Art in Theory 1815-1900 - Impressionismo

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Art in Theory 1815-1900 provides the most wide-ranging and comprehensive collection of documents ever assembled on nineteenth-century theories of art- Like its highly successful companion volume Art in Theory 1900-1990, it is edited by Charles Harrison and Paul Wood, this time with an additional editor, Jason Gaiger_ Its primary aim is to provide students and teachers with the documentary malerial for informed and up-to-date study. lts two hundred and sixty texts, clear organization and considerable editorial content combine to provide a vivid and indispensable introduction to the history of the art of the period. The anthology is also invaluable to anyone interested in the wider cultural debates of the nineteenth century, and in the development of modern aesthetic theories.
Harrison, Wood and Gpiger collect writings by artists, critics, philosophers and literary Figures, some reprinted in their entirety, others excerpted from longer works. About one third of the material is composed of new translations, with texts drawn from French, German, Italian, Norwegian and Russian sources. Among the major themes treated are concepts of genius and originality, modes of landscape painting, approaches to Realism, the question of Modernity end debates over Impressionism, theories of optics and colour, the aesthetics of photography, and the rise of photography. Each section is prefaced by an essay that situates the ideas of the period in their historical context, while relating theoretical concerns and debates to developments in the practice of art. Each text is brieFly iritroduced by an outline giving the circumstances of its original appearance and indicating its relevance to the development of modern artistic theory. An extensive bibliography is also provided.

THEORY
An Anthology of Changing Ideas

IN

1815-1900

Charles Harrison is co-editor with Paul Wood of Art in Theory 1900-1990. He is Ihe author-offnglish Art and Modernism 1900-1990 and of a volume, Modernism, in the series 'Movements in Modern Art'. His Essays on Art & Language was
published by Blackwell Publishers in 1991. He has lectured widely in England, Europe and the USA, and has beeo Visiting ProFessor in History of Art at the University of Chicago and at the University of Texas at Austin. He is currently Professor of the History and Theory of Art and Stoff Tutor at the Open University.

Paul Wood, co-editor of Art in Theory 1900-1990, has published widely on modern art and art history in a variety of journals and exhibition catalogues. He has also co-edited Modem Art (19961 and' has contributed to Modernism in Dispute (19931 and Critical Terms for Art History (1996). He is a Lecturer in Ihe Department of Art History at the Open University. Jason Gaiger is currently
History at the Open Leverhulme Research Fellow University. He received his doctorate in the Department of Art for a thesis on Meaning,

Truth ond Communication: The Philosophical Pragmatics of Jurgen Habermas and Karl-Otto Ape/. He is co-translator of Hans-Georg Gadamer's The Enigma of Health
. (polity Press, 1996) and has lectured on philosophy of Essex and North London.
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and aesthetics at the Universities

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Charles Harrison and Paul Wood with Jason Gaiger

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The cat arching its back makes the visitor laugh and relax. it presides. it inspires/All things in its empire. . real harmony to them. that one eveningII was embalmed ill (xvii) 'Pierret' in les Tablettes de Pierret . The next year he was apparently ignored when a large exhibition of French art was being prepared for the Paris World's Fair . and her hand for fig leaf.. which is a thousand times better than the platitude and inertia of so many canvases on show in the exhibition. with dirty hands and... . near the exhibition site .. 'Fh~ expression of her face is that of being prematurely aged and vicious. but with 3. and the strange group is bathed in light. Each passer-by takes a stone and throws it at her face. her face the disturbing perfume of afleur du mal.! Perhaps it is a sprite. rather. recalls the horror of the morgue. or. (Goya . No. in in (xviii) Victor de Jankovitz in Etude sur Ie Salon de 1865 The author represents for us under the name of Olympia a young girl lying on a bed having as her only garment a knot of ribbon in her hair. Monsieur Maner has been exhibiting or trying to exhibit his pictures since 1861. the shoulder and arm solidly established ina dean and pure light. 60-1.Histoire de la Semaine . This translation by Michael Ross is taken from the English version of the latter publication. Manet from a popular execution. freely executed bya pupil of Goya.The Christ would call for a certain technical analysis which we do not have time to give. One does not make an O(ympia simply by wanting to.Olympia . The statement was subsequently published in Jacques de Biez. Its message. . it is hideous. from the mysteries of Paris and the nightmares of Edgar Poe.Nightmare full of unknown things! Of a foetus cooked in the middle of a sabbath! Of old women at a mirror and naked girls! Straightening their stockings to tempt demons) Perhaps this olla podrida de toutes les Castilles is not flattering for Monsieur Manet. The following statement was printed as a foreword to the catalogue. Portrsii of Manet by Himself and His Contemporsries. it is what saves M. but painted under a single.Following Courbet's precedent he took matters into his own hands and mounted a private exhibition of fifty of his works in a specially erected wooden building . was that it was merely the artist's individuality that had aroused hostile reactions to his work. 13 Edouard Manet (1832-1883) 'Reasons for Holding a Private Exhibition' The Salon jury of 1866 rejected both Manet's Fifer and his Tragic Actor. (xix) 'Ego' in Le Monde Illustr« The auguste jeun« fllle is a courtesan. il inspire Toutes chases dans son empire. In tastthe venture attracted no significant attention from the public or the press.. De foetus qu'on fait cuire au milieu des sabbats. Her look has. some form or other. strange been hung on the walls of an art exhibition.at the Pont de l'Alma. corrupted.. qu'un soir fen fus embaume pour )'avoir Caresse une fois . London: Cassell. of a putrefying colour. the sourness of someone prematurely aged.. Peut-etre est-il fee. modulated grey. it preside. A painter is in evidence. Il juge. Olympia is a very crazy piece of Spanish madness./ It judges.. The ellipsis is in the original. bloodshot eyes appear to be provoking the public. den qu'une. Geneva. Edouard Manet. This year he has decided to present to the public the whole of his work.) C'est l'esprit familier du lieu. wearing one Turkish slipper and with a red cockade in herhair.. protected aUtlte while by a hideous Negress. est-il dieu? rn» The Conditions of Art 519 (From its fill: black (md br~wn/ Comes a perfume so soft. a woman on a bed.To summarize.. transparent light. a woman of the night from Paul Niquet's. Painting of the school of Baudelaire. Paris. blown up like a grotesque India rubber. Manet reconte par lui-meme et par ses amis. Negress and flowers insufficient in execution.518 Modernity and Bourgeois Life it for haVing/Caressed tt once . and that If the members of the public could only be allowed to judge for themselves they would be persuaded of his sincerity. her outlines are drawn in charcoal and her greenish. she is lying down. De sa fourrure noire et brune Sort un parfum si dam. with the shadows light and fine. and was reprinted in Pierre Cailler and Pierre Courthion (ads). pp.. 1960. with one hand shamelessly flexed. full in the face when he sees the BEAUTIFUL oaurtisane in full bloom. the victim of Parisian Lynch law. like that of Courbet's statement of 1855. (xx) 'Jean Ravenel' (Alfred Sensier) in L 'Epoque MONSIEUR MANET . 1884. instead of Monsieur Astruc's versesl would perhaps have done well to take as epigraph the quatrain devoted to Goya by the most advanced painter of our epoch: GOY A . but all the same it is something. the vicious strangeness of the little [aubourienne. her body fatigued...Cauchemar plein de chases inconnues. her body. wrinkled feet. is it a god?) Monsieur Manet. 1953. . (It is the familiar spirit of the place. Armed insurrection in the camp of the bourgeois: it is a glass of iced water which each visitor gets. a sort of monkey making fun of the pose and the movement ofthe arm Titian's Venus. never has anything so .The scapegoat of the salon. her body has the livid tint of a cadaver displayed in the morgue. De vieilles au miroir et d'enfants toutesnues Pour tenter les demonsajustant bien leurs bas. only once. but all the same it is something. the bed and pillows put down in a velvet..

