ABSTRACT

Biodiesel is an alternative to conventional diesel fuel made from renewable resources, such as non-edible vegetable oils. The oil from seeds (e.g., Jatropha and Pongamia) can be converted to a fuel commonly referred to as "Biodiesel." No engine modifications are required to use biodiesel in place of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel can be mixed with petroleum-based diesel in any proportion. This interest is based on a number of properties of biodiesel including the fact that it is produced from a renewable domestic source, its biodegradability, and its potential to reduce exhaust emissions. The climate change is presently an important element of energy use and development. Biodiesel is considered "climate neutral" because all of the carbon dioxide released during consumption had been sequestered out of the atmosphere during crop growth. The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter. Biodiesel also increased catalytic converter efficiency in reducing particulate emissions. Chemical characterization also revealed lower levels of some toxic and reactive hydrocarbon species when biodiesel fuels were used. The fuel consumption in the world particularly in developing countries has been growing at alarming rate. Petroleum prices approaching record highs and they will deplete within few decades, it is clear that more can be done to utilize domestic non-edible oils while enhancing our energy security. The economic benefits include support to the agriculture sector, tremendous employment opportunities in plantation and processing. Jatropha and Pongamia are known just crude plants which grow on eroded soils and require a hot climate and hardly any water to survive. These are the strong reasons, enforcing the development of biodiesel plants.

INTRODUCTION
Biodiesel is defined as mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats which conform to ASTM D6751 ( American Society for Testing & Materials ). It is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable resources and animal fats. Today’s diesel engines require a clean –burning, stable fuel that performs well under a variety of operation conditions. It is the only alternative fuel that can be used directly in any existing, unmodified diesel engine. Because it has similar properties to petroleum diesel fuel, biodiesel can be blended in any ratio with petroleum diesel fuel. Specifications for use in diesel engines. Biodiesel refers to the pure

nontoxic. Its use decreases our dependence on foreign oil and contributes to our own economy. Diesel was visionary. renewable resources and has lower emissions compared to petroleum diesel. Direct acid catalyzed esterification of the oil with methanol. renewable. . It is better for the environment because it is made from. Conversion of the oil to fatty acids. Diesel’s first engine experiments were catastrophic failures.fuel before blending with diesel fuel. vegetable oil. his engine was running on 100% peanut oil. It is made though a chemical process called transesterification where by the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. There are three basic routes to ester production from oils and fats. his ideas on agriculture and his invention provide the foundation for a society with clean. 3. Dr. • Low temperature (150F) and pressure (20psi) processing. locally grown fuel. It is less toxic than table salt and biodegrades as fast as sugar. his engine has been modified to run on the polluting petroleum fuel we now know as “diesel”. • High conversion (98%) with minimal side reactions and reaction time. heavy mineral oil and you guessed it. “In 1912. BIODIESEL PRODUCTION The production of Biodiesel.or alkyl esters. • Direct conversion to methyl ester with no intermediate steps. Nevertheless. 80% petroleum diesel). But by the time he showed his engine at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900. Dr. But such oils may become in course of time as important as petroleum and the coal tar products of the present time”. 1. Since Dr. In 1911 he stated “The diesel engine can be fed with vegetable oils and would help considerably in the development of agriculture of the countries which use it. Fuel-grade biodiesel must be produced to strict industry specifications in order to insure proper performance. Dr. and then to alkyl esters with acid catalysis. It is simple to use. It can be made in India from renewable resources such as Jatropha and Pongamia. Rudolf diesel actually invented the diesel engine to run on a myriad of fuels including coal dust suspended in water. Base catalyzed transesterification of the oil with alcohol. and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Diesel’s untimely death in 1913. Biodiesel blends are denoted as “BXX” with “XX” representing the percentage of biodiesel contained in the blend (ie: B20 is 20% biodiesel. 2. “The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today. The majority of the alkyl esters produced today are done with the base catalyzed reaction Because it is the most economic for several reasons. biodegradable. Diesel said. is well known .

R = (CH2)xCH3 The methanol and NaOH are premixed and added to the oil.VEG OIL: Jatropha. mixed for a few hours. ALCOHOLS: Methanol. though others such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) can also be used. pongamia. The glycerine settles to the bottom. Potassium hydroxide. Transesterification The most common derivatives of agricultural oil for fuels are methyl esters. 100 kg oil+24 kg methanol+2. leaving biodiesel on the top. The physical and chemical properties of the resulting biodiesel (Jatropha methyl esters) are presented in the following Table alongside those for petroleum diesel and European Union standards for biodiesel.5 kg NaOH a 100 kg biodiesel+26 kg glycerine Transesterification chemistry R' R'' R''' = oil acids. and allowed to gravity settle for about 8 hours. CATALYST: Sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is the most common catalyst. These are formed by transesterification of the oil with methanol in the presence of a catalyst (usually basic) to give methyl ester and glycerol. Ethanol. .

