D a n a h a mKa m m o r sp ie l Gr 's

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Dan Graham's KammersPiel
(andpossibly unrealizable ) proiectAlteldDan Grahamt unrealized almost a tionto a S'b fian Ho'se (1978),generates hallucinatorv, rneans a historicalcritiqueof conceptual of irnageby Expression;st whichfusestogether isthe discourse arr. lnthiswork, conceptualism tropesof this centurv (the resonantarchitectural threeof the most into houseand the suburbantract house) glass the skyscraper, glass and of expression apocalypse historicaltragedv. a monumental In 1978, when the denunciationof conceptualart beganto be nrrci$r{rc rnd ot by openly arti.ulared advo{rre\ nes rubiecrive. frankly commercialattitudes,Graham constructeda profoundly cxpressive work on the basisof conceptu.lism.At a momentwh€n elementin art' once of suppression th€ expressiv€ conceptualism's as is decried the soufce radicalathievement, seen the movement's as methods conceptual Grahamtransformed of its failureand collapse, from them. conclusions into their opposites, drawing unexpected a These embodiedin rheAlterutiotlptoiect,suggest new conclusions, of theemergen.e I new hstoricalmoment regard conceprualart. ro in period in its inrerpr€ration and its historicalsignificance critiqueol art. Grahambegins from the failureofconceptualisrn's and Burhi\ inrenrion not ro celebr;re farlure rhrowawry rhe thar i\

Dan Gtuha\, Abetuti.,l ta a Stburbin Horse, 1978, naquerre.photo: courresy Dan Grahlm ol

lessons ofthe radicalan ofthe 1960sin a theatricalized revivaloftbe myth of aurhenticity. Rather,he intendswith the Alte/ation prcject to build a critical memorialto that failure.In the very spirit of the movement memorialized. builds it as a counrc he In developingthe Aberation proje4, craham beginsfrom a distressed recognitionof conceptualism's failure of its own aim, which wasto rebuildartfrom itscoreourward. He reflectsuponthe forc€sunleashed art by that failufe, and his arristiclanguage a in as wholeemerges from his struggle within thecrisisofradical modern ism, exemplifiedfor his generation conceprual by art. r,J0har rhe is cont€ntof this norion ofcrisis? Conceprualism intensif andclarifiedaaitudes ied developed the by pair of artistic movementswhich emergedfrom the decline of Abstract Expressionism a CultureIndustrysefting.TheMinimalisr in zulthe Popartisrsbased themselves a repudiation on ofthe exrravagant inwardness ofth€ Forties generarion.Both groupsstressed the impingement ofth€ divisionoflabour upon the imageofrhe unified and organicartisric process taken over by AbstractExpressionism from its European sources. Bothwere'Consrructivist' this regard, in and therefore implicitly re opened arristicargument an which char acterized earlydecades the ofthis century.That arsument devetoped aroundthe/orz art would takeassociety wasliberared frorn therule of capitalism, then seen be in its 'd€ath agony'. Bur the common to aspectof Pop and Minimal art which most affectedthe younger artisrswho became 'conceptual' was precisely two's inability ro the freethemselves from the socialaloofness emotnrnal and indifference characteristic post,194JAmericanaft, as €xpressed of aboveall in Gr€enbergian forrnalism(rhe instirutionalorthodoxy of rhe corpora tizedart business). M;nimalism's suburba ascericisrn nire and thesmirkingironies ofPoprepresentationalism took on theaura each ofserenityimposed from above, culturaI 'normalization,. of charac

by asseen th€voungartists terisric ofCold Warandcorporateculture upheaval May'58 ConcePtualarr and inspiredbythe anti'Vietnam with theseart and from the disappointm€nt dissatisfaction emerged the socialforc€sand ideaswhich had movements over the fact that and antimechanisti€ beenstirred and rcvivedby the aggressively n€w art, did not extendinro the kind of aspects the of expressive desiredwithin the radically explosiveand disruptive expr€ssion the conceptualists, culturalshock of culturalNewLeft. In theeyes the given onlvto rse Popart hdd.by rhelate60<. of effects Minimaland versionof the art-commodity. a new, more compl€xand distressed its Thrs guilt ridden commoditycould do no rnorethan dramarize ofsu.plus value as source and marginalcharacter own problematic form.' and as transcendent to there is a reversion an of In this process self-dramatization, dilemmaofEurop€anrnodernism.The problem earlier,unresolved or disappoinred frustrated of rheanisticcritiqueof socialunfreedom iherebyinro monumenr.rl by polu,..rldi'a'tersand rranstormed (ratherthan breakingthrough emblems ofsocial and spiritualcrisis liberation)was the problemfacedby all the great into symbolizing upheaval modernrnovements the 'heroic'periodof revolutionarv of (1905-25).Asth€ sombrehistoryof AbstractExpr€ssionism shows' and most as was enshrined the highest thb rragic emblematicism sublimevaluein the'triumph of Americanpainting'.The liberaring of shmk of the assaultof Pop and Minimal an on the enclosur€s and earlierwork was aggravated turnedin a morecritical direction of by the subsequent spectacle the greatRauschenbergs, Juddsand Flavins taking their plac€s in museumsalongsidethe Picabias' of Lissirzkys and Rothkos. This re-awakening critical historical of thousht in the art of the 1950scorrodesthe legirimacy the very aris most directly. Conceptual works which initiated the process the centralinrentis ofcourseto interrogate basisofthat legitimacy.

in The questionthus posedwas: "What is the process which the socially,but transmuted into sublime crisisis not .esolved culru.al fixation upon immobilizedsymbolsand fetish€s?" of resumed aspects the Onceagain- and herethe conceptualists of terms Surrealist-Constructivist of cririque- the styles modernart because the institutionsfor which they are seento of are aaacked modern faqade.Conceptualart interrogates form a kind ofessential which produce sryles, typesofobject, art asa complexofinstitutions art terms,of ratherrhanquestioning in the academies' anddiscourse, works of art first and foremost. outsidethe c.itical contextin This interrogationis inconceivable The political upheavals the of which conceptualism developed. traditionsand meth1950sprovideda fissure rhroughwhich ideas, return to the cultural ods ofcritical thoughtcould makea dramatic and and by field,as they had beensuppressed discredited anathema periodwhich witnessed collapse the ofliberationist terrorduringthe and saw the rise of ideals that animated Europeanrnodernisrn totalitarianregimes the 1930s. in In general, conceptual drawsits th€mes, art strategies content and politicizedcultural cririque indentifiedbroadly with the from the New Le{t. The assault the institutions art takesup, on the one of on and hand,the revivalof FrankfurtSchoolideasof the encirclement falsificationof avanr-garde culture and its traditional critical consciousness the Culture Industry, and on the orher hand, upon by Situationist strat€gies guerillaactivism,which found their most of complere expression inrhe student revoltsof 1968. Thus,in a sense, stemfrom the historicalcharacter and limitationsof conceptualism its inrellectual and politicallocationmid-waybetween Dialectic the of Enligbtenmentand the Soaz4, of the Specta.le. That is, it is position, between acerbicdefeatism the ofthe Adorno-Horkheirner which sees as a transcendent art concretion and emblemofexisring

anarchismof Debord's indignant unfreedom,and the desperare cultural terrorism. The actualworks of art which organizethem selvesmostdeliberatelyaroundthisdynamic,displayitsdualtendenin ofN€w toward politicalimmediacy the sense ci€s. They struggle Left activism and the 'productivist' desirefor resolutionof social conflict, for a break or leap. Ar the sametime, they tend toward and ruinaofthe culturaldilemmaof the falsifi€ation concretization it mimicking that ruinatioq ref-lecting in th€ir own tion of art by ofradical conceptualism The functionalistic and activisticaspect to arrempts break the viciouscircle of falsificationin a dialectical ofso in inversion, which hasits directprecedents the reductivism one the much 60s art. This reductivismernphasized work of arCs is the direct precondition for the to resemblance non-art and of 'dematerialization' rhe work of art into critical language.The from embleniatics a directlycriticalanddiscursive to transformation qentralachievement. is form of expression conceptualism's is developedwithin conceptualism conThe critical language from the discourses publicity,iournalism,academicisrn, of srructed and architecture. Artists like Graham,Bur€n, \l(/eineror Kosuth ofpower as ofsitingtheeffects understand architecture the discourse in the city. generated publicity, information and bureaucracy by criiical or analytical White conformingto the idea of ernphasizing language rhe antipodeto the isolated,auratic art object,these as object(thusformulating artists treatthislanguagenotas theoretical a but a treatise a work ofart, asdid Art Language), rathe. in terms as in of its physicality, modes ofproduction andenforcement th€ urban of arena. rhr, way.conrepru.:li.m parucrparedrhedevelopmenr in In theNew L€ft'scririqueof academicism's publicity's interdepend' and ence.The insight conceptualism madeexplicir in many works was (having that both th€ universitysystemand the mediamonopolies

ideasdurrrg the Cold Wlr pcrbd) beenpurgedof socially'critical lor primarysupport systems newart inthesameprccess h,rdbecome ucratic in wereinscribed a complexo f burca rnwhichtheythemselvcs cognitive of authority and knowledgewhose essential stnrctures structure onecouldalmosrsaytheir cpistemology is publicity. a of this art, Kosuth'sfo. example,prescnts The bcst-appreciated disc imageof the instrumentalized lue free'academic i 'v: condensed (empiricist sociol of American!ypeunive.sities pllncscharacrerirtic phil(,sophy)in f('m the ogi-,informationtheory,positivistlanguage n lq6u \ h tshLorporrre buRau,rrric de\ign. or (bnceptualism's the self-consciously exhibirionstrategy Prcs€nts con1plex whosearchitec the instirurional systennuseum-gallery by nrnl look was foregrounded Minimalism- asthe crucialarena from rhe straregyof of this new synthesis. This rc inscparable TV and .rppropriaringexisting mediA forns such as magazines, rhe kinship with l'}{)pis eviden!.However, billboards. In ,rll this, the to Pop, concepiu:lism attcmpts incriminate art business.ls unlike produc ofaesthetic throughwhich a corporatization themechanism as tion .rndrhoushtis bcingcarriedout. This is understood a social of the crirical rnd political crisisin art in which crucial elemcnts l,qu,drred. rr.rJrr''r. of r',Jirni'm Jre be,ns 'Ihe srrategies ofGraham, Burenor Kosuthare,eachin their own r'.rv, inforrned(throughrhe issues raisedby the institutionalization drawnfrom of MiniDalism Pop)by combination ofconcepts the aDd the Frankfurt Schooltradition with relaled,historicist, critiquesof in urbanism.This combinationtook the form of linked studies the ot dcvelopmcnt stateand scientificinstitutions(as mechanisrns of socialpower and control) and research into the merhodsof siting these of institurions wirhin the moderncity (or, moreaccurately, the rebuildingofthc moderncity in termsofthc strategic siringof these instirutions).In Graham\ case,theseareasof thought are most
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presses s encingof the Construdivistid€al.whoseeffectis preciselyto demarcate historical the . thearricalized ma of the is objecC theresulr. The spectatorwas subjected it as he in 'normal' sociallife' in publicityand commands relationto obiects rhis cririquerecognized theathand.imptieda sociatcommentary by handingoverrhefabricarion ofhis work ro p roiessrona Burar rhe ls. So.the response theconceptualisr of critiquewastwofold andcontradiciory.In thc atmosphere risingsocial 'ot conflictwhichchara. endeavoured abov€all to cometo rermswirh its aLtste.rcialdornination thcm ln this process. veryconcrete 'p.issismand ferishistic I Conceptuaart as antr in of status art obiects general.objecthood. The space of held open by rhis absence freedomis then occupiedby the mute of Minimal object.Thus. for example.Conceptual value imposedupon them by wirh the realeconomic responst the clashofits politicalfanrasi€s to conditrrnsofthe art world marksout its historicallimit ascritique of Itspoliticalfantasy curbs ils€lfatrheboundary marketeconomv' within capitalism Thc struggle transcend commodity-form the to is an . But thereis a negative ofrhis avant gardeutopianbmwhich must sspect be accounted for. bur was conco'tedas a eilmit of courst to havinga tubjecC at all). forexampte. recognition thecapitalist 'ket is the insight rs thc foundationofall fortnsofdomination in culture in rvbichcould be sustained the conditionsof enormousinllation the characterizing period beginningin the earlv TOs Speculative.by means ofhis crilical wrirings.e elegant and archit€cturalconraindrs.term).rhe conceptualist itn the other phvsical art-form at ricaleffectashavingcreated leastan up to'date rvhich implied' (howeverinvoluntarilv and indifferendv)concepts of the between experience art and the experi rbout thc relationship Theseconceptswere rapidlv turned cnce of s. same time. it Nevertheless. was to to rheatricaleffect. of reductivistart accornplished only the reproducion of alienation as subi€ct andanxicty. agrinstthe art which had helpedto stimulate were identifiedwith rhe r€gr€ssion nrr. (historically is speaking) shockof unfulfiJled the promises freedom. he of posired thework asan irreducible. glamourizerhem by meansof a self ro drarnatizingacquiescence. Minimalism'scriticspromptlyrecosnized theresDlting exhibitionisrn ofthe works asa symptomofrheir actual social redudion to the rnysrifiedstate of a commodiry soliciting tetishization.It sawthat anxietywasnot reallvconstiruted a could not of of the work (which because its bondswirh formalisrn.ir grasped facttharthe the exhibirionistic.terized momenroftheinventionol concep that .Judd.ting attenrionro rhe effects rhe divisionof labour.heinsulated resuhing rhe objectfrom thevery same socialdiscor:rse mea of ninghe invokedby dire.However.d rhe social considerarions it in.on.ited and which acruallysustained as imporranrart.adict.€ssive passiviry and stylishindiffer_ encetoward the spectator evoked{eeiings alienationand dehu_ of manrzatron reminiscenr ofthoseexperienced everyday in life.This . irflaoon-driven capital enclosedand reorganizedthe art world' driving up the priceson a broad front Thus the antispectacularly (to were'absorbed'and'nesated' usethe objecrs conceptualisrn of bv Marcusian termsofthe period)ascriticalint€rvention the auraot arfs feeble speculation.es€nce' (Morris.reductivisrn'was thencriticizedfor its armored rnwardDess and indifferencetowa. N:nely. ex.and the celebrated the experiential shockprovokedby a Morris. in this light. reductivistrendenciesformedaprimaryfascination rn the 50s becaDse rhey resultedin th€ production of austere and rnechanistic objectswhos€agg. voidwh. the role of this fantasyof rranscendence of wasof rn idcal to be realized. The Minjrnal object.objecthood.dealand. On theone hand. at besr.carriessomevalueas a utopian vision. sornewhat ineffabte.architecturalshell and asserrirself as anrith€ticalro constriction.chhasbroughtit inroexisrence. problematic The ot Minimal art is an outcome of this and derivesfrom another cont.

Modernist'arr in the American ua of sense begins fr<m the ideathar rharera is not only . in thisdialecd€. Neither Pop nor conceptualism can posit their social subj€cr_ matr€rin good fairh. card-files are socialsubi€cts presented a recaoitulrres kind of Mallarm6anism: and giventhe authority ofth€ cryPt This hieroglyphs as enigmatic wirh cryPand ofpublicity..r.. toturn owaid and and they wishedto put that process the they reassumed very emPtiness behind them..r y appropnatedas materiat in a strategyof rnimi€ry.. of the id€alof an reflexof rhe traurnaof the collapse. thispersp€dive."cu. exemplary necessary.. rhe ironicallyself.over.pe.. ro Drsptay code.modernism. The implosionof the ideal was rhusthe exacrpreconditionfor the new r6gimein rhe arrworld. g.popism.disillusionment.Communism.r. No ironic socialcontentis considered to be a resid I properry 19l0s arr.upp.l.rmarion rhe rranscenrlence rhe era of capnali* of of crises rhrough rcchnocrari( roulizati. toralrtrn. and its blissfulandciparion rhe ...the uroDian ideal was transformedinto its opposire. bureaucracy acad€micism idenrification of lhe an awarenessof parriciparion bureaucricurrerrn{esexpre\ses an awareness d€ath-machin€' in and universities a corPorate racies of which animaredrhe studentanti-war movemcnt The deadness Kawara' the languag€characterizing work of kwrence Veiner orOn i5 The and is for cxample..'f rnherenrly .rn . . furrher a dudr.n resr8nrtion theiranti-monumentali*m ro of art Vhat is uniqueabout concePtual is i$ reinvention defeatism.nopolies.nceprual the arr accepredforms of instituiionally purified social knowledeeare prLkaged accordrng Jesrgn. €afrom comPlete themselves rescue Howcver. theseemblematics hy prtulrrh.rn Eur. Paradox ically.tualism. This is because they had been led (bv rhe prot€st with ihe movem€nts) onceagainidentifytheir own vanguardism to .of the indifferenc€ alwaysimPlicitin purisiicor formalisticarr' are The grey volumerof conceptuefism filled wtth sombreciPhers r thoughr llv'crrical of socra u hrchexpre* pnmanly inexpres*ibrlrry the Theseartists in theform ofart.type.-. rtt.rn poliricalideas.conscious nonetheless but compulsive submission markeringthat the centra characteristic to is I of the pe.om |tewman to. failureto express lts a't concePtual becomesemblematic' and exprcssron. The of Amerrcan art rs sociat indifferenceof so much post-I945 idealof remoreness at qlmDtomatized leastin part by the aesth€tic Goldstein This is a *t ictr . about the integratedmodernistart which could speak critically realism'ofthenew and Thus. f.*.Thevembodva terriblecontradiction its of attempted break out of the prison-house th€ art business. In this s€nse. sav.J p. In c. *..iod from the mid-7osto the presenr... to sociallife But in burcaucracy architecture.ir is rherefore feeble irnpkied utopianism the or of conceptualism whrch bringsir closero top. and'Fascism'.mulus r.whosedesporicand sedu$iveforms of displayarc copiedto makearr objects." in lt.ronic mimicry of the mechanisms controt and fatsifi_ for cation of informarion and s<rcial knowledge.in irs is ot helplessly. conceptuafism the doppelganger Varhoftypc . wirh rts pror.neo{apitalism') yer moreover! lhat it was nothing bur an abysmalhisroricalaberration produced the clash by .rnd.ur..if Popis theamnesiac cynical'social order' conneo-capiralisi and monopolisticso-called burcaucratic its presentins lorSott€n Symbolism ln art ceptual is irs melancholy its'caskeB'of information'conceptuelart andprint-ours.r.asthepoliricalridebegan itsshiftawayfrom challenge toward retrenchment and rhe rise of contrary cuhural trends.y*emaii.".rheunrealizability ofthis frntasycourd asa utoDran acr Drod andchallenge:{.endof ideoloev.Jack circa 1939.rr. are . 1974.American.(dissolved the by advenr ot post-war . In isrhe rnostcrystalline cukuralreflecrionof the ideaof neo_capitalism.iry. This transformationproduceda collapse ofgreat implosiveforce.

The re-fmerg€nce crircal r. The radical conceptualisrs were rhus s<rcially monified by the reawakened rnoratirnplicationsofth€irown vanguardism. could .ned in rhe hisroricalend Poliricalmemory of modernismafter 1939.on from the 'dead'galleryspace inro billboards.b..Its first loday appears response which b€ganinthe 1960s'wasan tothe politicaluPhcaval in tcchniques an asappropriationof mechanical and commercial and rhe 'dult upon An'. fundamental an's attemP$at a new socialan in thc early 1970's Conceptual which placed must b€ seenin the €oncxt of thesedeveloPmenis.in imiration of earliermod_ of erni\m.t.rdreached irs ofthe late60sand early TOs Thecurr€nt cnd with rhe dollar crises and de*abrlizrtion polilical worldfin.although from dares rh()ugh variousfundingschemcs sufficiently of this basictransformationwere (gen€rally) rhee//e.rnger.rcial srru8gle a wholewasgermrn ingrr rhatrrme. But insofar as it was unableto .in newsoa. therealsoendsthe basis uponinflationary'crcdir'economic ofcontrol in the which all the ruling cl. rhe Exh.in its very immobilization. citv onlv ihe mortifiedremainsofsocialart silenced rhreedecades by of Dolirical 'normalizarion'.rhe\o-called in wrr era. most the op.rncral ol cenod uncontrolhble based Lonfl. Much of the art rhey made lwirh its 'mausoleumlook') is involuntarily expressrve rrs own or setf_ conscious immobilizationbeforethe formsofpower it is compelled In briogingthe romblike aspecr Minimalist exhibidonism of our .The a\ oernd of the stabilizarionof imperialismbehind the U.ethe ^cchan.evenasfailures.ti within the art world until mcdiatedthat they could be ignored assaulton all lh€ social end 'Reaganomics' the wholesale recently.nr serious rhe of modernart.conceprual reflecrs an the em€rgence cenainsignificant of precond irionsfor thed€veloDmen.raee the rhar in s.t soc. in rheserious sens€ rhepasr. and constitutes brsisofborh its radicalism its facultv of historical memorv. thoscartislswished in enormous obstacles the way ofthe directions oftheir artisticformulationofthese to pursue.Nothingin €irheritsacrua of I soc'alconrenr rrsmimericapp€arancecan or reallyestablish anv this l. cru' remains of asp€ct concePtualism This failedand unresolv€d cial. of revolurionaryrdeasrn sociery.ut art inro rh.4r .i erprexionof irsbadconsc.ss'culrural strategi€s Lroon the function' Essentially. itr ruefulrmmohilizanon rn befo. and indicares a ne* . Rarher. which .The emblematicism which they capuulateis prero ciselythat of mordficarion.Conceprualism's displayof these remains onlv can b€exhihrronr5ri.crhad hegun Virh the end of that era of stabilizatron policies.moral n€cessiry politicalopposition. had the m€asured againstthepossibilities movement of r€flection thc gapwhich had incisive are. to and cultural institutionswhich owe their existence the post"war cornbinationof Ncw Deal corPoratismand inflationary public cuhurearc makingicleartharthe cultural presuppostspendingon of rionsof rwo or threeg€ncrations aftistshav€entercda periodof crisis. The failuresof concePtual issues a profoundand decisive is onlyglimpsed.tife.atm of ideasand repres€ntations prosp€riry co-oFation and ot rcrmrnal|on thep€riodof PaPer-mon€v around 1970.ence..on_ ismandpublicdistress therefore f inalindicarors rhis are the thar work isarr at all.sns of falsification oflanguage(underthe perspectrve neo-capitatism) or rurepr€senrs rerminus-po.Arrhesdmenmetheyhrd norbroken wnh rhedomrnantneocapiralist perspective.thc inadequacy art. morat exorcisrn a meaningless outsidea ritualistic senseof arristic heroism..Thus. The movement aboveallas incomplct€. which impliedthafthis srruggle wasa histori_ cal anachronism. one. _ h.posr he8an lr)44.al thought inro currencyin America in the later 1960s.afrer a lona penodof eclipse rupprer:ron. However. pen and ro on .conceprurt carnes.S. do ar.

