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Subject: * Hydraulic Machinery.

List of Experiments:
1). To Study the Characteristics of Pelton Wheel.

2). To Study the Characteristics of Francis Turbine. 3). To Study the Characteristics of Kaplan'furbine. 4). To Study Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump. 5). To Conduct a Test on a pair of Single Stage Centrifugal Purnps at Series Parallel operating Conditions and Obtain the Purnp Characteristics. 6). To Stucly the Characteristics of a Reciprocating Pump at Variable Speed. 7). To Conduct a Trail on the Gear Pump'

Page na. tf7

Experiment No.

PELTON TURBINE
Airrr
: :

To study the characteristics of pelton wheel turbine Pelton turbine is an impulse turbine used to utilize high head for generation of electricity. All the available pressure head is converted into energy by means of spear and nozzle arrangement. The water leaves the nozzle in a jet form and this water jet strikes the buckets of pelton-wheel runner. These buckets are in the shape of double cup joined at the middle portion. The jet strikes the knife edge of the bucket with least resistance and shock . the jet then glides along the path of the cup and deflects through more than 160" - 170". This causes a change in momentum of the water jet and hence an impulsive force is supplied to the cup. As a result the cups attached to the runners move which in turn rotates the shaft. The pelton wheel is supplied with water under high pressure

Description

by a

centrifugal

pump. The water flows through a

venturimeter before it enters the turbine. A gate valve is used to control the flow rate to the turbine. The nozzle opening can be increased or decreased by operating the spear wheel at the entrance side of turbine. The turbine is loaded by applying dead weight on the brake drum by placing the weight on the weight hanger. The inlet head is read fu"om the pressure gauge and speed of the turbine with a tachometer.

Procedure

a) Keep thenozzle opening at2lSth open position. b) Prime the pump if necessary. c) Close the delivery gate valve completely and start
pump.

the

d) After the motor starter has changed to mode and


e)

the motor is running at normal speed open the delivery gate valve. Note the turbine inlet pressure in the pressure gauge fixed to the nozzle bend. If the pressure is higher or lower than required pressure adjust the delivery gate valve to set to design inlet pressure. At the same time ensure that the flow rate does not exceed the design valve as large flcvr rate will overload the motor. Note down the speed of the turbine.

(:,'

Q)cPd.j-

?a{/ie

zaf+

i) j)

g) Note down the venturimeter pressure gauge readings. h) Load the turbine by adding weight to the hanger.
Repeat the experiment for different loads.

k)

Repeat the experiment for 4lB, 314 and full opening positions of the nozzle. For constant speed test at lower load the flow rate and inlet pressure is reduced by closing the delivery gate valve.

Calculations

For l't set of readings of I't table ine the discharge Q a) To


- Ventfrrimeter line pr. Gauge reading Pl --l 6.2kglcmz - Vent\rrimeter throat pr. Gauge reading P2 -io.o kg.cmt - Pressrlre difference, h: (P1-P2) x 10 m of water 2m of water , Q 0.0055 ^/h m'/s ... e:il.78 x l0-3 m3/s b) To detbrmine head H - Turbinerpr. Gauge reading, XG: 3 kg/cmz .'. Total\head H: G x 10.0 m of water .'. H - 30m of water. ine (I) c) Input to 1: (100 ) gQFV736 Hp ... I:(1 100) (e.81) (7.78 x 10-3) (30)t736 .'.yP 3.112 Hp tput (P) d) Turbine dia: 0.40 m - Brake 0.015 m - Rope dia drum dia: 0.415 m - Hanger we tTs:1 kg r (Tr):2kg loadT?:0.2k8. - Spring bal T : (To * Tr - T2) :2.8 kg. - Resultant I - Speed of th turbine, N: 900 tpm

: ruDNT Hp

4500 .'. P - ru(O.a15X900X2.8) 4500 .'.P - 0.73 FIP

'r4,

F*Pl',f

[fel]ovr

Dthry]

fa,{

4 qf

Calryulatip'l:: 1). To deterniirie i, "..j1;.rlr4lg?_: "/er,tur;nteler iine ilressure gaugc':e' :ing : P1 i(g/cm2 Ver.turii.';ieter throat pressure gauge leading : PzKg/cmz Sres:,rre "iffurence h: (Pr-Pz) x 10 rn of water. i isoharge (. : 0.015S{h rn3/sec.
2). To cletermine head I{ 'Xurt ine pressure gauge reading Total head FI: G x 10 m of'water.

:!