5 0 < 0. standards for biodiesel > 0.5 < 0. It is a large shrub / small tree able to thrive in a number of climactic zones in arid and semi-arid tropical regions of the world. • Planting density . And is not browsed by animals.024 Petroleum diesel 0.55 < 0.35 E. The Jatropha plant is Latin American in origin and is closely related to the castor plant.U.88 192 4.8 > 55 5 Undefined > 48 > 99 < 0.200 mm optimal) and is drought resistant. but the maximum productivity from 5th year onwards • Life Span . Jatropha Curcas The Jatropha Curcas plant has the potential.Jatropha Biodiesel properties compared with petro-diesel and EU standards Property Density @ 30C Combustion point Kinetic viscosity Calorific potential Cetane number Ester content Sulfur content Carbon residue Units g/ml C cSt MJ/kg % % % Jatropha biodiesel 0.84 41 52 > 99 0 0.1 The process of manufacture of Biodiesel and the properties of Biodiesel are more or less similar for Jatropha and Pongamia.4 to 12 tonnes Pongamia Pinnata The Pongamia Pinnata is a native of the Western Ghats and is chiefly found along the banks of streams and rivers or near the sea .50 years • Yield per hectare / year – 0.1. for use as an oil crop for Biodiesel.000 plants per Acre • Productivity . 900-1.85 55 2-8 45 47. It can grow in areas of low rainfall (250 mm per year minimum.Starts yielding after on year.

known as de-oiled cake. 95% pure. or for export. What sinks to the bottom of the biodiesel processor during the settling stage is a mixture of glycerine. De-oiled Cake The residual crushed seed.100 years • Yield per hectare / year – 6 to 9 tonnes. but the mature average of 150 kg prods per tree per year from 10 th year onwards • Life Span .200 to 250 per Acre • Productivity . is a good source of manure. soaps and the catalyst. methanol. PERFORMANCE OF BIODIESEL: Successful alternative fuels fulfill environmental and energy security needs without sacrificing operating performance. It also grows in dry places far in the interior. Each tree can yield 40 Liters of oil. which float on top. The seed husks can be used to make packaging materials. glycerol) is the by-product of making biodiesel. It is a hardy tree that mines water for its needs from 10 meter depths without competing with other crops. The long term adverse impacts of mono cropping of Pongamia and even Jatropha need to be evaluated and confirmed. from the coastline to the hill slopes. which can be used locally. It needs very little care and cattle do not browse it.on beaches and tidal forests. adding phosphoric acid to the glycerine layer precipitates the catalyst out and also converts the soaps back to free fatty acids (FFAs). It grows all over the country. Operationally. It has rich leathery evergreen foliage that can be used as green manure. and FFA on top. torque. When in bloom. Once separated from the biodiesel. The glycerine will be approx. the Pongamia trees can be used for bee harvesting and honey production. The resultant products are light-colored precipitate on the bottom. 120 Kg of fertilizer grade oil cake and 250 Kg of biomass as green manure per year. Byproducts Glycerine Glycerine (glycerin. glycerine/methanol/water in the middle. . a product to sell to refiners. and fuel with out major modifications of engines or infrastructure.Starts yielding pods from 3 rd year onwards . • Planting density . biodiesel performs very similar to low sulfur diesel in terms of power.

COMPARISONS AND DISCUSSIONS: .000 acres ( 5. Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than diesel fuel. They will provide farmers with the seedlings and Rs. torque.000 acres every year ) to attract farmers to crop cycle Diversification. 3. And haulage rates as conventional diesel fuel.000 route kilometers on two sides of the track. In over 15 million Miles of in-field demonstrations biodiesel showed similar fuel consumption. A similar project as in Maharashtra is being attempted in the state of Madhya Pradesh. The Gujarat Agricultural University is planning the plantation of jatropha on wasteland for income generation. Biodiesel provides significant lubricity improvement over petroleum diesel fuel. One of major advantages of biodiesel is the fact That it can be used in existing engines and fuel injection equipment with little impact to operating performance. BIODIESEL ACTIVITIES IN INDIA: The Tamilnadu government along with the forest department has planned a project for cultivation of Jatropha in 150. They will contract with farmers to buy out their entire production of jatropha seeds. The project has been started on a pilot scale. The Maharashtra Agro-forestry department has been actively encouraging the raising of jatropha in watershed development projects. A Tamilnadu firm is working on a project to grow 600.000 hectares of jatropha on lands owned by farmers in various parts of Tamilnadu. Any farmer with land can make their lands available for the jatropha project and the seedlings as well as technical assistance for grow-out will be provided by the forest department. horsepower.Biodiesel offers similar power to diesel fuel.000 per hectare for land preparation and planting. The Rural Community Action Centre (RCAC) in Tamilnadu state is promoting the plantation and use of jatropha. The planning board of Haryana Government They are planning to grow jatropha on 50. They plan to replace 10% of their total petro-diesel consumption by jatropha. The Indian Railway is to raise jatropha along the railway track and plan to plant jatropha along 25. Lubricity results of biodiesel and petroleum diesel using industry test methods indicate that there is a marked improvement in lubricity when added to conventional diesel fuel.000 hectares in Tamilnadu.