.ir necessarily preyro rhe v€ry formalismand exhibitionismit had fell begunby exposing(rhoughit managed the process drive rhat in ro k)rmalismro a new levelof inrernaldecornposirion).. By rhe nid-t970s.t''. rrrrhcI'ld id(r of nartonal l"t. Craham.ollapse ofthe wholething. As rhe conceptualisr srrug{al€ hisrorical for memory succumbcd.n*ol rhcperrod ultimatell i.Ncw york School'and of an rtvolutxrnar) anJ counter . By rhe had as mid'1970s.rk-typc canonis. Thislacklustre spectacle.cspecia the ."'r.). had itlentified the central dialectic tn movementtosocialdiscourse tts existingbetween reawakened the dnect impticationof the architecturalcontainer..*n"'" rhe revcrted "-'ii. This lare'lefdst' conceptua wasonly ableto producc lism negatively polemicll.nrc iI rndu'trv' hreache' wrrld culture l"r.f c'rnceprual permined ro freertself and produ'' insgnra de'rgn ."....r':'m .i.3 ously in evokcd arrl repressed th€I rchitectu | Parallels M inimalist Graham structures rhc 'Pop' form of a magazine (in Photo-essav)' also idcntified rhe missingtcrm in the Minimalist evocationof Qtrsrructivism ..t.t of a refinedand rnildly iron. But the issues stakein conceprual ar an. Homesfi. F:veryrhing for8otten.i"...''""'.n "".t AnPi.arrem ptedto extendthepolitica argumenr. Others.1966 .eaucratic ^l ".rpor'rre . ilbe.".. piece Hones for By l9eo.. group..Popism'. n..*rrcrc'rrrl of borb revolutlrnary ur repre'entrt^e theendor .rk hasnot been than lessa blindness ine to a N". in his magazin€ ^fticleof Minimalism as Anerica. Bureaucraric irnmobilization wasabsolurizcd thc drearnress in ofrhe movemenr's final phase.'..' ufln.and i$ residual conformity to New York school pure abstraction Bv ironically simuhane_ elements rcpresentatronal pointingout the 'readymade' of . in this light' rh€ Since ofitscharacter' iind ufd"r. broughtconceptua m faceto lis .. anrithericalculrural forces it wished ro rhe. *n'..**.i'". by proposed Pop and Minimal arq as rhey€merge of the discourses in the cririqueof conccPtualism.prerationof ironic mimicry above all others. Some artists.tc out of which i"..easilyshcdthe final trappingsof historicism and interventionism ind movedinto orthodox commodity production.... fncewith its essenrial nemcsis."' concept.1.. however.inur.successfu .n.everyrhing possible.^t.the economicand socialascendancy Pop had tegnimared rt/arhot's of inte.rntuJli\m\ transccnden'< rhe Ncw intern'rtionrli\mBy the verypremrse' -^. t rnd Mrnim'l arr'o "loselv ith P'rp .'.reinvenr soc.'".. *vle' in rrr' tu '...s collapse mak€ thar movemenr perceprible the crucial axis of rransirion as bctwcen disrraught the quietism the .a.posGconceptoal pluralism'of lare the l9T0sandthebusiness-fetishismof thepastfour or hve years. conceptualism beenencapsulated a . i"* t-l atl the critical theorv of the U*".suchas Tr? Fo.*u" whichDan onethrough tf'o a'lectic ispreciselvthe i. across the whole art market..alconrenr rhrou8h irs srrializarion of technique.gativ€recognition " interroganon ofa work hasconsisted critical Grahxm's mid-196(x.radicalpurism'.u i..the absentrevolutionarvteleologv The 'grey Ovqlcaf: Dan (ifuhim.n..4 c. lnvoluntarily.. rhis led to a fundamental splirin rhe movemenr.* ..l rr( Ncw Y"rk-r)Pc Y'trk m)ihosi\ rhe of .n".c rype.like Barry or Heubler. from ir art t..'*. is is everything is'grert'. "f.ahrm's work hasdeveloped' as accept€d b€k'ng generallv ihc lrct that his w.ir .i.:i:.effectiv€' lly I'and ones.and led to the cruprionofan iesrhctic ofcompulsiveand unrcflecdve rnimicryofall formsof cuhu re. defeatbursrforth with unprecedenred viSorin rh€....'.n"-o.t"" Anen'an c. 'denriiv oncepruah\m erphcirthe mak'* \thrrrl lool ( .M osto f thiswork I krunderedin rhe stcrileacademicism consrituringthe dregsof the Ncw Lefr..* .ru"f"."ture. one whichannounced the..v Y.i. or'self-referential' indictments reiteraring the idea of thcir own unrhinkability as works of art.

r i. ] .rrh!t.Century Possessable House to the Quasi-Discrete Cell of '66 ld|. .lr t tt' rc r* rl P ry h{inid' ' " ' E ri . ! n .i . n\..l|omes lor America Early 2Oth.?lf.^ Ei^bti*r & { -n f u ' -! r! .nd. tr!. 1 .. sl \J ( h \t l \ i ] 'l ] ! 1 .. .. ! . ! t r{ t i a i ql|liL'". -.

brightencd of atmosphere theJohnsian distressins and somewhat grey.r_ rhe nrrrr(k\.keflrsorconsumcr.Ahhough er rremely \uhdued rnJ cv€nrepre\\ed. as virh rhis wotk is to r€vealthe sirucruraltnd hisrorical 'ntcnti(n tsom{trphism Min'mal and Pop art. rre reinvested bv and culnrrc.Nco'I)ida.nufting.t rhcrr. concreteness a scnse rhe delirior. c\ of proJutrion.f t hei. The tcrm wasoblitcrared thc triurnphal by advance of. teavingthe 50s gcnerarbn behindand orawng up.the funct. pur by .hoicc in thesLrburban returns the Minimalisr grid. Upun rhisrtrutrure hi. w..rlrrrrrr .rrr .miotics which is barredfrom accepring abstr.rin facrmarchedrrrumphrlly wer Johnsianmelanch<.'(cupird . grcy ll'j*".This and synrhesis ofrhemosr rrgorous scnse formalisticintrove. rhatofformalism.rh itsmo. of comesrhc lehicle by which meansthe socialsurfaces American with rhe celebrated Pop. thoughtJwellr of ."ri.itjL Ji*r|lrri.ti.r! Borgesian of RoberrSmithson.rt objecrwkh of the ideaofscrndalommechan pri...)fhr\ nr\roflLdtly+pr. !as one of rhe firsr rermstrscdto dcsignate Johns. A scnsc thc rri:tl miservcongtaled .then-recenr ' a of thcdev€lopmenr rract'housins ftc.onsistentl)ovcr thc vcars.ruham pop redA.Iy.' housc. Mininralism.rl rhe rorrts of itsownsignification. in th.trklra.. and for Pop and MIn. last_d :rrtistic rhe irch straregyofself prving.ruton itd rne nBrdlv. covertdercnte with rhe mosrinstitutionalized formsof tn t e56(. rerarned sens€ of a or $dne\srnd fnghrrhour rhB .1d.rtthe. The consequences borh for of trcndsi)f thc repression not dirccdy linked with any parricular are artirudc problems urbrnism of since 1920s.hose o/ I'.hrm$'of Ito'neslot Ah.. l\4ininalismis secnthrough Hones fttr Anelt.trheve\ ge.s conflicr with rhe nrcaning ofthc built €nvironmcnr..r. .rofrhe rigidmimericcrcrnjry ot theReadymade. as a repressed itself as suchbv rts $cirl \.sne<t rn rhegrrm.crion.rterial which appropriNre 1:rr siBDifiers in ptace urbrnism.ur . GrrhamsseDioricand hjsn)rically constructed exposure(f common architectur.l.rble nt archirecturrl rhoushtin rhe po\r wJr er. in relinquishing rhc thc revolu_ tionarysocirl perspective which anirnare<1 Constructivism.nthc decade l9i5-6J or so.f c.rrrkind of magazime as it estsblishes particularform of mimesis both rrs sirips.onaswar-propagandr The text of !esrists(.rbour: dcrried yrci.thpse dnrnclon.rr. Johns'works.rcfl)s\ the absrratt surfacesof the Pop-Nlinimalcoilesccnce'is of rcrrio'cd as Graharnmarksoff rhe affirmativcness both tvpesof rfl.work..edr..ir(r.t hri (..rlrropes wirhin rhe Minimalist rormatcanonreveats iron taw rhat.rrnoiher m.rs r is its clrsest parallel (ind who pl:ryeda part in havins Craham's Horrrsconmissnrned a 'rhink-piece'for ArtsMasazine).n fr.n)alism.vJasperJohns. More importantly.d.rt it mimics Hu*s for copiedcomic Lichlcnstein articlethe wa-v a cen..j:l"l'"* slyre o|.c. popA. rs. Honrs fu Anerica disctsses \(orld lfar IL The insistcnrcomparisonof the new suburb to a combiningiournalistic barrrrks or prisonis articulatedin languagc criham's labyrinthine.orn thecommonor popu m. but in it is preserved element the ofDuchampianAerosrs..rderro prescnt rm:gr an of the mncr.op Ari.wn pdinrinB\. ll)p nnd antirhericalto Pop (in Patt by zot being a rriditional be of this piece 'photojounralism' rrrwork).urfrce. gloomycomforr.. f.e rhc surtaces rerarnsan €lementof hisroricalawareness ro which pop alwaysdisplayeddeeph<)sriliry. ror)sin ldealist a Americais indeed form of Popan.s iliscourse mustassurnedoublc a cmpdness: (h. .'graphyin . l-k)s'ever. ro obiccr rhathistorical dilemrmwhichit is so inbivalenr.dthe political bLrt issue evokcdobliquelyin the unvcilingoftheconsequences thc is or those problemsboth for architcctureitself.or ironic sclf_defear_ em popA(is based upon thr ge\rufti.lism (sustjested isric u by Ducha ) mp had bccn€stiblishedren yearserrticr b..rsly *ith of whoseMonunents texl is.sionof thc.lunereal still cmblems rctained ColdWarerain whichcorporate mid-5(\. thc n)wa.

mamer. asfor manyothervoungarrists'in I 956. This is. rhe ot .raham. r.all articularing them€of the rhar rh€ conceptual cntique 'n indeedhar an inherentsubiecr.udyandbrilliantly in of reprooucion ascty.maner rre hisroricallyessential of mechanisticdomination' as of tothedecipherment this image himself problem to be posedby concepruatism. in remains the city and suburbs. Graham appreciates rhe subtecr.. its own time anddoesnot pose of .This invesrigation rd€as' tor detear\ liberationist rureJ rmrll.r. inducinga 'mini'crisis'for of bourgeois seif{onscious_ n€ss)and the social machineas a whole thar they €rcate This the readcror viewer by meansof the inversions reproduces rhis dis_ traughtconsciousness rheprocess its own in Detunescence stratesy.throughaseriesofassumptionsofrotesorfunctions. .liea attiuesat is posiriona\ unrquewirhrn con. Crahambnngsinto herng rnalysrs f.Ho.r?s to identifv the or L._ menCs hrrtorrc:l self-consciournerr: cny.ca is tne work which Craham recogni?e\ defeatofthose ideals the of the late60s.he cannotrekindlethem He can of n anempts breach to )riisrs and plann€rs the rhedomrnance ofthe esrablished formsand to anicularea cririque art those€onditionsresultingin th€ era furrher than specifying eo no ofrhem.sponse() this shockshares maner. of *.r ..rrt.carriedoutmostinsidn.)mesfor Ameica is the finestof rhe g'oup of rnagazine rhe [o/ Awt.sm a rhe of rrronr o{ Anr.s nuch. rheycouldarriveonly at a paradoxicalstare greyness the 50ssetsoff a further of of reminiscence the oppressive ofestablish_ mBthemsefv€s works of aft npgatiuel!. effect'in evcr). rhe gardenof subiection disringuishable subiect.ournalistic subject which is implicitly the inner trurh ofpurer forms (iodard did rhat of Heartfieldor Meverhold Although his of c. rnrnicrlly ins'gnificant rs begins thegroundof conceptualism on by posin-Canewthe domina' ideological ismsof anrithesis as dciiaristinterventions' rhemechan in facedby rhemorc revotuhonary artrsrs of the 1920sand30s:oneberween isolated . Homes Piec€s H.issirzky Tarlin Although Graham manages .Hortes in this historicalcontradictionin rcrms o[ rhe enrironmsnts eartyconceptua suchasWeiner(particulartv Iists by expticit dynarnismof .eptual of consequences the collapse the hopesof the uoPian hisrorical .The magazine ol as sire of cuhural conflict. al rhe sametime he idendfia Gmham into and Romantics thedesert' incensed Srnithson leadsthe Vhen rtresinite ciand subjectwhich will remaincentralto the developr. lossofhope'This losswas of ofrhecity wasin theshockofthe absolute as Kosuth (hecitv orAn L:nguage 3s wereto do.timulant critrcrlmemory wasindignarion: his orrheIn\t|rutional provoked memory de ChincoandBretonar rhe of srarus art rhrouSh dynam.by whoseIib€rplanningschem€s as of enuncirUns reminisccnc€ the history ofearlier condrtion5 ror rrr whichrh€yhad no inreresr actua y of \rructurcs the intu the graruitour has shrunken rn irng rhet. However.lav ...the k€vrevelatxtn Insteadof making anisdc gestures which were litde morethan rehearsals first pflnciptes. r rxemuortonceprualism.Thus.'henthishopeappearsrohavebeenpermanendyeclipsed rypes arr byArt. of I.rheanrithesis black indiEnation neitherSmithson's ofrhe formalisrabolitionofsubiecc r. forms of by of rational.f distancing for Anetuaas. r.nc futnltinJt Lrahams photoiournalisric for a lost prolerariat For formar demands rhat his work havea separable.on.critical language bureaucratic-commercial which he expticittybegins investiro pieces strucare rhe hrstoricaldevelopmenr thc cny Satecornmunicrtionand enforcement.n. I 920s. They :tre aimed at interrupting the flow of standardized. p.lq'r6/6qr.t-v ofart. rno".pure.however. In a single both' and commks gesrure Grahamestablishes primacyof social nor his black humour.. unlikethemoreacademic Graham's ofconceptuar (aspractised .anguag€.rrillel\rhe crerrion.or An. ofcourse. the andexahed work ofart (thehighestproduct rhedistraught falsified and and representation Ianguage. (. suburbangrid.

rthority and domination in fic siluaiion. oi "titi.stablishcd t form of mntestation' ships in a spccific context. the intcrruPtron th€orencally of habit) to cmc'8c in a kind repression(which is the veiled contcnt provokedby thc work.h.rehich conslitut€s its intervcntion through a structw€d diffcreDce with the norms of the Senre in quesdon. is ah€rcd in a PrcscriH L. in . which imagc of this is the imperceptibleor vciled. Conccptualisrn. coun€sy Movcd of !/a Picturcr. cxisring function. This liberatinSh'llucination ofhallucinadon of is the obiective the work. sPaccs."dot.' an advertis€mcnt' charr . functioning through the dynamics of spccific form'lism" subiects. and attcmPtc elicii a rccognition of th€ tcrroristic aspccrs of thc normaliz'd and mechanisms' environmcnt of images. e Crahamuscsan actualtext-an anicl. asis concePtualism. phoro: . of datosrnfi€nt. strategt fus€!h. is the cascwith are manylater works by Buren. Thc intcrvcntions desiSnedby him remain primarily concrctc. a specific social genre. Situatronist-insPiled Craham'smagazine Pieces of mimesis burcaucratic of the'cnt'. and cuts.lly.Ncw yo'k . and conc€ptualism's oriSins arc filled interruPt thc induccd h'bits ica.h Rdoual.for cxamplc. are normally . x 36 in.provocatioN and intervcnhis s€riesof'rcmovals').wr. Thus' in thcs' works.o ..with that of the forms of 'factography'. and induces this approach thcrcby exposcsthc forrns of or.4 J5 r'rr.things. Thcsc testurcs erasures. .s. to ir aggravarcsPoP i. The most notable altistic designcd social unexpectcd toid' ol 'ruptur.ncc Vciner.ony by mc ns of hxnteu noh. Reflectcd in thc which tn uncxp€ctcd and rions charactcristic of 50s situationism in rhythm of r€lationconfrontational gesore interrupts the . p'rmits social and of the urban masscs.' in thc seamlessly with such blenks' surface. and its claimto valuc' SuchSituationist intervention is also rclated to PoP' but inverscly.clapsing into "adical its specific cheracier' tend€d to empty thc 'cut' or intervcntion of th€rebyabsolutizing it asan cxlrcmc form of€mblemetic alr6t"ction' as Suchinterventions reduccdto dccorativism. Lzrhingol S.ppon ol Planet ol WathoardFrcft a Wd r95g.

say.had in fact ent€reddirectly into an of practice l€astpartiallythroughthe influence broadarchitectural at acrrrityto prominence t.ra series video_performance of wo*s.inthe laterTosreflects stimulus (which._ u. The to work makesits inter_ tenri.. as emerges the (.r I di\cu.l an emprin.\.. preudo-pop. themeans whrch subiecr_rnaner as by rhe is ahered and madeperceprible a nega s€nse.Hones for Aneri. ro work upon the work shows of s€ttings these 'dramas'.'p.land of is presenred thc pseudoRradymadefi.rs in \ubircr-marrer. well as received the rvirhthat ofAldo Rossi.rructur. Thr5 rpprorch hecamc rdenrrhed explicrrly wrrh.MichaelAsherand nrw influences. because mosr whollv reflects art drtcrmining behaviourthrough irs definisttucture. and appliesp. Thus. mimetically.sapproach accepts rhe e. in tive craham.cnovarions mrnifestos.alliesitself becomes in(crvenrion practic€sin which 'posr-mod€rn'architecrural wirh Pop-inspired glamourous become of or alteradons exisringstructures .n rhe or archirecrurat dirarrer upon which rhey both depend.<irting formalisn rulture_ irsrigrdifred of generi. The resuhis form. a crirrqucof Mrnrmrli. d hrir primipte. . ironically.n(those a ofVenturior Rossi. and vrdeo conrrotsystems . and aurnentratty 5rruationrst srrategies rt. fu\inBrhe journilistic In arrrtude whrch accepts primacyof subj€d_marrer rhe together wirh the Siruarionisr_ concepruaflst srraregyof intervenrionisfi and d'tounement.s theme.cudo_Readymade. thesubiecdon the romantic of ideal of rhe harmoniousgarden suburb to the sysrems . and Venturi.": snirisrhroughthc d(cadr ofrhc -0\ frorn an expe rimenr I conrcntra_ a tion on enaftmentor behaviour(. one which differs significantlyfrom the 'cnvironmenral' 'earth' art ofthe late50sand earlier70s.mrnd pop t. purelyabsrract a or emDremark Inrervenrion. emph:srs rhe -:.andrheenvironmental . the notion of In raking on an explicitly architectural one of 'alteration'and.rm'sfascination wirh the wotk of thesearchitects.'nin rhecontertof a formalized emprinesr e\i\ringBenre\.functiona nce I behavioural rnriels'use window. Thc emrrgence thrsarchilectural of reoresenrs Grahamat oncean indirectconfirmationof hisearlier for insights about the rozlitorr for crirical cognition of the symbolic mcaninss and a new stimulus: to build.can b€ enlarged ro rhe pojnr of a hisrorical critiqueof reigningAmericanculrLrral development. and the acrivisticdesirefor direct interventionin. as (.Cehry.r discour\e which.Graham's rLrurl institurional particularlyfrom DanielBuren.1. in any case of architecture not simply for any 'discovery' that the datesfrom ten yearsearlier).rhsm ri. mirror. fh.o* errablnhes.. Those and works operatedin terms of a tensionwhich existedbetweenthe for traditionally res€rved f'urified and srylizedinsriturionalspaces art. polular photo-e.a.s formJr is rcrdineij.o. life.s gallery archirecture.but ratherfrom a recognition approach torhe built environment central semiotic and historical (' his notion of conceptual .performance. rhetoric. of bur doe5not cr(are anrirhetrc.as in rhe early work of Graves.and influences insrirutional r('n of positionalitY. intensified rhe qualitarivecrisispoint. the w.don Matta-Clark'with theeffectthat architecrure it or decisive form.rehiretrural .Jerigneti conrainer. or dir€ct rctlection s()cial of of.ss.l] rn in*rrurionr y.rm in or a f*l"ei"*t'.for €xample provides newcontext ) frx interventionisran. built into rhe environment.rah. The romanticexrremism the carthworks .orrertron aimed hnngrng andmalrngpereeptible ar out rheundertyjng ntstoflcalonDression. rheoryrnd discour\eby ta-J_-4 vr. of Followinghisidea about s the relntion of rhc work of aft ro the implicir semiodcs its built of . An increasing attitudetMt public acceprance an archirectural of is stronglydependent ironic or antiironic notionsofsymbolizaon ti(.o construcrdramasof specatorshipand surveillance rhe abin stradedconraine. These pcrforma works.

nimeticandtlistancingaspects had rhc r)f n dc P('pa iignificint factorin thedcvelopment thc conc€ptualtst bv mcdi:rrcd their rtflec critiqueren ye..itl p.yort . ..rl practice.'..1 9 6 6 ti r.R .werefor Grrh.tpxblc lvith ihe straregics intetvcntil'ndev€loped ofsvnrhesis art direcrlyf'om Pop siturri(nrist tlid coneeptualism) not enrcrge which $1. did the work of r. ou' r$ ! .. t.it' ..t i h c II.tr .vchedelic works undertaken . rvho hrd becn phoogrrphilrs archi(ccrrre r ) J r (..rurc in rc1'lncrsrd.tt".ruthorized rreJ f"rnrof flighrinr" u ilderne* r desper.chirecturxl io..rm in lr ti(n in popuhr archirectur. providcd unexpecrcdlv f. fact Smithrcnobs€rved romanricbanishmentfromthe unravelledirsalternativesof *-ulpturt ofitn near-invisible into .n Ilcizcr.. environmentalor monumentel in culturcindustryterms' wrrhir thecity wrre doomcdto absorpdon inslanilv becomenew corporatemonulUrbtrnsculptureProiects right d{'av ) During the 1970s'as r mcnts..r erl .' n .. ritln"g..rr. I hc mosr sisnificantttehievcmcnrs thisdirtcr$n wtthin Poparelvirhol's conplerelvdesigned irl museurn shows in the 70s. 'L.p s delarrd rcflccrnrn irchite. mimcric as objccr dlrc. u trttrl fd ..r*sr.r".Dc Marir and Snithsoncxpressed artistic en!ir('nmenrs Their solutxrnwas a new' *irh .r.'.rn(.pr'{c')f rheAmcr\ fcflect for This vearning flighr did indeed fantasies. wasthcrcfore ttrms ot (hat its concept il'aspecrs Il.t'. (.)ra.lry.n tt.a deepdissatisfncnoD ...rspects of thc l'op posirxnr exisringPopular of oosribiliries. wheteby (he stvlizcd an instirurional rccordingo variouskitsch models lhe sprces rrc rt stylized term provider whichcould Pop dtcsireinfJucnceof (thirasptcroiir bv of c.rl\ inro the built etrvironment...'r.ltd rn In'nrr(rm}rh'mirr8led ...r ironi.r..h (wirhthe in Pop Buren)butsincc wasnorccntred sclrlpture Ashcr. ironic. .tr and.rhanr...Rathcr.t.rh rd ."'"" un-fl"..rrs earlier.rnil was noril)le t\ception of Oldenburg' whose infl€crion' howev€r' of rhe domesttc mort in the tay of a rvitt-vre mon mentaliTrrion energlcouldnot extend its sccn eroticsymbol).turkt .!n c o o tn r..Theseinvotvedan ironic mimesis (as derail.. self'disvrltrtion mimetic. l n A .rk\..N f$.