3 September 1868 Your letter reached me little studies of 'society' because I had dared put to make the gentleman : just as I was showing Ribot. He would be forced to make a pile of his canvases or roll them up in an attic. this Trouville beach. Bureau and an~ther perso~ my beaches. the protest. On the other hand an artist is told that it is the public's spontaneous reaction to his pictures which makes them so unwelcome to the various selection committees. and because those who have been brought up to believe in these principles will admit no others. and those who pray.. Paris: Les Editions Bernhetm-Jeune. The artist today is not saying. Come and see some sincere ones . the sine qua non for the artist. In these circumstances the artist has been advised to wait. Monsieur Manet received a good notice. radiant light and it is less this w~rld we reproduce than the ele~ent ~nwh~ch it is en~elo~ed. when in fact the painter has only thought of rendering his own impressions. methods and manner of looking at a picture. wah her w?lte li~en skirt. either in interiors.520 Modernity and Bourgeois Life Hill The Conditions of Art 521 When he first showed in the Salon. 65 and 70-1. those who thresh enveloped in the gold of rye and barley. The letters were first publish~d in George !ean-Aubry Ied. He concentrated increasingly on paintings of the harbours and beaches of Northern France. painting the people of their time. liv~g ~n black br. But later. day by day. hardness of a picture.. Without this opportunity. Come and see some perfect pictures. 19. We attended the most marvellous Pardon imaginable.. Any works which do not conform to these formulas they regard as worthless. It needs something like gemus to. and in 1874 was included in the first exhibition of the Independent artists . The second letter contains suggestive echoes of B~udelalre s ~riting and particularly of his 'S~lon of 1846' (IID13). thanks to the sauce and trimmings. nttany. entirely unexpected on his part. has been directed against himself. Th~ first of the fol!owmg lette.make anything of this bunch oflazy 'poseurs'. encouragements and rewards are in fact regarded as a hall. or if you will. . Martin was a member of th.. they not only provoke criticism.ds.rs w~s wntten on the artist's return from a period of travel. one becomes familiar with what seemed before to be surprising. her black and white blouse and her long coiffe when she wav~s her wmnowmg basket by the sea's edge and the grain falls thick and pure on the sailcloth. and found a way in his overcoat and the lady in her waterproof acceptable. lighting and atmosphere with apparently dispassionate observatl?n of the bourgeois holidaymakers their dispositions. the public have been informed already what to admire and what to avoid. It is sincerity which gives to works of art a character which makes them appear an act of protest. yet combining highly specific effe~ts of. It makes you feel a tinge of shame about painting lazy people who ~ave nothing to . the uncomfortable Isolation of some and the suggestive roupings of others.e Com~ission for the FI~e Arts In Le Havr~ and a lang-term friend and supporter of Boudin. where B he had attended 'the most marvellous Pardon' (a form of religiOUS cere~o~y articular to the area). But how much more beautiful Bihama is than these satin ladles. according to whether the works are accepted or rejected. These gentlemen were congratulatmg me precisely the things and people of our time in pictures. Official recognition. the opinion of men of rca! discernment is becoming more favourable. Monsieur Maner has met w-ith valuable encouragement and recognizes how.ea~ ~n~ ~at~~. Must I confess? Now I am back. . . shocking. strikes me as a dreadful masquerade. It makes them childishly intolerant. kneeling on the granite flagstones of the church with nota chair in sight . On the contrary. he realized that the first stage in an artist's career is a battle.subsequently the Impressionists (see IVAlO-13). translated for this volume by Christopher Miller. and apparently lightly sketched. who owed ~ great deal fa the encouragement and informal instruction he received fro. By exhibiting. their fashions. It only remains now for the artist to regain the goodwill of a public who have be~n taught to regard him as an enemy.to~ were ainters specializing in peasant scenes. Monsieur Manet has never wished to protest. this is because there is a traditional way of teaching form. Little by little it becomes understood and accepted.). pp. This had ended With a week ~n. To be able to exhibit is the vital concern. the Italians and the FI~mIsh ~ld the same thing. he has had no pretensions to overthrow old methods of painting or to create new ones. because it happens that after looking at something for some while. whl~h u~ed to ~e my pride and joy.. but hostility and even active hostility. And. but.32. Rib?t and Bureau were pamters and Boudin's contemporaries.m the ol~er pamter In the mid-1850s.do. an artist finds friends and allies in his struggle for recognition. Further. Time itself imperceptibly refines and softens the original. The works for which he became best known were relatively small in scale. Our text is taken from the reprinted edition of 1968. but wait for what? Until there is no selection committee? He would be much better off if he could thrash the question out directly with the public. He came from Le Havre! as did Cla~de Monet. Fortunately dear friend the Creator has everywhere spread hIS warmmg. When one has just spent a month amid the races of those doomed to hard labour in the fiel. Isabey and Meiss~nier were k~own for paintings of historical subjects. 28 August 1867 We completed our voyage with a trip to Plougastel where we spent a week. He has simply tried to be himself and no one else. . when he found that he was so often turned down by the jury. the painter would become too easily imprisoned in a circle from which there is no escape. that is to say that the artist should be able to show the public what he has done . and comes back to this band of gilded parasites With their tnumphant air. Yet there is nothing new about this attempt. Eugene Boudin d'apres des documents inMits. 14 Eugene Boudin (1824-1898) Letters to Martin Boudin was a regular exhibitor in the Salon between 1863 and 1897. . which at least should be fought on equal terms. On Millet see IIIB7. It ~pitiful. mark of talent. Monsieur Manet has always recognized talent where he has met it. or In their huge . The latter specialized in small and minutely detailed c~stume pI~~es nd military scenes that were regularly singled out for disparagement by artists and cnt!cs ~f a modern inclination. Charles-Emile Jacque and Jules Bre.

I go up tothe young ruffians and question them. The art critics . the ~cad~my. ~'vea1ready.then goes on to offer an account of Manet's painting which relates the truth of hiS art to Its formal and technical characteri.to calm down the blind anger of the rowdies and to try to make them return to a more common-sense point of view. I am taking their side because it seems to be a.my aim is not only to have one man accepted. calm and unbiased.. I give you light: make an Adam of your o.g painter has obeyed.lt In the form of a separate pamphlet. rather than in some narrative which may be ~oven about it. paint. T~e pr~sen.pardon. . but I maintain that . just as he admires science. . 7 Emile ZoIa (184Q-. . and even . ::: verses. sings in the style of Tibullus and another blows into the great trumpet of Lucref Not to me~tion the martial hymns. I am given to understand what crime it is that this pariah whom they are stoning has committed . his own personal inclinations concerning vision and understanding.little girl's pink doll. They encourage the row instead of calming it down. New Manner In Painting: E?o. unbiased man like myself to halt on his way in the presence of the mocking. Isn't such a commotion an interesting subject for study? Isn't it a reason for an inquisitive. But I k~ow that It IS ~ardly proper to show a naked man in a boudoir.The reason for the anger of the young ruffians and the weakness of the police is explained to me. And now you find that these same people.why you p~mt grotesque grant puppets which are no more indecent and no more alive than a. but it is never completely disconnected from another truth.. they are sufficient unto themselves outside any school. the pavements'. A yOUD.one . He . I am sure that a true temperament won't die of a single rebuff..t extracts a~e drawn from the translation of the French text by Michael Ross published In Pierre Courtbion and Pierre CaiUer(eds).1 am right.another an ode to Cleopat ra. which is how if a~p'e~rs In the portrait Manet painted of him that same year. Obviously.s Our artists are poets.the elegies. ] Circumstances have made Edouard Maner. I give you flesh. This is not quite 'art for art's sak~' though. argued that we cannot accuse the jury of being as mediocre as our pamters: But since t~ey thin.w~creation. and this situation can be summed up in two words. but I am very tempted to announce that this extraordinary event will happen sooner than we think.1867 lola ~epubrlshed. there is something decidedly unpleasant about this scene which saddens me . Talent works in a different way. struck me as something which should be carefully studied and explained. Our fathers laughedar Courbet. I question the police" I even question Edouard Maner himself. and w~ feel so weak and worn out that even the full bloom of health upsets us It' all so sentimental and insipid! .may God forgive me! .. the ribald songs. Look at the Salon: noth:. but the whole of our artistic movement itself and contemporary opinion on aesthetics .I go home and prepare. . I have only one object in mind . it seem to me. in a very straightforward manner. ius. And. and now ~e wax IYflc. You should be makers of men. a disinterested passer-by. 1960. strong and bitter in flavour.uard Manet' in the Revue du XX Siec!e.alover his w~rk. The very odd place which the public and even the critics and his artist colleagues . pp.k it is their job to judge severely. I become more and more convincedabout something .1902)'Edouard Manet' ~ola first defended Manet in his Salon of 1866 (see IVA6).just cause. Zola dislikes Romanticism. don't you think? Look at the handful of canvas ss ' the Salon which really stand out. What a Jumble! t. but to have all art accepted. -.. insult his integrity and talent. He then extended his discussion I~to ~ three-part essay s~le!y devoted to Manet's work. the truth of modernity consists in the analytic disposition. noisy crowds which surround the young painter and pursue him with their hoots of derision? I picture myself in the middle of a road where I meet a gang of young ruffians who are throwing brick-bats at Edouard Manet. to stop them making such a din in the street. London: Cassell.are not doing their job well. The painters who are gu~lty of these works have no place in the guild of elegant whi tewashers that I have. mentioned. there is too much of the feminine in us. he has produced original works. That Is. welau~h at Manet... without trying to understand why their eyes have been offended. I beg of you. and our sons in their turn will praise him to the skies. Is it so.. Portrait of Manet by Himself and his Contemporaries. but deep down I have n~ fears for ~e health. and. do not sing. abuse this painter. and for him Manet is an 'analyst'. [ .. They burn a hole in the wall. into a n::ost unusual and instructive subject for study. January 1867 •. This was first published under the MeA. I mean the police . you only need one room. . Later In . And here it is not only the personality of EdouardManet that I am trying to analyse.. the truth of 'the contemporary girl we meet everyday on . lola begins by reiterating hIs Criticism of.stics. Whereas we are nervous and anxious. . And in any case. There are very few of them. I am not in the ?usmess of competing with Nostradamus. revolutionary to express regret for the few strong characters who are not included m the Salon? We don't have such a wealth of individuality that we can rejeGt ~e few we do have. he has begun to paint in a way which is contrary to the sacred rules taught in schools.me. A curious situation has arisen.. of their talent.. More important is the nature of Zola's e~phasls on 'truth: truth-to-art ISat the forefront of his account. 113-39. why haven't they saved us the sight ofall this rubbish? If you are only accepting talent.have accorded him in contemporary art. they are ~:o~ unpleasant~ they shout down the gentle murmurs of their neighbours. the official evidence which you are about to read . or the fables. which have offended the eyes of people accustomed to other points of view.554 Temperaments and Techniques IVA Effects and Impressions 555 their work. for the sake of truth.. at all costs. I extend my plea further .. and have turned him into a sort of grotesque lay-figure who sticks out his tongue to amuse fools . which he then stood accused. One turns out an ode 0 Poland . three metres square.and madrigals. In part it is a device to rescue Manet from the bohemianism and scandal-seeking Of. since you are painters. who is quite yo~ng. not makers of sh~dows. For Zola. Saying this sounds like a grave insult to people who even required to think.it looks as though the policemen themselves have enormous brick-bats in their hands Already. I ask them not only to criticize Edouard Manet fairly but also all original artists who will make their appearance. Thus.