Kg/cm2

3)"_:upu_:slurbluel ir.:ut : WQH/I000 Kw.


4). Turbine output P Brake drum diameter: 0.40 m. Rope drum diameter :0.015 m. Equivalent drum diarneter, D:0.415 m. Hanger weight To: I kg. Weight on hanger: Tr kg. Spring balance load: Tz kg. Resultant load T: (T6+T1-T2) kg: (To+Tr-Tz) x l0 N, Speed of the turbine = N rpm. Turbine output : 2|IN(T.D /2)/ 60 kW .
5). Turbine efficiency nn Turbine efficiency 1o

P/I

100

%o

curves: characteristics curves From the data obtained from the tests unit discharge (Qu), unit power (Pu), unit speed (Nu) and overall efficiency (q) are computed for each gate opening. With Nu as abscissa the values of Qu, Pu and qo for each gate openirrg are plotted. For Pelton turbine Qu .r/s Nu are horizontal straight lines. The curves Pu v/s Nu are parabolic in shape. 2). Constant speed characteristic curves Output power v/s discharge and Io v/s discharge graphs are plotted. Both these grapils should be plotted from a cerlain minimum discharge Qs, which is required to initiaie the motion of the discharge graph is a straight line and overall efficiency qo v/s discharge graph is curvilinear.

Perf-Qr rn?lrce characteristic.!;

l), Qonstant head

l\tlo','
N e) Turbine pfficiency rlo no:O/{x 100 UP\ p.73 .'.

t'vl"t/l

t"{u

ot+

Io:

ilr rz
\

.'.

ro: z\+av"

Result:

Conclusion:

S,tLri1

,$+.eA

P"Au

e q+

+''

OBSERVATIOI.{: For Constant head


1). Pressure gauge reading: kg/cm2 2). Total Head m.

Spear

valve position

\/enturirneter Read in e P1 P2 Pr- Pz EquiKg, Ks 1 Kgicm2 hm. cm- cm-

Q:
0.0055{h
m3ls

Dynamometer Reading Wt. on Spring Net T= Hanger Bal. (To+TrTr kg T: kg T2)10

Speed

o/P:
2nNTD
2

T/D_ 7l\-

N
R,PM

woH
1000

T=

o/P
UP

l'lu=' Qu: Pu: N/{H Q/{H PlH3/2

KW

KW

OtsSERVATION: For Constant SPeed


1). Constant

speed:

RPM

Gate

valve position

Venturimeter Reading EquiPr- Pz Pz Pr Ks Kg Kg/cm2 hm.


cm
2

o0.0055{h
m3/s

Dvnamometer Reading Wt. on Spring Net T: (Ts+T1Hanger Bal.

Speed

o/P:
2nNTD
2

TIP:

Tl=

N RPM

woH
1

Nu: Qu: Pu: olP N/!H Q/{H PlT3t2

000

TIP

cm

Tr kg

Tz kg

Tt10
N

KW

KW

faBL
Experiment No.2
F'RANCIS TURBINE TEST RTG

L db{

Aim:
Description
:

To study the characteristics of a Francis turbine.

Francis turbine is a reaction turbine used in dams 8. reservoirs of medium height to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical and electrical energy. Francis turbine is a radial inward flow reaction turbine which are best suited for medium head say 40m to 300m. this has the advantage of centrifugal forces acting against the flow, thus reducing the tendency of the turbine to over speed the N, ranges from 25
to 300.

The turbine test rig consists of a 3.72 Kw (5 hp) turbine supplied with water from a suitable 15 hp centrifugal pump through suitable pipelines, sluice valve and a flow rneasuriug venturimeter. The turbine consist of a C.I. body with a volute casing and a gunmetal runner, consisting of two shrouds with aerofoil shaped curved vanes. The runner is surrounded by a ring of adjustable gunmetal guide vanes. These vanes can be rotated about their axis by a hand wheel and their position is indicated by a pair of dummy guide vanes fixed outside the turbine casing. At the outlet, a draft tube is provided to increase the net head across the turbine. The runner is attached to an olp shaft with a brake drum to
absorb the energy produced. Water under pressure from pump enters through the guide vanes into runner while passing through the spiral casing and guide vanes, a portion of the pressure energy is converted into velocity energy. Water thus enters one runner at a high velocity and as passes through the runner vanes, the remaining pressure energy is converted in K.E. Due to the curvature of the vanes, the K.E. is transformed into the M.Energy, i.e. the water head is converted into mechanical energy and hence the runner rotates. The water from the runner is then discharged into the turbine' The discharge through the rururer can be regulated by operating guide vanes also. The flow through the pipelines into the turbine is measured with the venturimeter fitted in the pipeline. The venturimeter is accompanied with pressure gauges. The net pressure difference across the turbine inlet and exit is measured with a pressure gauge and vacuum gauge, The

it

,,]4

eay zolL
TRANCIS TURBINI

f[sT

Rr&

Venlurrrnel.':r

ol,rschsrq e-

value,
Delivery

Hl'" --!
&'np
Seb

Scroll

&s 1g

sPe4

ru5

.t\\ 'iI
\. i'r

Sl.oy
Srlclion
JI

tilDe

Vgnes

7t)

F!