banners.aham with a 're.dnrinistercd space ofthepublicsphere ingeneril.rahamreverts oirheir works.fhis of rourseimplte'l ot .) by virtue of the residual rerluctivist cmblcmaticism ofrhe innerspacc (.post-modernist' architecture plr vided C.erion.orconc.while Asherand Burenare inclinedto expo. manyways in hiscloscsr collcagues thisperiod. erc. thesrr€ei iheenvironftent but s .could movetowardacrualconsrruction..onrshssfl$ade.anrzitt{nr..t.divid€s house twoar€asThefront 5 !s section nor rhere'r' privale while \cdion is rev€ll€d the Public. projecrmakevisible.D.t' his works develoP as and presides the H"^" ** d*.ch h€ and Snrithson ro outlinedin r (iclcs suc as Tre Mo..rather h rhrn dcveloping di.the rerm in which conceptual inrerventionism could be concretized. the ln his publishedtext describing proiect.is of p'sslic an.pprng -fhe Alte/ahont' a Suhutban .fu"ing eff€€i' on th€'museum and' in principle The proj€cbof th€ mid 7Os(those'buildable' thoseactuallvbuilt)which combinewindow' mtrror' morerecently.f.rdymade' tcrminok.ccireproblcmatic the aspects proyidc the arrisdc ro or rrt J( an rmage .de of a tvPical back parallelro and Midwav rent replaccd a full sheer transPa glass of by inro rhe ihef.H.tHozr?s. as conditionsof consrrucrionand or|.r. actual social sites (glassoffice buildings' .f.ior. Buchloh (rcferringro Michael Asher) in calledthe 'remateria lizalon' of the conceptualist movement toward rrt pracriceas criticrl negarionof the effectsof cLrlture industrial instirutions.t rhe srylizarions ot the museum-Ballery complexinro varioussocialsprces(subway billboards. actual social t" teducehis work to contexruali$meditation lppr. in a sensc.ft.^ 'I hus.nrainhis distancefrom the ot extreme contextualism ofAsherand Buren.blning wirh the interventionist environmenr i.r archireduralforms whosesvmboliceffectsand interconnecand the glass tnrnsform its subj€ct-matter'The glassskyscraper of of house(thosecentral exPressions the most exalt€d visions (that genreof and the suburbanrract house motlernarchitecture) . in.top"d l" th€ midst of this series' work overa group ofexemplary mostcomplexand suggestive srngle op€rae.asinglv.. un!. tio.h.ecr . Thcir work remains in morectoscty boundto thc museum(whicb trnds r<)symbotize archirecture) att invrfar as rhcy do not inregrare their contcxrualselfconscrrusness wrrh an existins rrchitecrurrl discoursc which includes expressnrn the of problems othcr than those con monlyidentified wirh I ( insriturions.n.t'"* .rexr ano photrtgraphy.tromhisanri Pop-Minimrlistviewpoinrform3nyyearsrecosnized in the nediation of Pop by architccturalpractice.a. around a mirror axis' and can be The Allet tiot is constructed the in p€rceived terms of that which is reflectedin it.rrham also hasthe to consequence perrnirtinghim to ma..rntithesis a between muscumspace and the .gythror:ghwhich his critical ideas..f .rn a d. mnrorasit faces slass Thc 'efl€crs the ourside lnd onlythchouse inre. nll{ue $ith r(scontenr.nchwh. the earlicrappft.recr..l*.r'n'u*l *r'i. 'h. ro nor and fasade thestreet' the disclosrd. mirro. specifically' orh.!.obot-architectlrewhich provides th€ actual bodv uPon which Grahan operates)must be examinedin terms of the symbolism and which the mirroric opticsof ihe A"e/abindingthem together.the rematerializatbn specific (. Popular'post-Pop'. problemaocsCrrham mainrain'rhe nolion "f I conra"n. p.utt"sr iournalisticimage the essentia of ..Grahamwrrtes: and remov€d has house been suburban "Theentire f. the linEUi\ticstrucrures elahorate trcades.iracl houses). conceivedin terms of the ncgariviry implicir in rhe conceptual Morcover.There.previously'dcmaterialized'as prrrcrmance. thcyindicated rhar the l:rrrcr conrainedwithin ir.His work in the mid-1970s moved rhrough rapidandcomptex a dcvelopnenr which crysrallizes what B. .ia"nd.

rlmostnorhing'. .'..ff'."-.i '.rn b.rnd rcligious oiel'rrit-v'optnncs' r. Iorcnro-r si h lr onrl \1 r.rl thtrreiiccr h* oi crpanses gl:rss on rhc lotion of prirrcr" . "n "l"a-' in fr'rgnenrarl rhe renrain thcscreferenccs A11 i.rvrslot n".'....rrrr'rn "i rlt rrh^lurr"rr' "llr\r ". t ..i tt.rtrJ h z T i(i .grfrnl the full sheet rr'rnsprr'nt rirrs rll'h'r'r'rerr*r''rlnr'rrr'rtu'nrl irnr r" "r 'rh"rr"n r" rL' '.f'. phon.l l .ss'(Lrrr.. i l( !r ( J In u s( \ ( h e m l ssi n Bi r i d e ' . ...f'.Thc cconomy.i.i.thisiderl oi is . rr.. I h .rrrn\'sricrl rr.v nrrrrccn'rl lvlir's rltr ttohc. gcl. Lh rrr. r ..rnd \.t't'.!. rl"Ai.ihinr.t". (:rrqo Olfut ll"iliinla.: ( ir r l()(..u. .rdie.lvd .mantic rhemts thccrysr'rlline lhexlchemlcal of 'rrrd the cltrring oi I hi'.\sionist h i s sr r r r cr u r r :s e i fce t stth e I n r h e d c \e r i p tk) n . rnJ' hurl'|rrrq ' ..\. Be l l n ..rnLl in originates rheF\Fre\\r')n'st rvhich nt.r ) l r h e h r i Jt\ h t n r {.t* rs qrll' inherenr sreclfnnte constru'tron' in lh.f irst-rtr.-.lin.rh'"^c F rh rr ih rronr" r'l '' I plr'*lu "..expresstd spiritLr'rl rlv)'onreinrnrdc'lot lessisntrt sl. r.... tnhrgedpicturt*intl'rv ' andr'ttrtt't .grcss.". r. sl. "."".L .f r..f illl in Lriir o i r h e b \( r h r r sts o n l ( a r r L r h c l.ri'r'r.(trr\. of sliss' '.' hut r'rthcrin lnrgt irdustrirl and burtness .rn d \1 h .t.. .rh \ih.''.^. tUO-".r print. oncwirh('ut ot is obscur..'..rir ir elenrent' svmbolic Prrtl) b'eiruse ir.-' .rnrlr oursctrn intenstlv risible a nes sav Therclc'rlofthe crpre*tsa centrrlliberalrdc'rlrn ('t nrri(r consprrrrcicschrr'lcrcristr' cabals.rtcitizen f Lrrthermorc.*'.'rndthesepl'rnsrn'lrhcbuilthouscs'latn l!\rr\ hornesrrrthe the fromthcnovclcfitcrs ingrcsston moclerritr t.".. I 9'8.rking I{(.rrr' .$.rnsiiguration oi rc\ (. h c e d m p 'r r ts Ddn (..'ff llr'r"r'' rll! rheclr*\'rll' . a.t crl l Lrr oi ()nr. a-lnrrr':r-lr*h"rr-c in dcvel)Pcd relltro ro v.\l(.'"e^ '*"r"1 rh t t.r..r!rr.i (n nldsrl\ tht \lir:s essars form con*'rndvin his \cries snretures...L r .'.i'.".*f"*'r'n rrr" ..x !..1..1 990 . V.rlrndrl...l l b n o t rh .ltlresrmbolie eompler theglrs iruildrrg originsrrrurJ l9l i l)urnrgihcrtrrsor Nrr.rnnism oPenio th€ s'itness lhe cnti!.g.$..rdvisibilitv erplicrrltthe prrdrrer rechn"logical b-v achierecl rhe I'Lrilding pl. tnttre.rnd lightncss in r'rlrrcs \lier f'rnn)us as niuhois in(.rri ().r. 1930s.

ascdon tcchnologv. r r lvin Ber lin' t he glassr <r vcr r s rcl ol uri oni rl upher v! 1. r nrrlt l: r t edir lcalsbccar ne or e and m or e r cnr ot c rs and oct e i . t h of ns m . r nd t echDolosical f or m s ot B ! thc 194 0s.rn R cl ol ur ion colhpsed in 1921' dr r s coalcscencc t hc rrn rel .pt r r t r . r nd the cr. ul.rl i sln c held in an unsr ablecquilibnum dur ur g Hor voer . r l cxpedicnce B r ur oT i u i . r jorf or r nat ive nonum enr alr smclm c t o tcri fl i rg.vstal|ne torver hopcsof.* ro w c r.I9r9 .ent. an der Rohe.rl clemocratic rn its rhctoric. lhis r niur ct or spr r e nselir r cund l he r e! olunonr r v or ganize r.tu.. C od ic lspecr sof f . B . im per $nal .s 1 n go i r g t. has inregrrted all the nressrve sl stcns of bur er ucr at iccont r ol .dtl ror i'. hisslsr en.ruh aus. r et r icvalof a f allenr vor ld f *cd * rnhol oi w i sdom and of r visdom s n) and socialism pr oducet hc im ageof i .rn err rvhich *cre to bc svmbolized br and t hc openncss oi cnomous p() Por t ions ' Thc liber a! r dcr l oi nlst ical . vr ennv inst r uncnt ir li'n t he r elcnt less II.topol E \1926) Concur r ent lv. whr le cor Iber. dr e per iod of r hc Am er icar Bauhr Lr sand t he A m$i . bur t o r hc inscr ipt ionoi all isr rrl l zcnsi n vast .rl rri zctl rn thc New O bjecilvio nr ovcr n€ni. bur er ucr acvdid not ler d t o p'r cr licl sntc i .e n)re i n i i nrasics of r cchnologized. r nr &nisn *'hich oper at edt hr ngh com ponenr s The ot i nrrri on ol asp ect s bt .o.. indicnt cdt har a iiber r l r. revcalir g a ner vers.r pr cssionist such 'r s Fr it z Lang s t rl .r rhri r ori sins in r evolut ionar rr encwal and r edesr gn l i nscr rbrd !vi rh inasophisncar ed por .rl rurl d harnr nnr uslv dr Cr opiusexpr css€d c oi [\t(!si oni sr i a r r asics leiDinger ' ldut . vuphe. r nd t echnologic. r nd tLonof i hc cnrir or r m t r t nnd t o f r ecdon.an N l i cs r . I heseint ur n pf t ) duccd rhcr osn ab st r acr . oncet he r dcaof I t ot al ptri rxl oi rcvol ur ionar .rsr rcl i gi ous ExPr essr onist t ender cv t onar d t he *'er oi .Ln.crm.rrh the i derl oi engineer ing oicr . d . vst t ris whr t t he n€\ \ ' l S thc gl ess t. r val begant o (. r bst nctcont r o l nr echen ns. r heseYcnnar ( iult ur c ir nr gcs hr d in pcr beeomc and at oncc less cept ible r r cht t ect ur e more s t r eem lined m rrscl i .. r r esysr en.

rrnDnizrit wirh the sizeof othcr.makes glasstower of the a disturbinsphenomenon. empry and ofsatisfyingsymbols powerand authority. containingthe specificaUy on€ modern form of oppression which appearsto have no secreror hiddencore forbiddento sight in the ancientsense holincx and of Law.l to rtcturrl detail in ordet to mirigatethc shcereffectof verticalitl' br.. the hisroricallycomplete enclosur.n gt. Thefantasizing ir with power' is thus towar<lthosesitesalwavs identified 'kyru.r rhc bu.riquesof the 1960s. system The announces itself in thescneutralrnd functronal.reer Thc proporrionsoftheir Aitenrion is both directed in scrlero rhe human body in the strect inducing awc and fascinationwith the hcighrs' while uprv. conventionaliz€d and drst.modernmovement'.r. ibiliry wiih a nonumenblism which is rigid. Theyexpress emcrgeneofa newsrage rhe ofsrial irrationaliF/ prevn.vrhe of time ir is implicaredin rhe cr.by the institurions thcy glamourize-Thiseffetr.n . The(rmhrnatron disorienrrng.exudesa sense hisroricaldisillusionmenr. oi on 'Ih.l "h'erven.thcbrrildingaddstothisthe into an ethereal i.alizarionrharirssymbolicsystem hasrriumphed ov€r the ponderous monumenrrlisrn ofearlier. rhe enormousseparationof cornmandingheighrsand common retainsa 'civilized'character Snrnd of rhe street.. possibiluies hoped fromrationality. sysremaric.rildings' h.rints space articulatedtheir verticalitywirh rradnionalarchi scrapers) t)c!o sk. which exemplify transitions.systcmatic fearsof precision designand engineerins. Indeed. This jmpliesthat a n€w hisroricalphase ofoppression.usly latent historical only in development.r. Ihe skyscraper rtress eltD as ir subjecrs to unprccedented sociery .. roul of enclosure therealmof .rrds.nrothe capitalisr'ciry.alreadyidentifiedwirh rotalirarianism rhe l9l0s. wirh architectural constdnrly mediated of character social and'natural' rhc mcasured. Th e norionof op€n ness nd rransfiguration been anged a has ch (through implosion revolutionary the of ideals) an archirecrural inro emblemof lost or falsifiedopenness. The building'sappear:rncc for the shockof and n(.r*rvrll\playwithdaylightAtnisht. smallcrsr. becomes it positivety frighrening atth€ pointofr.. more complex.nscrou' auth.lJint.arionaliryby a monument histoncal of ro emprinesl indicates thesymboliz-arion rhat prtresses generated rhese by buildings are irationalin a newway.r. rnd of regulrrrrl th' of rn ..'rirl. In rhiscontexr. Eadier'trll buildings rhe i. They tend to signify the historicalfact of redefinitionof the ideal of .arionality.. thus bekrwthe first floor architraves' sinrulrrncously is conrained it gaze directed sca r of rct.turrl grid permitsa changc (includingthe great inside.rndlurninous rre hrsrd on the or.zhns effectof artificialliShring'to itselfturning are efiecrs exerted diagram. aesrhetic k^ver is bascd the precision effectofthc glass Ihich pcrmitsan unprecedented rhert'ldcd and rivencd steetgrid wirh minimal exrrlrcssion of height and lertical conccntration. of mirrorrc rnvrs.. by furtherdissolved the the of*eight and mass' lattcr beinB ".rrrounding ar' and ornamenration levelwindows s.rrd.B. in rhe Slass tower.us imaseof srages. both reasoned habitual.and not from rhe wittofany sctf.rlm'^rI'l'rlonrt rrrrrrclyunirred 'parral 'fn'e from strett leveln) roof. This oppression nevertheless is paradoxically invisiblein that ir seems l-Jow to logic:rlly and auromatically from the rationalityof technique and organization itself.. srrLreture rhe of sense regularityinducedbv foresroundins unadorned lihis on in the wav a passerbv the street !ru. sophisticated deeply and ernbedded rhehabituatazdthe in unconscious. Thesefantasy-inducing . u*n rn. European sryletoralitarianism.rnce by symbolized the top of th€ tall building The speed isrhDs heights the rntensiry about building's fantasizes ofthegazethat provides harmoa !)mervhlt restrained. matured has withincapiralism.r. concrerized of once for as in planning. as ir comesto symbolize new Americ.rr had becom€ symbolicof rhe inrersionof valuessufferedby the ..r inga sense familia streer lc.

lessconstrainedform of fanrasizingabout power into the experience architecnre. the spectator\ imaginarionmoves instantly and marter{ftacdy up the sysrem. Tr3nsirions between social levelsin the corporateor instirutionalsrrucure housedwithin the buildingare eliminated.By virtueof thegrid.asimplequantityof regularlyengineered space. pooreronewas!the andcorcrcdliving spaces Before in . whose reflectivitythrows it in all directions.in theprocess ofbecomingperfectly rationalin a functional. Wirh the removalof all inrermediary f:cors in rhe uniform grid.This 'civilized'ch:racter of earlierskyscrapers emphasized is by the shockeffects creared the glass by grid.senses the openness to Ratherthanopeningitself mirroriceffect.the fanbsizing eye is caughton the glasssurface. whosestructurecan of be understood a glance. The on building.whose upper rea€h€s comprisethe privilesedtban zonepar excetlence .the of discourse aurhority in the building re establishes architecrural (of the drarnarics Sazins)' The specrator's of rerm' oi p. convention but insisrs that upperlevels are the siteofdirecrorship. suites ofthe tower:re the executive In rhe upperregisters the schem alsobecome mostprcsttgrous a.The same by eliminationof transitionalindicarors rhe plan creates new and in a morerestless form ofmysteryor fascination because evenness th€ of thegrid forcesrhegazero search withour focusor repose.rhe gazeof a man rn the streetcan now at ascend buildingwirhout theslightest the delay. glasstowerisactuallya that vision back upon rtselt' rh€visionof ihe s{. of comrnonsvmbols luxury dwellings high abovethesroundbecome (andtheoffices success.cialbody' it throws mirroringwith its own asymnetrical thar anclaugments symmerrical nce This inspectr<. it introduces In a new. obliterates known or conventional the indicatorsof rhe authority which ir has come to symbolize.v the windows subject citv and.In thesedwellings ro out of which they haveevolved) entireDrbangrid is revealed the be returnecl thc majestic a gazeof the occupanr.and this specular becornaan what expresses thecirvknowsof its realsocialrelation relationship rulc' rhe.re 'l'ion upwatd' high abovethe str€ctto rhe a6cnr()nis drawn irresistablv bv is wrndows!whosefabulousness onlv augmented the enormous jusr the sameasthoselower down Soit is that they are knowledge the become heartof rhis glassevewhich is the building thc. Thus the to out space between spedarorand the perspectivalvanishing rhe poinr of his imasinarionis demystified beingeasilycalculable.bv implication'all ot socicrv These in of life) ro their inspection. technical sense. which eliminates these all ornam€ntal harmonics and gaUantries.n. the higher livedabov€ srreet This newrechnologv' manvways one upsidedown' so turns that framework attcndanr upon the elevator.and rnodernity.The building appears Dnmysterious. gazewhich cannot srmnetrically by anyone. In becorninga monumentaltrap for the wondering gaze of the spectaror.Thereis no pinnacle is or special opening. The occupantcan easilv imaginethe Iranscendcnt social invisibilny which envelopshim in th€ acr of rhe 8. f.depending the light.This elevation rheoretical ro lly Ity is the sourccof an exaltationwhoseconrentrs in part the sheer intoxication of power in a power hungry socicty.uingartheciry andit is at thispoint heexperi€nc€s uniquethrill invisibilof bcingtheoretica invisible. so doing.and in part 's .Socierv.No single poinr can be locatedwherethe fantasyabout power inducedby this architecture broughtto restand satisfied.hrpurrn th.leadership and power because theseare the implicationsof rhe commandingview of the city availableat that height. impliedlocationof the'executive level'. rsa surveilla which cannotbeobservcdThecitv for objecrofsurveillance the building.no privilegedor ornamented point on the srid. inverrirganoldurbanistic the elevators. search the sireof command. the guiseofthe man all (even bv svmbolized the apparentlv that in rhestrcet. In addition.itv .urldrng: builJing rhe which. authority.

' 'Ihis uncanDin€ss howeveris also a resuhof the effectof height' Thc occupant feelsexaltation.on the implicastate.the processof phantasmasoria spaces is drivento an of of outcom€ rhe suppression th€ one by thc other) of dwellingattemptsa cancellat. it is in this architectural form that the conditn.constitur€d a waveofdisplaced by tooks energy: manin the streer the wonderingly upwards.with its support. incontrastiotheoverwhelming the since d6coris arrayed impossible.but he alsofeelsthe effecrofthe grid Socialcuphoria does not cancel the operation of conventional oDt of a peculiarcombination of them' sisniticarions. in oi grnerare moment bliss whichthe disrurbing a .In rhisreturnmovencnrrrne conven on_ up alizedsepararion between home and office is breached. auromatic in scopophilirccxaltationdraws energyfrom the subiectionof rhose bclo$.H. ofcommodity The to and from hominess r€verts the status detached dwellingbecomes. intellecrually to accessible him asthe building\ svstem as is Io lhe man in the street.privacy' is symbotized and for the massof men in the streetit is represented rhe €ngineered by rract house. back to the crties. alsodrawsupon an internal anlithesis.D6cor becomes glas surface. It also emergesfrom theinversionof therelationsof privateandbusinesslife for the bourgeois occupanr-In the ascenr ofthe bourgeois class. into rhetowers.namely the unitary privare home.thearchitecturalmechanisnsof ex:ltarion and subiecrion generare eachother on a corresponding socialaxis.asconstrained within the r6gimeof 'privacy'. r! I which is irsexterna antithesis.omprivatetifebefore the profusionofautomobilesand the restructuring ofcides in rerms of that profusion. that is. by positioned greatsocial and supported porver.Vhat WaherBenjamin called rhe'pha ntasmagorias ofthe interior'*. Just as exaltarionand subjectionare bound togetheron a metaphoricaxisof vision. of rhoughit reflectsa social truth. r€€osnizes own subiedionto surveillance.The danceof light materials of and the elegance ensineerins andcalcuhtion.As in Baudelairel poem 'The Double Room'. That the exaltarion ofthe oneis a condirbn of rheconstraint and subjection the other is commonplace.chwasrherealizain tion ofrbe harmonious separatiot) ofbusiness f.nce this euphoriaderives hom a sensc of bcingdirecrlyencl(xed. bourgeois the ideal relocates further our inro the countryside.v. Wirh the declineof the romanticgardensuburb throughfreewayand rracthousing developmenr. and inward. oi powe' which the office. his andsees himselfas onlyconditiona y invisible.ngspace) from work space. the The exaltationof occupancy the glasstower is nor simply of the effeft of monum€nralvision provided by height. frrourof fetishisticfantasiesof wavwhenthe rnorehallucinatory ina rrc reconsriruted new. establishins this process in precisely reifiedideaof the unproducdve 'privacy'which tract housingimposes upon rneprole_ tariat and lower middle class.rrreinlirb. and the opticsof power it suggcsts. which derermines shapeof the ciry. th€ luxurv thefunctionofphant:snagoria' . its members more and moredisrinsuished hone (or l. This separation was brought to its purestexpression the luxurygardensuburbwh. The extreme primarily bv meansof d6cor' ThL is tions of ihe architecture.in itsspecificretentionof rhe in its tosucceed suppressing imageofthe cxaggerate effects mLlsr evokes As the two shellincessandv officewbich the archrtecrural lthe becorneisomorphic. wherein in which reignedin rhe office was suppr€ssed the reality'principle privatepleasureandcontemplation.:nd rhereby bindsrheglass tower to its oppositepole..andeven home Homelifeinthe asa and isreoccupied redesigned o{ficespace to referenc€ the fantasies incessantsubliminal now makes tower glass to se'ves performance Principle.nof subjecrion called .parrnent.'unhomelike" uncannv. emerges it Living within the grid systemcarriesthe implicationof being enschema Justasthe occupanr's mcshed an impersonal.