.I should say vitality and personal quality. and from the individual I proceed to a question which touches all real artists. without wearying. but perhaps with this difference. this work was linked with the great family of works already created by mankind. there is necessarily a period of groping and hesitation which lasts. He works assiduously and the number of his canvases is already considerable. and I see no harm in that. but. My aesthetic. he paints his pictures in his studio as others sell pepper over their counters. have completely disappeared. J I am forced here. to begin with. and which he attains more or less successfully. Thus the artist produced an oeuvre which was his own flesh and blood.. But judging by the forcefulness and truth of certain pictures. and. [ . It is a simple summary of the existing state of affairs. which no doubt means. The long-haired types of 1830. so that all works of art created by mankind have ever since been judged on their greater or lesser resemblance to Greek works of art. never succeed in doing anything. the work is declared good or less good. he had found himself. person or thing. that he is more quiet and cultivated than the majority. combined to produce a completely new flavour and personal point of view. thank heavens. Such. . ] I would not like to lay down the principle. But in the present case. differs too much from the dogma which has been taught up till now. more or less. From this it is assumed that there is a common denominator of beauty. 'You will. then. that because he wasted his time at Thomas Couture's. J He spoke in a language full of harshness and grace which thoroughly alarmed the public.' Happy pupils who are not recognized by the masters as their children! They are a race apart. He was seeing things with his own eyes... it is admitted that each artist must pass through this period in the studio of a professor.. He goes out a. created in the imagination of penny-a-line humorists.people living the same life as everyone else. Here is the popular opinion concerning art. It would be a long list if I was to mention here all those artists who were discouraged by their masters and who later became men of the greatest merit. Feeling that he was making no progress by copying the masters. Edouard Manet. The truth is far removed from these dummies. 'Without me there there is no hope. I protest against this reception. for a long time. it resembled. From then onwards Manet found his direction. I repeat. He spoke a language which he had made his own.mark of genius. the studio influence will sooner or later be quite forgotten so long as the artist has individuality and perseverance. who earn their living by making the public laugh. to set forth some general ideas. quite naturally. In this orderly police state of ours. each one adds his word to the great sentence which humanity writes and which will never be complete. as an argument in favour of Edouard Manet. ] [ . In the career of every artist. [ . I The Man and the Artist Edouard Manet was born in Paris in 1833. They are destined themselves in their own turn to be masters. This article. I have only a few biographical details concerning him. was an aspect of things hitherto unknown to human genius. he came to understand... to express it better. it pleases me to regard Edouard Manet's long and difficult apprenticeship as a symptom of originality. The advice received here. one fme day. He paints without getting discouraged. It is an official account of the regrettable influence . without looking at the works or studying the opinions of others. Then he returns to his home and there tastes the quiet pleasures of the modern bourgeois. Edouard Manet tried to find his own way and see for himself. a rogue. There is an 'absolute' of beauty which is regarded as something outside the artist or.as it seems to me . it was clear that an artist had been born to us. ] Contemporary fools. even though it may. He made an effort to forget everything he had learned in museums. have turned Manet into a sort of Bohemian character. AU that remained was a singular gifted intelligence in the presence of Nature. and in each of his canvases he was able to give us a translation of Nature in that original language which he had just found in himself. and which henceforth belonged entirely to him. [ . following the same sort of life as most people. Certainly. But it had in a high degree its own beauty . or rather the science which I will call 'the modern aesthetic'. translating it in its own manner. created for the first time. will not be a definitive portrait.556 Temperaments and Techniques IVA Effects and Impressions 557 Taking Edouard Maner's case as typical of the way really original personalities are received by the public. for example. he tried to forget all the advice that he had been given and all the paintings that he had ever seen. This common denominator is applied to every picture produced. or by painting Nature as seen through the eyes of individuals who differed in character from himself. the public has accepted the jokes and the caricatures as so much truth. Circumstances have elected that the Classical Greek should be regarded as the standard of beauty. taken perhaps from here and there. and according to how far the work approaches or recedes from this common denominator. more or less. certain among them. does not prevent this talent from eventually manifesting itself. of which it was composed.an artist's life is the same as that of any quiet bourgeois. a student's failure to follow the teaching of his master is a. and this combination. or to put it better. The artist has confessed to me that he adores society and that he found secret pleasure in the perfwned and glittering refinement of soirees. he took some object. there is a perfect ideal for which every artist reaches out.. to risk speaking without making myself perfectly clear. I do not claim that it was an entirely new language and that it did not contain some Spanish turnS of phrase (about which moreover I will have to make some explanation). and you are not me. is his life. in his heart of hearts he had an innate need for refinement and elegance which I try hard to find in his works. He was drawn to them by his love of bold and vivid colour. to my greatest regret. The different components. great deal. for several reasons. [ . that it only remained to him to see Nature as it really is.. This is how I explain the birth of a true artist. and it is in order to present the real man that I write these lines. a ridiculous bogey.. egoists set in their own opinions. prevent the expression of original talent. and our painters have become what they ought to be .that centuries of tradition have had on the public as far as art is concerned. From the moment he conceived this idea.' says the teacher. marching forward according to his own lights. placed it at the end of his studio and began to reproduce it on his canvas in accordance with his own outlook and understanding.

to study the languages and to say what new subtlety and energy they possess. Gold mornings in Holland. Let us understand each other. Every society will produce its artists. proves with what lack of affectation he confronts Nature. A head posed against a wall becomes only a patch of something more. society has advanced or languished in the midst of ever-changing customs. Therein the unconscious element. the critic studies a picture for what it is. An abundance of pure light gently illuminates his subjects. Beauty becomes human life itself. Thus I put the past on one side . I only want to analyse facts.. is of luminous clarity.. there are gradations of colour producing a complete scale of tints.quite new which I wish to explain and comment upon. an imperious need to create and reproduce objects and people by means of the arts. artists are born here or there. has felt. What strikes me is due to the exact observation of the law of tone values. and works of art are nothing but simple facts. let us take no matter what picture by the artist. with the exception of Corot. each part of which interests and moves me profoundly. give the picture an impressive sense of relief. The theme would always be this self-same 'nature'. allows himself to be guided by his eyes which perceive this subject in terms of broad colours which control each other... what gives me exquisite pleasure is to find in each of the creations of man an artist. Their works gain thereby a singular precision. by a little group of men! It is humanity that interests me. It is ridiculous to try to turn an artist. voluptuous evenings of Italy and Spain . in the presence of Nature. it is the different outlooks. Some fruit is placed on a table and stands out against a grey background. that an artist has been born who has given Nature a new soul and new horizons. the public should stand in the middle of the vast hall. Here beauty is no longer 'absolute' . who will bring with them their own points of view. and pronounces it a great work when he finds in it a vital and original interpretation of reality. is what I believe concerning art. he is only guided in his choice by a desire to obtain beautiful touches of colour and contrasts.a little dry but charming. obeying such instincts. on the other hand. No systems. unchangeable. if necessary.I stand in front of Edouard Maner's pictures as if! were standing in front of something . For me. or in the warm. into a mystical dreamer. Here.... like so many others. What strikes me in the third place is his elegance . the constantly changing view-points. or less. is limited to establishing the language and the characters. that give works of art their tremendous human interest. If you start with a 'note' which is lighter than the real note. All life.. Our creation stretches from the past into an infinite future. The philosophers. I am not referring to the pink and white elegance of the heads of china dolls. according to whether they are nearer or further away. His paintings are light in tone. What first strikes me in these pictures is how true is the delicate relationship 01\ tone values. Thus a great simplicity is achieved .but what of that! The 'absolute' of beauty is there. a combination of accurate and delicate patches of colour. Maner usually paints in a higher key than is actually the case in Nature. ] For two thousand years the world has been constantly changing. What is the use of philosophic abstractions! Of what use is a perfection dreamed up. from a few paces away. Between the fruit. all passions. The w:hole of the artist's personality consists in the way his eye functions: he sees things in terms of light. Thus I have a vast panorama. which. and it is the differences in outlook of the artists which has given to works of art their individual characteristics. The artist. I am referring to a penetrating and truly human elegance . ] The ridiculous common denominator does not exist any more. What moves me. because it is their dominating feature and makes them what they are. a patch of colour which is more. who constantly obeys this law when painting people. all that creative energy which has enioyeditselfauj suffered for two thousand years is miserably crushed under this idea. the true nature of the painter is revealed. Here is what I believe is called 'the law of values'. civilizations have flourished and crumbled. we would be able to read the epic of human creation. in all climates. There is not the slightest forced effect here. confronted with some subject or other.I have no rules or standards . will take it on themselves to draw up formulas. Here 'reality' is the fixed element. [ . If he groups together several 9bjects or several figures.Edouard Manet is a man of the world and in his pictures there are certain exquisite lines. grey. and not without. He can then state that to the genesis of human creation another page has been added. and the clothing. After analysis. this self-same 'reality' and the variations on the theme would be achieved by the individual and original methods by which artists depict God's great creation. the human element. Our task then. In order to pronounce fair judgment on works of art. Every great artist who comes. then. but I believe that the former has never had the stupidity. The brief analysis of his talent which I have just made.some illuminated objects and living creatures.558 Temperaments and Techniques IVA Effects and Impressions 559 [ . becomes. and the contrary is true if you start with a note which is lower in tone. everything is simplified and stands out from the background in strong masses. lips become simple lines. luminous and pale throughout. great truth and an appearance of great charm. I would like all the pictures of all the painters in the world to be assembled in one vast hall where. for example. to the fore gives us a new and personal vision of Nature. I embrace all humanity that has ever lived and which at all times.a ridiculous common denominator. people and landscapes are bathed in a sort of gay transluscence which permeates the whole canvas. picture by picture. you must paint the whole in a lighter key. The general impression. synthesis.hardly any details. Courbet and Edouard Manet. to put 'ideas' into his painting. no theories can hold back life in these unceasing productions. I know that a lively sympathy has brought painter and poet together. who shows me with all his strength and with all his tenderness the face of Nature under a different guise. colour and masses. And here I take the opportunity to deny the existence of any relationship (as has been claimed) between the paintings of Edouard Maner and the verses of Charles Baudelaire. a brother. as judges of art. dominating the centuries. certain pretty and graceful attitudes which testify to his love for the elegance of the salons. in juxtaposition to the head. Faces in the diffused light are hewn out of simple bold patches offlesh colour. under all circumstances. Let me explain . I know of scarcely anyone of the modern school. on pale. or less. and let us not look for anything other than what is in it . white.as I have said. I stress this characteristic ofEdouard Manet's works. . Beauty lies within us. mixed with the fixed element of 'reality' giving birth to a creation which belongs to mankind.