#'
i.

l.R*ilcrq "ruRBlfrt

E4r.

Pa&<.

q66

turbine olp torque

is

determine

with a rope brake

dynamometer. A tachometer is used to measure the speed in lpm. Procedure

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Prime the pump if necessary. Keep the guide vanes atll}th opening. Close the main sluice valve and then start pump. Open the sluice valve for required discharge when the pump motor switches from star to delta mode. Load the turbine by adding weights in weight hanger, open the brake drum, C.W. gate valve for cooling the

6)
7) 8) 9)

|ri:::"x|"tr; turbine speed (rp-) with tachometer.

Note the pr. Gauge & vacuum gauge readings. Note the venturimeter, pressure gauge readings. Repeat the experiment for other loads. 10) Repeat the experiment for guide vane openings 4/8,6/8 and full opening. 11) For constant speed tests, the main sluice valve has to be adjusted to vary the inlet head and discharge for varying loads (at3/lth guide vane opening)'
discharge, Q : Venturimeter line pr. gauge readings, Pr :3 .0kglcmz Venturimeter throat pr. gauge reading, P2:2.Bkg/cm2 Pressure difference, h: (P1'P2) x 10m of water, .'. h: - 2.8) x 10 !r_t 2m of water .'. n Venturimeter discharge, Q 0.013lr/h m3ls .'. Q: 18.53 x 10-3 m3ls To determine the inlet head of water Turbine pr. gauge reading, G: I .03I kglcm2 Turbine vacuum gauge reading, V:90 mm of Hg 10 (G + lL ) m of water Total head, 760 .'. H - (1.03 I + 901760) x 10 '. H 11.5m of water IIP of the turbine : 1000H.P. I/P power,

Calcutations

1. To determine

2.

H:

3.

I:QxHx

:9.81 Q.H. KW .'. r * (18.053 x tO4) (t 1.5) (1000)


75

75

'q!,

fp*uqr ruRnr$t

flPf,

fq*

+ a56

C:ALCULATIONS: -

!).

To determinb discharge Q Venturimeter line press,"tie gai.rge reading: P1 Kg/cm Venturimeter throat pressure gauge reading :PzKg/cm2 Pressure difference h: (Pr - I'z) x l0 m of water. Venturimeter equation Q : 0.0131{h rnr/sec. 2,). To determine the inlet head of watet Tr"rrbine pressure gauge reaclirlg = G I(g/crn2 l'urbine vacuum gauge readirrg: V mm of I{g. Total head FI : l0(G + V/76(l) m of water.

3). fnput to tfre turbh Input power I : WQFVI000 I(w.


4). Turbine Output f]rake drum diameter = 0.30 m. Rope diameter:0.015 m. Iiquivalent drurn diameter D" = 0.3 [5 m. liquivalent drum radius Re:0.31512:0.1575 m. I{angerweight : T6 : I I(g. Weight on the hanger: Tr KB. tipring balance reading: Tz Kg. I(esr.rltant load : T : (Tr * To - Tz) Kg : (Tr * ToSpeed of the turbine: N rpm. Outpr"rt power:2nNTr/60:2nN(T x R")/60 Kw.

li)

x 9.81 N.

!).furUine eflcienoy lifliciency o/on: Output/tnput x

100.

I'erformance Charactoristic curves

l). C_onstant Flead Characteristic Curves From the data obtained froni the tests unit discharge Q* unit power Pr. unit speed N..,, and overall efficiency Is are computed lbr each gate opening with N,, as abscissa the values of Q,, P, and t1o for each gate opening are plotted. For Francis turbine Qu v/s Nu are droppirig curves. The curves Pu v/s Nu and Io v/s are parabolic
irr shape.