In thisera. as In and such it is the inner reflex of euphoria.and from nature. In recognized larerAmericanarchitecrure'sconditionsof existence rhai i!ere in fact consequences rhe delay. primafily Mies which mechanism it Philip Johnson.persist an apparently period.nerate.the mechanisms ofsurveillance not operate.Evenif Miesis characterized persona :nti-utopian lly as . The privilegedspaceitself becomes mechanism the for surveillance the ciry as a whole. Arguably. Here the ascentto the heights is recognized the as outcomeot impersonalrnarketrelationsin which the individual's qualitiesplay an insignificantpan. The buildings'impassivity isolationand a negarive the effecrin that it rnagnifies conditionsof domirrarion which havein fact brought it about.recosnize as a perfected rnd what the city has in fact with cold irony and derachment erpresscs bcconre:a bad view to GahaD s explicitreference Mies and toJohnsonin the text of Aheration project implies a historica]interpretationof Mies' rhc on which corresponds a broaderlevelwith the implicaarch.the theoccupant's producrofheight.This sense th€ domesric privaie. asr syrnbolof lucidity and transcendence of the posr Vorld War ll masters the'pure'tower.is as restless thewonderofthe manin the streetfor. even reflects signiticance the anxiety.effecrof the grid is canc€Ued.Mies'glassbuildings and nesativityin the of provokea profound sense historicalsadn.in an inverted post Expressionist oprimism tbrn. asymmetry of gaze.rnDihilation rhat revolutionary utopia which permittedarchitec of iure in rhe 1920sto dream of universalharmony through social plannins.disintegration apparent and of .rhedomestic and the privare arerhosespacesintenselysubjecredroinspectionandsurveillance by ruling insrirutions. of heishtsas separation aspects the glasstowe. turn reacts in desrructively on the sense dom€sricity. who experienced revolutionaryuPheavals the aenrrrl lurope and e'. High up in rhe rower. do so only do or weakly. the the by ofthe by innercontentofthis aloofncss madenecessary the stresses has acnralrrcial pn.Accessibilitynd subjecrion surveillance by a to and the rimulraneous I p. Metaphorically. rhc Romanticand Expressionist post Romanticand in in €nrwnrcd its origins. damnation. The absence surveillance of producesan absence ofprivacy.cess ofdomination. in the abstract form of civil rights. induces theoccupanr (whohasbecome and in a near'invisible eye)a contradictorysense neglect. The occupanfsbliss. Thn is in facrthe foundationof of its privileged state. We are familiar with the vertiginous of effects of heights.howcver..evenin the moment as oi its cancellation.the 'private' is established the in urbansystem characterized rheglasstower termsof irsrelation by in ro rhoseinstitutional forcesand systerns which prorect it. Livins hish up in rhe grid expresses anxretyabout enrrapment an automatlcsysrem. loneliness. sym The glasstower ernbodies hubris of business the under monoply capitalisrn.it could in bc saidthat Mics.n parn. They survive.rpared Ihemto J c(rrrin extenr. is'privacy'. of Thus.ss they dominate.this Dncanniness.otecrion lega from lr. Euphoria or exaltArionis thcreforeexperienced the more inrensely all insofar as it includes anxieryand struggles suppress The exaggerated to ir. This nameless from the life of others.the grid reasserts itself by rransformingthe signification heighr. (of of of family life) has beenconstructed antithesis rhat of work and in to public exisrence. particularlyof rhoseexperienced b olicallyashubris. from the environment pertection their aloofness of and wom€nto the Thesubjecrion with its crowd of men ofthe srreet is polverembodied thos€ instirurions buildingglamourizes.but prorected(to a cerrain extenr) from rhat surveillance Iaws.rccture his rionsofthe fantasies puretowerss. of abandonment. Whereihe utopiansof the period of revolutioDary building youngGropius sawrheSlass a ) lfigureslike Scheerbartnd the throughlucid technique.however.

and real esrate His of developers. Remaining significant as a negativesymbol. rhissymbolization however. Mies'archirecture.nlturecould replaced photomontrse. Miesianarchitectur€ r€linquishes ro the very enemies it of archirecture wirhoura srruggle. has The authentic expression a certainrypeof modernanist ir conrains of a kind of final.'by rneans rheir own dearh'. narufal The . alongwith Johnson. componentpan of rhe a historicaldialecticof modernism.0 of This self-conriouslytragic negarivism. if looked at hisrorically. their In perfectionof technique and proportion. as hasbeensaid. hushedprotesragainstrhe increase unfr€edomin in society. bureaucraa. Vriting aboutMies' houses the 1930s. his expresses submission the modernformsofpower which to haveapparently vanquished opposhionand rule over a chaoric. as a memberof the Americanavant-garde. rn traSic "ocral gcsture. rootedin this is sense ofthe suffocared character architeciu in the frameworkof of re thc hisrorical problematicwhich th€ artisr.. the lormal and structural languagefor aggressive exploitation (in a 'popular' and 'posirive'senseof the samesocialvalues this exalied ) seems negatein the act of prostratingitself b€fore to archir€cture them. thesebuildingsrelinquish th€modernisrutopiainanactof silent!stoicpurity. gesture withdrawalis deliberate his archirecture. Thesocially-criticalcontentof is. its perfededcmptiand in ness.. M ies'response the hisrorical to catastrophe the I 920 -5 pcriod 0 of is to renounceth€ implicit utopian cririque of the ciry conrained within modernism.The sublimeand tragiccharacter of thisgestu isthecentre theclaimsof thisarchitecrure ftans!-end re of ro (lrs entmeaning a stateofnegativiry.their profoundlywithdrawn character.liry rharhis the archit€cture of attains a painful consciousness the hopelcssncss of existing urban schemes the monopolistically cities. greathisrorica roleis ro have in I placedinto the handsof irs executioners concepts the and methods thought to be developed endsother than its own suffocarion. invokingthrough its purity the conscious by of its own vanquishment. b(omc rn object be bya and ot contemplation.makeit rh€ natural preyof iusr thatcaesarism is in the process it ofcapirulatingro. whilenature is . while its resignation and f€tishizing rheorderedsil€nce of and emptiness ofits own inrerior.The inre. trying to remember is and comprehend. Therebyit provid€sth€ linguisticmeans. and masterful transfiguration rhe industrialmaterialsidenrifiedwith openness of and visibility into the oppositeeffect.al to by consrruction. it takes on. first of all to th€ metropoliraincaesarc who own it and manipulatei in their own rnrerert.and to relinquishrhe city to its cacsars: the speculators.as well as domination and indifference.His buildings reflect atomization fferedby rhat the su massat the handsof institutionsrhe building symbolizes.ti('n bereplaced ana.o! bleat as !U.ship wirh rhesurroundingsa is mystific.madeavaileble an invertedform.) for Graham'sinvocltioo of Mies. in conrrolled This consciousness consistenr is of with th€ psychicinwardness the glasstowers. ness thus mrintains a fainr echo of the unfulfilledhopesoftheperiodofoptimism. all estranged mass.p€ndr. a spcctacle becnioyed to only on condition that atbe keptimpalpably remorc. in providesus€fulconceptsabout atomizatonand This architectur€ anxiety. of Tafuriand DalCo argue: 'Nxturcwasmade panofrhcfurnishings.andcometoexisr..a contradictorywithdrawal behindsymbolsof accessibility.In holdrng out this knowledge a pnsnve.elario.his earliestglassbuilding projcctsof l92O atreadyhavca fcelinsof tyrannicalglamour-this doesnot invalidare possib.rion be$een indooB ourdm.rific.some characteristicsof theanri'monument.s reared illusory: and was wirhnot. Thecombination of puristic resignationand spectacularized €xp€rtiseof Mi€sian buildingbecomes ofcourse th€ prototypefor rhe posr-1945 corporate skyscraper style. complexconsequences.

d ro eyes objects v. Thereereno mirrorsin anyof theopenspaces eitherglass of house. Bui this opening-up is effected through the impositionof the glasswall. renewal. text ro the glasshouses in built by MiesandJohnson the lare40s. idealized fanrasized the or intimacyof man is with nature (one of the original dreams of .r f. Shifis in the direction.The glasshouseseems be a disrincdyromanricgesrure to expressingboth rhe desire for a closeness naturer and an to absorbedconremplation of it.In the glasshousecomnrunion with narure and retr€at into privacy cannot be r€alized nature and privacy exceptrhrough the deliberaie of subiecting act (now manipulated images calcu bleconc€ptualizations) the as or la to mechanics surveillance domination.comprise hisroricallycanonized that image of the ruling class.is generared these by buildinssonrheirsires.luein no waysurrdo.war of s. siven $. of and so all the implicationsof the anxieries the asymmerrically gener.(o forced becone mere oprical illurionwirha v. These pavilionlike structuresare apparentlycommirredro the opcningup of the private interioi spac€of the houseto narure.Th. and the contained natu ralness thegarden. the srrucrure giving a beautiful view.one of rest. mirror is a disruptive th€ element these in schem€s.omrheobiecr a The vicwed.'Openness'iscreated byrhefunctionof theglasswall.homelike interior.aric 'isns wirhinwhichonemoved prcset atout on in roures.The self'ssense ofself is reduced within this system. Throughthe implications of it carriesof rhe vertiginousasyrnm€try identifiedwith modefn meF ropolitan experiencesof power the glass house produces an openness'.tedacross occupant.rticulared in rhe estranged language of surveillance and positionality. These huge window-wallscreate play a of r€flectionand rransmission light accordingto the daylight's of character. rules ofsigh. visiror onc\ own a home. slass.pararinS vi. Thus withdrawal and relaxationb€cometenseand cornpulsiv€.d over walh of MiesbsomerheBlass . The masters thepure in ol spectaculartower alsothe archirects are who attemptto recuperate the domesticity annihilat€d rheirglass in towersby neansof the rransitofglass technologyro the suburbanor rural setting. which are orherwise rotally givenover to mechanisms ofopticality.nsion bythehie.] Symptomatically. which creates strict condi nons for rhis play.w. rootedina psychic requirement surveillance nature for of andthereinvention ofthe theore. lighr and vista in what is a recapitularionof the idea of rhe beluedere.icainvisibilityprovidedby theglass I rowerin the ey€of ruture ."rl and Grahamrefersspecifically hisAlte/ario. . ro rharof a painrins.).This is the elemenral fantasyinducedby the house.A new 'power-protected of and openness'.riousmure inransiblc and panoranas. pacrure. rhegardened woodswhich ro thecommonpeople.were a ofihe inrcrn'rs. signifierof metropolirain euphoriaand lon€lin€ss.and withdrawal from business and the compulsion to perform. This openness the reflex of an exrreme 'excessive is inwardness (th€ srate of mind correspondingto the n€w phanrasmagorias the glassinierior) to the fetishizationof thc of selfs positionalitywithin an anonymous and 'p€rfecC system. condensed intotheglass skin. venein the conventionalized Rousseauian illusionismcharacteristic of the country 'place'. on€ the city can no longer provide. interunobserved aharsymbolic surface. on In the glasshouses. whose wercpresent.a dominationofsurveillance itself. (Mirrors are resrricred their purely'funcrional'usein the closed to 'privatecores'wherethe bathroomsare locatedin both d€signs.rh. between rwo elemenrs rhe comprisingrhe bourgeoisdomesticideal: the closed. norhing to more rhan its Dacitionalitv a setof axes.quality and intensirycreatemomcntswhen rhegaze's play with itselfbecomes apparent.he bourgeoisie) re..

Wirhin rhe house. 1949. New (idnaan.rtcof theoretical upon a c--ontrol house. led rmage nature:the'good view'the of .rhcrrfore. Mirror images= of rhe rrcupant remindhim of the mechanisms which absorptivce blissis by construcred.Any artificiala'rgme ntation immured whileremaining of lighting intensifics mirroriccapabilities thre inner the of interior produce imageofthe occ!pantsup€rimpq<)sed on an and surface.t ./i /or.and is reminis-cent of Tba<refo. of th(arricaliryand the'unnaturalness' urban existence.(bn. st..f Urto Phoro8riph. of They inrerruprthe phantasmagoria the inte=rior by brerchingthe suppression mechanism.dim cor. x' theoutdoorbrightness.th€ dcupanr engat*es in a etnplex gamcwith both natureand the day irself. glasswall can screen interior frorn vicw behinda mirror the oi rhe rmrge of the surroundinglandscape Dependingon the arrgle of risron.Pr.this theoretical invisibilityappears of (andth€refore anxiety)to blend into an ruthorirarianasymmet. ll. of calculation.gi! ing the characrer. in daytime.councsy.Artificial lighting takeson a specifically €atrical producesa self-image on rhe connotationin thar it immediately enioyed and.y its rb$rprive state of blissfulconternplation.. it is csentially in conllicr with the stateof euphoriapr<du-rced by r:vith the thcorctical invisibilityin rhese non'urbanconditions. N-ewYo. in so doing.all that is id(nrificd uphoria with the office'.':rpared I)uring thedayrheinteriorofthe houscis relativcly refl'ectiviry thetremendous Fromoutside.e.e(icur. Thc dynramic of thrsgam€involves naruraluncertainry rfforded by th€ nveather rhe PhilipJohnson. inreriora stage-set is t-rcm within.the landscape intenselyintr-oiected behindglass. phon): EzraSrollc.)ks..\nificial lighting producesmirror images. Faced togiste up its spceracle narure.n).thesuppression whichpermitseu k) occur. may thr thc landscape. thisconditionis superimposed Itrth€ glass glass towercannorFlrovide.tF-re view on through the houseio th€ landscape th€ far sidc .s.this effectis combinedwith one of backlightinS. interruptsthe occuPanCs intcrtrr surface invisibility.

frcc for ibour thc chances rbsorPtionir thc naturalspectacle from jDtcrru and conrrolofnature prions.!s irh day. As bng as the hoLrse's can occur'. thexct of nr.rckncss nnture'sabscnce of courscscen (thc di$. the bv used Erenrhefloodlishrinlr i'r disappe:'rs blackness. The glass houscsare locatcd on privatt rvooclcd bv (\t. and rbsence whcn n. then. PhtQ Jih.The glass playswith night trsit house natureof this:tcrivity s f l.rrr\ietyinherentin theorericrlinvisibilitycrn remainsuppresscd rrc At night. effccts l nrirroric control thc natural flow of time rnd light. rtcsyofF.and the r.pcct.rving orly blackness f.nds.rirs.rtionalc l.nd the rbsorptnrn eLrphoric uninterrupred. but at nighrthc compulsivc bccomes moreevidenr. l\ivncy is insrirurcd rhe boundiry . rlrawing made in this house othcr Sestures as itr significance. First of rll.rrrnce natural thcresulting risero a rciurnof whichgives reversal asymnrctry) of 'rn\ict\ in rhefaniliar lbrrnof fearof the dark.rnd spectrclc. Thc internrr. xol . becornes eycin its invisibility an ir is thc house. Ar righr. are all to ( urtriningrhe of rcpudia(joD theckxcncss windowsexprcsses. l.phict cou .rturc which is the specificfantasy t.It is thiscombination slishtshocks ofthe interior. hehorrsc.phoro:EzraSrollcr. lhis fcir is exaggtrated inlensificd hf(ruseit is selfinduced..dbv the glass and housc. and bch.trcthc ptofounrl disappcarance narurrl l(. of the bl.rrrificial suppressing rvallsinro giginiic of inieriorsurfaces the glass ight transforms but veiled with curtaiDs.rclcwhich rhc occupint dependsupon for rhe proccssof at lighringnccessrry anxiery.rt thc surfacc lrneof the properry..ugh of glass.rturewirhdraws. Like all emotions lncit.li*rnce.rgnificd in of themis irselfan expressron anxicty.stoPhoiosr. conditions ilris(icnllvaltered.hnsondoes .pe of nor miiig.nd.)r rrs siring.rw.onr emprincss. greatly m.prhr<. of the house. mirrorization the of lc. rcnrains .verdurc of the window.ry be CertaiDly these rrrirrors.lt. insulated or ironr the clcs of passersby nejghboLrrs it and t.r.en Itosse.

of . then at night anothersymbol this ismis necessarily invoked. house solicirs this state as system.erthe nocrurnalterror is in that of the caesars. the house withdrawal. But if daylight is the mechanisn in susraining particularsymbolism. to indicates affinity with the varnpne one an Phil lohnso| House photo:Ez. rococosettingof rhe little The tapestry idealbourgeois of house in a private park is itself the purest expressionof the rnandarinesque fantasy at the centre of the bourgeon ideal of clcgance the face of nature.on.ofits generic wererewoven into the rococo residues life. the glassDoaseit has a more eleganrand ofthis dreadis reflected form. (In the glassroa. with the 'lid. crypt of Nocturnally.oneclosely alliedwith rharof the isolated pavilionand the disembodied. heluedere thc generic linkswith theresidues ofaristocratic rerreat-in short. and the theoreticalinvisibility of the occupant'his aversn. The r6gimeof theoretical to openness ofthe house the of in thc daytime.which automatically strategic in its delib€rate.r a rnvokes stateof terror.the lonelypavilionbecomes abandoned the Gothic tales. of is 'porverprotected'opcnness in turn rhe resultof rnagnification and identityofthe houseasprincelypavil.aStollerjcourresy EstoPhotographics. to strar€gies keepit at bay. it theoretical beingwhooccupies So cryptic it follows.thattheequallyRomanticand fantasyof vampirismmust constitutethe r€gulationof the house's gane with itself in the hoursof darkness. This excessiv€. outcome theexcessive or it the natural sp€ctacle dominatesas property. In the Romanticerathese existence.asnight followsday.of with the nothingness n:rure's In its nocturnal engagement which petrified Mallarm6. glass the Understood a symbolic itselfassym bol. enrire invisibiliryand blissfulabsorptionare.n reflections. lts Rornanticism fearin orderto cornplete of extreme impelittodominatethe strucrures ofpowerand anxiety rnd basisin naturalcycle.) The princelycharacter miniaturized requires invocation.

Thus the vrntpiri! \vmbolism ptrsisrsas a . rhnto: l.rse rdingrheinnersrrucru.cot particularl) irs ps1-che. rhe nrodernsocialordcr and corresponding and rut(nr.ic syrnbolism a djsrurbancr thc hisrorical is . prince.for our purposes nrost .bur erisrs rn an accursed his tension .. Ihc nnt of vampiric r.rhe rtf is as .zrr sr1)llcr. undeadart.:levrntrspecrof his rynbolisr lfrorn rhc pornt of viervof libenl signifies simply unrvilling' not thc is thatrhevampire Il.ucted the rheFrcrr ra.rndxD\'rr!.rtc ot irrcmediable in Ihisanalrsis.rlit). Although svmboli. Ihispresrnceof in ot sisniiirs unrcsolvcd an erisis rhe. the vampiresleeps his crvpt .rr that the new order has !!il inherited ronrcthingcorruprcd.rndtcnrporarilrccdes in $(rld ro rhc livins. The crLsis the rnirror is of the self-conscn. that spellbound .c.rheghsshouse phrnrasmathe crrares oiblissiulabsorption nnor. thephantaJnrof tnrre.whosetheoreticali'rlisibilirv is const. B. thc the llr dav.egd ot er iiied f<xmof expression une.undan evil of i\ in the process unconsciously thtvrmpireinrhemodern.uvress such beings.nrlrrucrir)n thcoretical of bcings nhstrrctciiizens through rtehnique.the vicrims of thc vrmpirc s cursevr often resemble process of in V. bring ir closcnr thr syrnbolisrn the robot. but the fc.!.t Ho.ite bt rhc rroublcdbourgeois The rrinpire is neirhe.rii I'h'tit l.s.nrbodies certainsense rhe historical un(asiress.rf :r concrcrc r.t.'nm.rnd unwuringly engincerins irsclian. of of Vrrnpirism rhusthe 'irncr specch th.omanticism) ntss of thc old ragimcto die.brrirl consciousness rht modernera itself.urp..Nt.tmentto calculaton \\nbolism in rhe rrpr?ssior of uneasincsrbout effcctsof calcula' of rrrr.rlivc nor clt.()i rhe supreme theorericrlbeings crt. rricsv of lno phorosriphics. *.rrbeing the ruler.ikof rraSicmodcrn.)h. he and is rtlentir-r complex gocshrvondiN tunet()n a ofcosnic gricf which is.rlue frce calculatbn.r diffra.tcd image . pl:nning. da1. c( .nnaton.rearion l.contractsi ind 'v.l. llowc!er.rndfromtheold.tes.rrchitecrurc..jusrasthemcmor! in(o N(.rr.

takingeffect in by primarily on the externalsurfaceof the glassit is visible only to passersby outside house. Nature. At night actually lnvisible. they are immuredin guesthouse. between sp€ctaclc natureas a stateof th€ of prop€rtyandthatof thevampirctrapped insideamirroredcrypr. indeed cannorb€ reflecred rh€ in gl:lss.Voluptuously. its €yenow invisable.has already withdrawn somewhatfrom man. the vampireat night is immobilizedby the mechanism th€ house. symbolically.light.Th€ mechanism the houseis rhe rrap which vampirismspnngsupon of itself. nature. Anxiety is suppressed. This withdrawalbehindglass forrnsthe viewpointofthe occupant and is complemented nature'sown withdranal frorn itself. In the trauma of self-revelation. Trauma and blissare fusedtog€ther the in !ain masochistic tableauof transfixedvampirismin the extended ntom(nt hallucinrrory of returnof *y mmerry ir' . Th€ occupant at once s€eshimself reflectedin every surface. The glasshouscis a trap for him.Sinceit is now unreflecred.InJohnson's scheme. Blindedao a certa. natureabrupily takeson vampiricpowers. a guestshave a strictly subordinate E-ssentially. Themirroricstater€mains panial abeyance day.The spectacle thesclf-conscious of revelarion vampiric {of essence ofthe srate ofmasteryimpliedby theoretical invisibility is a ) Romanricclimax: an imageof lib€ratingtrauma. th€ vampireawakcs. As nature is during the day.ource.thoughif present. lr is prcperry and. they imitatc the princewho is th€ir host.thevampiriceye.into r€flecby tron. fentasizesself liberation from rheanxieryofabandonment.theoccuprnt. if prop€rtyhad memory. the eyeofnature is trappedand immobilizedby reflection. symbolic the sysremofrh€ house afflicted possibilities the has of unity with nature. forms the clirnaxofthe fantastic. for at everyglance is rraumadzed reflections.Behindthe glasswalls.of inspectionin this extended momentof excessive visibility.ir would b€ afflictedby ir. his deep abandonmentand loneliness.or fear of th€ vampireafflictsrhosedaily activitiesof his potential victims. which is turnedinto a means ofdominarionoverit.as pictur€. varnpiric the ere is crushedby the hallucinatory'truth'produced by th€ mirror rvhichshatters ravesry ofnaturalness the that was rhe eyet illusion cf blissand selflessness.only the eye of of nature is subiected reflections to emitted by rhe glasswalls.nextent by the consequences its own of energy. an almostwindowless ln the absence obseruers outside the house. A of parallelappears. and what remainsis only the mechanism anxi€ty-suppr€ssion of irself.in ihat the hous€playsthe part of a rococo pavilion. on At night.and may even see reflections reflections. Thar is. the serene and fantasyof selfless absorptionplaysitself out. whereby asymmetry theoretical the of invisibility is apparcntlyreversedinto an 'excessive visibility'. This self-induced trauma. is transferred the invisibleeyeof to narure. thereareno pass€rs Theremay be guests.the travestyof life he signifies but also. Asymmetry is affirmedin rhe doubleirnmobilization naturewhich is carried of out complementarilyon each surface of the glass.Igirrr-likedramaofoccupancyinventedby the house. Absorption is cancelledby rhe deparrureof its object. Guests cr€ate rocococomedyin which the princeplaysall the pans.transformingthe entireinterior into a mirror. then.ureis thus endowedwith an invertedvampnic intelli- . into a stateof anxious arousalderiving from the reversal the optical axes.na. the Bur by. of depending the intensityofthe lighting. role to play in this fantasy ofabandonment. the occupantdescends a coolly conrained inro stateof terror. ro The power of absorptive gazing. he by which revealhis impossibility. as dominationblissfullylosessight of itself in its own effects. of appears nowhereon th€ glasswhere earlier ii had appearedeverywhere. By night. Arrificial light is inroan duced.which now becomes objectof contemplation. an onanistic paroxysm of rhe vampiricsymbology.

ricsyst€m. in rhefantastic ofNature afflicted $uh somethinsof rhe inrelligence vampirism. rrtrior lrh oro g phi.ruma. Ho. the vamp.These ro villagersare incarnation.Itrnce.usly ir ittacksit.It is Nuirsto be swepraway by hisrory.rhusendingthe blix ofonanistic rrtruma. At the sametime theirsis a frenzied.tyof the vanpi. Often rhe vampirictext includes episode by rssrrultonthccrypt or castle rcrrifiedpeasants villagers or whom (hevampirehasdriven frenzywith hisattacks. compul siveviolence which seems closerto vampirismthe more ferocn. assault dramatized this is bl rheact ofdrawing rhecurtains. The firsr. which is rwo rrrogrnr and princely. This is because exposesa no it lack ofconfidence in the security the boundaryline and is a gesture of which indicates panic that the boundary has been crossedby the 'orher'. s . that property-relations have been breached(m trxr. To draw the curtainsis a last-ditchploy when (hcsp€ctacle vampirictraumabecom€s of overwhelming. I hisassumption ofprivacy is a disasrer: is rheadmission it ofdefear because real cunain for rhe houseis the boundary line of its the pnrperty'slocation. ln the specific of system theglasshouse. of Wrth the curtainsdrawn rhe houseshrinksto the sratus a privare of homewhosesocialdominance unwarrantedand unenforced.c)'other' of the vampiric symbolic(but in that sense and when they attack the crypt they embody an inspired tr. They are the of alsothe histor. Nc s Y. has the game of dr)mination and submission) an uncontrollable by force:the mob. courresvof Esro . in fact bur tt provides relief.lien. ID rhe night.a tragic memory of rhe . and reconstituting 'privacy'in th€ mostconventional sense..t()n inflictcd upon it. The inrmobil.. thr house's game resolves irself into rwo forms of slceplessness: forms of wairing for th€ €nd. revolutionary daring. l)riwing the curtainsis the historicaldefeatism the ruling class. r k fh('r(': l.n.is rhar of rhe exrended momentof vampiric I'h1ltp Jtlns.ic rrauma is complemented wirh a new an of rxrbility of nature.r Srollcr.