' I cannot repeat too often that.. if I were asked what new language Manet was speaking. and if'his works are in any way odd.. the public has taken good care not to judge 'Le Deieuner SUI l'Herbe' as a true work of art. the whole composition is apparent as something vigorous' and one experiences a real delight in studying this clear and serious painting which I may put it this way. content to interpret the first corner of a forest they carne upon. I would answer. in the Musee du Louvre there are more than fifty pictures in which clothed people mix with the naked. Good heavens! How indecent! Whatl A woman without a stitch of clothing seated between two fully clad men! Such a thing has never been seen before] But this belief is a gross error. what I mean to say is that he groups figures more or less fortuitously. in order to understand and savour his talent we must forget a thousand things. It was considered that the artist's choice of subject was obscene and showy. Don"t expect anything of him except a truthful and liter~1 interpretation. one's eyes wander from top to bottom. ] My first impression on entering Edouard Maner's studio was one of unity and power. particularly that delicate splash of white among the green leaves in the background. which resemble Manet's work in their strange elegance and magnificent bold patches of colour. There is a lot of truth in this joke which is in fact a . Here and there the manner of working is the same. But as I have said. because they have studied our countryside. and he has not set himself the task of representing some abstract idea or some historical episode. Manet uses this same method in each of his works. There is some foliage. of seeking for an 'absolute' of beauty. This artist is an interpreter of things as they are. Artists. One is aware of both harshness and delicacy as one first glances at the walls. What you have to look for in the picture is not just a picnic on the grass. These clear tones and graceful shapes.to pose life-size figures in a landscape. He treats figure subjects in just the same way as still-life subjects are treated in art schools. who is an analytical painter. renders Nature in a manner both gentle and harsh. those supple and strong materials. All problems have been re-examined' science requires solid foundations and this has been achieved by accurate observation' of facts.. the artist uses only a brush and that with great caution.I repeat. its light and delicate background and that fum flesh modelled in broad areas of light. I see him as an analyst painter. in fact to look at the whole of this vast.560 Temperaments and Techniques IVA Effects and Impressions 561 The exact interpretation of the tone values imbues the canvas with atmosphere and enhances the value of each object. It is not a question. if I were interrogated. rendered with such accurate .. blending together. a few tree trunks. while others break their heads trying to compose a new picture of 'The Death of Caesar' or 'Socrates Drinking Hemlock'. which is to appreciate the delicacy of the dominant tones and to model objects and people in simplified masses. [ . its broadly painted solid foreground. with its bold and subtle passages.' The note which he strikes in his pictures is a luminous one which fills IDS canvas with light. rendered in an original and human language. do not havethis preoccupation with subject matter which. that the workmen of'Epinal employ primary colours without bothermg about values. 'He speaks in a language which is composed of simplicity and truth. and after that he has no other thought than to put them down on canvas as he sees them. He neither sings nor philosophizes.. man has tended to find basic and definitive principles in reality. The artist is neither painting history nor his soul. In a word. Art as practised by him leads to ultimate truth. his works have the great merit of being accurate descriptions. here. in which he has realized the dream of all painters . he is merely an analyst. our modern landscape artists have achieved much more. It would be much more interesting to compafe this simplified style of painnng WIth Japanese engravings. Besides. who has been so hounded. at this attention to Nature. The rendering which he gives us is truthful and simplified obtained by composing his pictures in large masses. in strung contrast to each other. one notices that the technique is more delicate than ?old. only an even coat of paint. works III a very calculated manner. For example the nude woman in 'Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe' is undoubtedly only there to give the artist an opportunity of painting flesh. but the whole landscape. airy composition. twopence-. After a few moments. possess a harmony and a boldness of style which is both simple and extremely powerful. In all branches of knowledge and in all the works of mankind. and. worries the public. the colours are ap~lied in broad patches. exac~y. To begin with one's eye only notices broad patches of colour. And it is because of this that he should neither be judged as a moralist nor as a literary man. The only thing it has noticed is that some people are eating. One's first impression of a picture by Edouard Manet is that it is a trifle 'hard'. but soon objects become more defined and appear in their correct place. more than anything else. He has his own personal gift. coloured' pictures from Epinal. In the foreground two young men are seated facing a second woman who has just emerged from the water and who is drying her naked body in the open air. This nude woman has shocked the public which has been unable to see anything but her in the picture. What is termed 'composition' does not exist for him. seated on the grass after bathing. Compared with our historical and genre painters. whereas all that the artist had sought to do was to obtain an effect of strong contrasts and bold masses. and. from right to left. this is onJy due to the very personal way in which he sees and translates objects on to canvas. Before one's attention is arrested by one particular picture. But no one goes to the Louvre to be shocked. He should be judged simply as a painter. ' On coming close to the picture. This bold painter. [ . there is no heavy Jmpast~. This approach is not confmed to the world of science alone. One knows how skilfully he has overcome this problem. He knows how to paint and that IS all. It has been said that Edouard Maner's canvases recalI the 'penny-plain. comphment. especially Manet. One is not accustomed to seeing reproductions of reality so simplified and so sincere. He is a child of our age. but wi~ this difference.colo~rs and relates t~em. he quietly places some object·s or poses some people in a corner of his studio and begins to paint . His work is much more interesting than the plagiarisms of his colleagues. they possess a certain stiff but surprising elegance. while Edouard Manet uses many m?re .. for me. ] ILe Dejeuner sur l'Herbe' is Edouard Maner's largest picture. and in the background a river in which a woman in a shift is bathing. ] n His Works if [ .

] ( . ] In 1865. The artistic history of our times is there to tell how such purblind fools and scoffers gathered in front of the first paintings by Decamps. no more do I. These partis pris consist of pre?lsely that elegant dryness and those violent contrasts which I have pointed out Here is th~ ~ersonal. all the details of this strange adventure'. 'Olympia'. lightly coloured masses. a large pale mass against a black background. I say 'masterpiece' and I don't retraGtth word. Moreover. it is s~ply the superficial way the work presents itself to the eye that is the cause of all this .but naturally..an access of mad folly.. They look at works of art in the same way as children look at picture books . will be complete. will behave in the most childish way. . Manet was still admitted to the Salon where he exhibited 'Jesus Insult€: pal' les Soldats' and his masterpiece. others. Here we have one of those 'penny-plain. we shy at unknown precipices and refuse to go forward. 'Why lie.rks are alrea~y known. Every new path alarms us. Nothing is more exquisitely delicate than the pale tones of the different white of the linen on which Olympia reclines: in the juxtaposition of these whites an immense difficulty has bee~ overcome. the latter make comparisons. they 'correct' Nature.touch. it is nearly always over a trine. the first-comer. What is shocking and irritating to themjs not the inner meaning of the work. [ . I mea~ to say you have forcefully reproduced in your own particular Idiom the truths of light and shade and the reality of objects and creatures. Latterly. Ignorant people laugh with complete self-assurance. a contemporary girl.ole of this admirable work. twopence~ coloured' pictures as the professional humorists say.at the wh. Then a strange thing happens . We are all more or less. the head of Olympia stands out in astonishing relief from the background. but Edouard Manet has asked himself. ( . The drama. which incorporates all his characteristic: that I had in my mind's eye. It will remain as the most cha:acteristic example of his talent. the bouquet becomes a marvel of brilliance and freshness: Accuracy of vision and simplicity of handling has achieved this miracle. the Job of ~ ~reat painter. bec~use here was flesh . and if you want to re~onstruct . in. At first sight one is aware of only two tones in the picture . appears as. What does all this amount to . Look at the head of the young girl: the lips are just two thin pink lines. In this black back~ groun~ is seen. They will nudge each other and comment on the picture in the drollest way imaginable. You needed some clear and luminous patches of colour. In it I descried the personality of Edouard Manet. . without knowing it. [ . lying on white linen sheets. with thin shoulders wrapped ina flimsy faded ~oon~n shawl. And yet everybody cried out in protest.. None of them can 'see'. to find a philosophic meaning in the picture. But I know that you ill The Public It now remains to me to study and explain the attitude of the public towards the pictures of Edouard Maner.. th~ artist and hiswa. Everything is simplified.each object falls Into correct relation. in large areas ofhght. and that famoU$ cat which so diverted the public. I maintain that this painting is the veritable flesh and blood of the painter. blue and green. Curious idlers. ( . especially. The public never tries to probe further... and a picture for you is simply an excuse for an exercise in analysis. the movement in his favour has increased and become more noticeable. whom the artrst had thrown on to canvas. Olympia. the public would willingly accept the same subject matter.. When our artists give us a Venus. ] It is simply the more or less original appearance of the picture which has induced this idiotic mirth.. as it were. presented differently. J When the crowd laughs. The pose is excruciatingly funny! This colour makes you cry with laughter! This line has made more than a hundred people sick! All that 'the public has seen is a subject . I'm not making up anything.a naked girl whose charms are alread ya little faded. H~ there! proclaim out loud to them. move back a few paces. and his work has the slightly crude and austere look of Nature itself. Originality! That's what shocks.ashis partis pris: for art can only exist by enthusiasm. ] Put ten people of average intelligence in front of a new and original picture and these people.or are irritated by the things we don't understand.a subject treated in a certain manner. The public as usual has taken good care not to understand the painter's mtentl?ns.to amuse themselves. you found it necessary to have some dark patches so you placed in a corner a Negress and a cat.are annoyed. all details have disappeared. but the general superficial aspect of it. which the artist has concentrated his unique and rare gifts.those who have studied art in moribund schools . For the majority. in large. But the artist h. we laugh at.. I~ have succeeded admirably in doing a painter's job. SimpTe masses of rose ~olout. his greatest achievement. in their turn. Delacroix and Courbet. the sort of ~l we meet every day on the pavements. we will hold in our hands all the threads connecting the various actors. The pale colouring of the child's body is charming. why not tell the truth?' He has made us acquainted with Olympia. on the surface. that you are not at all what they imagme. will arrive on the scene to swell the group and soon it will tum into a real hubbub . I beg you.. I repeat. che« Maitre.reality. On the other hand it would be a mistake to believe that the painter has never met with any sympathy. creatures of habit who obstinately follow the same beaten path to which we are accustomed. The former understands nothing about it. The artist has wo~ked in the ~ame manner as Nature. That is why we are quite happy to accept originality when it is watered down but reject violently anything that upsets our . You needed a nude woman and you chose Olympia. Some people tried. No one thinks of looking at it objectively. knowledgeable people . to get some fun out of them. not to discover in it the qualities in which they believe and to which their eyes have become accustomed. the eyes are reduced to a few black strokes. but for a group of peop~e.. it was precisely this picture. The ~an. so you added a bouquet of flowers.. all ten. were not displeased to attach an obscene significance to it.562 :remperaments and Techniques IVA Effects and Impressions 563 simplicity . he is a painter of talent. They have stuck. which gives his works their peculiar flavour. If it were possible. Now look closely at the bouquet. the head of a Negress carrying a bouquet of flowers.. more lighthearted. on examining the new work. he is a pariah.the public . and when I made an analysis of the artist' character. She is a young gid of SIxteen. J contains everything the artist has in him and nothing but the artist. There is another element . and hence they are roused to mirth or a~ger. [ .which increases in number every day..you scarcely know. the nude body Wasfound to be indecent.which must be taken mto account If we are to understand entirely the singular artistic state of things which we have seen come to pass.two violently contrasting tones. no doubt a model whom Edouard Manet calmly painted just as she was. We always want to have the same horizon before us.