2). Constant Speed Characteristic Curves Output power v/s discharge and qs v/s discharge graphs are plotted. Both these graphs should be plotted fiom a certain minimum discharge Qs, which is required to

tnitiate the motion of the turbine runner from its state of rest. Output v/s discharge graph as a straight line and overall efficiency rlo v/s discharge graph is curvilinear.

Regdta

CSN

ct-t-'sroN(l

,t4.

:sf.;,

Gate

Pressure gauge

Vacuum
gauge

Venturimeter reading

valve position
112

Inlet
head
P1

Discharge

Speed

Wt on
hanger

Spring balance

Turbine

o/P
n (%)

(Kg/cm2)

(mm Hg)

P2

P1-P2

(Pl-P2)

a
m3/sy

N
(rpm)

xt0

rl

(kg)

r2

(ke)

(T1-T2 YP +1) (Kw)

(KSr)

t/4
3/4

Full

FRANCIS TURBINE: AT CONSTANT SPEED

N:
Valve opening:

Gate

Pressure gauge

Vacuum
gauge

Venturimeter reading
Inlet
head

Discharge
(P1-P2)

Speed

Wt on
hanger

Spring
balance

valve position

(Kg/cm2)

(mm Hg)

PI

a
m'is;

N
(rpm)

(Tl-T2

I.H.P

B.H.
P
no/o

P2

P1-P2

xt0

rl

(kg)

T2 (kg) +1)

(Kw)

(Kw)

2
3

4
5

Pry1ryT
'
Experiment No. g

KAPLAN TURBINE

Aim:
Description
:

To study the characteristics of a Kaplan turbine.


Kaplan turbine is an axial flow reaction turbine used in dams & reservoirs of low ht. to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical and electrical energy. They are best suited for low heads say from 10m to 50m. the specific speed ranges Iiom 200 to 1000 rpm. The turbine test rig consists of a 3.72 I(W (5 FIP) turbine supplied with water frorn a suitable 20W mixed flow pump through pipelines, sluice valve and a flow measuring orificemeter. The turbine consists of a CI. Body with a volute casing an axial flow gunmetal runner with adustable pitch vanes, a ring of adjustable guide vanes and a draft tube. The runner consists of four numbers of adjustable vanes of aerofoil section. These vanes can be adjusted by means of a regulator, which changes the inlet and outlet angles of the runner vanes to suit the operating conditions. The amount of opening the vanes is indicated by marking at the outer end of the shaft. The guide vanes can be rotated about thbir axis by means of handwheel and their position is indicated by a pair of dummy guide vanes fixed outside the turbine casing. A rope brake drum is mounted on the turbine shaft to absorb the

power developed suitable dead weights and

a hanger

affangement, a spring balance and cooling water arrangement is provided for the brake drum. Water under pressure from pump enters through the volute casing and the guide vanes into the runner. While passing through the spiral casing and guide vanes, a portion of the pressure energy (P.E.) is converted into velocity energy (K.8.). Water thus enters the runner at a high velocity and as it passes through the runner vanes, the remaining potential energy is converted into K.E. Due to the curvature of the vanes, the K.E. is transformed into the Mechanical Energy i.e. the water head is converted into M.E. and hence the runner rotates the water from runner is then discharged into

the tailrace. The discharge through the runner can

be

regulated by operating guide vanes also. The flow through the pipe lines into the turbine is measured with the orificement fitted in the pipeline. The net pressure

'u11

KA PLAN TURBINE

'D

if{ eren tia

manomet er orrfr cem eter

mjxro tlow puntp coupled to nHF rnotor


25125 cm

P"e<

2-47

control gate valv

T--'

I
J
(

,gtil.',l.P

,v}

14

I :"

i"

:.'

I NSTA

LLA-FION'

DE

TA.ILS

Fon

ALTECH.

1{ADIur.\r t AN Ira \ l

T,U,nBfihlB

TEST

RJG
A.RE

ALL. .Dij'i

ENSIONS

k4pt.AN TDRtsrNa WW'

P'fft%F

difference across the turbine inlet and exit is measured with a pressure gauge and vacuurn gauge. The turbine o/p torque is determined with the rope brake drum. A tachometer is used to measure the rpm.