Vhat wasa d isrurbance an rh€ or annoyance thedaytimebecomesa in reassurance the middleofthe in night. but is the increas€d intensiryof the siruadonprovidesa force capableof 'changing signs'on ih is evocation. in but is no lessa hysterical anticipationof death. of The firstoperationcanalso be thoughrof as rhe re-siring ofglass wall syrnbol. of power without any ideal. ittransformsthe int€rior of the latter bv means the mirro. The tract house rhe is . the dramatic game of occupancyis one wherein the form of social masrery.and to life). the Hence. paroxysmofabsoluterecogni. (in in order rhat it may recognize the momentof crisis)its . A glimpseof the occupanisown refl€crion rhe daytimeis in enoughto interrupt the fantasyof absorptionby rem. Paradoxically. His work functions as radical conceprualism in termsofthe intervention or'€ut'it makes rheillusoryseamlessness in of social reafty.and only the hystericalmechanics irs of gameof power.the architectural proiectof . This remernbered realsocialpower permitsthe restorarion ofconfid€nce in th€security ofrhe boundarylin€. The linkaSero the offjce (real sire of power) which was forgotten(firstin absorption andlaterin terror)is now remernbered. createdby existenrrelarionsof subjective property. this force is also represented rh€ mirroric by glass. Summoned by the extremityofthe terrifyingsituarion. rhe non ofan empriness unb€arable and. always.nd..un"i"on. houseand glass. inrensified it a phantasmagoria ofrhe inrerior. An ecstaticremembrance produces new.now blissfully faces dawn and end of rhe same.ng him of mechanics (therefor€ ofthe hiddenisomorphism also ofrheglass wall with the business space -the'office'which he is trying to forget in order to play at beingcloseto nature. As in all games. The secondform aDDears of s'rbduedand mode*:pullngclosed th. The tract housesignifies hisroricalform which rhe ideal of rhe harmonybetween and naturehasshrunkentoin the eraof'postcity totrlitarian' corporatecapitalism. This re-siting estate suburban to establishes final interlinkage the of architectural glass significations evokedby thework.Ir emblemarizes inversion rh€ of the ideal of rational social planning rhat was the outcomeof rhe dec of the revolutionarv line waveafrer I 923. o*n hireria. Restoration. At the ctimax of the mirroric trauma. and suggestiv€ Thanaros. Tract house. rhegloomandterror:re part ofrheeffcct.trauma incitedby mirroric glass. In this ecetatic reaffirmationof things as they are.in its persistence symmerry. as comes with a vengeance.ir fuses of the glasswall symbolwirhtherracthouse. thereis a soothing force.ower are now united in a symbolicdialecticto srticulat€the conditionofthe urbanisric ideain thisperiodofhistory from rhe viewpoinrof rhe tradirion formed in conceprualism. cut Thealterationiscompris€d two operations.it is like a up talisman.in theexisting propenyrelarions.thisrim€rooredin celebration thc of 'presence'ofthe office in rhe cellularstrucur€ of the house.. In the rnidstof this play of sellinflicted rerror.is testedby subjecting itselfto the terror it carrieswilhin.transferring from the exclusive ir isolationof wooded grid.ands€condly.this isomorphism evokedoncemore.he glasshouse endless rcuealsin pure form its historical fatc to live by vinue of its own Graham'sAltelation opensthe perspective interpr€rcenain to worksofarchitecture an expression as ofthenihilisticfantasies ofthe oppr€ssor class.t. N€wconfidencein property Iine creares miliranr and faithful vampirismwhich.andthe end is nothing if not the prerextfor forgertingand beginning again. thus permirdngthe repressed veiled historical or (through those corruptions to flow forward into consciousness chann€ls by the work).Firstly. n dpparenrty renounces pleasures the ofasymmetry a defearistperformance. the a triumphing over the terror it incessantly incitesin itself. bsolutely valid form.

is nor discarded the in thc in designing ofthe new suburb.replicares esrranged homeless rhe and character of ciry life. Graham'sact of resitingmakesan ordinary trac housefunction partially as a glasshouse.ected rermsof an orderedsubi€dion to a code in root€d in €srrangemenr.garden on suburb. rhe glass and houseis.'new hui ihe monopolisrsystemplaceson th€ grids of real estate which surroundrhe urbancores. bur it does so under the sign of a pacified and cured If the glasstower symbolizes rulers'nihilisricself-consciousrhe nessof absolutealienationand historicalernptiness. by and thropic capitalisrs a revivifying. izes desperare of subjection the state suffered those by who.way rhe veil of 'joy' in a radical act of exposure.under the specifichistorical conditions obtainedin the periodin question. aims at stripping. The . Th€. Second. ln placeof the earlier planners'fundamentally socialdemocratic norion of a rhy. New Deal imagcry permi$€d ro carryoverinro rhencw system.villag€' imagerypreferredby carly company-townbuildersand reformist ciry-planners the periodbetween wars. and the:ciry beautiful'. with its ritual values includingprofoundroots in irs own soil. rhis meansto impos€the vampiricdiscourseofexhibirionismand alienarion upontheverysire constructed an illusoryhavenfrorn vampirism. Th€ planningofthesegridsis itself only the ghosrof rhe idealof planning. forms an acquiescenr fagade th€ actualrationalizarion for ofmass housing in termsof profr and socialcontrol. the mirror is brought out of the privatecore it occupiedin eachglass house. and lossof identity. been has encapsulated imperiby alism and repro. nicknameda 'bedroomsuburb'.ronic €nvjronmentfor fatigued as workerswhose problems. the grid is the historicalrrapintowhich rheworkingclass suburban and pans of th€ middle classhave beendriven by their real desirefor liberation..sinceall decisions based are upon the susrained extradion ofsurplus valu€and rhe mlinrenance of unirnpeded surveillance popularioncontrot. This desire.The direct impoas sition of a domineeringdiscourse apoz the domineered. are The .the housefront is replaced with the glasswall. cenain aspectsof social-democratic. In this light.garden suburb' is championed both New Deal bureaucrars ohilan.hmic anicul.rnightmakerhemsusceptible socialisr to agirarion. Thecombined symbolism .srill yearn naivetyfor'joy'. It is then to positioned mid-way between glasswall and rhe rear wall of the rhe . unlikethe consciously undead. post-warsuburban ihe system consists ofa rhoroughly reconstirured'natural' ambi€nce decorativ€lyornamenting a rep€titionofhousing unitsestablished t€rmsofmaximum value in Nevertheless. Along with village imaScrycom€srhe rep€drivemythology of family life. and is enlarged rh€ samesizeas rhe glasswall.private life is rhe ideologrcal basrs rhemaintenance barracks for ofa sysrem wherethe masses boundro their sitesby mortgagesand are forcedro b€come consumers privatetransporradon carson freeways of in paid for out of their taxes.r€gressive uropia'of small-town ima8€ry.he reductionofallof narr:re an elemenr thegamethis to in plays €mptiedconsciousness with itself.thenrherracthous€ symbol.family'. The symboliccontentof rhisact must be rracedin the meanings each of oi th€ operarions proposes carry our on the body of the craham to Firsr. The new hut is and the outcomeof a sequence design of d€cisions aim€dat rhe consolidarion of an atornizcdstareof 'privacy'for the masses. ifleft without ameliorarion their private in lives.iion of the nature-housecommuniryrelarionship.communiry' of and . Figuratively. insisrently promulgated themass by mediain general.Housing rractsareinversions which rheunresolv€d historica crisisof imoeriI alismhasimposed rheideaof rhe . The 'village comnunity'. terror.

phantasmagoric absorption.invisible. necessary sight.Henceits tradifor tional significarion a bearer und€sired as of rruth. ln the Aheration the rlqime of wit is interrupted. roo.the relaion between 'public'. reflecriviry.house. This significarion. The most spectacular effecrof the rwo major operruons an 's inversion the mirroric functionof the glass of wall. in Lacan'sfamous'mirror phase' is whereinthe infant regards himselfvisually the mirroras th€ integrated in entity.€din irony. is a dizzying turning-inside-out.whatis the new syrnbolic statewhich surges this coup? Th€ site of theor€ticalinvisibility has been irremediably thearricalized the act of wrestingit from an abstractlyliving eye in the and identifyingit directlywith a mechanism: mirror. theorericalinvisibility beenusurped all rhemirror itselfin a . The glasshousealways subiecred . interruptsthe wirty play with reflectionscharacterizing glass the house.io. reflectionsconstantly its the to (ro a stateof transparency.Sincethe mirror reflecrs morelighrthan theglass pierce lafter. ofasymmeofsocialpower. as a resultof rhe previousoperation. tionsofthisareobvious. ismoiedirectlyrevealed rheexampleof in the mirror's untimelyrevelarions psychicor spiritualdisintegraof rion whererhe {aduh) viewerwishcsro seethe confirmationof an idealof wholeness.The ideal of by phantasmagoria absorption shattered rheov€rbearing of is blissful Againstth€ mechanism.privai€'.which yet subjectively he cannot experience himselfas in his numerous infantiledependencies incapacities. weshouldhave In fantasy intervenrionisn.however. inflexiblereignof mechanistic an of tJnderthis specula. Thereis no symbolictransferraof asymmetry. are now locatedbehindthe mirror. Graham'saSg. of relativelyclose behind the glasswall. coup would be the preludeto liberation. playwhh thewhol€crystalline a signifu chain.andizement the mirror of undesired of creates a disruptive lheatricalizing of the rnecbanisms lruth'. for example. masteryand composure. being'witl€ss'.orp /'ostl.and . presence mute and relentless reflective ofa a narur€-fantasy.This return of glassto rransparency greatersymmetry) under the impacrof a supe. Fromthe vicwpointofSituationistthis conceptualism. visibl€. . Not simply a matter of the reversalof meaningor implication (alrhough itemployssuchreversals)wit. 'consciousness th€ to essential th€ distraught of rhetulers. bedroorns.the presence the enormous mirror) with irs superior reflectivity.Th us. of theconcretization ofthe revolutionary forward from fact. so for th€ social masquerade cannot bear the wirricismsnecesery ofabso_ consciousness. Here. Finally. lut€inversion'rr. the sinuousness distraught. implicitin rherococoimagery rheprincely of pavilion.The stateof wit.th€ mirror. gready weakensthe glass' reflective strengrh. and The 'undesired' aspect of truth borneby rhemirror. In Graham's plan. that is.if nor nihilisrnhas bourgeois liberarionirs€lf:theemptycoreofoppressive been shatteredby a cunning guerilla operation usinS weaPons providedbythatsamenihilism.theoretically. The vampiric implica- cannorlie. It fundions through a mechanical r€versal. th€ which werelocatedin the openzoneof both glass houscs. All living eyesare thereby inmobilized within the rdgimeof theatricalized that is. from onegroup to another'no reversal the try.teign of t€rroi.is in fact suspended herealtogcther.spaces is altered.is prosaicand 'wirless'. I mechanism. Most significanrly. mirrora\\erts Irauma the wittyplayofther ampiric of r€velation. returnedro rhe privatecore. bedrooms are re-identified wirh bathrooms sDaces to be viewed. no revolurionaryleap. Graham'sproiectappears againstthe terminslnihilismof bourgeois mount a t€rror campaign by has Underthisregime. vampiricconsciousness that alienaaed. to is witty gamesmanship immobilized. In daytime.s rro. ing Mirroric reflection.rending returnifto does.

Characteristic the are in of 'widessness' the mirror. rhe veil ofprivacy from the tract housereveals common immothe bilization of all in the ruptured vampiric schemecreatedby rhc imbalance between almosthelpless the glassfagade and rhetyrannical mirror. th€y wirnessrhe absolute immobilizationof the shaftered vampiricconsciousness which has migrated from isolated retrear ro parherictrap in rhe suburban grid. The mirror.as the surfaceof asymmetry fades rnward.from glassro miror. through the great refleciivemachine.Permanendy prolongingthe rraumaticmomentof rruth.)r historical apocalypse.This symbolicstoppage rimeis an image of .In replacingth€ glassas rhe meansto assure asymmetry. lhat isabsoluteand overrides flow oftime. Graham'sstructurecancels asymmeary occu' berween the pant and passersby.The villagersof the vampiric symbologyapproachthem irroredcrypr.or posiiion. and the occupanr.from a sinslecoup d'oeit. Time is thus extend€dinfinitely from a singlemomentof crisis. The rhe 'public'part ofthe interior ofthe alreredhouse as collapses a space distinguished from rhe exterior. Compellcdto experience climactic trauma of selfthe revelatron self<ancellation rnd at thecoreof vampiricconsciousthe ness'game.and even approachit. rhev suffer identificarionwith the extremestate of homeless disintegrationplayed out in the failed inrerior. By daylight. havebecomemuch who mor€imporranr: rh€yposition th€mselv€s b€fore the huge mirror out of fascination. wereexcluded who from the fantasy ofabsorption in the glass house(whose€xclusion in fada prerequisiE the was for funcrioning the fantasy) ffer a hallucinatory of su return. explicitly identifies and themwith eachother.iusr as it idenrifiesirself with rhe other housefronts it also reflects. appropriatesall light.end parricipate ir ascaptive. crossing boundaryline ofrhe propeny and coming the closero rhe glass.. located betweenthosehouses and the alteredone. clasps within its optics occupanrand passersby. Anevilrensionradiatesfromrhismaschisticwork. of therebyannulsthe transformation terror and disintegration into their opposites. the mirror therebycancelsrhe relarionships berwe€n interior and exterior which charact€rized glassbuildings. All rn a singlecon(istenr pehprdive. The strippingawayof the standardfaEade. The asymmetry ofsocial mastery(symbolrzedby the play of lighr on glass)is crushed. The machine dominates day and night. the ofthe glass mirror reflects fagades the ofthe houses passersby opposire. and a hallucinatory. interrupted only slightlyby rheweakreflecriviry wall.passersby carrot eiperienceit from e dominating. imageofthe commondisintegraan . it forbidsir to passinto Jnysubsequenr momenr.fixrted eyes.. In ov€rridingthe refl€cdvity oftheglass.n. Theydo not win theprizeofasymmetry thisretu.. that new fagadeof a new interior.That is. ln the unifiedmirroric perspectiv€ they rec€ive the shockof recognition: rhis migrat€dand shaftered consciousness is an irnage oftheir own.Rather.the perspective esrablished by themirror indicatesihat theoccupant now on an equaI fooringwirh is thepassersby.Theyareinscribed simplyindependent even essentially into that climacricmoment.outside to the inside (narure ro rhe prince) and the glasstower subiected outsideurban massro rhe gaz€of rhe carsar. natural or artificial. Now rhe climacricmoment of terror becomes endless emergency r6gine which. Themirroic reignofrerror the annullingrheoperationof thevampiricwitwhichpermittedthegame of the glasshouseto proceed. . it annulsthe an nlav with time.n the th€ interior. rrappingon irs surface of borh wirness and rhat which witnesses itself beingwitnessed.rpocalyptic symmetry emerges..nor dotheyassume in mastery in a mirroric reversal. in The crushed vampiric €ye and the caprive eye (which can only witness) lockedtogether a newsymmetry. The passersby. symmetry this congeals rbeseeyes a feverish in I one momentof universadisini€gration.

both havingbeenbuilt for solitarvoccupants' are malethroughhasbeenpresumed The sexof rhcimaginaryrrccupant (Despitethe fact rhat Miet glasshouse was oui this analysis.Butgiventhe as apocalyptic natureof rheproject'sabolitionofhistory.produces single.andanoth€rsymbol of European totalitarianism.prince if nor king of its own stepsforward to famille. The spectacular.and which sees undertheglareofan opticaldevice don ofeverything rhe hou'ecndr mirronc s'ghr. Thus it is an irnageof the failed lib€ration that space. of It mighr betemptingto romanticize total darkness th is cave the instinctualiiy. As such. Graham's ostensible seems end at the'houseofthe dead'. Theahered blindrall with irsexce<sof vrmpiric gameof rhe rulers. Ther€. The blind cave behind is the outcomeof his forrn of shielding. the notionof is or a survivingprinciplein it. Craham'sinterventionin rhe nihilistic enslaved ofnihilism finaleruPtbn in playoftherulers results an imageofthe of the world. nothingbut a deas itisable to glimpse histoty beyond a ex machita. because thethreads of oftheoretical.This implicationwould be especially panicularlyLacanian. of memory .by the apocalypse thecalculating of catastrophe specular This instinctuality.might have memory. The father bequeaths vamDiric the chamber.an imageof a new stareof absolutized as itself an instincrualityof the blind body traumatically produced by the of nihilism. permanentIn\tant o[ df whrchourlaws any furthermovement hilrorv''rself cara'rrophe and playedwith.'sccond and violated. communias.howevet. become chimney. thoughblind intelligenc€ maleMeisterschaft. cave or lighd€sscryPt. vampiric houseimplies from every angle a male the Ir consciousn€ss.shieldingthe rest of the familv. The bedroomsand bathroomsare as excessrvelv an closed the front halfofthe houseis open. This feminis. the machineof the house. Those'privat€ spaces' publicones in theirProiectrv€ are es in absotutized rheirimplosion th€ disintegration. ternpting woveninto hisworkj these craham hasconsisrenrly ferninismwhich mightbeBrasped thesuppon for sucha supposition.bevond the house'sclosure of such a possibility.) is this male who invokes and undergoes to or Pilgrimage the historicaltrauma.daydream the midstofnightmare may prevail. and. The possibiliry a survivingfeminine of principlein Graham's in housemay beembedded the role playedby .strippedoflightand nor spaces emptyi ot' system.through .alongwith the skeletal Chiricolike house de madesolelyof vacant windows. Howev€r.and as to symbolism gloomy Modena Cemetery suchis definit€lyrelatedto Aldo Rossi's projectof 1975. a princely. disintegradon-tra perela castle'becomes vampiriceye. traumatic become basisfor a femaleprinciple the sight'. in irs nigration a uma becomes familv affair' The the rracthous€. impenerrable by established Graham are as to vision. female otherwise. problematic a This failure.ir is what is given by the father's the absolureburial heroism.if in by only b€causeeach imageoftheendof historyis itselfencapsulated the historical developmentprovoked by the irnage. EdithFarnsworth'the svmbolicsystem the eye.we noticetheenigmatic conicalform rcappearing rhe entranceof the Elementary Schoolin Fagnano at olona 1'1972-76). a ofthe humanbody.however.theindicators' rhis of theblind body. Th€y produce rmage as in visibilitv.as head and'hero' of the household. of originattybuilt forDr.and thereforecould of survivaland evenrenewal. The imageof the heanh asth€ coreof the homeis ofcourse played with in Rossi's schemes orderto express notionof homelessness in the ro which he is so anached. But ar€ rhese The rract houseis bv conventiona familv home' wher€asth€ glasshouses not. front of the house is his the3tre. of the zarsor r/os which rs locatedbelizd rhe mrrror. public struggle. This linking ofa chimney a to with acemetery that 'finaI hearth' ofcours€sugg€sts crematorium.

but raths confiscates for vampirism. h isequallyrich outside synrhesize manydiverse sensibilities passes from asourperception any rheaffrnirre<of panrcularstyle.asPete! of certainty blitz krieged the cryptic has that Eisenman suggested.Thesurlace ofrhepodrum.It maywell be.carried out as ari's own ideal. craham overrides unerly.mph.Johnson's Hous. Graham. loggia.ingth€ hearth.consciousness). woven its brickherrinsbooc fusing co. Frampton'sassessment the meaningofJohnson'shouseconof tainsa historicalmisjudgem€nt the characterization in ofrhat work as the end ofa traiectoryofbourgeoishumanism.phorof inciderated rhe thetul.a h€arth in the architccturalsymbolsinvolved in rhe Altetution proiect. rrerred rn roolplrne.. a final clo'ureof hourgeois tion of many srrrnds definitivelyreducrivemodernity.In a studyof PhilipJohnson's Ken glass house. the next it is successively one subde inflection to intersecearthwork. ir forhiry thenain motifofrhchouse' rhepladorm w@den villaSe fromMi.shows that he refus€s simply hand ovcr the imageryofthe hearthro the to femaleelement. Thus.and prism. ro This impliesthe theorcrical and political limits of the conceprualist . but that the ruin in remains a village. end irself. sp€cularized space.msrhe. The end of bourgeoisnihilism is the spectacular masochisticapocalypse which produces elegiac no expression.in the relcndess bleakness ofhis exposure.s'z.the stateof solipsism of a rraiecrory rath€r than a b€ginning?"16 r00ithinthe scheme the glasshousethe imageof the heanh of appears is centrel its meaning. Conceptualist interv€ntionism regards exposure nihilismro b€ its of trs socialideal. is pure defeatism (almosr raised a higherpowerby irsself.a folding in of humanismuPon the raisedto unparalleled elegance.umofJohnson's nadeof thesanebrickas in he cvlinder. Graham's it proj€ctexplicitly locates fireplac€ the living room which is of the in coursein rhe front.e materi. butrathcr fron a burnt-out wasnorde.boutabrack {.' chimney based that Housewas These laconicwordsnoronly suggest rheGlass quesrionwas almost on the vision of a ruin. And yet is not this sophisticated a utoPranism. revealsin turn. referrcd l9J0 when wrote:'The fromwhich sprinss.completely ir subordina. the GlassHous€ is Johnson's the monumentto the horrors of war that herebeneath flowerc of Xanadu lies embedded petrifiedremainsof a losr ideal and an the to elegyfor thedead. discloses the whole process that ofexposureturns on b€ingdefeared by that which is exposed.as indicated innote 12.. anamorphic mirror. WhereJohnsonironically reBins traditioml h€arth-and-home imageryas a muted counterpointrothevampiricgame in'anchoring'hishouse wirhthechimney.as well as the kitchen. any feminine principle of sunival and renewal to emergelike a phoenix from Graham'sprolectwill likely be a homeless one. Overrhechimney slipped stcel fo.ived of and I sawoncewheie nothi. Equallyindebted both Mies and Malevichthe status of this house as work of art derivesfrom its capacityto atonce. rheorher on ol (through idenritt the rhe earthwork. Pi'rc€s ' . the hisrorical condirionalityof the conc€ptualist str3tegyof inrerventionitself.s.rus of rhr rherootrlabrnsuch waya\ ro. which mer. factthatJohnsont f ireplace and to The carriesavestigial. nethFramPton which Glets 6ylindc. to the mirroric r6gim€. Thus.isordcred . I a cage wnh a slass bricl. Graham'salteration is to historicalFrsp€ctive as mnch as anythingelse:hc shows that the end of bourgeois humanisrn bourgeois is nihilisrn. he shows rhar the conc€ptualisi strategyof intervention.swasleftburthefoundatnms chimneys skin Th.Thesuccess this of exposurein the Alteration proiect.l) wirhthebrickcylinder ofrhebarhrmnr/chimncy Thisis hc ro hoosc. Graham'sintervcntionism aimed at the exposure vampiric is of nihilismhiddenwithin high bourgeois an-culture.nchor.theautonomou' a is h hanJ.ruin and tent..