I answered them that Destiny bad undoubtedly already chosen the future setting in the Louvre for 'Olympia' and 'Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe'. has formed itself into a host of small republics. No one listened. ] One does not like to hear people speaking as if to . but the manner of that showing is such as also to evoke the consciousness and disposition of an imagined viewer. July 1958. In Notebook 23 he refers to various stages of development in the theory of physiognomlc expression: the tete d'expression or 'expressive head' was a standard academic exercise based on the late-seventeenth century studies of Charles Lebrun. that they reject the real truth with all their might. to pretty lies. they have so accustomed them to insipidity. The best of them have become antiquaries stealing a bit of this or that from the dead masters.. enjoying today the whimsies of this painter. J And that is how. these narrow-minded and bourgeois decorators have made the deuce of a noise: each one has his own feeble theory. is carried on in the so-called sacred name of Art. Our text of the notes is principally based on the later transcriptions of Degas's manuscript in Theodore Reff (ed.. remain cavorting and frightened on the road. and apart from the landscape painters.. he is beginning to feel that he is losing his strength in the face of the public's exasperation. Oxford: Clarendon Press. I want to play the modest role of the passer-by for the benefit of those who. It is simply a question of education. and I retired as the urchins were now beginning to cast sullen looks 'lit me. who assured me that the man was being stoned because he had outrageously desecrated the Temple of Beauty. In spite of ail his courage. and what do you expect the public to do today in the midst of all this hubbub? Art.that's all. Punctuation has been added or modified where necessary to the sense. Braquemond and Pissarro. [ . Painters have merely become pathetic decorators who ornament our terrible modern apartments. goes from one to the other. with us.this art. giving it what it likes. Typically they show expressive figures in modern settings. the notebooks that Degas used throughout his career contain occasional admonitions to himself and written proposals for themes and for pictures. and in the means by which a momentary awareness of these might be represented. 23 and 30 Besides drawings and sketches. ] But there is nobody to guide the public.. volume I. Some of the artist's most remarkable works result from the successful combination of these two interests. I laid information against them as well as I could.a technique that was to be crucial in development of the art of animation. allow themselves to admire or jeer as they please. something they have seen every year. including Cassatt. It is high time that the public drew nigh and recognized the reason for their ridiculous fear. for instance. We have followed Reffs conclusions on the dating of the respective notebooks. 'Degas Notebooks at the Bibliotheque Nationale'. and another. These notes provide interesting glimpses into the materials and techniques from which such pictures were made. A word pleases them. [ . One wants colour. 8 Edgar Degas (1834--1917)from Notebooks 22. flattering it. that Degas was much preoccupied with the effect on the viewer of rotating a viewpoint in relation to a fixed image. I mean art critics . Art critics are like musicians who all play their own tunes simultaneously.. flattery and admiration of trumpery. and tomorrow the bogus strength of that. split into pieces. Then come the critics to cast still more trouble into this tumult. It is clear. The first concerns the expressive character of the human face and figure and the artistic means by which that character might be conveyed.I beg your pardon. By dint of seeing the obstacle. Greece and Italy are staked against chocolate soldiers. The mob. Words in square brackets have been inserted for clarity. Excerpts from the notebooks were first published in Jean Sutherland Boggs. There were some policemen . Each artist has attracted his public. 117-18 and 133-4. The Notebooks of Edgar Degas: A Catalogue of the Thirty-eight Notebooks in the BibliotMque Nationale and Other Collections. mistrusting the pictures of Edouard Manet. gilded and decorated toys with rosy favours . a gang of urchins met Edouard Manet in the street and started the rumpus which brought me to a halt . After that there is always some kind passer-by who will make us ashamed of our anger and explain to us the reason for our fear. and sought to snatch the artist from their grasp and lead him to a safe place.. Lavater's influential works of a century later were intended to show how character was revealed through physiognomy and facial movement: and nearer Degas's own day the 'applied aesthetics' of Delsarte were concerned with the repertoire of human expression in the context of musical and rhetorical performance. what pleases them is always the most commonplace. in a manner of speaking. or displeases them . we are like suspicious horses that rear at a fallen tree across the road because they can't comprehend either the nature or the cause of this obstaGle and don't seek any further to explain it to themselves. It is only a question of what you are used to. ( . I-III..). a third intellectual quality. In 1879-80.present. 1976. The artist is beginning to get tired of his role of scarecrow. seeing how little in accord are those who have pretensions of guiding them. June. each tries to please and conquer. fawned upon. Degas's second abiding interest lies in the details and atmospheric effects of modern urban and domestic life. hearing only their own instruments in the appalling hubbub that they are producing. 'and have occasionally adopted her reading in preference. Two particular interests are revealed in the following extracts. I could name one who polishes his phrases and is only happy when he is able to describe a picture in the most picturesque terms possible. he is hissed. is split up. asserting that the urchins were in the wrong. fear and mistrust are diminished. a fastidious and unbiased passer- by. however. [ . The translation for this volume is by Charles Harrison. We have also referred to Boggs. And note. From Notebook 22. one day. When a Delacroix appears on the scene. and yet another who frames his ridiculous opinions in the form of rhyming music-hall couplets. We become defiant and scared. has become one vast sweet-shop where there are b01lbons for all tastes. The 'Belle Feronniere' is an Italian painting in the Louvre formerly thought to be by Leonardo. As soon as someone with individuality appears on the scene. There is no common po inn of view.me. 'the great kingdom. who apropos of a woman lying supine finds occasion to write a discourse on democracy.. Our artists do not spoil them. May.564 Temperaments and Techniques IVA Effects and Impressions 565 preconceived ideas. beauty is spoken of in the way one speaks of a gentleman acquaintance with whom one is on very friendly terms. And all this disgraceful business. J So the mob. pp. another drawing. The 'journal' referred to in Notebook 30 was a publication to be called Le Jour et fa nuit (Day and Night') which was planned by Degas in association with a group of other artists. Burlington Magazine. 1867-74 One thing that's sure is that to establish a piece of nature and to really draw it are two entirely different things.