Experimental Procedure :

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Keep the runner vane at required opening (say 3/8tl') Keep the guide vane at required opening (say 3/8th) Prime the pump if necessary Open the sluice valve for required discharge when the pump rnotor switches from star to delta modes. Before this close the main sluice valve and then start the pump. Load the turbine by adding weights in the weight hanger. Open the brake drum cooling water gate valve for cooling the open drum. Measure the turbine {pm with tachometer Note the pressure gauge and vacuum gauge readings. Note the orificemeter pressure readings from manometer Repeat the experiments for other loads. 10) For constant speed tests, the main sluice valve has to be adjusted to vary the inlet head and discharge for varying loads (at a given guide vane opening position) 11) The experiment can be repeated for other guide vane positions.
fhb'-'

Result:

q,nW-Ma 4<r'a'clCI,dnx' . b

k'*ffiffitryg;'
freafu

rtt Pu fs Qt) fr-)Nu [fir) r'Jh fs % ICrl)


'lvq

car{y4rrt(

cNwAdvb\iaLa^ : }lolb ;

G."(

P' )

CsJ'u/,!)

d'oc (lmtlrfin'aal)

1.

Conclusion'

'h

K4.PLA\I

TtrRSr

NE

rW4dd+

CALCUI,ATIONS:
Orifice meter pressure gauge reading I : hr m of Flg Orifice meter pressure gauge reading 2: hzm of Hg : {hr-hz} x l-}..6 m of water Pressure difference dH : 0.061S^/h iidisec. Orifice meter equation Q 2).To determine inlet head of water(H) .rlruruine piessure gauge reading : dtg/",n' Turbine Vacuum gauge reading : V mm of H!. Total l{ead Il: (G +V/760) x 10 rn of water. 3). Input to the turbine (I) Input power: WQH/I000 Kw. 4). Turbine Output (P) Brake Drum diameter: 0.30rn Rope diameter: 0.0l5nr Eqirivalent drum diarneter D : 0.315m Equivalent drum radius R : 0.3 l5/2: 0.1575 Hanger weight Te: 1 Kg. Weight on hanger: Tr Kg.
'1

l). To detennine discharqe:

'.

Spring load: Tz Kg.' Net load T: (Tr + To -Tz) Kg: (Tr + To -Tz) x 10 N. Speed of the turbine: N rpm. Or.rtput power P : 2nNT,/60 : 2nN(T.It)/60 Kw. 5). Turbine qfficiency (qo) Turbine efficiency qe : Output / Input x 100.

PERTORMANCE CHARACTERISJIC QURYES: . l). Constant Head characteristic Curves From the data obtained from the tests unit discharge Q,,-Unit power Pu, and overall efficiency lo are computed for each gate opening. With Nu as abscissa the values of

Qu

v/s Nu and qo v/s Nu are parabolic in shape. 2).Constant Speed characteristic gurves Output power v/s discharge and qe v/s discharge graphs are plotted. Both these graphs should be plotted from a certain minimum discharge Qs, which is required to initiate the motiott of the turbine runner from its state of rest. Output v/s discharge graplr is a straight line and overall efficiency rls v/s discharge graph is curvilinear.

nly.E,,

, 'BSERVATT'N:
Valve
Total Head Opening

"i;;''',rn
Equivalent Head h m
of water

rr.l*
Q:

tcrtu

tu"/
wt.

rAPLAtl tDRa

ExPz

?ow

5 dL+t1%

m:, M:iili,
Discharge
Speed

entunme :er
P2

Spring
balance
To

H:(G+_:_)x10m
760 ofryater

Pr CM

of Hg

CM of Hg

P1-P2

CM of Hg

Nrpm

added

Nc + load (T1-To) + 1
kg

TlP

olP
power

Power

0.06s{h
vt2ls

Tr(ke)

b,._T-r6-k

Ge)

(kw)

(kw)

.iEF

g) J"- {rho}ar} 1tTsat,.@:

Wa}
]:

" "

"frfr

'. ve''

kR-puq

Tu

gslr.l t(prUnit speed

P"trG q1Overall efficiency


P

Totai Head 1im

N+:N/{H

n: P lH3tz

K+.PL4'N

-rUASlN,[

EXPr^

ea6n

6LV

I/P:2.768HP
4. Turbine O/P
:

Brake drum dia: 0.3m Rope diameter:0.015 m Equivalent drum dia: D : 0.315 m Hanger weight: To: 1 kg. Weight on hanger, Tr: 2kg. Spring load, T2: 0.05 kg Resultant load, T: (Tt .'- To - Tz) kg .'. T-2.95ks
Speed of turbine, 1690 rpm OIP Power, P: ruDNT FIP

N:

: :

75x60

3.I4 x 0.315 x NT KW
0.000162"NT, KW
102

60

.'. OIP: 1.096 F{P 5. Turbine Efficiency :

\Yo: oh x 100
2.768 .'.q

ilp .'.q*1.096x100

- 39.6Yo

Result:

Conclusion

'+4

?ff
Experiment No.{,

LtrEZ

CENTRTFUGAL PUMP SET TEST RIG

Aim:
Description
:

To study characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump at


speed

constant

A centrifugal pump consists of an impeller rotating inside a the centrifugal force developed by the rotation of
casing. The impeller has a number of curved vanes. Due to
the impeller, water entering at the centre flows outwards to the periphery. Here it is collected in a gradually increasing passage in the casing known as volute chamber. This chamber converts a part of the velocity head (K.E.) of the water into pressure (P.E.). For higher heads, multistage centrifugal pumps having two or more impellers in series will have to be used.

