagaland
Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng Kameng U.Brahmaputra Barak & Others U.Brahmaputra
30 3 20 4 15 9 10 2 10 2 15 0 10 1 55 3 1100 25 0 10 6 10 5 10 1 25 7 10 9 15 3 35 6 40 7
List of Schemes for PFRs by UJVNL
Sl.No Name of the Scheme State River Basin IC(MW)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3
Tapovan Chunar Lata Tapovan Bhela Tipri Nand Prayag Langasu Tamak Lata Khet Tawaghat Urthing Sobala RamgangaDam Pindar Ghati Arkot Tuini(Nakoti Plasu) Jakhol Sankri Bagoli Dam Naitwar Mori
Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal
Dhauliganga Dhauliganga Bhagirathi Alaknanda Dhauliganga Sarda Sarda Sarda Pindar Yamuna Yamuna Pindar Yamuna
45 8 30 2 10 0 10 8 20 0 25 2 30 4 7 5 12 1 7 0 6 0 6 4 7 0
List of Schemes for PFRs by KPCL
Sl.No Name of the Scheme State River Basin IC(MW)
1 2 3 4 5
Kali Nadi-III (Mardi) Krishnapur Gangavali-II Jaldurg Narayanpur
Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka
Mandavi - Sharavati Mandavi - Sharavati Mandavi - Sharavati Krishna Krishna
15 7 20 1 15 0 20 7 7 0