Gallcry.if anything.ssel 1982-Onecannot.srr'.ecognize A/te/dti.r rivity. notesorcric.s ir cscaprng esorcricism.all 7 in thesmashins ofrheglass !valls ofthiswork 'vand.The failrrrcofconceptualism showsthat art which challenges rheexistingorder irsowDname artwill aind inherent in as its limit in absolute neg.'l-he impossibilityof projectishiDtedar rhis ir the attackson his smallerwork.critique. phoro:courtcsy theMa ritrn GoodDa.Glass is and symbolism is comprchended everysrnashed in window.rrt bccamesocialcritiqueitsownnarne: a in having of Dar Grahan.) rhe'cuCis mostapdyexpresscd. .icty solelvon irs own name. a rhenmmentwhen. ir the r<rrds of Lawftncc V/ciner.rnd lrom emerging general inro comprehensibil Glass isthematerial whichrheSituationii! in conceptualistirlea 'ri. that such inrerventionism succecdcd h. builrin rheparkat Doclrmentain K. I 9 86 87. Ir did in so out of its morrifiedcondition as avant-gardism. rathcr because intervenrion the oppressive its in architecrura syrn I bol-game reaJable. This proof..lisn'because such ruin. (iraham proves this in theabysral ourcomeof hisown inrerventioD. Dnfree relatxrnto the unfre€dom in provokjngit. for pragmaric nor reasons ofpatronage. which alsoproves rhenecessary bond betweenconceptu rlismandit5subject-marter problemaric urbanism) (the of provides thc perspective throughwhich to.so.Ncw York . because could it not bring to the surface irs own conrcious of practiccthe repressed rnd lorSottennarneof the social force (thc working class)whose revolutnlary upheaval had animated and inspired earlieravanr the garde.) ptotectas the an ano monumenrirl memorialro conceptualism's limirations_ This work may indecdbe unbuildable.'l wo AdidcentPn lions11978). Oct.neednot be .which intervened so. Thus craham s work crratcsan utterly irresistible provocationin thosevast expanses of glasswhoseprctensions domiDance unwarranred ro are and whosc securityis norenforced.ltior thcprecise is complemcn rheirown r to intcrvenrionism.onsrructed'. /or M. (lr prrves. Thc Alterdtion pntjcct rnemodalizes past nlomenr. ')t Bur the wdrk.

t ( . on\ r r U.r\. l ' ()\ sibl\ . i r r .1\i ! rh. r s|. r t . u I i (. nl\ . r t . ur t . .. r ( . r \ .r' H . J. I |\ .ri Lcrl reeo r r r ur .cd f .k b h T n n . {hi.. r 1( l i \r\r Ir rhf tr r . c r r . r ln. r yh. .nrrrr rr r o ir si) s I r m . r lr r \ . n i. in r or . J . . t f . t ir s( . . r r isr Llir h. i rl r. r * hosr r . /. toprrrl rcc. t r r c. r J ( . lt r \ if ( . t . r |. l 989 l hoto: . .u )dmrn (i i l l cri . r t . r.\.i !rl . . . r . i'r l\ r h.o |( r . ir hr r t r r t (l .rr. Llir r . ( l jr s. sl.s .n l ' rr!r(. r sr hr iir r r uLI r nr hL t .! i n rb . t 1r r t l. r t r ^ilf s nf!.l .\(.| . .r ld{.rrror r r lr cr r r . N dr Y rrk .n .n (.rrron{)rth. r lr zr ng l) c l. . r r |c r r eonsr r ur t t l r sr i. r \ pr c. . r lt r . t). r r r or hr r . h( . r .tf. . . . r |. t ur r r \ t ( jr .rhl rtoob. i{.)( h.u.. |.4. r t ! r j jr r r hi\ rrr. hi'l/ r r r .. t t r r s i )n. or ( . r r . t r 'r . r r r isr . ! on.. \ '. ( t r r h .rtr!rr. i. L I . " i I l l) . r : t . r \ .r. N I. Y ( ) lilr J .rl l . I hu. cli: hc r r r r kcsi Nl. ( f r . sN (b . 1.

$ .d Utatid: Det.r. Bchner.rc ro. t ht t oloc r t ion. . Sig...minx Nli.a.rb ncrnbeb of A(. The Hosuth Pre$.tts.. New l. The Prcs oi thc Nov! S.cdrtcd B.p. b L .Footnotes l.22.hncctrtrc rnd l.v sc./rdz: vidtu Arehne. relalonship bctwccn thc.r of the rcinvcntioo rctrcsc nbam aier ir lt os s r br ht y .Kiwfr.n./a.iry N.itxr oicxhibrnm.. x r .rbndse and London.ter. B&dt l r c : A t r t i .r.e 9.los.fm trnd Ff.in . berween sl.on of the {.. UscVrlue Mi. P .l Psrt .r t td/rprl. oxford' (:hitrgo. Ktrrl Be!..o.l. . l n r c n .n l/. i f o m l '3 r n t h c C r P n r l o l i h e .6 Mnheal Asbet:Eahtbn ns |ttupe197277' 1980 Eindhoven. dihf t c f o r c a n e w L e v e l o l . Buchloh..8ruphic 'The Inrerp'.. rhroushrhe wrndoF N well. l97i' lt ll5 142 4.!r l)r.op.tks 1970 1978.l se r b y.rlr.pp. fh.ld Darclot) /.the r dure w'"datu Pie.rid thn anano. sumnd d nr of ho( i l n r b t h e .D. nr..nd appfo. Mrnncd. Thc rdhtn'. !1. Spt. The MI'I lre$. . sol'hry t mrl. o n c e f n r .m iho troblem.ph$.es 1976.r Lcv(' L cf.ahnm.\n (hi.3n Expre$Dn A r. c li Book s .rior nrke! ihis rnto. r r h . Tr? trs.cs heie tr thr rcrdenncor.re.ulttral fiekl :nd.ism. llreLJn. wnhh thc xrt market.oks. Thi ad .1 Sig.Id e o scr e e n p o r ti o r e d nclr thc pictutu windos ol a rad house.iund Freud. I 6. dn.t on the s. roi that m.1 H'sro/t. Ci.51. v ' of luinnnllnm r..orlnrarist l.ontanx. rhe o.r rlierwork.nrep\ . r p l e s .fredo l. Thecla$ HouseRevnited.)h. h.howcv.ho$ever.ngu. 14.li.1 .C. Trfuri. (r. n.s' vol.: Win"gs on Videaa"d Vid. r(nlJ r r lf r 197I . Londoi.r.N e w Yo r k.rl lishhnsandspatulcondnio. Utrilert! ot chi.h a snull holidav r. l . 1961..l. On thr hisn4 oi thn . pp. 1 l.n.ti/ciner.h.r 2.. lJ. 2.s rhioushout thc cny lu thc dunrion ot an exhibirion.ont. Vrn Abbemuscon. m o{ lu..r ksh o w a m . 1979.ri.\{.i4 af Arh ttt t' /../.on on th. A b .dnd.pp.xoir of urb!. olher ihc reduca\ nore exchsivd.lj .11. idr ndnLESc { iv .\v x lt c r Ber r r nr in.n.d's poetion i. uG Phillippe.Th.e or th' sofk N o fiitas b.ch r n s. 1978. dt Miitnt \1977)...u$ed in his le(ure. m s .r. Anamorpholn'.Ide 'n 5. rnd the Nlus. n r i i i .1i. There is . t.r. 1966. 167. R.rv cvidenti.reenrnd.rhxps . p. r'ew Yo. 1981. oltf.retv ai ih. 8.ho Amlysn.tt nsuc. s om er hnr gm or es is nr f r c ant : r d n p h c r m c n t o r r e p r e r s i o t r o f a d c c p e r a d i *i c fl mode.thood l. i r h e l h 'r t r c r l l t . nruseum es a \ubicci d{N'ng work!hyAshcr. 1 9 7 9 .d Capn. v t r h i 't h e .th. scc development.. Buchl. BenFminILD.teaboverhdlncth.!''.g. Ashels rcnarkablel.llht s'i.r. There.. presumably. asrvellr! from eany works by \ntrrn.nd the ln$tue oI 'hrllic Fsr.edted by Benramin H. which s rllum. us r n n r o i t h c p r .O.p p r o .rJ L:nBland.n cloself rehicd to Grah.irl..(tr. cf.iler wrs prrked ri varnrussit.naisince so.um oi l\!)d.l.rndturnsnJurrdispecificcodll.xt.k.v 1l 9 l 9 l i n Srn/. Nn.o..tulcTcleisio./ notior of drc FwLl. l t I i g h C d P n d n s n .. rlth. 1979.I-!ngr. dis. !)dn C hn t: ts"illltns\ . 13.redby I aen s gho{'. N.n n.upa. l)rrft'.f Art and I)elisn and NYU Pre$.ommodty l'trmrepresrnts! p . .16.hLlipRielf.lv. r .8e fornsinrorhedom.hbora.a8o. V. Cr. rlthoughin rh!trv.ol..l .p 5..nll sculprufe orsall. e\h. He sees imaeeot .c. The cuNfufe olrhe chnD.nre andrheI hrorv of 'n (rry*rl \rehrhor'..Johnsonshouse. r h c d r a w n r g st. that it nernatn. l)(.chins rhe wnrdoNstr dre npldt cfcnt ol rn . \lir c h l9u l.ticnr hC. pf .sccnddre. n rhe/orrMl.rrfl€(ivenrefulpl.!on(. D.bitnr cahlogrt.BIlhe.1.o \I.5. M. the co.rid8cind h. C.etoa Atdiea.i Art. nd em blem at ic s .Contcxt runcno. n l l i c .flonrl c. Seerhephotgraphs 1nDrn G hts: Butlrlins\dtd . C01!rcr 10.l e p .)n! of specuLirnre$abhhed in the symbolic stscm olthc hous.nta. l... TheINrirurcfor r\r. l2 231. Adbb6.ro*ing the propeq hne.sde driferenr.l Fdcd\'An ind Objc. B!m.t t .tuaed in aiahtn s Pabl'.eai 1974.rban Srudics. H.ush t nrdul$ it 7.ti.nJudd."^r. nr r r r y . 20 4. ll.nd nriror in thesererns cin be conrpared ipproxinratc\ wnh rhri.ondon. s pt r e r her ur hoas m 'l nnpo\n1onot bur'rucranc.hit. by l.inrttemptto defeaf(trii:. cit.18.l4 16 nr rn . KrnndthFranpbn.p.tate d..h ofthe cxPerlt. The re{nting{ork n not rdutihlr ro tlrei$ue of i.r r h e s.B. a.win i-id.hr.l. . One of thc ccntrrl ch.liza rn ofdre Arts( trk'.lntlnslisht. .raddn.t7 p l2.trr oi rhd R. R.1. .n/lLtio.hrclr\shefs Re' lvtireri. The $ork s tublishcd in D. h $ e n c r n ! u '' 1 96 7. iiinslred byJ.esco Drl Co.r. r nb r r r k e nk o m t h e sork of Kosuth. CeorBe Allcn xrd U. T.s] of ltd.oriaCollcgo. e t i t l t h c L t d . 1977.. 9. r n r .semrrielL!8 Blciter' rr.F.l a n y . 6. t . krnd of anamorthi.ge.dii.t! ion of the Gl.6. .

but it did not positionGraham'sworkadequately the contexrofthe wholeidea. Jeffwall Aueust 1991 . and then \n RealLife Magazine. and so has I haveagreed its publication. in Penh. Summer 1985 and Vinter I 985-86. The publication ofthe Kamrnerspiel essay provided a context for the consideration of this one. nnmbets 14 end 15. more appropriDan Crahem has continued to think rhar this draft discusses mattersofimportance to hiswork. although it seemed It was therefore that the discussionit outlined might be resumedon another. It was conceivedasa contribution to a dialectic in which Buchloh had set €xemplary standdrds. h was the first draft of the first part of my essay Dan Craham's Karxr enpiel. in September1985. in put asideas a false starr. This draft was reiected as part of the final version. It may have contributed to a critical discussion aboul the interpretation of Graham's work in the writings of Benjamin Buchloh. The final and published version ofthe Kammerspielessay was written in 1982.Preface This essaywas written in 198 1.whrchwaspublishedinthe catalogueof the exhibition Dan Gruham at rhe An callery of I/estern Australia. to It will be clear in the text that my critique of Beniamin Buchloh's writing was developedin an atmosphereof respectand admiration for his work.

in Buchloh'sidcasarc indcbtcd to thc radicalismassociatcd with Frankfurt&hool Critic. tum.A Draft for'Dan Graham's Kammerspiel' (1981) Interest Dan Graham's in work has beenstrongcst amonganriformalistsinvolvcdin thc dcvclopment a sociologyof illusion in of rcletionto art This critical dircctionwasdevelopcd largcpart by in BcniaminBuchlohwho consaruct(d imponant arguncnt aboot an c1l'rentart.l Thcory.W.l Thcory it cmerged whenthc pcsibility of a social or political altcmetivc to this domination of socicty by 'barboric'authoritarianforccsappcarcd havecomplctclydisintcto grated.as'functionaliss'.cc of the totalizcdalicnationof'tcchnologicalsocicty'or 'nao-capitdism'. Althoughit hasbccnpan of Europcan artisticdiscous.andparticularlywith T.The historicrl roots of this disintcgration to bc found in ara thecollapse theanti-Naziforcesin WeimarG€rmany. rrdicalism of'nctaaion' in the f.n Sivcnto Grahaq DanielBurcoand MichaclAshcr.As . in which canonicelststushas bc. Buchloh's argument form€din a synafiesis a€sthaicsructual is of analsrisand ldcologiekritikin thc tradition of thc FrankfunSchool. thc of In . tyF of Critic.Thb is . Ior solllctime analysis Englishhasnot bccn€xtensive.Adomo and Max Horkheimcr.

whkh thar discourse seems rhr€atened in with extincdon. Buchlohidentifies this functionalism with Critical Theory'scontinuingatt€mptto expose process rh€ ofbureaucraric rotalizaiionof social life in 'monopoly' (or {late'. as character this combinationwhich givesii its l€gitiof and unstable macy:the ceniral dialecticof the crisis period of modernismkhe wave.a combiBrechrian of walrer Benjamin's ofthe European New t-eft. of dep€nds explicitlyuponrwalrer Beniamin's valiant th€sis. it mustb€recognized Benjamin'sconclusion But that also reflects enormousshockof the defeats the sufferedby thc German working-class mov€ment rhe 1920's. however. decisive vague. yct What son ofaltemativc docsrhii . is both effectedand reflectedin the culturalspherethrough the'exc€ssive aesth*icization the world'.prionthat war hasb. esrrangement psychic and regression of thc individual sublect.it is precisely problematic recognized problematic.ofcourse. By pressingthe question of these connectioN.r r can exp€nencc own rrs destruction anaBthericplcasure rhefirsrorder.and hasalwaysbeen narioncharacteristic the However. which corresponds rhe interesrs a nihilistic and destructive ro of ruling class.ched sucha desree th. of in upon the evocationof this p€rsp€ctive Buchloh'sinsistence isaimedat holdingopenthe question consid€ringcontemporary art. or 'neo' capiralism)and ro delineate resulting the atomization.perc. axial ro his demandfor a functionalisr posl-conceprualism.The finalsenrence stirrine in is hur schemaric. of is Always implied in Buchloh'sperspective the extensionof this of critique toward the functionalization aft as an elementof social of planningfor liberated ord€r.caus€of rhis collapsecan be traced back to the failures of the in andHungary. and €xpects to supplythc anisricSratificrrionof a s€ns. CohmunismGDondsby toliticilingan. was an obiccrof conr.This monumentalized reprcssion. Buchlohdevelops new and significantcontradicrions. of work.This is thesituarion as of of politicswhichFasismisr.obligedto replaceits own d€mocraticftadirionswith authorharian forms of rule. written in 1936: ' ' Fiatars. and the Stalinism ofthe PopularFront and rhc MoscowTriels) and to participateas a wriler in rhe developmcnr a revolutionary of movement. problemsof the present.' of The proposal of an excessive aesth€ricization social life as of culturalsyrnptom authoritarianism. whichi' Hom€r's rim.andrhe of revoludonary upsurge 1919-23 Germany and poteniial subjectiviry deformationof revolutionary subsequent in th€ working classmovement.cn chadsed tcchnoloSy. 8odr.peledtmurdrc' says Fascirm.k is secnas fie connection betweenthe prescncc in and the of authentic critical discourse the history of modernism.nde."r The final scntenceofrhisparagraphhas correctlyunderstood b€en as expressing Beniamin's desirero overcomc oppressors his lFascism.Thisis. It is th€ basisof his establishmeni a Panrheonconsistingof rwo wings: Productivism(includinSthc politicalaspects Dada and Surealism)and the Readymade. alena(ion h. which assensan productionand consumption imag€ryand anistic commodities.r re. Conceptual aft is Buchloh's srarting point and essential fram€ of reference. as Marin.insaesrheric. negativity theAdornothe Regarding Buchloh's with the acivism Horkheimerpositionis combineduncomfortably writings. is evidcntlythc co'surnmationof br This 'l'ad pow I att .ni admirs. of the historicalmemory(or lossofm€mory) ofconceptualisq thc radicalism ofthe alignedwith the student art movement mostclosely New t-eft.around periodb€ginning with the decline the revolurionary of with greatconcentration. Marlidd.mplation the Olympiatr for now is onefor itsclt lts self.The dialecti€in ques1920)is expressed the by tion is oneconstitut€d the conflict between trend roward the and d6cor'and one of entenainm€nt restriction art to technological consrruded in th€ as a critique of subiectiviry.

The €rnpriness the final of sentence symptomatic is then of Benjamin's own inability to speak clearly about the response Communism. creatingth€ 'au. He was aware.and whar rhe Popular of Front'sdebacle makesclearas beingrhe 'silence Communism'.This aura.trength.this aura is the key to the success Fascism mobilizing jamin. throughits disastrous ing classmovement.is cognizant of its impact on his own capaciries.Beniaminstrugof gles to put a set of conceptsuseful in the fight againstthe Nazi propaganda is machine the disposalofhisreaders.andofthosedifficulties experi€nced the anri-Fascist by writers most closelyidentified with Benjamin. concludes with a distressing revelarion evid€ntin the emptiness his final sentence.disorienBenjamin's tationandtheshocking consciousnessbetrayal.however. of struggle politicalandtheoretical produced these to overcom€ the confusion by defeats makesthe essay important contributionto the developan mentof revolutionary thoughtaboutart. Communism took these policies primarilyrhose awaywith itsfalse of 'seial fascism'.yet "useful for the formulation of revolutionarydemandsin the politics of art" .indefinite 'politicization of art' indicate in 1935? The Beniamin quotationabove.makesit clearthat Fascism alsohaspoliticizedart futuristic andthat thisprocess wasessential irsdevelopmenrofthe in primitivism so characterisric Nazi publicity-art.th€first lesson to be learned from it is that of its orlrr limits.in conflictwirh rnass became ineffectiv€ acruallypassed bur into the handsofthe Fascist enemy wirh incre. From the point of view of Critical of in Theory.it is almosrasif Benjamin's excessively inadequate final sentence itself is a lirerarydevice. Beniamin. who setsout to developconcepts "completelyuseless for the purposesof Fascism". the ..That is. However. is a warning sign.all the and techniques ofpropaganda agitationdeveloped and bythoseworkers' organizations publicity.This machine at based entirelyupon modernrechnology.also. thenof the PopularFront. Adorno's and Horkheimer'sanalysisof masscuhure and the fofmsofdomination (like identified with it. though in the sameprocess. of 'Communism responds politicizingan" saysnothing.of the role of Stalinist misleading ofthe cerman work bureaucracy. the ofa with theideas ofMarcuseandReich. becoming in awareof the Nazi vi€tory'sconsequences rheoretical for thoughr. both in Spainand the Moscow Trials.Benjamin.Ben wasawarethat theNaziswere He nor victorioussimply rhroughtheir own mastery society.a'of the Fiihrer and his vision.red rolarrlrry and.Their Dialectic of Enlighten. was of conscious as was his friend Brecht . an insignia that draws atr€ntionto and incriminates ttself.nehtl1944) establishes broadoutlines theoryofthe'culture industry'whichis. of The consequences the silent response Communismto the of of aesth€ricization ofpoliticsthroughmass m€dia.ymovement) from the handsof the Germanworkers. followingthe explicitness of the Fascisisolution. in rhatthes€ disastersand betrayals werecontinuing. The vacantgenerality. it by veils the fact that Communismin 1935 does not respond. emerge the pessimistic positivismof Adorno in anti and Horkheimer. the victory over Hitler. which may indeeddestroy th€ atavistic'aura' of old works of art.In doingso.not only ofthe period. is the by decisive mysteryof the period. waselaborated Benjamint) Lrnder imoactof the rriumohof Nazismand ofwarrimeAmerica.amongthedominant influences upon rhe New Lefr critique of cultureand art after 1958. the one inducedby reproducibilityand not the one cancelled it.having given away the materialsof response its enemyby taking the to weaponsof theory and organization(formedin the history of the revoludona. Th€ insightsof this essay must be understood historicallyas emerging a desperat€ in situationof defeat. popularsupport. Expressing only the gap betweenwhat was demandedby the historicalsituationand what the response Communism of was..