Experimental Procedure :

a. b.

c.
d. e.

f.

g)

Prime the pump to be tested with water if required Close the two valves (valve B & C) inter-connecting the delivery line of pump 2 and the suction, delivery line of pump one completely. If pump one is tested, open the valve in the suctiotrlline (valve A) completely. Close the pump delivery valve (valve B, valve D or valve E depending upon which pump is tested). Turn on the pump switch Note the following readings : Pr. gauge reading GKg/cmz ii. Vacuum gauge reading Vmm of Hg iii. Time taken for 10 revolutions of the energy meter disc. iv. Time for 10 cm rise in collecting tank. v. Difference of levels between the pressure and the vacuum gauge, x m of water. Take several sets of readings varying the head from max. at shut off to min. where the valve is fully opened. This is done by closing or opening the delivery valve (throttling the valves).

i.

,r4.

..1

:..'l
at:,ti ',il
I

Ce

rttpt

iqot' P ur\P

WPr'

try 4z

:ii
'1
1

,l
I

CALIULATION: l). For discharge Q Area of collecting tank A:0.6 x 0.6m2 ' Tirne for ten cm rise of water = t sec. Discharge Q ='A xO.ltt- 0.36 x 0.1/t m3/se". 2). For Head H Total head H: lO(G +V1760) m of water. 3). Output of the pgmp (P) Output: WQFV1000 Kw. 4). Input to the pump (I) Energy meter constant C = 1200 rev/I(w-hr. Time for ten revolution of energy meter disc: T'sec. Input to motor = 3600 N/CT where N: No. Of. Revolution of disc. Pump input : motor input x efficiency: motor input x 0.8 5). Pump efficiency (r1s) Pump efficiency: Pump output x 100. Pump input

ALTECH
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

TEST

RIG

PARALLEL

OPERATION

Valves ArC.D Open

Valves

8,E

Ctosed

CtrurRtrurar

{-

PUMp ftn".

Wt*s

1) 2)

OBSERVATION:
Area of collecting tank : 0.6 x 0.6 m2 Energymeter Constant : 1200 rev./KW-Fk

Result:

Conclusion

,(4,

k-f
I 1,,,.

l- dt 3

Experiment No. 5

SERIES AND PARALLEL OPERATION OF PUMPS

Aim:

To conduct a test on a pair of single stage centrifugal pumps at series and parallel operating conditions and obtain the
pump characteristics. The pump test rig consist of a pair of C.P. operating on 22A

Description

suitable suction and delivery pipelines are connected to the two pumps such that the pumps could be operated separately, in series or in parallel. The suction pipe lines include a foot valve and a vacuum gauge and a valve to control the flow rate. A separate pipe line with valves is provided to inter connect the pump delivery line either to pump one suotion line (for series operation) or lump one delivery line (for parallel operations). Experimental Procedure :

volts, 50

tIz

1)

Operating both pumps in parallel : a) Prime the pumps to be tested with water if required. b) Close the valve inter connecting the suction line of pump one and delivery line of pump two completely (valve B) c) Close the delivery valve of pump two (valve E)

d)

e) f). g) Take several sets of readings by operating the


fully opened. h) To determine the total ilp power, power to both the
'pumps should be added.

completely Open the valve in the suction line of pump one (valve A) and the inter connecting valve (valve C) completely. Turn on both the pump switches Note the readings

delivery valve of pump 1 (valve D) and varying the head from max. at shut off to min. where the valve is

,th

geRrgg

/P*s*fttU

6PcP,fnON

dF

C'P

qW 2

0163l

2>

Operating both pumps in series : a) Prime both the pumps with water if requiredb) Open the valve connecting the suction line of pump one and the delivery line of pump 2 (valve B)

c)

d) Close completely the delivery valve of pump 2 (valve E). now both the pumps operate in series with
the delivery line of pump 2 connected to the suction line of pump 1. e) Close the delivery valve of pump 2 (valve D) completely f) Turn on the switches to the pump. g) Note down the readings. h) Take several sets of readings by operating delivera valve (valve D) and varying head for max. at shut off to min. where valve is fully open. i) To determine the total ilp power, power to both the pumps should be added.

completely. Close the valve in the suction line of pump 1 (valve A) completely.