it is time to callform to the banquet. these artists above all are people of independent temperaments. And as we have made so much of bold colour. manner. benches on the boulevards and newspaper kiosks. construction scaffolds. workshop.An idea ferments in one's brain while almost unconscious audacity spills from another's brush. From indoors we communicate with the outside world through windows. as well as the need to find oneself again and run far from this bureaucracy of the spirit with all its rules that weigh on us in this country? Do you not see the need to free your brow from this leaden skullcap of artistic routine and old refrains. In addition to his own poetry. especially those scenes that happen jreqllmtly and thus accurately express the everyday life of a country . and discussions. In such a series characters would differ in their individual roles. It is not shown whole. enchanted by delicacy or brilliance of colour. In 1876 his own L 'Apres-m. In the 1880sMallarme went on to become a central figure in the Symbolist movement (see Vic passim). If the hills are of a certain shape. but often appears cut off at the knee or mid-torso. In his essay. It only accepts and understands correctness in art. All this exists in works already painted. the banal.. Theymay be madmen. [ . but the little finger of a fool is assuredly worth more than the entire head of a banal man. But where. priests. Depending on whether we are near or far. certainty. successions. while some lies just on the horizon. For example. Rather than acting as a group who share the same goal and who arrive successively at this crossroads where many paths diverge. is all this? AlI this has been achieved. Both texts were illustrated by Manet. and restaurants with their tables set and ready. and the vibration of sun-drenched air .feel for the structure ofthe land itself. and everything crowds into our immediate field of vision. parade-ground. cemetery. A window is yet another frame that is continually with us during the time we spend at home. it:is not always in a straight line with two parallel objects or at an equal distance from them. it is never in the centre of the canvas or the centre of the scene. They come in search of freedom. and relegates to perspectival diminution others in a street crowd. calm. for the delight of the eye. either in a room or on the street. dreams. projects. as a result we lose sight of the ceiling. It is confined on one side more than on the other by space. and action. He was commissioned to write the present essay for an English-speaking audience. births. the traditional. proftssi01lS. Twenty years ago I wrote the following about subjects in painting: I have wimessed a whole society. Almost all landscape artists lack a. and. He taught English. the window frames the scene outside in the most unexpected and changeable ways. He also traces the roots of .. laissez passer. the houses nestled together in a certain fashion among the fields.marriages. At other times the eye takes it in from up dose.church. Laissez faire. to abandon at last this common pasture where we all graze like sheep? They have been treated like madmen. visionaries exist with strict observers. All of this is interrelated. ] 15 Stephane Mallarrne (1842-1898)'The Impressionists and Edouard Maner' Mallarme supported himself and his family by working as a schoolteacher.d.the railways. and merchants. seated or standing. as if limited by a frame. The public is bound to misunderstand several of the leading artists. cafes with their billiard-rooms.. at its full height. There are voluptuous delights in. including studies of Verlaine and Wagner. Mallarme establishes Manet as the head of the Impressionist movement. But there are so many things that the art of landscape has not yet dreamed of expressing. baptisms. providing us with constantly changing impromptu views that are the great delights of life.. or cropped lengthwise. a wide range of actions and euents. and hustle and bustle of passers-by.and gaining great superiority of execution and feeling. I thought that a painter who had been seduced by this great spectacle might end by working with strength. No copy of the French original has survived. as well as in sketches. if in turn one considers a figure. The artist. fieting. Originality in this movement coexists with eccentricity and ingenuousness. and ignorant naifs with scholars who want to rediscover the naivete of the ignorant. and the riverbanks given a certain shape. I have observed the comings and goings that are predicated upon the relations betwem people as they met at different times and place« . just as they have tried to render the trembling of leaves. faces. In a word. the shimmer of water. is much less concerned with the finish and the correctness. and he supervised and corrected the English translation himself.just as they have managed to capture the hazy atmosphere of a grey day along with the iridescent play of sunshine. Differences ill dress played a large role in these scenes and coincided with differences of physiognomy. a'id milieux. and furniture is abruptly cropped. The new painters have tried to render the walk. Art does not struggle in this fashion without some confusion. Everything seemed to me arrallged as if the world were created expressly for the deligltt of painters. not dogma. notion shops. you will ask. and family scenes. now that we have had a little fling with intoxicating colour. or by the character of a gesture or a grouping.584 Temperaments and Techniques IVA Effects and Impressions 585 Sometimes our viewpoint is'very high. Do you not see the impatience in these attempts? Do you not see the irresistible need to escape the conventional. and broad-mindedness . and published a French translation of Edgar Allen Poe in the year before the present essay . I imagined painting attempting a vast series about society people. and that time is considerable. drawing room. and we see objects to the side only as permitted by the edge of this frame. or a group gathered in a public place. the trees are sure to be grouped in a certain way. sometimes very low. dilling room.perhaps of a like possessed by no contemporary man . above all. and there are unfortunate attempts that grate on the nerves . I have seen dramatic gestures andfoces that were truly pai1ltable. some of it here and some of it abroad. celebrations. despite the fact that he had refused to participate in the Independent exhibitions. It would bean endless task to detail every cut or to describe every scene . No one yet has discovered how to capture the essence of the French countryside. d'un faune appeared. painting for those who know and love it. yet be linked by those scenes common to all. it demands finish. workers. Our peripheral vision is restricted at a certain distance from us. movement. lines of gaslights. the only qualities valued by those who are not artists. Thus the character of the countryside takes form. omnibuses and teams of horses. Chamber of Deputies . Mallarme published a variety of critical essays. soldiers.everywhere.

ignored.. It should abstract itself from memory.. an enlightened amateur. strange though they were. and notwithstanding all this. nor what is more. unique in his persistency. such types as he gave us were needed in our ambient life. But this enlightened amateur died too soon to see these. but the eye should forget all else it has seen.586 Temperaments and Techniques [VA Effects and Impressions 587 this expanded sense of Impressionism to Courbet's Realism. general. London. that wan. will conserve some of its acquired secrets of manipulation. and befriended rum in his revolt. seeing only that which it looks upon. These then in some degree coincided with that movement which had appeared in literature. or more deeply damned by the many. The hand. social movement of the time. he was persistent in his reiteration. albeit that he was yet too young to then define that which we to-day call Naturalism. and party strife grew high. his peculiar tastes. expresses himself with brilliancy. eccentric. and inspire of concurrent Salons. it is true. 'The Impressionists and Edouard Manet' was originally published in The Art Monthly Review and Photographic Portfolio.. and this before their prompt succession and the sufficient exposition of the principles they inculcated had revealed their meaning to the thoughtful few of the public many.. and that as for the fIrst time. Captivating and repulsive at the same time. gave to the then nameless school of recent painting which thus grew up. when he casts away the cares of art and chats with a friend between the lights in his studio. The New Painting: ImpressifJ/Jism1874-1886. Manet fell under the influence ofthe moment. half hiding or sacrificing to those new laws of space and light he set himself to inculcate. Following in appreciative turn came the then coming novelist Emile Zola. but nevertheless very disquieting to the true and reflective critic. not merely of that reality which impresses itselfin its abstract form on all. his persona] feeling. and some few years back such years of abundance were still more rare. the non-traditional. Maner. were truthful. ] One of his habitual aphorisms then is that no one should paint a landscape and a figure by the same process.. an instinctive and poetic foresight made him love them. Velasquez. For several years a firm and implacable front was formed against its advance [ . Maner. the graces which exist in the bourgeoisie will then be recognized and taken as worthy models in art. but not immoral . ] [ . if he continues to paint long enough. particularly impressed themselves upon him [ .if that public will then consent to see the true beauties of the people. one who loved all arts and lived for one of them . and which obtained the name of Realism. under Couture. the semblance of a party. ] Rarely do our annual exhibitions abound with novelty. for the first time. (apparently suggested by one of the prose poems of the author of the 'Fleurs du Mal. oblivious of all previous cunning. 117-22.. pp. at once won his sympathy. pp. but over beyond this.but they were undoubtedly intellectually perverse in their tendency. Moffat. That amateur was our last great poet.. that is to say. unconventional nude. but suddenly revealed. ] Yet. In 1867 a special exhibition of the works of Maner and some few of his followess. CUr-i0US and singular paintings -laughable to the many. but far more frequently and certainly on those of the galleries of the rejected. inhis self-sought insulation. ] But in the midst of this. Mallarme confers particular emphasis on the 'open air' aspect of Impressionism. and new. and his works were signed by the then new' and unknown name of Edouard Maner. than was that of this innovator. as we have said. who have occupied myself a good deal in its study..These strange pictures. or set aside for the enjoyment of his personal life. alas! that it should ha ve to be wri tten in the past tense. from their very faults.') and all the surrounding accessories. The bouquet. but of that absolute and important sentiment which Nature herself impresses on those who have voluntarily abandoned conventionalism.. 1986... or hackneyed. and then will come the time of peace. As yet it is but one of struggle . the public rushed with lively curiosity and eagerness. broadly democratic. and I. let us take one of his first works. when he recognized the inanity of all he was taught. can count but two who have gained it. with the same knowledge.a struggle to render those . and to educate the public eye ~ as yet veiled by conventionality . Rarely has any modern work been more applauded by some few. Wearied by the technicalities of the school in which. Let us study it in its present condition and its future prospects. He concludes by insisting on a link between the new painting and the new. he studied. and with some attempt to develop its idea. determined either not to paint at aU or to paint entirely from without himself. and draws connectil:Jns between the new school in painting and the work of both Baudelaire and Zola in literatme. ] Welcomed on his outset. wasted courtesan) showing to the public. and. Each work should be a new creation ofthe mind. The struggle with this resolute intruder was preached as a crusade from the rostrum of each school.masters of the past . two masters .. there was nothing vague. to illustrate him at this period. It was a great movement. As for the artist himself. And what foundthey there? A collection of pictures of strange aspect. and before his favourite painter had won a public name. there began to appear. sometimes perchance on the walls of the SaloD. and the painters ofthe Flemish school. And here occurs one of those unexpected crises which appear in art. In them. but about 1860 a sudden and a lasting light shone forth when Courbet began to exhibit his works. healthy and solid as they are.appeared to him.. Our present source is the text as reprinted in Charles S. [ . connecting this technical feature to the modern 'truth' of the new approach. Often they attracted attention by something peculiar in the physiognomy of his subject.. There was also at that time. even two landscapes or two figures. conventional. to the Boulevard des Italiens and the galleries of Durand Ruel in 1874 and 1876. With that insight into the fu ture which distinguishes his own works. San Francisco: Fine Art Museums of San Francisco. the gloomy cat. [ . he recognized the light that had arisen. to follow the quest. Yet. and vigorously excluded all meddlesome imagination. ] It surprised us all as something long hidden. and learn anew from the lesson before it. it is true. and the hand should become an impersonal abstraction guided only bythe will. who could not refrain from asking himself what manner of man is this? and what the strange doctrine he preaches? For it was evident that the preacher had a meaning. in the ordinary and foolish sense of the word . now the Impressionists.that is. 30 September 1876. just then expiring under the hands of the landscape painters. some minor details which others would have seized upon. by Baudelaire.To reach it the master must pass through many phases ere this self-isolation can be acquired. it sought to impress itself upon the mind by the lively depiction of things as they appeared to be. are for the time absorbed. or in the same fashion.. Such a result as this cannot be attained all at once . yet enclosed in its paper envelope. Bye and bye. equal in intensity to that ofthe Romantic school. 28-34" [ .... and this new evolution of art be learnt. Charles Baudelaire. a peculiar quality outside mere Realism. to see the works of those then styled the Intransigeants. [ . at first view giving the ordinary impression of the motive which made them. 'Olympia'.