Thesephenomena were seenas part of a singlehistoricalprocess. This new Critical Theoryis a centralfactor in the developmenrofthe ideaoftotaliz€d dominationof society. for all its expressed hatred for capitalismand despiteits affectionfor c€rtainMarxist conc€pts. politicaldegeneration the of the SovietUnion.in the process melancholy of adjustment the n€w to historicalnecessity livingwirhin the silence of ofCommunism. the Frankfurt School's biaer and accurate exposures ofthe formsof generated stunted and darnaged conscioLrsness therein. which calledfor a political revolutionin the USSRand a return to Bolsh€vik internationalism. is profoundlyandclassically p€ssimistic. These ideas weredevelopedinthe 1930sinreference to the riseof the integrated Fascist state.mation self-d€structive of soci€ty. Throughthe 1930sthis cenftistpositionwas in a stateofcrisis.Criticallycharact€riz- . Communism's inexplicabl€ apparently silence becomes basisfor a new type of the critique of societywhich. linro in Foucault.becomes demonic'power-knowledge'). they rejected what they saw as the '€xtremist'position of rhe Lrft OppositionidentifiedwithTrotsky. transmutingall or of in rational idealsof freedomand truth into irrational slogans ever of moreinvisibleand completerepression what later.andgives onto a social and philosophicaloudook which. newer rhi\ cririque \ees the circleofdomination andevenextinctionclosingabout Critical it. CriticalTheory'smaturesocialand cultural outlook was formed during rhis era. At the same in time.for example.This indicates thattheir conc€ptual rotalization the repressive of and estranging effects ofthe culrureindustryis itselflarglya response to the collaps€ the Cornmunist of new and alt€rnative. it gestures so constandy toward rheouffageof its own eradication. They provide witnessthat of social life is reified and unintelligibleand that the bureaucratic(Godard's'Paranount-Mosfilm') corporatemanipulators havesucceeded. are in the final stages succeeding.This perspective boundedby the disappearance the possibilityof was of rx/ithin the revolutionarytransfo. theconnections and between radical theoristsand the organizations the working-class of movement were largelydestroyed. becomea language hurtful evidence. Theory broods forlornly over all that it has beendivested and of unableto transformits positionwithin the order of dominationit comprehends well. in the yearsafter 1939. which so influencedtheartisticNewLeft. of Theywere unableto swallowthefraudulentRussian claimsofthe achievement of'Socialismin One Country' and they refused apologize the to for buildup of a poliricaldictatorsbip the SovietUnion.by unshakeable bureaucratic forms corporate-state which transcend cancel contradictions the 'old-fashioned' and the of capitalism spokenof by Marx. breaksdecisively with r€volurionafyMarxism (seen havingdisappeared into that as silence). With the the spectre ofthe Marxist concept ofthe uniry oftheory and practice in \ocialrevolurion passing rway inio hisrory. This'gap' is identifiablewiththe silence ofCommunism. The Frankfun Schoolthinkersgenerally helda 'centrist'position in the argumentwhich ragedthroughoutthe working classmovementin rhe 1930sabourthe interpretation thisprocess.and the emergence highlydeveloped ofa corporatism in the United States. Thesestateformsnaturallyintegrate the new communicarions technology into rhemselves.The Stalin'HitlerPactof 1939 and the ourbreakofthe war dissolved the cultureof the PopularFront and exposed duplicity.thereexistsan'opening'.The p€rspecits dv€ofsocialism wasseverely damaged. therebyoutflankingthe positions ofpoliticized culturalcritiqueidentifiedwith theavant-garde. both 'capitalist' and 'socialist'. it awaitsand whoseshadowit This is the spectacle glimpses and denounces behind all the other irrational spectacles concoct€d instrumental by reason and power.separat€d from rheir mots in rhe working classrnovernent. insights Marxist social The of theory.

Modern music spof.Out of its conditionsof aesthetic all irs accusatory in impossibility.ce. however.nmusic sacri{iccs itrclfrothiseffort.chnique ".nheard fallsinto empF/ tine like an imporent buller.) CriticalTheoryt'ecomcs avant-garde post-warbourrhe of g€oispessimism. in undcrgo a sudden change. strictly speaking.. has hea. work of art is nevertheless the idealized a as greatform of defeatism: present thconsistency anirtict.. . lament.which is expressed thoughrforms. Modern nusicsees absolute oblivion itsgoal.is ro bring forward rhis wretchedunthinkability of the palpabiliry. In ir. lf timc crvsrallizs arcundthat music which bccf.become.(Thisfreedom ro oneofpure negativity and absolutc. in these it conditionsofutterfalsificarion culrure.Itsfortune in th€perceptiotr misfortune. wo. ugliness and unpleasure.evealins radiantquintessence.ta ncously towards last aims rhis expede. of alienation.nyinsitselfthc illusion bcauty.d.The process separaiing fies€concepts from the whol€structur€ofMarristfteory permitsthc enthronement unchallenged of ideas totaI domination of in Diale. thealicnarion in of foms thcvcrysub6taGe oftheworkofan. insrru'bea are mental in the production process and irs product. dies wnh as It rway unhcard. hasraken h uponitself allthedarkness and guihofthe world.The highest artistic achiev€menf. its musicwhichhat not be.rrl rhea€srheric itselfasmodeofcritical cognition.Allpopularartinthernodernera fatls under this characterizadoni is 'garbage'.This emblemaric book is a synthesis of the whole outlook of mature Critical Theory. in solidarity.tic ofE ligbtennezt. lseconsciousfa nessand ferishizarion."' Adorno'scritiqueremains eternallydelaycd the point of rcceiving at the shock of absolu. Adorno elaborares ideas his about the process ofregression of receptiontoward the infantilizedgrarificationcharacteristic au of generally thoritarianp€rsonalities.elydisintegratingpocsibilitiesfor changing . apocalyptic Strengthened and deepened their selective by inclusion of rhe powerfuI Marxist concepts r€ification.unthinkable. of and in all uncomprehended absurdity. mechanized cultural production functions rhrough the perverse transformationof pleasure into e rep€titiousstructur€of servilegraiification. weakness the the moderntheoretical facultyis apparent. therebythc philosophical and laboratoryin which incessant waves of revolt againstcapitalismare ransmured into obsessions. They form the primal occasions madeavailablefor commodityfetilhism. and "lt and nor direcr social universality.. it is the freedom staticrefusal.Thus. evidcnced hourly in mechanical music. therefore. Theyillumidarc m. theseobsessions follow the lead of Lukrics. Accordingto of Adorno. withoutevenan eho."ln the enigmatic readiness the technologically of educated masses fall under the to sway of any desporism. which Cri. irs self-destructive in affiniry ro popular paranoia.ingand exposingthese developmcnts carri€s its defensivetaskl it our is that of d€marcating shrinkingcircle th€ offreedom. of thework of an asaestheric obiect. work of an (with irs rools in beauty the and pleasure.lTheory salvages of from itsearlierperiod. which is imperceptible such.. Adorno and Horkheimerintroducedtheir srudi€sby stating. Oppressive as normsofdebased and debasing uty' in this structure. Theshocks ofincomprchcnsion. today.f. emittcdby anistictecbnique rhea8eof its me. On rhis basis..insl€ss rh."r Somuch hasthc'modern theoretical faculty' beenweakened rhe events rh€ 1930sthat by of eventhe conceptual expression revolutionarysolidariryhas beof comeimpossible: is (rhe)unity ofthe collecriviry domination.niDglgsness. lies of allof its b€auty in d. th€ concret€forms of its as dev€lopnentas criricalcognirion)becomes completely subjected to the repressiv€ falsifications the culture industri."" Vithin this perspecrive.ssase despair of fromtheshipwrecled.individuals littleascolletivcs. oncwishcs is of No to becomc involved an .Modc..ic.lt as is rhesurvivins m.ld.

isonwith rhe circumsranccs that had surounded rhe Russian P.The work of art is rhus at besra "concretionof this dilemma"q.oducer.ric p. For Buchloh.haling interiorized the moralsofculture industF/accordingtowhich he is roro in suchcircl€s as will fit in rhc narrow an domain. has himself cecnruallyb€con€ incapablc of.ussion from the beginningof this century had inc.al sirh rcaliry is condemn. in of "€mphasizing the rcfcrence to reality"'o is in rum s€en as th€ dir€ca pr€condirion for fte dematerialization of the work of art irto critical language.ic defeat into the most modern (and negative) form of rransc€ndence.t . Th€ political siruarion lonseriusrifies son of utopianimpetus wharn more.. information and bureaucracy thc city in gen€rate.almost mathemarical is as obiecl.-t of faithful to whatever roots ir has in Adorno's defeatism.easinsly revolvedaround functionalism culninating both thcorctic. Wrning about Michael Ashet's lnstallation at Mnnskl For Buchloh forAdorno. publiciry. Whc.eflectin8upon this dimcnsionof his practice.thep. of The inner relation of rhis dematerialized form to rh€ productionof art AsherorGraham isconstirrted thc facttharconceptualism in dcploys th€ discours€s of academicism.reality.chitecturrl dimension isconcerned.l art panicipatcd in ihc developmentof thc cririqu€ of interdepcndcnccof .yaftisris positionthatbeas no ina compa. no thar and the aesrh. Moreovcr.At the same time.a break.ld in \va.must have difficulty rernaining 119771. and architccurc.and frx Adomo. of Mor€over.struggleroward a "funcional rclationship with reality" in rhe senseof N€w L€ft activismand a dcsirefor a resolution ofthe dilemma.rounds him. oneofinterest in the potential ofthe work of art in affeciing sociery. Thus conceptu.thc dematerializing art into a moredirectform of of criticalcognitionis lheessential echiev€meni conceptualism.d ro rum into errher fa. in Buchloh'sterms. ing the anist'sown subiective conrciousness his or hcr own stare. th€ consciousnessof which forms the oudine of whatever self-knowledge remains possible in rhis period. the task is ro tum this hisro.its modesof productionand enforcemcnt in thc city and irs insdtudons. Any thought of crcatinga functional relationship wirh rcality is instanily ruined by that reafty. narrow domain of a.c at all willingand ablc to analyze theworld rhat su. The critical operarionof conceptual is locatedin its art appropriationof languagees being agairlstrhe imag€ or obiect.this falsification renewcd is with eachaesrhedc gesturc or 'production'. Thus. A critical perspectiveliLe Buchloh's.evenif hc w.eas the an dis.ceor a decorative a transfigurarion rhecrisrin8 situarion. ro dramatize it in his writing as a continuously evolving moment of absolute defeat. art is now compleelyencircled as within the repressive falsification of its very resources a complex institurional by mechanism ofcontrol.llorted to him. ftese works strive io concretizethe dilcmma of immobilizationand ruination of an by rcflecring laner in their the The functionalisticaspectof such work attemptsto break the closedcircle of falsificationin radical inversion. but in tcrms of its physicality. Here archit€cturc is undcrstood as rhe discourscof the siting of the effects of power that publicity.lly and pfactically the twenties afterthe SecondWo.oductivists El Lisshzky or who couldoptimisticalltdiscuss Prouns his in termsot a 'chanse'over from painriry to archiGrure'. This reductivism. This hasthe cffcct(amongothers)of inhibir. Buchloh says: 'As far as th€ historicallysignificantprcGcupationwirh a.i seems that the aesthetic producer. Language not conceived a lheoretical.csentd.on€ which hasits pr€c€dents the reductivism Sixtiesart. hasnoway of becomin8 cffective ourside rh.this problemin art hasbecome moreofan anathcnathan anythinSels€: facedwith this realiiyany artisticor evenarchit ctural{andthuspolitical)zttcmpron rhc pan of acsrhericpracrice ro d. The bestworks.

and Artistically. Essentially response youngeranistsro the politicalevents a of of the 1963-75p€riod.unlikePop. particularlyMinimalism and Pop. moreaccurately. This is inseparable from appropriationof€xisting media forrnssuchasmagazines. Kosutht for example.This interventionis inseparable from its attackson othet aft.nd works is the insightthar both the universitysystemand the mediamonopolies.presenrthe vesriges the of instrumentalized'value-free' academic disciplines characteristic of the new American-type (empiricist universiries so. The best'appreciated works of this conceptualart. Conceptualism sees this as socialand polidcal. academicand linguistic)toward the 'postconceprual' positions Burcn.publiciry. rheir srategic positioningat th€ cenrreof irs structure. rook the this form of linked srudiesin the development srareand scientific . Conceptualism's presents exhibitionstrategy consciously self rhe museum-gallery system es rhe crucial social arena of this new synrhesis. seento b€ thc anrithesisto Pop an's seemingly chronic affirmativeness. The routefrom rheearlierwork of ihe An'knguage typ€ (acrtely circumscribed. .Acadernically.conc€ptual at of an atlemptslo constructa citiqu€ offormalist or'purely aesrhetic'an andto turn thereby. However.itisdominatedby a Romantic concept of negativity.and senses rhar rhe crucialelem€nts critical rraditionsof modernan are beingliquiof datedin what is a crisisin art. which rnechanisms of in of power and domination arc internalized by the urban masses and reproduced involuntarilyas profoundestrangcmcnt impotence. or The kinshipwith PopArr is evidentin both thcse aspects. Conceptualism recognizes Minimal art as neithersimply formalistnor as th€ nega tionofformalism.iology. The influence ofthe Frankfun Schoolisevidentin rheconnecrions thes€ authorsmakeb€tween their specific psycho obiects ofstudy andthe logicalor psychosocial effects thescobiccts.positivistlanguage forms of 1960sadvertising.informaphilosophy)inthe fashnrnable tion theory.' view to changing "with a ir.For purposes of consideration Graham'swork. 47ecrl7toward 'reality'(idenrified with thecity) . Throughthe appropriationof these techniques the exp€nse traditional arr media.this senseofcrisis links the discourse ofconceptualismas it emerges from a reflectionon the institurionalization of radical but still puristic Minimal art.conceptualism att€mpts incriminare art business to the asthe rnechanism means by ofwhich a makingofa bodyofaesthetic thoughtis beingcarried out." Conceptual doesthis by means a straregy an of ofactiveintervention into the existingcomplexof socialforcesconstitucd by urban communicationand repr€sentation syslems. or. A transitionalstyle.ingsof Barthes.Explicitin rnanyconceprual acade'nicism. out of which it most directly emerges. io rh€ concurrentrevival of CriticalTheoryin the New Left. of institutionsas mechanisms power and of rhe methodsof siring of theseinstitutionswithin lhe mod€rnciry. theseareasof thought are most of directlyin linewith rhewri. h is this linkagewhich provides the basis for Buchloh's assessmcnt conceptualism the atislic of as movernent which cffectsrhe decisivere-openingof the historical memoryofAmerican an after the long inrerlude rhe domination of ofpolitically neutralized formalism. Therc is considerable disappointment. The essential cognitive structure ofthese.Asheror of Grahamis openedby the combinationof New L€fr Critical Theory with a historicistcritiqueof urbanism. in the sameprocess which theywer€ for in inscribedin a complex of corporate structuresof authority and knowledge.almostth€ir episternology is publiciry. have becomeprimary suppon-systems newart. theseissuesar€ rais€d in rhc rapid turn toward those tcchniquesand skiltsidentified with thecommunicadons monopolies and stateinformationagencies. purgedof Marxism during the 'Cold !?ar'.Tv billboards. Foucaulrand Tafuri.

l rion' occurs in rhesame prrressuhcrcb.td at least. begins makeapenerrat critiq of n) rcduciivisrn.f Minimal and 1.rble rhecommencementthecrisis s1trldirfliri.nof v. narket was recrrynized the foundatr<.t it.rsconcocted r theatricaleffcctto which thc galleryspecraror as just wrs subjected.smovesitin anditsrootednessin io directionof a new kind of vrcial im:rgery a n'rr of anrithesis in characterof Warhol's its sources the politically neutralized permitthrsecle Milrini. !virhin the'ncsarivisCversnrnof nrnralism. f<rmrlism Conccprual itselfisstill far from freeofthe negativc a.kfrom!hedomin!ntpositivism Conscquentl).scinarionin rhc Sixtaes becausr rn m(rhanstrrohir.! obiectand appc. Elen rhcn. devcLrp theiridcas tosardapoliticr economr I ofarrproduction until thc mid-1970s.rdequac-y proridedin a sense openins. denooncing for irs nrnx)redinwrrdnessand its ulti ir mate indiffercnce toward the s.l.. as srrrtic 'ir h)rnr. lansu.e'(rht[ is.irl cxislcDce.t whichhelped srimulirc rhcm. Thislimirof thcconcepruilisr cririqu.rs really not constirured a subject thework as of (which course of couldnor admitftr having subjecr all). Nlinimalismappea.rsed mentsfor commodities rathcr th.dity. on which has disappoinrc<l Even thoush its depcnderrce social rejection ofthewholeiderotabstract:rrt.es thrt themovcmenr remrins dominrtcd therde.ci'rl discounewhich ir incited and modernist art.rn openlysocirtlly' criric.n The as of. howevcr.rucratized or info.R:rther a ar ir w.ommerci. indic:r.rl dominain .rn up to datc physicalform which (ho{c!er jn!oluntaril!i indiffcren ) concepts implicd anrl rlv aboutthe rclationshipbetrvecn expcriencc art and the expcricncc the of of soci.rlism thr prinarily by Pop. insrinrtlonallypL.All lorms of . shcDrhephenomenon ofenonnous inflatnrn..rnas commodnicsthemstllcs.rrs rhe ro trinscendthe conrDn)diry form.cial concepts art engendered !n In andcssentially Warhol. reductivisrn formeda primal f.corcepnralan acceptecl in rhc frxrns of'pn.rll fonns of dominatr<nin culture..m:rion xrc ll . So the of in response the conccptualcritique of was rwofold and conrradicrory.erthe dependcd for its statusascontroversial on it lcs. rheotherhand.rtricalizcd stanrs ofrrt ohiects gcner. but nnsr conccpturlartistsdid no.bjeciis rher€suh. Anxiery w. is in these that tcrmsthat we undcrstand claimsof c.rlized bure.nre art too obvioLrsly identiii. On this thertricnl effect.rc.onieprurlr.rtiondemarerinlizc.This in.adr)xical reificiri(nof critic.on'iderr. it was clearlyseenthat this exhibitionistic 'oblecthood' accomplished the rcproduction alienatr<.m r" hc. On thc onc hand.ncvcr particularlyamongTreIoirgroup!thrrrhelvlinimalist'herocs x ithinAmeficin makc decisive i bre.drivrn pricesfor works <.listpurismand reductivism not rc.n only of and anxiety.br a ro r)f arristsdcsiringto rcm. thisaspect ofthc aurocritiquc ofart remainecl exceptionally muterl.rhe medir .nr with of of gencrtrlly. reminiscent rhosc experienced evcrydaylife.rtion anddehurnanr zatron. ari).a eririque basrdon rhe conccprof reific. in Concepornlnr( rs'anri{.nts resistancr Popon its own ground.rs iscriticizing. of dominatn."crF8re'\i\epr\\iviry re. Thesc concepts wererapidlyturnedagainst drc Nlininrrl.s be no more than ro forrnalism.nthe 1970sf(x the Minim. thislight. rhispr()cess. Elimination th! ohjecris idenrificd of with clininationof rhe comnr<. In narcissis'n and letishisric regrcsrion wereidcntified rvuhthcthe.rlnr. by ir lrs pa.sscommunicationsrechniqu.rlly do mentsto drvelop in the directionofll revilal (of.rinfaithful to ccrrainideas rhc artisticNcw lt of Left. (l(msequenrly.)p bcc. ing uc Conccptualart.rre pack. Ne\. ttshewassLrbjcctedpubliciry commands to and in rrht()n to objecrs normal irr so.conccptuilirm the I970s by repres.rge implies deci\ive a the m.rificd)knowlcdse.iticslike Buchloh rhe rr .rlmodernis.prim:rily ideas aboutthe neccssiry neguiivity.r.t $h.rl.rl language instrumental.rntrform.ultcJ Jn au<erc andstylish indiffcre evoked nce ftelinss ofalier.

arr is its reinvention defearism thequierism of (of implicuin 'purisf art.they see of with the iD ir alsoasa historical impossibiliry. awar€ness an which of course animatcd srudent the moyemcnt.mbre ciphers :rt \'!hich primarilv incormunicability social thc of thought in express the form of arr. rhis concepiualism renains subjectedto the effecrsof rhe historical process politicaI .lrt the its scene of shipwreck.cialre. as In keeping ideologic. Conceptualart carriesonl.v (guropcan) rotalttarian culmres. \(hat is uniqueaboutc<)nceprual in this conrcxt. work by Kosuth.still seethe socialstruggle a moral necessiry.n beforethernecha ismsof n falsification of l:nguage in rhe perspective neo capitalisn.s nor onlybver' (rhis isth€insisten. political rerro. However.(.Non-ironic socialsubject rnatter a residual perty is pro of 1930s rnd'modernisr'arr art.th n.) The grc. Morris f<.vvolumesof conccptual are filled w. krh these rtistsancrrpr lr breako ut of rheprison house a in of the art business. i Goldsr€in).l contenr can establish any this lngcr. Kosuth's works. is the expression its bad.therefore. rvhoscdespotic and seducrile forms of display are copied to makc an objects. Exhibrtionismand public distressare thereforethe iinal indicators thiswork is indccd at all (inthcserions art s€nse ofthe that pasr). as emptiness rhey to behind then. neo butthatirwasan essential historicalaberatnu producedbv the clashof inhcrcntl. They thus embody a rerrible contradiction. social The indiffcrcrce olpost war Anrtri. it of rcprcscnts tcrnrinuspoiDt of srrrcusmodern.rnd amnesiac 'y. say.r or Reinhardt beforehin) isscizccl a nostalgia a kinrl ofpolnical by vvhich is sureis no lonserpossible ever 'uscful'to stance he or maintain.rte in dearhmachine.eurralizationofart in rheCold I{ar period. Thus.rlism' thenew of 'burcaucr:ticcollectivism'.tits socialsubjcct-nratter can in goodfanh. Nothingin its acrualsoci. in its rucfulimmobilizatn.an art iss)mptonutizedby theacsthcrics ofremoreness which coniinuall) recurs u.ial Drodern rrr. lfrom NcwDen to. with its bureaucracy and rnuscums.They broughtthetomb like lcumlook rhat srruck our aspecr Minimalist of exhibitionism frorr the'deadgallcryspace into'life' billborrds. His work resembles etc.vthe mortificd rcnains of social art silencedby three dec:rdes capitalist war. conceptua is !he dotpelstinser w arhol rype'Popism'in lism of its helplessly ironic mirnicry.pis drecynic:rl. The idenrificarion of publicity.rd files and print{)urs (irs caskets informetrD) conceprualisrn of recapirulates kind of a l\{allarmaar aestheric: social subjectsarc presenied enigmatic as hierrglvphsand giventhe aurhoriryof rhe crypt.ll prcsuppositions the period.but ol the mechanismsof falsificrrion of knowledge. \larhol's rnostofall.and of is ore of the sharpest expressions the pressures tbat rreatmenr. ifl. newspaper. thisveryimmobilization.Its rlisplay ofthese remarns only be can of con' exhibitioDistic. aremortified frontof thc and (or those demand struggle.eof capiralism).As Buch argucs. and of 'prrspcrity'out intothccity. But in thr process they rerssumerhe ver-v wished leave they. By putting fonard its forgorrenc.s absolurelvreflexofthc traLrrna rhecollapse 1919of ideals a of in ol r integratcd so.not of knowlcdge. of of NeitherPop nor conceptualism pos. begins fromrheidea rharrhatera.Like Pop.appropnited rs artisoc material irr a srrategy minicry. conccptuilart is irs melancholy Symbol isn. except that ir hasrheconvenrional dark surfrce of profundity whicL stemsfrom rrgret. in cr)ncepiual does art reflecr preconditionsfor the developmcntof th€ em€rgence certanr of . Varhol forgetsregrei. This hck . ordcr to nrnr towarrl vrcial lifc. to A byJohns.ltathcr. exhibitiorsand tomescreared mruso the justthe right note. In this of scrlsc. distraught and science. burcaucracy and.rcademicism cryplicufterances wnh e\presses awareness thc participarion of universirics an ol and bureaucracies a corpor.rds. I hisis bccause vanguardartists.