OBSERVATION : FOR PIII\4PS IN PARALLEL 1) Area of collecting tank : 0.6 x 0.6 m 2) Energymeter Constant : 1200 rev./I(W-FIr

,t4"

sERtEs

/ p*a*uel oPr^A4T,6N oF c"P


:

k"

olg

OBSERVATION : FOR PUMPS IN SERIES 1) Area of collecting tank : 0.6 x 0,6 m

2)

Energymeter Constant : 1200 rev.A(W-FIr


Input

Conclusion:

'4

fcge

4oS

Experiment No.6

RECIPROCATING PUMP

Aim:
Description
:

To study the
variable speed..

characteristics

of a Reciprocating

Pump at

The Reciprocating pump is a *ve displacement type pump and consists of a piston or a plunger working inside a cylinder. The cylinder has to valves, one allowing water into the cylinder from the suction pipe and the other discharging
water from the cylinder into the delivery pipe. Specification of the pump : Type : Double acting single cylinder a) Piston stroke, L: I3/+" (44.5 mm) b) Piston diameter, d: 1%" (38 mm) c) Suction Pipe : l" (25.4 mm) d) Delivery Pipe :3/t" (18 mm) An energy meter is provided to determine i/p power to the motor. The pump is belt driven by the motor. The pump can be run at four different speeds by the use of V - belt and the differential pulley system. Special arrangement is provided for quick alteration of speed. The belt can be put in different grooves of the pulleys for different speeds quickly by loosening the belt. A set of pressure gauge and vacuum gauges are provided along with the required pipelines.

Experimental Procedure :

l) 2) 3) 4) 5)

6) 7)

Select the required speed Open the gate valve in the delivery pipe fully Start the motor Throttle the gate valve to get the required head Note the following readings 1. The speed of the pump (N) 2. Pressure gauge (P) and vacuum gauge (V) readings 3. Tirne taken for 10 revolutions of energy meter disc 4. Time taken for 20 cm in collecting tank. Take atleast 3-4 sets of readings by varying the load" Repeat the experiments for other speeds.

.ti

AFc{Ppo

rAtipf '

pur*p-:

,tgp,

P*E

z 4,s

WT

.:
OF ALTECH'PLUNGER PUMP

UJ

PLUNGER PUMP WITH


MOTOR

= IrJ
o-

vAc.GAUGE

\ t I

AIR VE5SEL

z
o

i
CJ

o o N

6.l,l.5T.gAtHER

Req?Ro('+tll.tq

fumP

erPr

PW

s a|a

OBSERVATION

1.
Sr,

s-L J,laei,g. C{*a Area of collecting tank: 0.5 O.S : O.ZS ttf "
]tr"' *a,*

ffi

: -.

=LL

vtos"%tu4dtn#)
WterL

; ,*{2Vp Kw

i.6al^nt
HYo

/ t2b0

'v' llln-t'

No.

Pressure Gause G

Vacuu m
Gauge

Time

Discharge

Pump
speed

Time

olp
Kw

for

10

for

10

Total I{ead
Fhn

kglcm"

Vmm
of Hg
I

cm rise t
sec.

Q m3/s

N rpm

rev. energy meter

sec.

l6

Result :

plol O Hocd, @\ L\ V, ,

1, o &l

rc F
I

f&,|(lr)

Ccnclusion

,r1t

Experiment No. 07
Gear Pump Test Rig

Airn:
Description:

To conduct a trial on the gear pump.

A gear pump is contrivance to raise liquid from

a lower to higher level by creating the required pressure with the help of gear action. In general it can be defined as a machine, which increase the pressure energy of a fluid, as a pump may not be used to lift water at all, but just to boast the pressure in a pipeline. Whirling motion is imparted to the liquid by means of gear mounted on a shaft

As Liquid enters pump due to mechanical action of two rotating gear mounted on central shaft pressure of liquid increases. Gear rotates with the help of motor via belt drive.
N4AIN COMPONENTS OF GEAR PUMP :-

l. GEAR: The gears are lroused in specially shaped chamber. In casing two oppositely rotating gears. Liquid enters gap between casing and gears & moves to delivery side. The pressure head developed by rotating action of gears is entirely due to velocity imparted to the liquid by rotating gear & not due to any displacement or impact. Gears converts mechanical energy, while rotating imparts whirling motion to the liquid. 2. CASING: The casing for a gear putnp is so designed that the kinetic energy of the water is converted into pressure enelgy before the water leaves the casing. This considerably increases the efficienpy of the pump.