. or lightly laid on. when the completely finished work is as a repainted picture? If we could find no other way to indicate the presence of air than the partial or repeated application of colour as usually employed. ] [ . that whereas once he painted ugliness now he paints vulgarity. peculiar to modern artists. and at the same time to avoid both affectation and style. set off by the immediate atmosphere. nothing should be absolutely fixed in order that we may feel that the bright gleam which lights the picture. must lead them to adopt air almost exclusively as their medium. unJess she escape from it someetimes to those open air afternoons by the seaside or in an arbour. such as that which is embraced at one glance ofa scene framed in by the hands. The reproach which superficial people formulate against Maner. and. and life. or that river bank.' There a young woman reclines on a divan exhaling all the lassitude of summer time. even beautiful.vanish. [ . to fix on a mental canvas the beautiful remembrance of woman. though at the same time incapable of entirely forgetting the abjured details which unite the part to the whole.For instance. that in the atmosphere of any interior. The search after truth... certainly not. and it is probably from the desire to preserve this grace in an its integrity. and for this reason our painter is pleased to dispense with it. that the ever-present light blends with and vivifies all things. affording an easy means for a painter to dispose a face to suit his own fancy and return to by-gone styles. the one thing to be attained is that the spectator accustomed among a crowd or in nature to isolate one bit which pleases him. or at least all of it found worthy to preserve.insists.588 Temperaments and Techniques IVA Effects and Impressions 589 truths in nature which for her are eternal. theatrical and active. or by the regulation of tone. and the function of the frame is to isolate it. And how? By this fusion or by this struggle ever continued between surface and space. The secret of this is found in an absolutely new science. which being composed of a harmony of reflected and ever-changing lights. as if it held an enchanted life conferred by the witchery of art. [_ . If we turn to natural perspective (not that utterly and artificially classic science which makes our eyes the dupes of a civilized education. but from the first conception of the werk. and how he conquered them. if they belong to someone or something exterior to the picture. This work is altogether exceptional and sympathetic.that is. doubtless the representation would be as fleeting as the effect represented.and look at these' sea-pieces of Manet.for the one thing needful is the time required by the spectator to see and admire the representation with that promptitude which just suffices for the connection of its truth. though I am aware that this is running counter to prejudice . and their results appear to have been attained at the first stroke. where the water at the horizon rises to the height of the frame. even when thus seen amid the glare of night in the world. This is the result of our reasoning. when it must be owned that the chief part of modem existence is passed within doors? There are many answers. Why is it needful to represent the open air of gardens. ] The complexion. when. On the other hand if one paints in the real or artificial half-light in use in the schools. [ . cannot be supposed always to look the same. falls harmlessly to the ground. Those persons much accustomed. among these I hold the first. As to the details of the picture. we feel a new delight at the recovery of a long obliterated truth.twhich gives to the frame all the charm of a merely fanciful boundary. tered on his way to seek it. with its perpetual metamorphosis and its invisible action rendered visible. so that when this is filled by the represented air. the space intended to contain the atmosphere has been indicated. but rather that artistic perspective which we learn from the extreme East . Aesthetically it is answered by the simple fact that there in open air alone can the flesh tints of a model keep their true qualities. are only seen in passing. affectionated by moderns . deadened daylight suffuses her figure and her muslin dress. but a vague.the beginning and end of the question we are now studying..we recognize the fact that he paints the truth. but which are as yet for the multitude but new. light. Woman is by our civilization consecrated to night. which in studio slang is called 'the theory of open air' or at least on that which it becomes with the authoritative evidence of the later efforts of Manet. But here is first of all an objection to overcome. between colour and air. the desired effect can only be obtained by lightness or heaviness of touch. or the diaphanous shadow which veils it. but itself subjected to the phenomena thus called up by science and shown to our astonished eyes. ] I should like to comment somewhat on that truism of to-morrow.. and demands daylight .er at the theatre. shall not miss in the work of art one . changes with artificial lights. bare or furnished. or at all events to habituate themselves to work in it freely and without restraint: there should at least be in the revival of such a medium.this hat. fresh. and in the manner of cutting down the pictures. it is as unchangeable as the other parts of the picture. and recollect those difficulties he eneoun. whether from the habit of their calling or purely from taste. As no artist has on his palette a transparent and neutral colour answering to open air. though it be but for a minute .which an artifice of the painter extends over the whole of the object painted . it is this feature or that feature on which the light strikes and forces into undue relief.Japan for example) . For instance I would remind you of a painting in the salon of 1873 which our painterjustly called a 'Reverie. This is the picture.which concerns itself more about this flesh-pollen than any other human attraction .Yet I think the artist would be in the wrong to represent her among tile artificial glories of candlelight or gas. the dreamer's face is dim with shadow. before she is admitted fresh and simple to the number of every day haunters of the imagination. and the end I wish to establish. shore or street. that paradox of to-day.. the jalousies of her room are almost closed. Open air: . such as she appears to just and pure eyes. being nearly equally lighted on all sides. what need is there to represent this arm.. which enables them to see nature and reproduce her. but utterly inartistic. that painting . Nevertheless he must find something on which to establish his picture.. the' special beauty which springs from the very source of life. ] Air reigns supreme and real. Now Manet and his school use simple colour. Then composition (to borrow once more the slang of the studio) must playa considerable part in the aesthetics of a master of the Impressionists? No. a life neither personal nor sentient. as a rule the grouping of modern persons does not suggest it. must have remarked that some mysterious process despoils the noble phantom of the artificial prestige cast by candelabra or footlights. as at that time the onJy object of art would be the woman herself.on the mental operation to which I have lately alluded. But will not this atmosphere . and just when the spectator beholds the represented subject. the reflected lights are mixed and broken and too often discolour the flesh tints. if nothing more. an.that is space with the transparence of air alone. but palpitates with movement. which alone interrupts it.incentive to a new manner of painting....