If we can save percentage of this amount. it will be useful for the construction of a heavily irrigation project sources. . BIODIESEL EMISSION CONVENTIONAL DIESEL Emission Type Regulated Total Unburned Hydrocarbons Carbon Monoxide Particulate Matter Nox Non-Regulated Sulfates PAH(Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)** NPAH(nitrated PAH’s)** Ozone potential of speciated HC -100% -80% -90%% -50 B100 COMPARED TO B20 -93% -50% -30% +13% -30% -20% -22% +2% -20%* -13% -50%*** -10% *Estimated from B 100 result **Average reduction across all compounds measured *** 2-nitroflourine tests results were within the test method variability. and use of biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine results in substantial reduction so unburned hydrocarbons. Biodiesel can be manufactured using existing industrial production capacity and used with conventional equipment.Biodiesel contains no sulfur or aromatics. carbon monoxide and particulate matter. We are losing max amount of foreign exchange on crude oils. Increased utilization of renewable biofuels results in significant microeconomic benefits to both the urban and rural sectors. is provides substantial opportunity for immediately addressing our energy security issues. To diminish the present dependency on imported fuels: We are spending Rs 82000 crores per annum for imported crude petroleum.

The Jatropha cactus plants grow on poor degraded soils and are able to ensure a reasonable production of seeds with very little input. To develop eco friendly fuels: Biodiesel contains no sulfur or aromatics. horsepower. It was known just a crude plant which grows on eroded soil and requires a hot climate and hardly any water to survive. A US department of energy study showed that the production and use of biodiesel. and use of biodiesel in a conventional diesel engine results in substantial reduction of unburned hydrocarbon.000 per hectare per year. the prime element for the extraction of biodiesel can be grown. The production rate is 5-15 tones per year per hectare. Fossil fuels which today meet major part of the energy demand are being depleted quickly world has started running out of oil and it estimated that 80% of the world’s supplies will be consumed in our life times. ADVANTAGES OF BIODIESEL • The higher cetane number of biodiesel compared to petrodiesel indicates potential for higher engine performance. Moreover biodiesel has a positive energy balance. or aromatic substances associated with fossil fuels • They contain higher amount oxygen (up to 10%) that ensures more complete combustion of hydrocarbons • Biodiesel almost completely eliminates lifecycle carbon dioxide emissions. Thus we are forced to look for renewable energy. and torque and haulage rates as conventional diesel • The superior lubricating properties of biodiesel increases functional engine efficiency • Their higher flash point makes them safer to store • The biodiesel molecules are simple hydrocarbon chains. compared petroleum diesel.To develop the renewable energy sources: The energy consumption in the world particularly in the industrialized countries has been growing at alarming rate. Tests have shown that biodiesel has similar or better fuel consumption. resulted in a 78. containing no sulfur.5% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. carbon monoxide and particulate matter. To boost up the rural economics: India has “rain shadow area” about 8crore hectares Jatropha. Coal supply may appear to be large but even this stock may not last longer than a few decades. It also increases the employment in rural areas. The farmer gets profit of nearly Rs 40. When compared to petro-diesel it reduces .

even here the problem is currently solved by adding additives. bark and seed extracts) have various other industrial and pharmaceutical uses • Localised production and availability of quality fuel • Restoration of degraded land over a period of time • Rural employment generation Disadvantages of Biodiesel • High cost of production: will eventually solve itself when large-scale production and use starts. • Fixation of up to 10 t/ha/yr CO2 that could be internationally traded • Production of 1 t/ ha/yr of high protein seed cake (60% crude protein) that can be potentially used as animal and fish feeds and organic matter that could be used as organic fertilizer particularly in remote areas • Various other products from the plant (leaf. • High CFPP (cold filter plugging point) values and hence solidification and clogging of the system at low temperatures: this problem occurs only in places where the temperature goes down to around 0°C. The use of biodiesel complements the working of the catalysator and can help a current EURO-1 motor attain the EURO-111 standards. • Modifications are required to the automobiles for use of biofuel: many automobile brands are currently marketed ready for use of bio diesel. sulphates by 100%. and the balance of trade. the price of petro-diesel does not take into account its actual cost (when environmental and military costs are included). CONCLUSION Biodiesel is safe to handle because it is biodegradable and nontoxic.emission of particulate matter by 40%. No engine modifications are necessary to use biodiesel and there is no “engine conversion”. it provides substantial opportunity for immediately addressing our energy security issues. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by 80%. carbon monoxide by 44%. and the carcinogenic nitrated PAHs by 90% on an average. unmodified diesel engine. Also. Biodiesel reduces all the emission. Increased utilization of renewable biofuels results in significant microeconomic benefits to both the urban and rural sectors. . Biodiesel can be used alone or mixed in any amount with petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel runs in any conventional. It is clear that more can be done to utilize domestic surpluses of vegetable oils while enhancing our energy security. unburned hydrocarbons by 68%. and used with conventional equipment. Because biodiesel can be manufactured using existing industrial production capacity.

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