dottar in 1944 .to onewhich parallels 1960sin sympro th€ This is the period of the long prosperous interludeof the later nineteenth century.if not the central. thatwashedthe perspective ofsocialismout to rhefar horizon of history. Conceptualan's reachingback to the Readymade a double is gesture.aft€r a long period of eclipse and suppression. This divideis symbolized the affectionof conceptualism the Readymade by for which historicallystandsbetween rebellious.This impulsereveals perspective a closerto that of the 1890s{wherethe characreristic cultural combinationwas that of I ar pow I'art and rcfotrf. Readymadetwithdrawalsand mimicry the form the imageof an'absolutecriticism'. Buchlohrepearedly emphasizes conc€ptualism rhat attempted ro revivethe strategies earliercritical modernart! particularlythose of of Productivism and the Readymade.A wide gap obviouslyremains.a complete negation ofthe .hadreached endwith the dollar crises its ofthe late 50sand€arly70s. for example.The In latt€r is important because redirecrsthe historical memory of it conceptualism toward an earlierperiod rhan rhat usuallyidentified with Duchamp's effect.S.This era is continuallyevokedin Duchamp. the conceptual a*ists move toward a historical perspective. of One of the central . Conceptualism's attempr at a new social art must be seenas a reflection ofthis tufn ofevents. and was only revealedro us having reached its fu/l expression rhe direct threat ro rhe current generarion's in cultural presupposirions Reasan's in carnpaign ofinversionofthe New Deal. thoseof the 1960sarefitfully wandering in the opposite direction.The eraofworld inflationanddestabilization had begun.Nevertheless. The terminationof the period of prosperityand purchased quiescence must b€ datednot at 1980 but ten yearsearlier.revolutionaryideasin culture. it also revealsanother impulse:to refotmuhte the sttatesy the Readymade. indicares thar a new stagein the class strugglewas ge.cultural experiences was the nervouspleasure stirnulated a showerof cheap.Insrruggling of to reinventthe effecrof theseworks. change this was barelyperceptible at the time. While the radical arrisdc groups of the 1920s and 30s were separating from rhe working classmovement. howeverincom pletely. it thegapappearing thehistorical in memoryofrnodernismsince 1939. but wished to compl€tely rebuild them in the overallredesigning ofsociety). With theendofthatera ofsrabilization (based upon inflation ary 'credit'policies) therealsoendsthe basis which all the ruling on class' culturalstrategies ofcontrolin the realmofideasand representationscould be made effective. measuringas does. erawhich formedthe'evolurionary the socialism' and reformismcharacteristic modernSocialDemocracy. rhis. Fof conceptualism.either forciblv or throughdisillusionmenr. The inadequacy ofirs formularionof these issues isprofound and rherefore decisive. This attemptwas in order to articulate major them€. it looks both forward and backward.minating at that time. administrariv€ its rhe enclosure modernan of by thecultureindustry.Conceptualisnr recognized. rowarda kind ofhistoricalmemory. which the withdrawal of in ofaesthetic resources from th€work ofan is cornbined withan ironic mimicry ofthe commodityforrn.the 'post war era'.isml than to that ofthe 1920s(whenthemilitantmodernism ofProductivism not anempt did to mimic existing commodity forms. rhe anti-authoritarian and the polemicmachine-an fin-de+iicle art of larry.that these earlierworks embodysomething decisive created by the firstgreatrevolutionary upheaval thecentury.machine-made by comrnodities. The re emergence critical social of thought into currencyin Ameri€ain rhe later 1960s. The period of the stabilizationof imperialismbehind rhe U. of Productivism.While it does attempt to link the scandalousness the of Readymade later machinearr and therefore the militant modto to ernism of the 1920sand 30s.

is ifconceptualism anythingpolitically. This constiruEsirs radicalism. the conceptualist As strugglefor historical memory r06 . attempted extend politicalelement.war period (of slogansand polemics). and Buchloh'semphasis that appropriation. which the Readymade creates. however. rs generared the glimpseirgives of a furure implied by the eternity by of the commodiry. an plete developrnent. towardpolemical aggression asainst an in the rraditionof th€ 1920sand 30sis dominated thismethod by of the reductionof its own expressive capacities assumption and of a radical inadequacy. the radicalism 1950sart. incom aesthetically. even though this purism is now radicalized beingarticulatedin thoroughlyDuchampianterms. first response the enormouspolitical up' Its to heavalwhich beganinthe1950s wastoappropriate social techniques in an assault 'AIi'.). ascendancy Pop arr had legitimared of Warhol's interpretationof ironic mimicry and led to the eruptionof an aesthetic compulsfu. its pervasiv€ of strategy withof .economically it is irresolute. centralto both conceptualism's is appropriation of ir. rhe endl€ssrule of the abject obiec. By the mid-1970s. a schismwhich wholething.the economic face with its nem€sis. The of and consequentsenseof the emptinessof hisrory. this ledto a fundamental splir in the development the idea of conceptual of art. sense inadequacy.its refusal of the memori€sit consrandyevokes.s refusalof rhe political discourseof th€ inrer. Indeed. it fell prey to the samepurism.from itsrootedness in the whole mythosofthe'New York School.Ir forms on t e historicalparallelwhich illuminatesconceptualism.conceptualism encapsulated is as'radicalpurism'. militant Duchampianism A blendswith an involuntaryGreenbergianism.industry of an. This sense of unshakeability stands behind theslogans all of. easily shed rhe trappingsof the strugglefor historical memoryandmovedtowardorthodoxcommodityproduction. it is only from the the point of viewof thepresent momentthat theextentof thedominatioir of Warhol-type ideas throughout the last six or sevenyears is perceptible.non-an'forms is drawal ofthe a€sthetic properties and mimicryof neo-Duchampian. in that its irony is rootedin a sense ofthe unshakeability the of rule of commodityform over socialand psychiclife.albeit of a refinedand mildly ironic type. on Bur insofaras it was unableto reinventsocialcontentalongwith socialtechnique. This 'leftisf conceptualism ableto go no further than the was productionof negatively polemical. The Readymade. expressing Inadequacy was absolutized the dreariness the movement's in of decline. Conceptualism complex because is theseconflictingrendencies within it remainunresolved. This lacklustrespectacle.bringsconceptualism to face 'Popism'.By the mid 1970s.Again. celebrated anxiery whrrhthe Readymade expre(!'on one ro give. emblem of the sloganless cririque of an utterly detached intelligence. Others!suchas Tre Ior group. The Readymade simultaneously is roored in the outlook ofthis edliel periodandin a prosperouscritique ofprosper iry. itsimpulse So. by Involuntarilyand almost by default.e of mimicry across an marketas a whole.confronts rhehiddenform ofsocialrule with the imageof its own expressive meagreness.Some Heubl€r announced collapseofthe the artists.or'self-referential' indictm€nts (primarily) their own unthinkabiliry as works of art.progress' which the to reformist leadersof Social Democracyconsranrlyreferred.The amnesiac symptomin the yearninsof rhe 1960sradicalsfor a .new polirics'is constituredby rhisaffectionfor rh€/t/.like or Barry. ourcome poliricized the is purity. This is the burdenconceprualism carriesover into irsef(from its dependence upon'purified'abstracion andMinimalism. to the Most of thiswork foundered in the academic sterile and Maoismconstituting dregs the ofthe New Left.Th. Thus. de-sDcle absotut ism of the ironv of DuchamD.

andanorhc. itr aestheric characrcr t. of poliricalcultural martyrdom.cn "Th. if this dissolution were not dcliberatc.. Everghing is forgorcn.. such a fusion can only rcsult in placing the rcsiduesof activist strategics at thc scrvicc of an imperious defcatism . rendency inherenr rhc in aesth€tic verymuch and opposed rh! . cvcrything is possible. it would be nothing more than an instanceofthe operation of the'dccree'. Buchlohimpliesa new defeatfor art. This same bureaucratic look permittcdconceptual m free itself from that arr dependence Am€ican corporatc insigniawhich still identifics on New York-typ€ an so closely wirh Pop. of Conceptualism's rranscendencc New york-type art is the of source ofits almostorganicinrcrnarionelism.tr is rhe essence what he wishcsto prcs. Buchloh is the first to emphasizc thc difference in social and historical conditions bctwccn thc Productivist cra and thos€ of our own. day and is €xpressed an excessive of as aestheticizarion ofrheworld. Buchlohaniculatesrhe dialecdc his post-conceptual of funcrionalismmosrclearlyar rhe conclusion his essay Asher: of on differencc betw. it appears that thc 'turn toward reality' demanded by anticipated. is th€ cenrral term of Buchloh'sthesis. trccomes consciousand delibcratein Buchloh. rhevery premises By of perspe*iveof a burcaucratic its world culture industry (to which Greenbergianism ultimately revens) conceptualism breachesrhe authoriry of th€ old conceptof national srytesin art.m of moving an out of its protective enclav€exposcsit ever more direcdy to ruin at the hands of those forces controlling thc city. For all its trappings of the Productivist 'redesigningof reality'.bul acually carry not this out in their structuralchanges the public sphere. He recognizes that his progr.virat rowardrciliry wirh a view ro and This strategic s€lf{issolutionof lhe aesthedcasa conscious anlagonisticresponse the'decreed to abolirion' of crirical negationby the cuhure indnstry.rypeart. this act is centredon the g€sture ofconsciously willed abnegation.rvc from conccptualism. Concepiualismmakes explicit the Europe-America interchangcfrorn which ideas like Buchloh's emerge. Theyhavelong since decrced only itsebolition. crucial is thos€ forhsofa decreed abolition of rheaesth€tic rhelasrsphere as ofcr'dcalnegation onetharsuits the prevailin8inrerests rh.. although it cannot actually lead to victory. or mask.postconc€ptual pluralism'.. of the 'conestation' which. sdll insdnctive in conceptualism.dccre€d to .everything is'greaC.the antith€tical concepts ir attempted to conrrol within its€lf bursr fonh with unprcc€nredviSor in the n€w . This makes conceptualism representative rhe end of New York. rheissucarsiakeinconceprualism'scollaps€ But mak€s thc movement recoSnizable a crucial axis of transitionb€rween as rhe disrraughtquietism of thc 'New York School' {which includes Minimalism) and an cxplosivercvivel of both revolutionaryand counter-revolutionary ideasin arr.The act of of self{issolution of the acsthetic.iminatcs social and cultural euthority and aggraveresahcmood of socicty. shicld. critique has thc effect of extendingand his makingconscious conceptualism's instinctivc tusionof activism and defeatism. funher inc.botition' ro dissotv. For him. it is Adorno's.succumbs. to Thus. But this supremelyconscious act of negation is ofcoursc not oriSinsl to Buchloh.one which uscsactivism as an outer form.In the reigning ideological condirions of suprernacyof the Pop counter-revolution.'aAlthouCh Buchloh appearsto be struggling against defeatismin evoking Productivistactivisrn. Buchloh ettempts to . Thcse forces have no need to pretenda traditional form of commitmentto seriousmod€rn art.. self-cancellation and defeatismwhich Adorno conclud€dwas th€ essential condition of art in a situationof advancingbarbarism. This isconsciously it bcing the familiar manocuvre of the pynhic viclory.

from which they have been politically Since Buchloh separat€d.but alsoby of the f€verishreorientarion the threaten€d of instirutions. and silence reigns. Like his mentor. is as if the spark.".-fhis voluntarismhasa long history (thar of anarchism) its strategies counter-spectacle. 'the public'to recognize Buren. but ir is th€ spark which seeksrhe powder. rnergiestoward breakingthrough the directsall his considerable mode.this defeat of capitalistbarbarism.'neo-capital ism' alsorenewed politicalrole of the SocialDemocraticmove the rnent. the perspective the in of absolutelyuntransformed. a forexample. of Andr6 Bretonwrore.illa characrerisrics of the reminiscenr of sroupuscales 1958. l hen a work by an artisrlike Burenventur€s forrh inro the ciry. Both the fantasy of the 'total in revolution'andits r/opp elgiinger. del€atismis given guer.or rhe refusal.Pessimism inducesBuchlohto take from the ..This absence doubt casr Buchloh\ critiques not speak do of upon his apparent integration rhe Marxian c{}ncepis use-value of picture which hedoesreferto in hisessays.transcend Adorno'sdefearism byexagg€rating volunrarism. absoluterransformarn lwhich is despaired and an n of) hasits ongoingcorollary. its Sancho Panza. and is of exemplifiedinhis unswervinschampionshipof DanielBuren'scause. But in rhe self imposed of the the blankness ns own character. What Burenaddsto Kosuthis primarily an oraroryrnadenecessary not simplyby the inflamedhopes ofthe students 1968.and divisionberween as criricalcognitionin the a€sthetic arr legacy reality'.w€musrrecognize heavy the themovement 'change to of Frankfurt Schoolpessimism his inability to speakof any force in in societywhich could carry through this change.''His andexchange-value.draggingwith it a residueof simple exhibitability.revolt and €xposure. Iantasyol'toral reform'. it doesso as a purified and neutralized cipher. This exhibitionisticcipher is the finished version Buchloh's of design themonadof criticalnegation. of of bring to reification and fetishism..in the act of k rurning roward thc powder.at€ stare. ofclass.The abstract of the public'though. force it seesitself as destinedto ignite.dependins upon it for all the forms ofclasscollaborationism necessary the corpo. a work ofart. itselfin the very this erasure rhat the impalseofnegativitynegates is concept gesrure which it appears in beforethe public'.incrementalapproachro srrudural change. This indignationdenounces everyrhing rhenameofan absolute in difference.of the artist to recognize forgottenrevolutunary classbehindthe mask of the the combines wirh instrumental concept of'rhe public'. of Buchloh'scririque binds rhese togetheras the polirical presupposirion authenticarr.The contradictions Buchloh's of funcionalismaretherefore thosewhich havehistoricallybound rhe exasperated indignantintellectuals and to the icon of lotal revolution'. of societyis indistinct and abstract.Buchlohpreserves primarily for the bbjective'and scientific aurathey nomicconcepts such as the process hyposratization other concepts. is only as the corollary of the inability .Misrecognition nonjecognition. ciphereras€s identityofthose of The consequence forcesin the city which can transformsociety. stem the lrom the acccptance defeatisrn. is also the product of the historicalloss of Th€ inability (in many cases) of memoryembodiedby the erasure.exceptwhere the unopposed to advance barbarism described paxagesexplicitlyindebted of is in Marx's political-ecoAdorno.' Buchloh'sfunctionalism monad of to appears wish to rekindle this spark .the conscious which tremblestoward the social negariviry. This is symptomatic ofhis entireapproach.puts itselfout. and of sacrifice terror and havebeen articulated consistently from Bakuninto Guy Debord.In renewinsanideaof 'prosperity'andreform. "Revolris just a sparkin the wind. irs Thus. This is of coursethe outlook of Social Democracyand its toadying. This artist hassincerely dedicated himselfto a deepreform of these.

resolvedtheir position in society. Buchloh'sdemands reflectthe struggle more acutelythan those of any orher critic. these limits or problems find worksthemselves.elaxed.hotomy in his posrrionberween functionalist the desirefor actuali zation of critical negation.however. The exposure ot theamnesia wirhin Buchlohsculrivated defeatisrn leads backto us the quesrion ofthe silence Communism. of emblematized Waher by Benjamin45 yearsaso. reflection the deep in structure andmeaningofthe in into doubt their raiher serene canonicalexist€nc€ This rhrows imBuchloh'stexts. As soon as this withdrawn and gloomy srernness is . Openingrhese grearest new form of critlque of rhoseworks in which it saw the possibilities the 1970s.ccount for conflictingfadors in that work.but it may also make them more interesting. Althoughthisfunctionrlism wishes rematerialize to criticalthought in realsociallife it is unableto actuallydo so without addressing the for from the Marxism ir uses historicalquestionofits own disrance ofa questions alsoimpliesthe development emblems. muchof the artisticwork identified with rhemovement reflects oncetheinadequacy the at and struggleagainst the inadequacyof this theoretical:nd political heritage.This is of coursebecause They havenor pletelydissolved their character aerthetic as obiects. In addition. wirhout breaking from rhe defeatistsocial perspedive.complex and productive than they have seemedin they have not comfunctionalistterms. theseenergies thereforecan only express themselves intwisring back and forth under the sign of the defensive antr-barbarism inherited lrom Adorno. it musrbe recognized that Buchloh'scriterion of functionalismhas given n a canonical The statusas criticaldiscourse which all otherart is submitted.his favouriteartists. leadsinexorablyt. The presence these strains or non-functionalelementsindicate that the social limits of oudined hcre leavetheir traceson rhe effectiveness this work in critiqueof administrative 'changingreality'andconstitutearesolved cultural institutions. in \Yithout in anyway denigrating that work.ft movement the art world of the 1950s in and 1970s inherited rnuchofthis outlookandcouldnot overcome conrradic irs tionssocollapsed beneath Nevertheless. Within rhefunctionalism Buchlohimputest(. I I . However.mediated of through the effects the political neutralization modernart on of of Americantermsin the post war period. with manyofAsheaslesser of I as works.!heaspedor symptom ot historical amnesiaor denial within conceprualism.Thus. frc to instabilityof the position of works of Craharn.aswe see Buren.thoughnor in rhe way he erpects. functionalistworkis indeed the ruinedby reality.This is strikingly evidentin the work of Dan Graham.t I : collapse ofconceptualism primarilythe defearist strain. resulringin withdrawal..there can be no resolutionof rhe di. Buchloh'saggrandizingof thiseiernent.and rh€ ironic autocririqu€of existing esrrangement. Buchloh sposition appears a further as consequence the samehistoricalshocksof the 1930s.Buren and Asher and derivesfrom rhc inabihy of funcrionalistrheory to rccognize of . it. it raisesquestions about the 'progressiveness' puted to them so insistently. mute.ora witry in piec€ contextua virtuousity.:nd rhus the inrenrion of his criticismis fulfilled. the probl€m of historical mernory.decorative object.tris turned into a helpless. The New L.

'Epiloga o i! ti.!t rdlrl. It'd.l3J.rd Eurcp.od d. dEy. .. lEtbt.220.6i.ndhn.lc.capd{ronlditrrd sdt LxscotjlllJns' t tuftop. d.43. l\L* YqI.ld.n& orro b. Footnotcg l.22. W.iddld ri.iltk (?ofnn).tr.oEri.tq 1980. Mii||cl A.an io b. o cr h.t.!t . . undcr V.tlot.irooi.nd Eilc c. 7 .c.t ri.t.boutth. p..vir! ss.v. 5 .voluti@ry rnitt.t mi.nd.().rd.orffi |'Ibng hir Ltior rtu b.w' Ttorr.!rir./ h. .t. B6un)&F. tt@drc..il l. rsl Dlni. p@Fg.t o coll'lM'uFr.wdt of D.. T.t'h it d Ad'e Ethibht'! i. A'dr!' Anto .FutEri@U* V.rt s. wiih it .U1. of EaligtEffi%. 2. la.r..lt s. p.pI[ttS-137. Gacnt.r@ '.i@ Jtt6'l Dooli lLr YqL.d d. p.. B.16: rr. J.c1iE .41.ubi. riq! hr roL |nd .ldiwiou.njuit! ibid. 'ft ir thu hldly.cod.ch. toro.F.rt.riel F.Fr..iffi .. B. &rdlol. d.odd h.n Grtln'hD6 D7A.. it ia Fn oE rh. EBHoh.N|Fi$iri.ao lt ..ti. p.diql' md | 'scrion|rt' .i.p.'. co[.{3.rt . rt.l Ellm $r!.95. 15.' (in Eftt G ro St d.J.h ir m..prodEid'. TIE Sablry ?rcs.ura E dhora r9E0.d Gxpti.incc r 94t n Esop. |tt.bi@f .d. or rh. cour..rd. p. Mu Horlh.cl tuh.ndti..rd4trrr P{4 to b. p. V-hd i. tion of dE Anwo. F6!d!.{3.V...oF a Ml|*m of ltdca An -.G. p.D. bccn*d borh r . t7.. viTd til!{trh tcl.td p6irr oJdF 6.dFt h. .L.nnd F6Urt ^dma'Frtrdiu R r&'..oihtofModn t{si.. a! 6.l'0. rupp.r-lwlmih ta r. fir br .t 6.tl inioor@E litt.i{ {mll!o{.r .) hrv. .E uF. a. p.tiE . b@o. !c.nE of rnott Diry.mmliry (i.Worl of ni! rt. ibid..v.n.ll. E|xU.d iino'tirr-ct isir!@FirA!Fi:! . p.qr.signrtid . 13.rbo& md|'!mo ft! of f.p.n.ibid.. 10. D.d.r fiiE hb_ rt r Judd. ibid. if tt mrt slpn r. ..r.. itit Foc.Fo@lit6. r[.td.ion. N. B8lrlob.ftt|r.. i! lltlrriutirr.|in |7. 1978.nni. 8 . ot io.V.t ob.liniur..'1.irthd.ubi. Ado@t?bilo.p. 15.l Ail6't RcMraridit.rj.. Ed* S. icr tF of Fiorirg.! D!.r[ot's h.nd T.... lrD Attcuu.utpri.ld fi..t R.Ir. on!.irl..n. V..tEtr o{Frci.dio.fit oftho.D..ir}dnwi!. {r"dntl).n.dr.-M.rr .B r! l i!E6!d. b. of DEud.t E. Jmrlm C.lkdL Micha. dE4Iv.e yo.@Lr|t. Ld('M Drthcri.r.... iallrpct rid of ![. E . dc. SirE lt+75. of d. d. ibid..!fiooliD.''4 p.&d'loL. 1972-r9n. 5. At ofrr. pp.t Both d. 5.nic.t v... . 9.hcit R.s.lia.d th. ibi.ssE!. [ii. t9Z.turdur pLa (.H.L. iEi a Mid. i! Tr... 12 .&E o[! 'Conr.p. lti.bur/ pcs.tti.ri. ibd.'nd ..l6 Ldmitu'Th. irucc!r.!d fnrld oin6G . Aldn &.ftt. Bud ol'. 'Th.c8i![r*itcab@L .tit n .!po! rh.uhip.r pioFS.slopodt '.nfld .. ra h Elity .r{. pd!d.' of rlt.EloF.!d ![. p.olc 6&rio|r ir di. potcntid Fnicipnid of dt ao[.d.h[tdq U. ThG S.ttoI rn r960.

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