. did not prove them to be portrait sketches. nevertheless. neither do they take them from scenes of private life. Pizzaro [sic]. where. thus accomplishing one of the at once natural and yet modern functions of women. and of a strange new beauty) if I dare employ towards his works an abstract term.. some other artists. Claude Monet.of cutting the canvas off so as to produce an illusion . who suddenly perceiving their anticipated" 01' explained tendency. or coloured by the sky. 'and the fleeting combinations in which these dissimilar reflections form one harmony or many. a complication of effects of'light . The airy foreground. and share in most of the art theories I have reviewed here .) and Renoir. On the other hand. which he himself will never employ in his daily conversation. the least details of whose pose is so well painted that one could recognize them by that alone. yet profoundly complicated attitudes of these creatures.. Mademoiselle Berthe Morizot [sic] seizes wonderfullythe familiar presence of a woman of the world. frequently. be it sea or river.' or when red and gold and russet-green the last few fall in autumn. be as delighted with the charms of those little washerwomen. or that one who reclines under the shade of an umbrella thrown among the grasses and frail flowers which a little girl in a clean dress is busy gathering. give their own characteristics to the place they enliven by their visit. seen under the shady straw hats. and notably that of the open air. both by critics and the world of amateurs. and that couple yonder. Such are the subjects he delights in. A master of drawing. and. bend their slender bodies at the hour of work. watches a fugitive doudand seems to paint itin its fligh~ on his canvas the live air moves and the leaves yet thrill and tremble. exhibit their paintings. and very succinctly. sums up all their ideas in one powerful and masterly work. It is not rare for one of these three to steal a match on Manet.though not pushed so far . I have never seen a boat poised more lightly on the water than in his pictures or a veil more mobile and light than his moving atmosphere. [ . the many variations undergone in some long morning or afternoon by a thicket oftrees on the water's side. The participation of a hitherto ignored people in the political life of France is a social fact that will honour the whole of the close ofthe nineteenth century. With these. the aspect of things. especially since a mighty will has pushed these means to their uttermost limits. to whom I should like to join Whistler. A parallel . Here a charming couple enjoy all the limpidity of hours where elegance has become artless. 'when the yonge leves on the lyte wade. the wise and intuitive artist does not care to explore the trite and hackneyed view of his subject. undeterred by a confused and hesitating age. that dexterity . ] As thorough Impressionists. He loves best te paint them in spring. themselves influenced by every neighbouring thing. for then space and light are one. etc. the women with their flesh tints heightened and displaced by rouge and rice powder. though poverty-stricken. Incontestably honour is due to these who have brought to the service of art an extraordinary and quasi-original newness of vision. ever-moving atmosphere round the semi-nakedness of the young ballet-dancers. and with shut eyes preserve the remembrance of. [ . Mademoiselle Berthe Morizot [sic]. else. who is so well appreciated in France. even if their faces. the eldest of the three. of'mundane care or secret sorrows. de Cesane [sic]) are united in the common bond of Impressionism.. At a time when the romantic tradition of the first half of the century only lingers among a few surviving masters of that time. No voluptuousness there. ] The shifting shimmer of gleam and shadow which the changing reflected lights. and whilst recognizing that he is before a painting half believes he sees the mirage of some natural scene. the beld. have the perfection of an actual vision.These are Degas. since other great talents have been devoted to illustrate some particular phrase or period of bygone art.. and as a rule.harm infused into it by femine vision. FOF them. and there how pure an atmosphere veils this woman standing out of doors. loves the thick shade of summer woods and the green earth. whose originality has distanced them from other contemporary painters.. ] If we try to recall some of the heads of our argument and to draw from them possible conclusions. among these we must class such artists as Moreau. Sisley seizes the passing moments of the day. or variously trembling with shifting lights . More given to render.the light touch and fresh tones uniform and equal. and does not fear the solidity which sometimes serves to render the atmosphere visible as a luminous haze saturated with sunlight.perspectivs almost conforming to the exotic usage of barbarians. It is in truth a marvel. A boxar a theatre. All these various attempts and efforts (sometimes pushed yet farther by the intrepid M. who treats it superbly) do not usually attempt the ~atural size of their subjects.forms a luminous. [ . its gaily-dressed inmates. who fresh and fair. these painter-s (excepting M. who can. the transition from the old imaginative artist and dreamer to the energetic modern worker is found. The air of preoccupation. But the assemblage for the first time of all these relative processes for an end) visible and suitable to the artistic expression of the needs of our times. and it is his especial gift to portray its mobility and transparency. he has sought delicate Jines and movements exquisite or grotesque. The most successful work of these three painters is distingui. Degas. had he not chosen England as a field of his success. even the furthermost outlines of sea and sky. have enchanted M. no sentimentality here. but with a new c.the more so when this scene is fantastically illuminated by an incongruous day-light. [ . and the breeze stirring the foliage prevents it from becoming an opaque mass.shed by al sure yet wonderfully rapid execution. so generally characteristic of the modern artist's sketches from contemporary life! were never more notably absent than here [ . The muslin drapery that .. but are before everything landscape painters. rather are the subtle and delicate changes of nature. or green lawn . or a child in the pure annosphere of the sea-shore. this is no inconsiderable achievement in the cause of art.all these ruses and expedients in art have been found more than once in the English school. and restrict their pictures to that size easiest to look at. too heavy for such an impression of mobility and life. we must fissr affirm that Impressionism is 'the principal and real movement of contemporary painting. (now Madame Eugene Manet.590 Temperaments and Techniques IV A Effects and Impressions 591 of his habitualenjoyments.] There is indeed no painter of consequence who during the last few years has not adopted or pondered over some one of the theories advanced by the Impressionists. grey and monotonous.. cast upon each advancing or departing figure. which influences all modern artistic thought. Some win probably object that all of these means have been more or Jess employed in the past. and clad but in camisole and petticoat.Puvis de Chavannes. such are the favourite effects ofReno:ir -nor can we wonder that this infinite complexity of execution induces him to seek more hazardous success in things widely opposed to nature. waxen al with wille. The only one? No. in Impressionism. ] Claude Monet loves water.

and rich. an original and exact perception which distinguishes for itself the things it perceives with the steadfast gaze of a vision restored to its simplest perfection. which never coincides with their real beginnings.the Aspect. now in the Musee du Petit Palais. the way being prepared by an evolution which the pubIi with rare prescience dubbed. each section of wall is pleasing to the eye.'Ah no! this fair face. there are several very fine canvases by M.to loose the restraint of education. Berthe Morisot. Caillebotte and Morisot. With the assistance of the painter's brother Edmond he wrote and published a weekly journal during the period of the third Impressionist exhibition in 1877. In the main salon. English Preraphaelitism. whose works are the semblance of worldl¥ thm.presentations of real objects). yet constitutes in my domain the only authentic and certain merit of nature . and that Riviere's name was used in part to conceal the family connection. it is not without the compensation of truth. Degas. and to return to their ideal source. . that which I preserve through the power ofImpressionism is not the material portion which already exists. But to day the multitude demands to see with its own eyes. that green landscape. (Given that Edmond Renoir was a professional writer it is likely that he had a considerable hand in the authorship of the journal. The enthusiastic contents could not have been thought of as offering objective appraisal. M. Rather they presented Impressionist paintings . Four issues of L'lmpressioniste. Cezanne's masterly canvases. Sysley [sic]. appear as kings and gods m the far dream-ages of mankind. Renoir. if I do not mistake.to the actual principles of painting . and landscapes by MM. respectively). what can be the aim of a painter before everyday nature? To imitate her? Then his best efforts can never equal the original with the inestimable advantages of life and space. Sysley and Caillebotte all together. Monet. 6 April What delights. except to decorate the ceilings of saloons and palaces with a crowd of idealized types in magnificent foreshortening. true as nature. and he received more serious attention from Riviere on this occasion than he was to be given in print for another decade. And at the end. which in political language means radical and democratic . but to express herself. Paris and New York: Durand-Ruel. to those newcomers of to-morrow. reveal herself. what remarkable works. Monet and Caillebotte. As you pass into the middle room. Geneva. fair as remembrance. habitual. not one false note mars this potentially disparate collection of works. hut the delight of having recreated nature touch by touch.1.592 Temperaments and Techniques IVA Effects and Impressions 593 is found in artistic matters. Renoir. Now in conclusion I must hastily re-enter the domain of aesthetics. The scope and aim (not proclaimed by authority of dogmas.art and thought are obliged to retrace their own footsteps. The 'scene by the sea' referred to is the work now known as Scene of Fantasy with Fishermen.Journal d'art appeared between 6 and 28 April 1877. to let hand and eye do what they will. calm. But what. of which each one will consent to be an unknown unit in the mighty numbers of an universal suffrage. Berthe Morisot's charming.I content myself with reflecting on the clearand durable mirror of painting. is the 'plan of the exhibition. Degas. intense. in the versions reprinted in Lionello Venturi ted. Such. Monet. Paris. in a little gallery you come to some astonishing paintings by M. The paintings have been arranged with perfect taste.gs seen by un~orldly eyes (not the actual re. immediately adjoining. I leave the massive and tangible solidity to its fitter exponent. Renoir his Ball at the Mou/in de /a Ga//ette (now Musee d'Orsay). Sisley. and if our latter-day art is less glorious. and the Art Institute of Chicago. Renoir's Bal and M. your eyes are immediately drawn to M. Renoir. what masterpieces even. then you turn round in order to admire M. and to place in their power a newer and more succinct means of observing her. simplicity and child-like charm. must seem the meaning of the manner of painting which we have discussed here. Cor dey and Lamy create an atmosphere of ineffable and almost musical gaiety. That . . At that critical hour for the human race when nature desires to work for herself she requires certain lovers of hers . and thus through them.new and impersonal men placed directly in co~un_ ion with the sentiment of their time . Paris Street. are brought together in the galleries of the rue Le Peletierl Nowhere else and never before has such an exhibition been presented to the public. Our extracts are taken from issues 1 and 2 of L '/mpressionfste. and paintings by MM. which only exists by the will of Idea. you find MM. and some utterly ravishing wateroolours by Mme. . will grow old and wither. yet not the less clear). and Caillebotte two large paintings on urban modern·life themes (Pont de I'Europe and Rainy Day. pp. naked. For the mere pleasure of doing so? Certainly not.to the _public in the terms that the artists themselves must have hoped would be persuasive. Guillaumin. paintings by M.a point of great importance. Intransigeant. more or less . and imperishably my own. Cezanne was represented by sixteen works. Monet's large painting of turkeys. Pissarro. Cezanne.The noble visionaries of other times. From the moment you enter you are stunned and charmed. and its relation to nature.). superior to any mere representation of it. In extremely civilized epochs the following necessity becomes a matter of course. I have taken from it only that which properly belongs to my art. to those who can see in this the representative art of a period which cannot isolate itself from the equally characteristic politics and industry. and the further you go the more the charm increases. returned to the primitive simplicity of mediaeval ages. recluses to whom were given the genius ofa dominion over an ignorant multitude.the development of art and thought having nearly reached their far limits . and I trust we shall thoroughly have considered our subject when I have shown the relation of the present crisis . translated for this volume by Carola Hicks. Pissarro.) Of all the Impressionist exhibitions this was the one that offered the strongest showing of the core group of painters . In the first room. but I shall have them always. Pissarro's large-scale landscape. Monet included a group of paintings of the Gare St-Lazare. and which although marking a general phase of art has manifested itself particularly in France. No. or the better to satisfy my creative artistic instinct. 6 and 14 April 1877 . 1939. SCUlpture. It is through her that when rudely thrown at the close of an epoch of dreams in the front of reality.' 16 Georges Riviere (1855-1943) 'The Exhibition ofthe hnpressionists' Riviere was a friend of Renoir and an admirer of his work. from its first appearance.the appearance of the Impressionists . In the second room.Monet. LesArchives de I'lmpressionisme. Pissarro. 308-20. subtle and supremely feminine pictures. that which perpetually lives yet dies every moment. of Manet and his followers is that painting shall be steeped again in its cause.and Mme.

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