3. SUCTION

PIPE :The suction pipe of a gear pump plays an irnportant role in the successful & smooth running of the purnp' A poorly designed suction pipe causes insufficient net

't4

positive suction heacl clue to vibration, noise, excesstve wear etc. While laying the pipe, a great cale shoutd be taken to make it airtight. Since the pressure at the inlet of th.e pump is suction & its value limited to avoid cavitations, it is therefore essential that losses in the suction pipe should as small as possible. For this purpose bends in the suction pipe are avoided & its diameter is often kept larger.

DELIVERY PIPE :A gate valve is provided in the delivery pipe near the pump, in order to protect the pump fiom hammer & also to regulate the discharge fiom the pr-unp. The size & length of
the delivery pipe depends upon the requirement.

4.

WORKINC PRINCIPLE, OF A GEAR PUMP : A gear pump is a device to raise the liquid from a lower
level to a higher level. The pressure head is developed by mechanical action of gears, which in turn is entirely due to the velocity imparted to the liquid. The pump must be full when starting. It is driven by power fiom an external source as a result of which the gears are rotated. This imparts a mechanical energy to the liquid in the pump& liquid leaves the gears at the other circumference with high velocity & presslrre. This creates a partial vacuum at inlet into which the liquid fiorn the snction pipe rushes. The high pressure fiom the leaving liquid is utilized in overcoming the delivery head of tl"e purxp. As efficiency of gear pump is lower thau centrifugal pump due to losses and energy losses, gear pump mostly used for high-density liquids, such as oil, slurry etc. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: 3 - 400 x 400 x 700 mm Supply Tank 3 Measuring Tank - 400 x200 x 300 rnm - Supply tank is fitted on a heavy stand. Stand - With vacuum gauge. Suction pipe - With gate valve and pressure gauge. Delivery pipe Procedure:
1. Check the gear pump height is at liquid level and start

'iA

the motor. 2. Note down the following readings. a). Vacuum gauge reading. b). Pressure gallge reading. c). Time required for 2 rev. of energy meter. d). Time required for 100 mm of water level in measuring tank. 3. Vary the position of gate valve in delivery pipe. 4. Repeat the above procedure for different discharges.
:

Observntions:
1. Difference of height between two galrges

0.85m.

2. Energy meter constant:450 rev./ Kw-hu. 3. Transmission efficiency : B\Yo. 4. No. of revolution of energy meter:2 rev. 5. Area of measuring tank: (0.20 x 0.40) m2 6. Speed of motor: 1400 RPM.

OBSERVATTON TABLE:
Sr.

No.

Suction FIead (Hs) mm of Hs


nr

Delivery Head (FIs + I-ld) +

l-l

of

0.85m Kglcn-r'

Time For 2 rev. in


Second.

Tirne for

mof
Hz0

rnrl Rise of oil levsl in


100

Il?0

tank in sec.

L
2.
a

J.

4.
5. 6.

Carculation:

P: Pgh' P: Gauge pressure N/rn2 (1 l{g/cm2: 105 N/m2) p: Density of water. G : Gravitational acceleration. h : Fleight in meter of water. Hs:Hx
2). Suction Head (Fis)
13.6

1), Delivery head (Hd)

Density of mercury: 13.6 kg/m3 H = Reading of vacuum gallge (mrn of FIg). 3). Input Power: IP IP :3600 x N x Transmission efficiency. I(w.

N:
F

CxT

: +fff:T"#Xl;:

No. Of revolution counted (2 rev.) 450 rev/Kw-hr

4). Output Power: OP OP : PgQH KV/.

H: Q : Discharge in m'ls"c : Area of tank in rn2 x 0.I m.


p:
Time required in seconds. Density of liquid (oil): 917.4 Kg/m3 4). Overall efficienay (no%)
qe

1000 Total head in meter.

= Out put power x 100 Input power

OP IP

100

F;.esult: Sr.

No.
I 2.
J.
a

Discharge FIead Input ( m3lSec). (m) power (Krv)

Output Efficiency power n o.to

(I(w)

4.
5.

Conclusion: l). Maximum efficiency


2). Average efficiency

(rn,*)

:
oh

'q,